Handbook of Adoption: Implications for Researchers,Practitioners, and Families

Handbooks

Edited by: Rafael A. Javier, Amanda L. Baden, Frank A. Biafora & Alina Camacho-Gingerich

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Foundation

    Part II: Theoretical Issues in Adoption

    Part III: Transracial and InternationalAdoption

    Part IV: Special Issues in Adoption

    Part V: Training and Education for AdoptionTherapy Competence

    Part VI: Research Findings in AdoptionWork

    Part VII: Assessment and Treatment Issues inAdoption

    Part VIII: Poetic Reflections and otherCreative Processes from Adoptees

    Part IX: Conclusion

  • Copyright

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    Dedication

    RAFAEL A. JAVIER

    To all those who gave me a better appreciation of the adoption experience in allits complexity. To my nephew, Bill (Sasha) Homolka, who made me an adopted uncleand to Jenna Stern, who not only enriched the life of her adopted mother (myneighbor and colleague), but mine as well. I also dedicate this book to myfriend and colleague, Dale Hahn, whose willingness to share her personal journeyof her adoption experience had a profound impact on me. Finally, I dedicate thisbook to all the members of the adoption triad.

    AMANDA BADEN

    I'd like to dedicate this book and all of the work that went into it to myparents, Leon and Marianne Baden, my sister, Rebecca Baden-Eberwein, and myloving husband, Michael Glicksman. They are both the source of my strength andmy inspiration for the work that I do in adoption.

    FRANK A. BIAFORA

    To LeaAnn, the woman who, during the creation of this book, started out as mybest friend and became my bride by the end. You were my strength and my soundingboard throughout this entire process.

    ALINA CAMACHO-GINGERICH

    I would like to dedicate this book to my mother, Dr. Daria Rivero, who many yearsafter her death continues to be my inspiration; to my husband, Willard; and mychildren, Tanya and Daniel, for their love and support in all my endeavors.

    List of Figures and Tables

    • Figure 3.1. Estimated Number of Total Adoptions(1957–2001) 36
    • Figure 3.2. Total Adoptions by State (2000 and2001) 37
    • Figure 3.3. Percentage of All Adoptions in theUnited States by Type 38
    • Figure 3.4. International Adoption(1989–2004): Immigrant Visas Issued to Orphans 40
    • Figure 4.1. Legal History of Adoption Timeline 55
    • Figure 7.1. Cultural Identity Axis 101
    • Figure 7.2. Racial Identity Axis 102
    • Figure 7.3. The Cultural-Racial Identity Model 103
    • Figure 7.4. Depictions of the 16 Cells of theCultural-Racial Identity Model 104
    • Figure 7.5. Parental Attitudes andCharacteristics Model for Affirming/Discounting Environments 106
    • Table 8.1. Immigration Visas Issued to OrphansFrom the U.S. State Department by Year 119
    • Table 8.2. Race/Ethnicity Reported on U.S. Censusof 2000 and the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System forFiscal Year (FY) 2003 126
    • Table 12.1. Nine-Category Openness Definitions 178
    • Table 12.2. Birth Mothers' Nine-CategoryOpenness at Wave 1 and Wave 2 179
    • Table 12.3. Relationship Between BirthMother's Openness Category and Satisfaction With Openness at Wave 2 180
    • Table 12.4. Adolescents' SatisfactionWith Birth Mother Contact: Reasons for Those Having and Not Having Contact 185
    • Table 13.1. Clinical Implications for Work WithSingle Adoptive Parents and Adoptees 203
    • Table 20.1. Percentage of Courses With AdoptionContent 317
    • Table 22.1. Marital Status of Participants 353
    • Table 22.2. The Relationship Between Number ofChildren and Pressure to Relinquish 354
    • Figure 23.1. Cultural Identity Axis and RacialIdentity Axis 362
    • Figure 23.2. The Cultural-Racial Identity Model 363
    • Figure 23.3. The Four Dimensions in theCultural-Racial Identity Model 364
    • Figure 23.4. Scatterplots of the CulturalIdentity Axis and the Racial Identity Axis 369
    • Table 23.1. Means and Descriptive Statistics forthe Sample of Transracial Adoptees 365
    • Table 23.2. Descriptive Statistics andReliabilities 368
    • Table 23.3. Correlations of Variables ofInterest 370
    • Table 23.4. Predicting Psychological Adjustment 371
    • Table 23.5. Correlations of PotentialConfounding Variables and Dependent Variables 372
    • Figure 24.1. Year of Birth for AdopteeParticipants 383
    • Figure 24.2. Year of Relinquishment for BirthParent Participants 383
    • Table 24.1. Gender, Race, and Age by TriadPosition 382
    • Table 24.2. The Frequency (Percentage) ofAdoptee and Birth Parent Responses to This Question: “To What ExtentHas Adoption Affected Your Life and Developmental Choices?” 384
    • Table 24.3. Level of Openness and Adequacy ofBackground Information Provided at the Time of the Adoption 385
    • Table 24.4. Adoptees' and BirthParents' Perceived Level of How Prepared the Case Worker at theAdoption Agency Was in Helping Plan for the Postadoption Process and theLife Changes Encountered as a Result of the Adoption Experience 386
    • Table 24.5. Therapists' Level ofPreparation and Helpfulness Related to Adoption Issues in the 1990s 387
    • Table 30.1. Age of Foreign Adopted Children atTime of Placement, 1997 to 2004 (in Percentages) 475
    • Table 30.2. Adult Adoptees: The Intensity ofFeeling Dutch or Greek, Percentages (n = 56) 484
    • Table 30.3. Do Foreign Adopted Children FeelThemselves at Home in Belgium? (21 Males, 36 Females) 485

    Acknowledgments

    Writing a book of this nature always entails working with a variety ofindividuals whose contributions to the final product are unmistakably evidentthroughout the process in various ways; it involves establishing a common visionand making necessary compromises to ensure the timely completion of the book,without compromising in quality and depth. It also involves from the verybeginning a clear recognition that the task could not be accomplished withoutthe active participation of each of those who contributed to the book. For itwas not only the creative process involved in writing this book that was crucialin its creation but the establishment of the necessary working relationshipswith a group of already accomplished colleagues who shared a great deal ofpassion for the subject matter that we all decided to tackle as editors andcontributors to the book. Indeed, each editor and contributor brought to bearhis or her expertise and passion to ensure, at the end, not only that the bookwas high in caliber of contents and comprehensiveness but also that it reflectedthe excitement and dynamism that guided us as we prepared it. So, the firstthanks go to my esteemed colleague Amanda Baden for her hard work and leadershipand to Frank Biafora and Alina Camacho-Gingerich for the many rich discussions,the gives-and-takes, and the long and arduous hours we spent together. Thank youfor a job well done and for the great deal of respect and appreciation for oneanother's contributions you exhibited throughout the process. Thank youfor making the preparation of this comprehensive handbook of adoption such awonderful and rewarding journey. It is certainly a testimony of your commitmentto making adoption an important topic of discussion for academics, professionalsand members of the triad. Thank you also to all the contributors for yourdedication and for working so closely with us in meeting deadlines, your timelyresponses to our many suggestions for corrections to your manuscripts, and soon. You certainly made the book possible. THANK YOU!

    We also extend our great appreciation to Cathy Lancellotti, who providedimportant assistance in the initial stage of the book's preparation, andto Margaret Cashin for her willingness to gather important data that wereincorporated in some of the chapters of the book and her consistent andappreciated support throughout the process. The assistance provided by LouisMora, Jennifer Salhanny, and Lorie Blas, students at St. John'sUniversity, is also recognized. They worked behind the scenes, doing thenecessary research and preparing the bibliography.

    In addition to those acknowledged above, I, Amanda Baden, would like to thank mycolleagues at Montclair State University, especially Dr. Muninder Ahluwalia forher support and for her willingness to review drafts of chapters and providehelpful feedback. I'd also like to thank my graduate assistants, LauraThomas and Miryam Kass, for their hard work and dedication. Their efforts andcontribution are greatly appreciated. I'd also like to thank Carla Vale,a student worker who also assisted with organization for this project. Last,I'd like to thank Dr. Robbie J. Steward, one of my coauthors as well as amentor who led me to this work and supported me throughout.

    I, Frank Biafora, would also like to extend my appreciation to those who made thepreparation of our book possible, but particularly my coeditors andcontributors. A special thanks go particularly to my graduateassistant, Mr. Christopher Coes, who came in early, stayed late, and entertainedmy telephone calls on the weekends as I was working on different manuscripts.And, a very warm heartfelt thank you to my wife, LeaAnn, who provided hours ofthoughtful feedback and editing throughout the writing of this book.

    I, Alina Camacho-Gingerich, also join my colleagues in recognizing the tremendousassistance we received from so many people as we worked in the different stagesof the book preparation. I would like to thank, first of all, my coeditors, Drs.Rafael Javier, Frank Biafora, and Amanda Baden, for the countless hours ofshared work and input; to all the authors for their valuable contributions; and,last but not least, my graduate research assistant, Julisa Sime, for her help invarious tasks related to this book.

    Finally, we recognize that without the initial contact made by Bruce Kellogg toSt. John's University requesting that the school find a way to addressadoption issues, the book would not have been possible. Thus, our thanks toBruce for his encouragement and dedication over the years and to all those whoactively participated in the initial organization and early publications onadoption, particularly Douglas Henderson and B. J. Lifton. Finally, we wouldalso like to extend our appreciation to Art Pomponio, Veronica Novak, and KassieGraves from Sage for their guidance and support throughout our journey.

    Foreword

    DavidBrodzinsky Rutgers UniversityEvan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute

    Adoption touches the lives of millions of Americans and is now viewed by mostindividuals as an estimable means of family formation (Evan B. DonaldsonAdoption Institute, 2002). Over the past three decades, however, the nature ofadoption has changed dramatically (Brooks, Simmel, Wind, & Barth, 2005).The stereotype of the infertile couple adopting a same-race, newborn baby andhaving little or no information about, or contact with, the child's birthfamily is rapidly giving way to a much more complex and diverse form of familylife. For example, as the availability of adoptable babies declined in thesecond half of the 20th century, individuals seeking to adopt began to turntheir attention to older children living in foster care, as well as childrenborn in foreign countries. In many cases, these children were of a differentrace or ethnic background from the adoptive parents and had special medical,psychological, or educational needs. In addition, during this period, the fieldof adoption moved decidedly toward increased openness, with adoption agenciessharing more information with adoptive parents about the child's birthhistory and/or facilitating open placements in which there is some form ofdirect contact between adoptive- and birth-family members.

    As adoption has become more visible in society, as well as more complex in itsnature, it has begun to capture the interest of both academic researchers andthe mental health community. Behavior geneticists, for example, have becomeinterested in adoption because it provides them with a means of understandingthe unique influence of nature versus nurture in the growth and development ofthe human being (Plomin, 2004; Wadsworth, Corley, Plomin, Hewitt, &DeFries, 2006). Developmental researchers, on the other hand, are interested inadopted individuals because their diverse, and sometimes adverse, earlyhistories offer insights into the role prenatal and postnatal experiences playfor different developmental pathways (Gunnar & Kertes, 2005; Rutter,2005). Finally, mental health practitioners have become increasingly interestedin the unique psychodynamics and adjustment patterns of adopted individuals andtheir families (Brodzinsky, Smith, & Brodzinsky, 1998; Reitz &Watson, 1992). Issues related to separation and loss, trauma, attachmentdisruption, and conflicted identity, all of which are viewed as core componentsof the adoption experience, have raised concerns among many clinicians about thepsychological risks associated with adoption.

    Most of the early research on adoption was quite narrow in focus and sufferedfrom serious methodological limitations (Brodzinsky et al., 1998). For example,the research was primarily descriptive and cross-sectional in nature, with smallconvenience samples, and typically examined the relative adjustment of adoptedversus nonadopted individuals. Although the bulk of this researchsuggested that adopted children were more likely to manifest behavioral andemotional problems than their nonadopted age-mates, what was often overlookedwas the fact that the vast majority of adopted individuals were well within thenormal range of adjustment (Brodzinsky & Palacios, 2005; Brodzinsky etal., 1998). Furthermore, other research pointed out that the practice ofadoption could be viewed as a protective factor in the lives of children,especially for those living in institutions or foster care, as well as thosewhose biological parents were neglectful or abusive (Brodzinsky &Pinderhughes, 2002; Hoksbergen, 1999).

    Recently, several noticeable and important changes have emerged in the adoptionfield (Palacios & Brodzinsky, 2005). First, research has become much moretheory-driven than in the past. This change reflects the desire not only todocument adjustment patterns in adoption but to understand them more fully.Genetic theory, neurobiological risk theory, attachment theory, stress andcoping theory, social role theory, family systems theory,cognitive-developmental theory, and communication theory, among others, all havebeen used by different investigators to explain various aspects of adoptionadjustment. Although offering valuable insights into children'sadjustment to adoption, each of these theories fails to capture the richness anddiversity of adoptive family dynamics. As Palacios and Brodzinsky (2005) noted,“Understanding contemporary adoption as a developing, multisystemicexperience necessitates a more complex representation than most theoreticalmodels have provided to date” (p. 259).

    A second change that has occurred in the field is the shift from lookingprimarily at the relative risk associated with adoption status to examiningindividual, family, and systemic processes accounting for the variability inadoption adjustment throughout the developing years. This trend is providingimportant information on the adjustment of adopted individuals in response toboth normative-developmental and family life cycle tasks, as well as thoseunique to adoption (e.g., the adoption revelation process, the meaning of beingadopted to the child, identification with two sets of parents, coping withadoption-related loss, contact with birth-family members, etc.). Related to thistrend is the shift from a psychopathological perspective on adoption to one thatfocuses on issues of resilience. The stereotype of adoption as inherentlyassociated with an array of psychological problems has given way to a morebalanced perspective in which adoption also is viewed as a potential benefit forchildren whose early histories are replete with biological and/or socialadversity. In addition, there is greater interest today among adoptionresearchers in identifying those factors, both internal and external to thechild, that facilitate healthier coping with adoption-related stress.

    Recent investigators also have sought to overcome the methodological problems ofpast adoption research associated with the use of small, convenience samples aswell as cross-sectional designs. In the past decade, a number of researchershave turned to national database survey data as a means of gathering morerepresentative information on adopted children and their families. Furthermore,a number of longitudinal investigations on adoption adjustment also have beenpublished during this time period. These efforts have significantly bolsteredour knowledge of adoption practice and adoptive family life.

    Finally, the shift toward greater openness in adoption also has been paralleledby a growing interest in examining the impact of contact with the birth familyon adopted children and their families, as well as the influence of greatercommunication openness on adoption triad members (Brodzinsky, 2005, in press;Wrobel, Kohler, Grotevant, & McRoy, 2003). This change represents asignificant step toward bridging the gap between research and adoptionpractice.

    Yet for all the changes that have taken place in the field of adoption over thepast few decades, it still remains a significantly underresearched area ofinquiry. In addition, adoption practice, as a whole, has not been adequatelyinformed by the findings of this growing body of data. Fortunately, more andmore empirical investigators, from a variety of disciplines, are turning theirattention to the field of adoption. In many cases, these individuals have astrong interest in the practical implications of their work. The current Handbook of Adoption, edited by Rafael Javier, AmandaBaden, Frank Biafora, and Alina Camacho-Gingerich, is in keeping with this newtrend. The editors have pulled together a talented group of researchers andpractitioners, some of whom have a long association with the fieldof adoption, and others of whom are relatively new to the field. The chaptersauthored by these individuals cover a wide range of important, and in some casescutting-edge, topics. They offer the reader a roadmap to unraveling some of thecomplexities associated with the practice of adoption as well as of adoptivefamily life. However, what is most valuable about the Handbook, in my opinion, in addition to the up-to-date review of theliterature, is the effort made by most of the contributors to address practicalconcerns. In developing their volume, the editors chose wisely and ensured thata wide range of practice-related issues were included. For example, severalchapters discuss the importance of training and educating mental healthprofessionals for adoption therapy competence. Others explore a variety ofassessment and treatment issues in working clinically with adoption triadmembers. In addition, the implications of research for social casework practicealso are considered by a number of the authors.

    In their introductory chapter, the editors invite the reader to take a journeywith them, to explore the many issues associated with adoption in an open andfrank manner. It is an invitation well worth accepting. The reader willencounter a wealth of information about adoption written by knowledgeable andexperienced researchers and adoption professionals. The editors and contributorsto the Handbook of Adoption should be commended forproviding the adoption community with an invaluable resource on the psychologyof adoption.

    References
    Brodzinsky, D.M. (2005) Reconceptualizing openness in adoption: Implications fortheory, research, and practice. InBrodzinskyD. 8PalaciosJ. (Eds.), Psychological issues in adoption: Research andpractice (pp. 145–166. Westport, CT:Praeger.
    Brodzinsky, D.M. (in press). Familystructural openness and communication openness as predictors in theadjustment of adopted children. Adoption Quarterly.
    Brodzinsky, D.M., 8Palacios,J. (Eds.).(2005). Psychological issues inadoption: Research and practice. Westport,CT: Praeger.
    Brodzinsky, D.M., 8Pinderhughes,E. E.(2002) Parenting and child developmentin adoptive families. In M.H.Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting: Vol. 1. Children andparenting (pp. 279–311. Mahwah, NJ:Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Brodzinsky, D.M.,Smith, D.W., 8Brodzinsky,A. B.(1998). Children's adjustment toadoption: Developmental and clinical issues.Thousand Oaks, CA:Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452220581
    Brooks,D.,Simmel,C.,Wind,L., 8Barth, R.P. (2005)Contemporary adoption in the United States: Implications forthe next wave of adoption theory, research, and practice. InBrodzinskyD. 8PalaciosJ. (Eds.), Psychological issues in adoption: Research andpractice (pp. 1–25. Westport, CT:Praeger.
    Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute.(2002). 2002 National AdoptionAttitudes Survey. Harris Interactive. Retrieved August 3,2006, from http://www.adoptioninstitute.org/survey/AdoptionAttitudesSurvey
    Gunnar, M.R., 8Kertes, D.A. (2005)Prenatal and postnatal risks to neurobiological developmentin internationally adopted children. InBrodzinskyD. 8PalaciosJ. (Eds.), Psychological issues in adoption: Research andpractice (pp. 47–65. Westport, CT:Praeger.
    HoksbergenR. A. C.The importance of adoption for nurturing and enhancingthe emotional and intellectual potential of childrenAdoption Quarterly3199929–42http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J145v03n02_03
    Palacios,J., 8Brodzinsky,D. M.(2005) Recent changes and future directions foradoption research. InBrodzinskyD. 8PalaciosJ. (Eds.), Psychological issues in adoption: Research andpractice (pp. 257–268. Westport, CT:Praeger.
    PlominR.Genetics and developmental psychologyMerrill-Palmer Quarterly502004341–352http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/mpq.2004.0024
    Reitz,M., 8Watson, K.W. (1992).Adoption and the family system.New York: GuilfordPress.
    Rutter,M. (2005)Adverse preadoption experiences and psychologicaloutcomes. In D.Brodzinsky 8J.Palacios (Eds.), Psychological issues in adoption: Research andpractice (pp. 67–92. Westport, CT:Praeger.
    Wadsworth, S.J.,Corley,R.,Plomin,R.,Hewitt, J.K., 8DeFries, J.C. (2006) Genetic and environmental influences on continuity andchange in reading achievement in the Colorado AdoptionProject. In A. C.Huston 8M. N.Ripke (Eds.), Developmental contexts in middle childhood: Bridges toadolescence and adulthood (pp. 87–106. New York:Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511499760.006
    WrobelG. M.KohlerJ. K.GrotevantH. D.McRoyR. G.The family adoption communication model (FAC):Identifying pathways of adoption-related communicationAdoption Quarterly7200353–84http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J145v07n02_04
  • Resource Guide

    Readers are encouraged to review the reference list below for further details onthe subjects touched upon in the different parts listed in the book. Several ofthe resources are not referenced in the chapters.

    Part I: Foundation

    Adoption History Project of the University of Oregon at http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~adoption

    Adoption Information Clearinghouse at http://naic.acf.hhs.gov

    AFCARS Reports of the Administration on Children, Youth and Families,Children's Bureau at http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb

    Child Welfare League of America at http://cwla.org

    Dave Thomas Foundation at http://www.davethomasfoundationforadoption.org

    Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute at http://www.adoptioninstitute.org

    National Adoption Center at http://www.adopt.org

    National Center for State Courts Adoption Project at http://ncsconline.org

    National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect at http://www.ndacan.cornell.edu

    U.S. Census Bureau at http://www.census.gov

    U.S. Department of State at http://travel.state.gov/family

    Part II. Theoretical Issues in Adoption

    The Adoption Institute is to “improve the quality of information aboutadoption, to enhance the understanding and perception of adoption, and toadvance adoption policy and practice.” The Institute Web siteincludes a great deal of research-based information about adoption as wellas a fully searchable database of adoption research studies.

    Adoption Learning Partners at http://www.adoptionlearningpartners.org

    The Adoptive Parents' Committee at http://www.adoptiveparents.org

    Brodzinsky, D. M., & Palacios, J. (2005). Psychological issues in adoption: Theory, research, and practice.Westport, CT: Greenwood.

    The Center for Adoption Support and Education at http://www.adoptionsupport.org

    The Center for Family Connections at http://www.kinnect.org

    Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute at http://www.adoptioninstitute.org

    Gray, D. D. (2002). Attaching in adoption: Practical toolsfor today's parents. Indianapolis, IN: PerspectivesPress.

    The National Adoption Information Clearinghouse (http://naic.acf.hhs.gov) is a service of theChildren's Bureau, Administration for Children and Families, U.S.Department of Health and Human Services. “The mission of theClearinghouse is to connect professionals and concerned citizens to timelyand well-balanced information on programs, research, legislation, andstatistics regarding the safety, permanency, and well-being of children andfamilies.”

    Wrobel, G. M., Hendrickson, Z., & Grotevant, H. D. (2006). Adoption.In K. Minke & G. Bear (Eds.), Children'sneeds: Vol. 3. Development, problems, and alternatives. Washington,DC: National Association of School Psychologists.

    Part III: Transracial and InternationalAdoption

    The American Adoption Congress at http://www.americanadoptioncongress.org

    The Asian Society at http://www.asiasociety.org

    Chinese Cultural Center of San Francisco at http://www.c-c-c.org

    Comer, J. P., & Poussaint, A. F. (1975). Black childcare. New York: Simon & Schuster.

    Crumbley, J. (1999). Transracial adoption and fostercare. Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of America.

    The Cultivation of a Political Asian Consciousness at http://www.yellowworld.org Evan B. Donaldson AdoptionInstitute at http://www.adoptioninstitute.org

    Families with children from China at http://www.fccny.org

    John, J. (2002). Black baby White hands: A view from thecrib. Silver Spring, MD: Soul Water.

    Kennedy, R. (2003). Interracial intimacies: Sex, marriage,identity, and adoption. New York: Pantheon Books.

    Lukas, J. A. (1985). Common ground. New York:Knopf.

    McBride, J. (1997). The color of water: A Blackman's tribute to his White mother. New York: RiverheadBooks.

    National Adoption Information Clearinghouse at http://naic.acf.hhs.gov

    The North American Council on adoptable children at http://www.nacac.org/pas_database.html

    Simon, R. J., & Roorda, R. M. (2000). In their ownvoices: Transracial adoptees tell their stories. New York: ColumbiaUniversity Press.

    Steinberg, G., & Hall, B. (2000). Inside transracialadoption. Indianapolis, IN: Perspectives Press.

    Tatum, B. D. (2003). Why are all the Black kids sittingtogether in the cafeteria? New York: Basic Books.

    West, C. (1993). Race matters. New York: VintageBooks.

    For regional-specific information, visit the following sites:

    Part IV: Special Issues in Adoption

    Adoption History Project (Charles Loring Brace, 1826–1890). RetrievedJanuary, 2006, from http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~adoption

    COLAGE: Children of Lesbians and Gay Everywhere at http://www.colage.org

    Dunbar, N., & Grotevant, H. D. (2004). Adoptionnarratives: The construction of adoptive identity during adolescence. In M.W. Pratt & B. H. Fiese (Eds.), Family stories andthe life course: Across time and generations. Mahwah, NJ: LawrenceErlbaum.

    Family Matters, 1010 University Ave., Suite C-209, San Diego, CA 92103, Tel.619-497-2279, ext. 102.

    Family Pride of the South, P.O. Box 177, Decatur, GA 30031-0177, Tel.404-786-9711.

    http://GAY.COM: The “families” link points tohttp://www.gay.com/families. Provides search by statefor LGB family support organizations.

    GLAD: Gay and Lesbian Advocates and Defenders at http://www.glad.org. Strives for equal treatment under thelaw for GLBT individuals.

    GLSEN: The Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network at http://www.glsen.org. Promotes the respect of all members ofevery school community, regardless of sexual orientation.

    Grotevant, H. D. (1997). Coming to terms with adoption: The construction ofidentity from adolescence into adulthood. AdoptionQuarterly, 1(1), 3–27. Grotevant, H. D., Dunbar, N., Kohler,J. K., & Esau, A. L. (2000). Adoptive identity: How contexts withinand beyond the family shape developmental pathways. FamilyRelations, 49, 379–387.

    Grotevant, H. D., & McRoy, R. G. (1998). Openness inadoption: Connecting families of birth and adoption. Thousand Oaks,CA: Sage.

    Henney, S., McRoy, R. G., Ayers-Lopez, S., & Grotevant, H. D. (2003).The impact of openness on adoption agency practices: A longitudinalperspective. Adoption Quarterly, 6(3),31–51.

    The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgender Community Center, 208 W. 13thStreet, New York, NY 10011, Tel. 212-620-7310.

    McBride, R. (Ed.). (2003). New York State foster parentmanual. New York: New York State Office of Children and FamilyServices Welfare Research.

    Miall, C, & March, K. (2005). Open adoption as a family form:Community assessments and social support. Journal ofFamily Issues, 26(3), 380–410.

    Minnesota/Texas Adoption Research Project (MTARP) Web site at http://fsos.che.umn.edu/projects/mtarp.html

    National Adoption Information Clearinghouse at http://naic.acf.hhs.gov

    National Child Welfare Resource Center for Adoption at http://www.nrcadoption.org

    National Conference of State Legislatures. The Adoption and Safe Families Actof 1997 (Public Law 105–89), Titles IV-B and IV-E, Section 403(b),Section 453, and Section 1130(a) of the Social Security Act. RetrievedJanuary, 2006, from http://www.ncsl.org/programs/cyf/ASFA97.htm

    The National Foster Parents Association. Retrieved January 2006 from http://www.nfpainc.org

    National Gay and Lesbian Task Force at http://www.thetaskforce.org. LGB political advocacy site,with links to state and local resources.

    Neil, B., & Howe, D. (Eds.). (2004). Contact inpermanent placements: Research, theory, and practice. London:British Association for Adoption and Fostering.

    Office of Children and Family Services, Foster Care. Retrieved January 2006from http://www.ocfs.state.ny.us/main/fostercare/requirements.asp

    One Little, West 12th Street, New York, NY 10014, Tel. 212-620-7310.

    OutProud: The National Coalition for Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual &Transgendered Youth at http://www.outproud.org. Support,advocacy and resources for LGB youth.

    PFLAG: Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays at http://www.pflag.org. Provides education and advocacy for thehealth and wellbeing of LGB people and their families and friends.

    Proud Parenting at http://www.proudparenting.com. Providesinformation on reproduction, surrogacy, adoption/fostering, and other gayparenting issues.

    Rainbow Families of Illinois, 961 W. Montana Street, Chicago, IL 60614,773-472-6469, ext. 464

    SNAP: Society of Special Needs Adoptive Parents at http://www.snap.bc.ca

    Sobol, M. P., Daly, K. J., & Kelloway, E. K. (2000). Paths to thefacilitation of open adoption. FamilyRelations, 49(4), 419–424.

    Wrobel, G. M., Kohler, J. K., Grotevant, H. D., & McRoy, R. G. (1998).Factors related to patterns of information exchange between adoptive parentsand children in mediated adoptions. Journal ofApplied Developmental Psychology, 19,641–657.

    Part V: Training and Education for AdoptionTherapy Competence

    Andersen, R. (1993). Second choice: Growing upadopted. Chesterfield, MO: Badger Hill Press.

    Andersen, R., & Tucker, R. (2000). A bridge lesstraveled twice visited. Chesterfield, MO: Badger Hill Press.

    Brodzinsky, D. M., & Schechter, M. D. (Eds.). (1994). The psychology of adoption. Oxford, UK: OxfordUniversity Press.

    Lifton, B. J. (1994). Journey of the adopted self. NewYork: Basic Books.

    Pavao, J. M. (1980). Mothers and daughters. Paperpresented at the Wellesley College Center on Research, Massachusetts.

    Pavao, J. M. (1996). Post adoption services model. In Casey Family Services,Post adoption proceedings (pp. 75–82).Green Cove Springs, FL: Hartford Press.

    Pavao, J. M. (1997). Adoption and healing. In Conference onadoption trust (pp. 32–36, 196–201). Wellington, NewZealand: New Zealand Education and Healing Trust.

    Pavao, J. M. (1998/2005). The family of adoption.Boston: Beacon Press.

    Pavao, J. M. (2001). Older child open adoption. In V. Groze & K.Rosenberg (Eds.), Clinical and practice issues inadoption: Bridging the gap between placed as infants and as olderchildren. Westport, CT: Bergen & Garvey.

    Pavao, J. M. (1980). Adoption. In Boston Women's Health Collective,Our bodies, ourselves. New York: Simon &Schuster.

    Pavao, J. M. Secrecy in adoption. In J. Shlien (Ed.), Thepsychology of secrecy.

    Pavao, J. M. In A. Baran, L. Coleman, & S. K. Roszia (Eds.), Creating kinship. Child Welfare Resource Center forOrganizational Development.

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    Brodzinsky, D. M., Schechter, M. D., & Henig, R. M. (1992). Being adopted: The lifelong search forself. New York: Doubleday.

    Federici, R. S. (2003). Help for the hopeless child: Aguide for families. With special discussion for assessing andtreating the post-institutionalized child. Washington, DC: FedericiAssociates.

    Hughes, D. A. (1998). Building the bonds of attachment:Awakening love in deeply troubled children. A guide for parents andprofessionals. Lanham, MD: Jason Aronson.

    Hughes, D. A. (2000). Facilitatingdevelopmental attachment: The road to emotional recovery andbehavioral change in foster and adopted children.Lanham, MD: Jason Aronson.

    John, J. (2002). Black baby White hands: A view from thecrib. Silver Spring, MD: Soul Water.

    Karen, R. (1994). Becoming attached: First relationshipsand how they shape our capacity to love. Oxford, UK: OxfordUniversity Press.

    Keck, G. C, & Kupecky, R. M. (1998). Adopting thehurt child: Hope for adoptive families withspecial needs kids. Colorado Springs, CO:Navpress.

    Lifton, B. J. (1994). Journey of the adopted self. NewYork: Basic Books.

    Nydam, R. J. (1999). Adoptees come of age: Living withintwo families. Louisville, KY: John Knox/Westminster Press.

    Pertman, A. (2000). Adoption nation: How the adoptionrevolution is changing America. New York: Basic Books.

    Russell, M. (2000). Adoption wisdom. Santa Monica, CA:Broken Branch.

    Verrier, N. N. (1993). The primal wound: Understanding theadopted child. Baltimore: Gateway Press.

    Wadia-Ellis, S. (1995). The adoption reader: Birth mothers,adoptive mothers, and adopted daughterstell their stories. New York: Avalon.

    About the Editors

    Amanda L. Baden, PhD, is currently Assistant Professor inthe Department of Counseling, Human Development, and Educational Leadership atMontclair State University in Montclair, New Jersey, where she is on the facultyin the counseling graduate program. Her research interests focus on adoptiontriad members, transracial/international adoption issues, racial and culturalidentity, and multicultural counseling competence. She received the honor ofbeing chosen as an Angel in Adoption in 2005 by Congressional RepresentativeJerold Nadler. She has also written and spoken extensively on adoption-relatedissues. In 2003 and 2005, she and her colleagues published several papers in The Counseling Psychologist on adoption and birthparents. A related article on adult adoptees is in press in the same journal.She has served as the cochair since 2002 for the national conferences onadoption hosted by St. John's University, and was the keynote speaker forthe fourth conference held in 2006 which focused on transracial adoption. She isa licensed psychologist in New York City and has a clinical practice inManhattan. She received her PhD in counseling psychology from Michigan StateUniversity. More information about her is available on her Web site at http://www.transracialadoption.net.

    Frank A. Biafora, PhD, is Associate Professor of Sociologyin the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at St. John's University,New York. His ongoing research addresses a range of issues that affect thepsychosocial development of youth and adolescence, with a special focus on riskfactors for substance use, delinquency, and victimization. His most recentresearch and scholarly publications explore topics such as the perpetuation ofschool tracking on student learning, the impact of adolescent stress on alcoholand tobacco experimentation, the relationships between racial mistrust anddelinquent behaviors, and the protective influences of Latino ethnic enclaves onstreet crime victimization. In addition to his scholarly achievements, since1999 he has served as Associate Dean in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciencesand as the codirector of the Ronald McNair Post-Baccalaureate AchievementProgram. He graduated from the University of Florida (BA and MA) and receivedhis PhD from the University of Miami.

    Alina Camacho-Gingerich, PhD, a renowned literary critic andwriter, is Chair of the Committee on Latin American and Caribbean Studies(CLACS) and Professor in the Department of Languages and Literatures at St.John's University, New York. A leading scholar on Latin American andLatino studies, she is the author of numerous multidisciplinary studies,including the books La cosmovisión poética deJosé Lezama Lima en Paradiso y Oppiano Licario, Coping in America:The Case of Caribbean East Indians, and Mexico in theTwenty-First Century: Selected Essays, and more than 65 scholarlyarticles, chapters, and reviews on Latin American and Caribbean studies,published in peer-reviewed academic journals, books, and anthologies. Inaddition, she has presented more than 80 papers in international and nationalsymposia of scholarly and learned societies and is on the editorial board ofvarious academic journals. She is frequently interviewed by the media for herexpertise on Latin American and Caribbean issues and has been the recipient ofmany professional awards and recognitions. She has been involved inadoption-related issues as one of the organizers and cosponsors of St.John's University's biannual adoption conference.

    Rafael A. Javier, PhD, ABPP, is Professor of Psychology andDirector of Interagencies Training and Research Initiatives and the PostgraduateProfessional Development Programs at St. John's University. He is on thefaculty and a supervisor at New York University Medical Center, Department ofPsychiatry, and the Object Relations Institute. Prior to joining St.John's University, he was the head of psychology at Kingsboro PsychiatricCenter and on the faculty at Downstate Medical Center. He has been workingextensively on issues of adoption, including creating and co-organizing abiannual conference structure to address issues affecting the members of theadoption triad. He has edited several special journal issues on adoptionpublished by the Journal of Social Distress and theHomeless. In 2004, he was given the special honor of Angel in Adoptionby the Congressional Adoption Coalition in Washington, D.C., in recognition ofthe work he has done to advance the cause of adoption in the academic andprofessional communities. He holds a PhD in clinical psychology and PostdoctoralCertificate from New York University. He holds diplomates in Clinical Psychologyand in Psychoanalysis from the American Board of Professional Psychology. Healso holds a diplomate in Psychological Assessment, Evaluation and Testing fromthe American College of Forensic Examiners.

    About the Contributors

    Susan Ayers-Lopez, MEd, is Research Project Coordinator withthe Center for Social Work Research at the University of Texas at Austin Schoolof Social Work. She, Harold Grotevant, and Ruth McRoy have collaborated for morethan 20 years.

    Carol Anderson Boyer has worked in the informationtechnology sector for the past 10 years. She is currently pursuing amaster's degree in counseling at Montclair State University and holds abachelor's degree in music education. She is interested in how identitydevelopment for adopted persons parallels that of other multiculturalminorities. She plans to become an individual and couples counselor and has aparticular interest in serving the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendercommunity.

    Susan Branco-Rodriguez is a licensed professional counselorin Virginia. She maintains a clinical practice serving families created throughadoption. She completed postgraduate research and training in the field ofadoption, incorporating both her knowledge of mental health services and herexperiences as an adopted person from Colombia, South America.

    Betty Buchsbaum is on the faculty and a supervisor at theAndrus Children's Center (formerly the Center for Preventive Psychiatry)in White Plains, New York, and is in private practice. She was formerlyAssistant Clinical Professor in the Psychiatry Department, Albert EinsteinCollege of Medicine, Bronx, New York, and at New York Presbyterian Hospital,Westchester Division. From 1986 to 1999, she was the Director of the PsychologyInternship Program at the Center for Preventive Psychiatry. She has writtenseveral articles dealing with the developmental aspects of bereavement, with afocus on children's memories of a deceased parent. She received hermaster's degree in psychology from the University of Pennsylvania and herPhD from Yeshiva University.

    Jeanna Carlson (née Webster) is a School Counselorwith the School District of Marshfield (Wisconsin). She participated in thisresearch as an undergraduate student while attending the University ofWisconsin-Stevens Point and presented an early version of this chapter at theAmerican Adoption Congress Annual Convention in Nashville, Tennessee. Shereceived her master's degree in guidance and counseling from theUniversity of Wisconsin-Stout.

    Mary Jo Carr has been involved for over 12 years withadoption issues through her involvement with Concerned United Birth Parents andthe American Adoption Congress. The chapter in this book contains researchfindings from her doctoral dissertation. As a birth mother who never had otherchildren, she was interested in learning whether there were characteristics inwomen that would inhibit them from having additional children afterrelinquishing a child for adoption. She also wanted to contribute to theliterature about birth mothers, a subject which is still in great need ofattention. She received her doctorate in psychology from the California GraduateInstitute in Westwood, California.

    Christopher Deeg, PhD, is a licensed psychologist whomaintains a private practice in Dix Hills, New York. He specializes in thetreatment of adoptees and in all aspects of adoption. He regularlyconsults with adoption agencies and is involved in adoption evaluations andconsultation for adopting parents, partners, and single-parent adoptions. He isthe author of the following previously published papers: “On theAdoptee's Cathexis of the Lost Object,” “DefensiveFunctions of the Adoptee's Cathexis of the Lost Object,”“On the Adoptee's Search for Identity,” and “Issuesof Psychoanalytic Technique With Adoptees.”

    Kathleen M. Doyle has worked as an adoptive and foster carehome finder and supervisor of foster children, a school psychologist, and alicensed psychologist. During her career, she has provided services to childrenand families in widely diverse family structures. During the past decade, amongother functions, she has been the Executive Secretary for the State Board forPsychology in New York State. She received a BA in sociology from the college ofSt. Rose, a master's degree in clinical psychology, and a doctoral degreein professional child psychology from St. John's University.

    Nora Dunbar writes in the area of adolescent developmentwith a focus on identity formation. She lives in Flagstaff, Arizona, with herhusband and two sons. She received her MS in developmental psychology from theUniversity of California at Santa Cruz and her PhD in family social science fromthe University of Minnesota.

    Amy M. Lash Esau currently teaches marriage and familycourses at Northwestern College in St. Paul, Minnesota, and other colleges inthe Minneapolis-St. Paul area. She also provides community-based marriage andfamily education through her business, Family Points. She received her doctoratein family social science from the University of Minnesota in 2000. Herdissertation research focused on identity and intimacy development of birthmothers following placement of infants for adoption.

    Dawn Esposito, PhD, is Associate Professor of Sociology andthe Chair of the Sociology and Anthropology Department at St. John'sUniversity. She is currently researching the migration of Eastern Europeanwomen's labor to Greece and Italy and its impact on southernMediterranean family structure. Her most recent articles on popular culture haveappeared in MELUS, the Journal of the Society for the Study ofMulti-Ethnic Literature, and VIA.

    Francine Fishman works with members of the adoption triad ina special education setting as an LMSW. She is a reunited adoptee, in reunionfor 9 years. She and her husband are busy raising three daughters in New York.She earned her master's in business administration while working as apension administrator for 10 years. She has since earned her master's insocial work from Stony Brook University.

    Madelyn Freundlich, MSW, JD, LLM, has worked in the field ofchild welfare for almost 20 years. She is a social worker with training inpublic health and law. Her publications include four volumes on ethics inadoption, articles on legal issues in adoption, and guides on best practices inadoption.

    Harold D. Grotevant, PhD, is Distinguished UniversityTeaching Professor of Family Social Science at the University of Minnesota. Hisresearch focuses on relationships in adoptive families and on identitydevelopment in adolescents and young adults. He is a Senior Research Fellow ofthe Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute, Fellow of the American PsychologicalAssociation and the National Council on Family Relations, and former BoardPresident of Adoptive Families of America.

    Elliotte Sue Harrington is currently pursuing amaster's degree in counseling at Montclair State University. She workedfor 17 years in the financial industry. Now, she plans to become a family andmarriage counselor and specialize in working with members of the adoption triad.She and her husband Ron are new parents to their daughter, who joined theirfamily through domestic adoption. She has a bachelor's degree inmusic.

    Douglas B. Henderson, PhD, is an adoptee who found his birthfamilies in 1983. He retired in the spring of 2001 as Professor of Psychology atthe University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, and was a licensed Wisconsinpsychologist, specializing in behavior problems in children and adolescents. Since the mid-1980s, he has been a presenter of a variety ofworkshop sessions at national and regional American Adoption Congressconferences. He was a copresenter of programs on special issues for maleadoptees, and for many years he led the Stevens Point chapter of AdoptionInformation and Direction, a triad-based search and support group. He served for3 years as State President of this group. He was a member of the AmericanAdoption Congress Board of Directors and served as Director of ProfessionalRelations and Continuing Education, as the Midwest Regional Director, and asChairperson of the Nominations and Elections Committee.

    Susan M. Henney, PhD, is Assistant Professor at theUniversity of Houston, Downtown. Her research focuses on the experiences ofbirthfamily members and on volunteerism across the lifespan. She received herPhD in Child Development and Family Relationships from the University of Texasat Austin. While at the University of Texas, she also worked as a Post-DoctoralFellow on the openness in adoption research project.

    René Hoksbergen, PhD, is on the faculty of SocialSciences at Utrecht University. He has been a professor in the field of adoptionsince 1984. He has held various posts in the fields of education and adoption.He has written 30 books on adoption, adult education, modern procreation, andadolescence, some of which have been translated into English and German. He hasauthored hundreds of articles in several journals in different countries. He hashis own practice counseling adoptees and adoptive parents. He studied socialpsychology, pedagogics, and mathematical statistics at the University ofAmsterdam (1962–1969).

    Elizabeth J. Keagy volunteers her time at Shelter OurSisters, a shelter for battered women and their children, and teaches part-timeat a local community college. She earned her master's degree in clinicalpsychology from Loyola College in Baltimore and her master's degree incounseling from Montclair State University. She holds a bachelor's degreein psychology and religion from Muhlenberg College, where she met her husband,Seth Fischer. She is currently staying home to raise their new son, Ben.

    Julie K. Kohler is the Director of Evaluation and ProgramAssessment/Manager for the Fund for Education Organizing at Public InterestProjects (PIPs) in New York City. Prior to joining PIPs, she worked for theMiami-based John S. and James L. Knight Foundation, where she directed thefoundation's National Venture Fund, and the University ofMaryland's Department of Family Studies, where she taught and conductedresearch on a variety of child and family policy topics. She receivedbachelor's degrees in psychology and human development/family studiesfrom the University of Wisconsin-Stout and a master's degree anddoctorate in family social science from the University of Minnesota.

    Jan ter Laak, PhD, is Associate Professor in DevelopmentalPsychology at Utrecht University. He is the author of a book on psychologicalassessment, among others. He has published many articles with the participantsof the Dutch Rumanian Adoptee project. He is the chairman of the Child and YouthSection of the Dutch Psychological Association and chairman of the Dutchcommittee for judging tests and questionnaires according to APA standards. Hestudied psychology and philosophy.

    Christian Langworthy is the author of TheGeography of War, which won Poet Magazine's Grand Prize NationalPoetry Chapbook Award in 1994. Among awards and honors he has received are aColumbia University Writing Arts Fellowship and Pulitzer Prize and PushcartNominations in 1995 for The Geography of War. His poetryand fiction have been selected for numerous anthologies such as Isn't It Romantic: 100 Love Poems by Younger AmericanPoets, Charlie Chan Is Dead II, Watermark, From Both Sides Now, Bold Words,Premonitions, Poetry Nation, Music, Pictures, & Stories, A PoetryAnthology, Tilting the Continent, Muae, and AsianAmerican Literature Anthology. Various poems and fiction have beenpublished in the Michigan Quarterly Review, Fence Magazine,The Recorder, PBS American Experience,http://Salon.com, Manoa,http://Failbetter.com, Can We Have Our BallBack?, Mudfish, Brooklyn Rail Literary Magazine, Vietnam Forum, and theAsian Pacific American Journal. In 2003, several ofhis poems were performed in libretto at the National Gallery of Artand at the Glimmerglass Opera Festival. In 2002, dance choreographer Tai Dangincorporated his poem Mango into performance:“Fragile. Family. Structures.” at the Danspace Project in St.Mark's Church.

    Betty Jean Lifton is a writer and adoption counselor. She isthe author of Twice Born: Memoirs of an Adopted Daughter,Journey of the Adopted Self: A Quest for Wholeness, Lost and Found: TheAdoption Experience, and the children's book Tell Me a Real Adoption Story. Her books also include The King of Children, a biography of Janusz Korczak, oneof the world's first children's rights advocates. During the yearsshe lived in the Far East, she wrote The Children ofVitenam and A Place Called Hiroshima. Dr. Liftonhas conducted workshops here and abroad on the psychology of the adopted child,the birth parents, and the adoptive parents. She has been a lecturer at HarvardMedical School, as as at numerous colleges, hospitals, and adoption agencies,and spoken on radio and television. She was a board member of the AmericanAdoption Congress and on the ethics committee of Evan B. Donaldson AdoptionInstitute. She has a clinical practice in Cambridge and in Manhattan and doestelephone counseling across the country. Her Web site is at http://www.bjlifton.com.

    Michael F. McGinn became active in adoption issues whileundertaking a research project to complete his doctoral degree in child clinicalpsychology at Pace University (New York). Subsequently, he has attended and madepresentations at numerous adoption-themed conferences and has authored aprevious contribution to the literature. He is currently employed as apsychologist in the Freeport, New York, public schools. His personal adoptionjourney began with his relinquishment for adoption at birth, at which time hewas named Joseph by his birth family. He was subsequently adopted as Michael F.McGinn, at the age of 10 weeks.

    Hollee A. McGinnis is currently the Policy and OperationsDirector at the Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute, a national organizationdedicated to improving adoption policy and practice. She is a prominenteducator, speaker, and community organizer on international and transracialadoptions. In 1996, she founded Also-Known-As, Inc., a nonprofit, adult,intercountry adoptee organization providing postadoption services. McGinnis,also known as Lee Hwa Yeong, was adopted from South Korea and has united withher birth family. McGinnis received her master's degree in science fromColumbia University School of Social Work and a post-master's clinicalsocial work fellowship at the Yale University Child Study Center.

    Ruth G. McRoy, PhD, is Research Professor and the Ruby LeePiester Centennial Professor Emerita at the University of Texas at Austin Schoolof Social Work. She has coauthored Openness in Adoption: NewPractices, New Issues (with H. Grotevant and K. White, 1988) and Openness in Adoption: Exploring Family Connections (withH. Grotevant, 1998). She and Harold D. Grotevant are currently writing a thirdbook based on their research on longitudinal outcomes of openness in adoptionfor members of the adoption triad.

    Ronald J. Nydam is the Executive Director of AdoptionDynamics, an agency providing counseling for triad members, community education,and legislative support for adoption reform. He also serves as Professor ofPastoral Care at Calvin Seminary in Grand Rapids, Michigan. In 1994, hecoproduced More Than Love, a 55-minute video presentationon healthy adoptive development, which includes a guidebook on the issues andimpact of relinquishment and adoption. He is a frequent speaker and presenter atconferences of the American Adoption Congress. Most recently, he wrote a book,Adoptees Come of Age: Living Within Two Families, onthe emotional and spiritual dimensions of adoptive development. He holds a PhDfrom the University of Denver and the Iliff School of Theology, where he wrote adissertation titled Hope and Fantasy in the Lives of SearchingAdopted Adults.

    Behnaz Pakizegi is Professor of Psychology at Wm. PatersonUniversity, her professional home for the past 29 years. She was Director of theMA Program in Clinical and Counseling Psychology at the University for 6 years.She is also a licensed psychologist in New Jersey and is in private practice.She received her PhD from Cornell University in 1974.

    Penny Callan Partridge was an activist in theadoption community, beginning in the early 1970s. She co-founded Adoption Forum,in Philadelphia, one of the earliest groups to bring together adoption triadmembers and others “for more mutual respect.” Partridge was thefirst elected President of the American Adoption Congress and a member of theAdvisory Board of the National Child Welfare Training Center.

    She wrote the article on self-help groups for A Handbook ofChild Welfare (Laird & Hartman, 1985) and three articles aboutadopted people that were published in Smith College Studies inSocial Work. Her collections of poems are titled AnAdoptee's Dreams, Pandora's Hope, and New Legs. Her next book, Bridge of Words, willpair 13 poems with essays tracing each poem's evolution with the poet toits reception by a particular listener or reader in the adoption community. Anadopted person and a parent of two, both by open adoption, Partridge has adegree in English from Stanford and one in social work from Smith.

    Joyce Maguire Pavao, EdD, LCSW, LMFT, is the Founder and CEOof Center for Family Connections, Inc. (CFFC; established in 1995) in Cambridgeand New York; Adoption Resource Center (ARC; established in 1973) in Cambridge;Pre/Post Adoption Consulting Team (PACT; established in 1978) in Cambridge; andFamily Connections Training Institute (FaCT; established in 1995) in Cambridge.She is a Clinical Member and Approved Supervisor of the American Association ofMarriage and Family Therapy, Clinical Member of the American OrthopsychiatricAssociation (Ortho), and Clinical Member of the American Family TherapyAssociation. She is a member and past director of the American AdoptionCongress, former Board member of the Open Door Society of Massachusetts, ofKinship Alliance in Monterey, California, of the Education and Policy Board ofAdoptive Families of America in Minneapolis and the Practice Board of the EvanB. Donaldson Adoption Institute in New York, and currently on the EditorialBoards of Adoptive Families magazine and Foster Families Today magazine, on the Board of Directorsof the Home for Little Wanderers in Boston, on the Adoption Advisory Board ofthe Child Welfare League of America, and on the Library Board of the Oregon PostAdoption Resource Center. She has done extensive training, both nationally andinternationally. She is an adjunct faculty member and Lecturer in Psychiatry atHarvard Medical School and has served as a consultant to various public andprivate child welfare agencies, adoption agencies, schools, and communitygroups, as well as probate and family court judges, lawyers, and clergy.Additionally, she has worked closely with individuals, families created byadoption and foster care, and other complex blended family constructions. Shehas developed models for treatment and for training using her systemic,intergenerational, and developmental framework “The Normative Crises inthe Development of the Adoptive Family,” and her book The Family of Adoption has received high acclaim. She has receivedmany awards and honors, including the Children's Bureau/U.S. Departmentof Health and Human Services “Adoption Excellence Award for FamilyContribution” (2003) and the Congressional Coalition on Adoption awardfor “Angels in Adoption” (2000), for which she was nominated bySenator Edward Kennedy and Congressman Mike Capuano.

    Raúl Ernesto Pitteri, Lic., is a psychologist. He wason the staff at José T. Borda Neuropsychiatric Hospital in Buenos Aires(1991–1993), Resident Psychologist at Perrando Hospital in Chaco(1994–1999), Assistant Professor in Adolescence Evolutive Psychology atLa Cuenca del Plata University (1997–1999) in Corrientes, Argentina, andProfessor in Forensic Psychology (2000 till the present) in the Departments ofLaw and Psychology, also at La Cuenca del Plata University, Corrientes. He hasgiven lectures at national and international congresses. He is an expertpsychologist at Family Court in Chaco, Argentina, and Researcher on domesticviolence and adoption at La Cuenca del Plata University, Corrientes, Argentina.He graduated from the Rosario National University, Argentina, in 1991.

    Theresa Kennedy Porch holds a bachelor's degree fromCornell University, and has worked as a private investigator for over 20 years.She recently completed her master's degree in counseling at MontclairState University. Her extended family includes many adopted family members. Sheis married and has two adult daughters.

    Barbara A. Rall, LCSW, is currently theAssistant Director at Children's Aid and Family Services, Inc., where shemanages the New Jersey Adoption Resource Clearing House, a federally fundedprogram to disseminate information and assistance to people whose lives havebeen touched by adoption. She is married and the parent of four children, two bybirth and two adopted, as well as the grandmother of three. She has amaster's in social work from New York University and is a licensedclinical social worker who has worked in the adoption field since 1983.

    Rhonda M. Roorda was born in Rochester, New York, in 1969.She was adopted 2 years later into a White family and was raised in theWashington, D.C., metropolitan area with her brother, Christopher, and sister,Jean, both biologically related to the Roordas. She has served as programassociate to the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities in Washington,D.C., where she concentrated on racial and ethnic issues in higher education.She has worked on several community and media relation projects through MichiganState University and at local TV and radio stations in the Midwest. Shecoauthored In Their Own Voices: Transracial Adoptees TellTheir Stories (with Rita J. Simon), which was published in the springof 2000. She has written featured articles for FosteringFamilies TODAY magazine and continues to speak across the country onissues facing Black and Biracial adoptees in White families. Currently, she isworking as Coordinator of Financial and Support Services at an educationaladvocacy organization in Lansing, Michigan. She lives in Brighton, Michigan,with her husband. She earned her bachelor's degree in telecommunicationsfrom Calvin College in 1992 and her master's degree incommunication-urban studies from Michigan State University in 1996.

    Sarah Saffian, an adoptee, is the author of Ithaka: A Daughter's Memoir of Being Found; a newedition of the book with a current Afterword has recently been published. She ison the Board of Directors of Spence-Chapin Services and on the Advisory Board ofAdoptive Families Magazine, which featured an excerptfrom Ithaka in its 2005 roundup of best adoptionliterature. She has spoken on national television and radio programs and atconferences including the American Adoption Congress, Concerned United BirthParents, Also Known As, Bastard Nation, and St. John's University. Sheholds a BA from Brown University and an MFA in creative writing fromColumbia.

    Daniel A. Sass was an advisee of Doug Henderson at theUniversity of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, where he worked toward his undergraduatedegree in psychology. He recently received a doctorate in educational psychologywith an emphasis on research and evaluation from the University ofWisconsin-Milwaukee, where he studies various issues related to measurement andstatistics.

    Robbie J. Steward, PhD, is Professor, Director of theMichigan State University Master's Counseling Program and an APA Division45 Fellow. She received a doctorate in counseling psychology from the Universityof Oklahoma in 1984. Her research areas include issues of race/ethnicity intraining, service delivery, and academic persistence.

    Mary O'Leary Wiley is an adoptee who specializes inthe adoption kinship network in her independent practice as a licensedpsychologist in Altoona, Pennsylvania. She has spoken widely on growing upadopted and on psychotherapy and clinical issues for those whose lives aretouched by adoption. She has also published on adoption issues in psychologyjournals. She was Director of the Counseling Center at Ithaca College (New York)and in independent practice in both Ithaca and Gaithersburg, Maryland, prior toAltoona. She is also cofounder of the Center for Adoption Education of CentralPennsylvania (http://www.caecp.org). She received her PhD fromthe University of Maryland in 1982.

    Janet Rivkin Zuckerman is Visiting Instructor at theWestchester Center for the Study of Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy, WhitePlains, New York. She is Adjunct Clinical Supervisor of doctoral students at theDerner Institute of Advanced Psychological Studies, Adelphi University, and the Ferkauf Graduate School, Yeshiva University, and a facultymember and supervisor at the Andrus Children's Center (formerly theCenter for Preventive Psychiatry), White Plains, New York. She maintains aprivate practice in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy in White Plains, New York.She received her PhD in clinical psychology from the Derner Institute ofAdvanced Psychological Studies, Adelphi University, and her Certificate inpsychoanalysis from the New York University Postdoctoral Program inPsychotherapy and Psychoanalysis.


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