Handbook of Implicit Cognition and Addiction

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Edited by: Reinout W. Wiers & Alan W. Stacy

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  • Introduction

    Most research on cognitive processes and drug abuse has focused on theories and methods of explicit cognition, asking people directly to introspect about the causes of their behavior. However, it may be questioned to what extent such methods reflect fundamental aspects of human cognition and motivation. In response to this issue, basic cognition researchers have started to assess implicit cognitions, defined as “introspectively unidentified (or inaccurately identified) traces of past experience that mediate feeling, thought, or action.” Such approaches are less sensitive to self-justification and social desirability and offer other advantages over traditional approaches underscored by explicit cognition.

    Wiers' Handbook of Implicit Cognition and Addiction lays the groundwork for new approaches to the study and addictive behaviors as the first handbook to apply principles of implicit cognition to the field of addiction. This Handbook features the work of an interdisciplinary group of internationally renowned contributing North American and European authors who have brought together developments in basic research on implicit cognition with recent developments in addiction research.

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    About the Editors

    Reinout W. Wiers is Research Associate Professor at Maastricht University, The Netherlands. He received his master's degree in psychonomics (experimental psychology and psychophysiology) at the University of Amsterdam (1992, with honors) and his PhD (with honors) in 1998 at the University of Amsterdam on cognitive and neuropsychological indicators of enhanced risk for alcoholism. He has published many articles in international journals on addiction research and in cognitive science. Wiers and colleagues were the first to apply the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to alcohol abuse and are currently focusing on theory, assessment, and practical applications of implicit drug-related cognitions with a grant from the Dutch National Science Foundation (N.W.O. VIDI grant). Stacy and “Wiers are collaborating on an international project (N.W.O. Addiction and N.I.D.A.) on implicit cognition and prevention in high-risk youth.

    Alan W. Stacy is currently the director of the USC Transdisciplinary Drug Abuse Prevention Research Center, funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. He is also an associate professor at the University of Southern California Department of Preventive Medicine. Stacy has published more than 80 peer-reviewed articles on addiction, focusing on cognitive models of drug use. He was one of the first investigators to apply implicit cognition approaches to the addiction area. His research on implicit cognition was recently acknowledged in the10th Special Report to Congress on Alcohol and Health.

    About the Contributors

    Susan L. Ames is a research associate at the Transdisciplinary Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center at the Institute for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Research, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California. Her research emphasis is on the mediation of implicit processes and competing social, personality, and cultural constructs in the etiology and prevention of risk behaviors among at-risk youth and adults. Her research focuses on new assessments and prediction models of substance abuse as well as harm reduction strategies for addictive behaviors. Additional interests include neurobiological systems and brain structures associated with implicit processes and addictive behaviors.

    Timothy B. Baker is a professor of psychology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and the director of research at the Center for Tobacco Research and Intervention in the University of Wisconsin Medical School. In addition, he is currently the editor of theJournal of Abnormal Psychology. Dr. Baker conducts research on the motivational mechanisms of addiction, and on psychosocial and pharmacologic treatments for addictive disorders, especially tobacco dependence.

    Antoine Bechara is an associate professor of neurology at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. His research focuses on understanding the neural processes underlying how we make decisions and choices. He is known for his development of what became known as the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), and for his studies of the decision-making capabilities of patients who have suffered injury to the ventromedial sector of their prefrontal cortex. His more recent research aims at integrating decision neuro-science with research in mental health, specifically substance addiction.

    Kent C. Berridge is a professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Michigan. His research interests span topics in affective neuroscience and hedonic psychology: emotion and motivation, brain systems for reward-liking and wanting, neurobiology of pleasure, addiction, appetite, fear and stress and several other biopsychology topics, executive brain systems of action syntax, behavioral command systems, cognitive neuroscience, and animal neuroethology.

    Cheryl D. Birch is a doctoral student in clinical psychology at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Her dissertation research, supervised by Dr. Sherry Stewart, concerns the impact of emotions and drinking motives on alcohol cognition and consumption behavior.

    Jan Booij (MD, PhD) is a nuclear medicine physician and works as a staff member at the Department of Nuclear Medicine at the Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. He is involved in preclinical as well as clinical research on neuroreceptor imaging with SPECT, with a special interest in disturbances of the central dopaminergic neurotransmission system in parkinsonism, schizophrenia, and addiction. In addition, he participates in large research projects on the possible neu-rotoxicity of ecstasy on the serotonergic system.

    Brendan P. Bradley is a professor of clinical psychology research and a director of the Centre for the Study of Emotion and Motivation at the University of South#x0026ton, United Kingdom. He previously held academic posts in the Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, and the Institute of Psychiatry, London. He is joint editor of theBritish Journal of Clinical Psychology ana consulting editor ofEmotion. His research is primarily concerned with applying theoretical models and experimental methods from the fields of cognitive psychology and neuroscience to the study of addiction and emotional disorders, with a particular interest in anxiety and depression.

    Gillian Bruce was awarded an MA with honors in psychology in 2001 from the University of Glasgow, Scotland. She subsequently completed an MSc in research methods in psychological science and currently holds an Economic and Social Research Council Postgraduate Studentship in the Psychology Department at the University of Glasgow. She is interested in the study of eye movements in relation to selective attention toward alcohol-related stimuli.

    Mark Conner is a reader in applied social psychology at the Institute of Psychological Sciences, Leeds University, United Kingdom. His research interests include attitude-behavior models, and the social psychology of health behaviors. He has published widely in these areas.

    Patricia J. Conrod is a clinical lecturer and “Action on Addiction” fellow at the National Addiction Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College, London. Her research interests focus on biological and psychological approaches to personality in relation to the etiology of addictive behaviors, ranging from laboratory experimental studies to studies of targeted intervention and prevention.

    Kate Coronges is a graduate research assistant at the Institute for Prevention Research at the University of Southern California. Her main research interest is in the interaction between social and cognitive domains. She is currently involved with projects applying social network analysis to theories of information processing.

    Kenny Coventry is a reader in cognitive science at the University of Plymouth, United Kingdom. He has had a long-standing interest in why some gamblers lose control of their gambling behavior. In particular, he is interested in the role of decision making and its relationship with dissociation and arousal during the gambling process.

    W. Miles Cox is professor of psychology of addictive behaviours, School of Psychology, University of Wales, Bangor, United Kingdom. He is the founding editor ofPsychology of Addictive Behaviors (American Psychological Association [APA]) and past president of the APA Division on Addictions. His research and clinical activities focus on the interplay between drinkers' incentives in other life areas and their motivation to drink alcohol. A fellow in the American Psychological Association and a charter fellow in the American Psychological Society, Cox is the author of more than 100 publications, and the editor of four books.

    Eveline A. Crone is an assistant professor of developmental psychology at Leiden University in Lhe Netherlands. Her research focuses on neurocognitive development of control and self-regulation. She has developed child-friendly tasks based on the neuropsychological and cognitive literature (e.g., the Hungry Donkey Lask, a child-version of the Iowa Gambling Lask). Lo augment performance measures that are associated with self-regulation, she uses heart rate and skin conductance measures as indices of autonomic arousal, and neuroimaging techniques (fMRI) in children and adults.

    John J. Curtin is an assistant professor in the Psychology Department at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Dr. Curtin completed his undergraduate and graduate training at Johns Hopkins and Florida State Universities, respectively. He also completed a predoctoral clinical internship at Brown University. His research examines the contributions of affective and cognitive processes to alcohol and drug use, abuse, and dependence. His work draws heavily on current research in clinical psychology and cognitive and affective neuro-science.

    Jack Darkes is a clinical psychologist and the associate director of the Alcohol and Substance Use Research Institute at the University of South Florida. He has published numerous articles and book chapters on the application of expectancy theory to substance use. His specific areas of interest are the mediational role of expectancies, the design and testing of expectancy theory-based strategies for behavior change, and the role of expectancy in postconsumption behavior. Dr. Darkes also serves as an assistant editor for the journalAddiction and on the editorial board ofPsychology of Addictive Behaviors.

    Jan De Houwer is professor of psychology at Ghent University in Belgium. Before that, he was a lecturer at the University of South#x0026ton, United Kingdom, and obtained his PhD at the University of Leuven in Belgium. His main research interests are automatic affective processing and human associative learning, including the learning of preferences. One of his main contributions to research on automatic affective processing has been the development of the Extrinsic Affective Simon Task (EAST).

    Peter J. de Jong is professor of experimental psychopathology at the University of Groningen, The Netherlands. The main focus of his research is on the role of automatic versus controlled cognitive processes in the origin and maintenance of various forms of psychopathology including anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and addiction.

    Roland Deutsch is currently a postdoctoral researcher at the Ohio State University. In 2003, he received his PhD in social psychology from the University of Wiirzburg, Germany. His research is focused on evaluative learning, automatic evaluation, and the automatization of social-cognitive skills. In collaboration with Fritz Strack, he has developed a dual-system model of social cognition and behavior.

    Jonathan St. B. T. Evans is professor of cognitive psychology at the University of Plymouth, United Kingdom. Since the early 1970s, he has conducted a major research program into thinking, reasoning, and decision making. He has over 150 scientific publications, which include numerous experimental studies of reasoning and judgment. He has made particular study of cognitive biases and established some of the major phenomena. He has also been one of the major authors contributing to the development of contemporary dual-process theories of thinking and reasoning.

    Javad S. Fadardi is assistant professor of psychology at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, tan. His research interests are linked to motivational bases of implicit cognitive processes involved in various types of psychopathology and health behaviors. He completed his BA and MA studies in clinical and health psychology in tan, and his PhD and postdoctoral studies in the United Kingdom. He is a member of the Iranian Psychological Association and has published several articles and books in both Persian and English.

    Matt Field is a lecturer in psychology at the University of Liverpool, United Kingdom. He is a member of the British Association for Psychopharmacology and his research interests include cognitive and learning mechanisms in substance abuse and addiction. He obtained his DPhil from the University of Sussex in 2001 while under the supervision of Professor Theodora Duka, and he subsequently worked as a research fellow at the University of South#x0026ton with Professors Karin Mogg and Brendan P. Bradley.

    Mark T. Fillmore is an associate professor of psychology at the University of Kentucky. His research examines how acute drug effects on basic cognitive and behavioral processes play a role in the development of substance abuse and drug addiction. His work combines measures of cognitive functions with conventional assessments of drug-abuse liability in studies of individuals with and without histories of drug abuse. He has published extensively in the substance-abuse field and is an active member of several societies, including the American Psychological Association and the College on Problems of Drug Dependence.

    Ingmar H. A. Franken is assistant professor at the Institute of Psychology of the Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. He trained as a clinical psychologist at Maastricht University. He completed his doctorate on cognitive and psychopharmacological mechanisms of drug craving at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Amsterdam. His major research interest is the role of the reward system in psychopathology and personality. More specific topics include addiction, psychopharmacology and psychophysiology of reward, and reward-based decision making.

    Mark S. Goldman is associate director of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), and Distinguished Research Professor and director of the Alcohol and Substance Use Research Institute at University of South Florida (USF). He received his PhD in January 1972 from Rutgers University, and has been on the faculty at Wayne State University (1973–1985) and USF (since 1985). He is a Fellow of Divisions 3, 6, 12, 28, and 50, and a member of Division 40 of the American Psychological Association. In 1992, he received a MERIT Award from the NIAAA.

    Abby L. Goldstein is currently an intern at the Brown University Clinical Psychology Training Consortium and is completing her PhD at York University in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Ms. Goldstein's research interests include the cognitive and behavioral choice mechanisms underlying alcohol use and the development and evaluation of brief interventions for substance abuse and violence.

    Jerry L. Grenard is a graduate research assistant at the Institute for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Research at the University of Southern California. His specific interest is in memory associations and implicit cognition as applied to drug-abuse prevention among adolescents.

    Dirk Hermans is a professor of psychology at the Center for the Psychology of Learning and Experimental Psychopathology, Department of Psychology, University of Leuven, Belgium. His research work focuses on associative and memory processes and their impact on the etiology and maintenance of emotional disorders (anxiety and depression).

    Katrijn Houben is currently finishing her PhD at the University of Maastricht, The Netherlands, under the supervision of Dr. Reinout Wiers. The main focus of her project was investigating the role of implicit and explicit cognitions in the etiology and maintenance of addictive behaviors (primarily alcohol addiction). During this period, she mainly concentrated on the value of implicit techniques to assess alcohol-related cognitions. Her research interests include further development and validation of implicit measurement techniques that can be applied in addiction research and studying models of addiction etiology.

    Barry T. Jones's undergraduate and postgraduate degrees were awarded by Durham and Edinburgh Universities in the United Kingdom. His early research was in the area of rat and monkey vision and his first faculty appointment was as lecturer in psychology at St. Andrews University in Scotland. He was subsequently given a personal chair in psychology at Glasgow University, also in Scotland, where he currently remains. After a midcareer shift in research interests to modeling clinical decision making in the mental health sector, he now researches the cognitions of the clients themselves—particularly in relation to alcohol, cannabis, and sleep problems.

    Merel Kindt is professor of experimental clinical psychology at the University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Her research focuses on experimental models of anxiety disorders such as Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, information-processing and anxiety disorders, emotional memory, and mechanisms of change to reduce emotional disorders.

    Eric Klinger is professor of psychology at the University of Minnesota, Morris and (adjunct) Minneapolis. His research activities focus on motivational processes, especially as these and emotional processes influence attention, recall, and the content of thoughts and dreams. He has contributed to basic theory of motivation and its extension to substance use, treatment of alcoholism, and depression. A fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of the American Psychological Association, and a charter fellow of the American Psychological Society, Klinger is the author of more than 100 publications, including four books.

    Barbara J. Knowlton received her BA in psychology in 1984 from Johns Hopkins University, where she was awarded the G. Stanley Hall prize. She received her PhD in neuroscience from Stanford University in 1990. In 1995, she was appointed assistant professor in the University of California, Los Angeles, Psychology Department and was promoted to associate professor with tenure in 2001. Since 2004, Her current research focuses on memory systems in the brain. Specific projects include functional neuroimaging studies of implicit, or unconscious, learning and neuroimaging studies of the encoding and retrieval of episodic memories.

    Marvin D. Krank is dean of graduate studies and professor of psychology at the University of British Columbia Okanagan, Canada. Dr. Krank's research focuses on the role of learning and cognition in substance abuse. His past work includes studies of learning and drug tolerance, models of addiction, and adolescent substance-use initiation. With colleagues, including Anne-Marie Wall and Abby Goldstein, he recently completed data collection for the Project on Adolescent Trajectories and Health (PATH). PATH is a 3-year longitudinal study of the social and cognitive antecedents of adolescent risk-taking behaviors and their health consequences.

    Rebecca J. Lawton is senior lecturer in health psychology at the Institute of Psychological Sciences, University of Leeds in the United Kingdom. Lawton is also a chartered health psychologist. Her research interests include understanding and predicting risky health and safety behaviors. She has published widely in this area in both mainstream and applied journals. She has also held grants funded by the Economic and Social Research Council, the National Health Service Regional, and the Department of Health.

    G.Alan Marlatt is professor of psychology and director of the Addictive Behaviors Research Center at the University of Washington. He received his PhD in clinical psychology from Indiana University in 1968. After serving on the faculties of the University of British Columbia, Canada (1968–1969), and the University of Wisconsin (1969–1972), he joined the University of Washington faculty in the fall of 1972. His major focus in both research and clinical work is the field of addictive behaviors.

    Danielle E.McCarthy is a clinical psychology PhD candidate working under the supervision of Timothy Baker, PhD, at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. She has been awarded pilot research grants to study the effects of nicotine dependence, nicotine abstinence, and stress on attention and to explore the feasibility of an intensive treatment for smokers adapted from exposure and response prevention treatments for anxiety. She also conducts research exploring smoking-cessation treatment mediation and nicotine-withdrawal dynamics at the University of Wisconsin Medical School Center for Tobacco Research and Intervention.

    Cathy L. McEvoy is a professor of aging studies at the University of South Florida. Her research focuses on memory and aging, emphasizing how individuals use preexisting knowledge to augment age-related declines in memory for recently experienced information. Normal aging is marked by decrements in ability to recall recent experiences, while maintaining relatively stable knowledge and vocabulary, and Dr. McEvoy's research suggests that this stable knowledge becomes critical to remembering recent events as people age. Other research has focused on knowledge utilization in deaf and hearing-impaired adults.

    Karin Mogg is a professor of psychology at the University of South#x0026ton, United Kingdom, and a director of the Centre for the Study of Emotion and Motivation. Her main research interests concern cognitive processes in emotional disorders and addiction, and her work is largely supported by the Wellcome Trust. Recent awards and appointments include Wellcome Senior Research Fellow, editor of theBritish Journal of Clinical Psychology, ana consulting editor for theJournal of Abnormal Psychology. Previously, she worked in the Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, and also in London (Guy's and St. George's Hospitals) in both clinical and research settings.

    Ronald Mucha is an addiction scientist living in Stuttgart, Germany, with research based in the Department of Psychology, University of Würzburg. Trained in physiological psychology and learning at the University of British Columbia and in behavioral pharmacology and addiction at the University of Toronto, he has conducted systematic research on drug dependence using experimental models ranging from isolated tissue out of the guinea pig, to rats in Skinner boxes, to schoolchildren learning to smoke. His numerous international publications reflect a specific interest in adaptation and learning produced by substances of abuse and how these modulate the risk of future drug consumption. He teaches courses on these topics at the University of Würzburg and at the Institute of Medical Psychology, University of Tubingen.”

    Douglas L. Nelson is a Distinguished Research Professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of South Florida. His research focuses on memory and cognition, with a specific emphasis on the influence of preexisting knowledge on the recall and recognition of recently experienced information. This work is formalized in a model of cued recall and recognition called PIER, for Processing Implicit and Explicit Representations. This model has been applied to understand the influences of substance abuse, aging, and deafness on memory.

    Xavier Noel is currently a research assistant and clinical psychologist at the Clinic of Addictions of the Brugmann University hospital, Brussels, Belgium. He is trained in cognitive-behavior therapy and systemic therapy and he received his PhD in cognitive psychopathology from the University of Liege, Belgium. His research is focused on executive functioning deficits and cognitive biases that are involved in the development of dependence on alcohol, marijuana, tobacco, and the relapse. He is currently exploring the relationship between inhibition functions, attentional biases, and clinical impulsivity in individuals with alcoholism.

    Brian D. Ostafin received his doctorate in clinical psychology from Boston University in 2004. He currently holds a postdoctoral fellowship in the Addictive Behaviors Research Center at the University of Washington Department of Psychology. His research interests revolve around the role of automatic affective processes in addictive behavior.

    Tibor P. Palfai is an associate professor of psychology at Boston University who studies psychological mechanisms underlying health behavior change. His research is primarily on hazardous/harmful alcohol use among young adults. The goals of this work are to (1) clarify the influence of cognitive-motivational factors on alcohol-use patterns, (2) understand the effects of contextual cues on alcohol-related self-regulatory processes, and (3) construct intervention strategies to promote change in hazardous/harmful drinking.

    Paul Pauli has been professor and chair of biological psychology, clinical psychology, and psychotherapy at the University of Wiirzburg, Germany, since 2001. Research interests include anxiety disorders, affective disorders, somatoform disorders, and addiction as well as emotional influences on cognitive processes.

    Megan E. Piper is a doctoral candidate in the clinical psychology program at the University of Wisconsin. She has been working for the University of Wisconsin's Center for Tobacco Research and Intervention since 1999. Piper's main research interests include defining, measuring, and understanding tobacco dependence; characterizing the affective components of tobacco dependence; and understanding gender differences in tobacco dependence. She completed her BA in chemistry at Carleton College, Minnesota, and her MA in clinical psychology at Miami University in Florida.

    Constantine X. Poulos is a senior scientist in the Neuroscience Department at the Center for Addiction and Mental Health and professor of psychology at the University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. His primary research interests are behavioral homeostasis and drug tolerance, addictions, memory processes, and impulsivity.

    Andrew Prestwich is a senior research officer in the Department of Psychology at the University of Essex, United Kingdom. His research interests cover a diverse range of topics within social and health psychology and include implicit social cognition and health behavior promotion. Previously he worked in the Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford, as departmental lecturer in social psychology. He completed his doctoral thesis on implementation intentions in September 2003.

    Richard R. Reich, PhD, is the project coordinator of cognitive assessment at the Alcohol and Substance Use Research Institute (ASURI) and adjunct professor of psychology, University of South Florida. His research examines cognitive processes involved in alcohol expectancies. His current work investigates contextual factors resulting in alcohol-expectancy activation. He has presented his research at several departmental brown-bag and ASURI meetings. Dr. Reich has served as a reviewer for several journals in the alcohol field and he is a current member of the Research Society on Alcoholism.

    Terry E. Robinson received his PhD from the University of Western Ontario, Canada, and in 1978 he moved to the University of Michigan, where he is now the Elliot S. Valenstein Collegiate Professor of Behavioral Neuroscience and professor of psychology. He is director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse Training Program in Neuroscience at Michigan, and editor-in-chief of the journalBehavioural Brain Research. Dr. Robinson is known internationally for his research concerning the behavioral and neurobiological consequences of repeated drug use, and the implications of these for addiction.

    Anne Roefs is a postdoctoral research fellow at the Department of Experimental Psychology at Maastricht University, The Netherlands. Her research is in the field of applied cognitive psychology. For her PhD dissertation, her research concerned relatively automatic associations with food in obesity and eating disorders. In the next few years, her research will be about selective visual attention and body image.

    Michael A. Sayette is professor of psychology at the University of Pittsburgh, with a secondary appointment as professor of psychiatry. His research examines cognitive, affective, and social processes in addiction, with an emphasis on tobacco and alcohol. His current work investigates (1) contextual factors affecting the experience of cigarette-craving, (2) emotional factors influencing the prediction of future craving states and recall of past craving states, and (3) effects of alcohol on social bonding processes. Dr. Sayette sits on several journal editorial boards and serves, or has served, as associate editor of theJournal of Abnormal Psychology andPsychology of Addictive Behaviors.

    Kenneth J. Sher is Curators' Professor in the Department of Psychological Sciences at the University of Missouri-Columbia, where he directs the Alcohol Research Training Program and has been conducting research in the etiology and consequences of alcohol dependence for more than 25 years. He currently holds a MERIT award from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and is a member of NIAAa's National Advisory Council. He is a former associate editor of theJournal of Abnormal Psychology ana Psychological Bulletin anda past president of the Society for a Science of Clinical Psychology.

    Fren T. Y. Smulders is assistant professor at the Department of Experimental Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, at the University of Maastricht, The Netherlands. He obtained his PhD at the University of Amsterdam in 1993 with a dissertation on the effects of aging on information-processing stages and event-related brain potentials. Present research interests include attention and information processing and their modulation by emotion and personality.

    Sherry H. Stewart is professor of psychology, psychiatry, and community health and epidemiology at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. She is currently coordinator of the doctoral training program in clinical psychology at Dalhousie. She has published more than 100 journal articles, several book chapters, and one book. She holds a prestigious Investigator Award from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research to support her research on different pathways to substance abuse and comorbid mental health problems.

    Fritz Strack is professor of psychology at the University of Würzburg, Germany. His research interests are in the domains of social judgment, cognition, and emotion. Together with Roland Deutsch he has received the Society for Personality and Social Psychology Theoretical Innovation Prize for their joint article “Reflective and Impulsive Determinants of Social Behavior.” He is a former editor of theEuropean Journal of Social Psychology and holds honorary memberships in several learned societies.

    Wim van den Brink is a professor of psychiatry and addiction at the Academic Medical Center at the University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and director of the Amsterdam Institute for Addiction Research. In the last decade, his clinical epidemiological interests have been complemented with biological research regarding the underlying mechanisms of addiction and addiction treatment effectiveness. Since 1986, he has been involved in more than 300 scientific publications and more than 30 book chapters.

    Dinska Van Gucht is a PhD student, funded by the Geoconcerteerde Onderzoeks Actie (GOA) that is based on the collaboration of two research groups in the Department of Psychology, University of Leuven, Belgium; the Center for the Psychology of Learning and Experimental Psychopathology; and the Research Group for Stress, Health and Well-Being. The project she is working on focuses on Pavlovian conditioning and more specifically on extinction and the return of conditioned responses. She is particularly interested in these processes with regard to health-related behaviors, for instance, smoking.

    Muriel Vogel-Sprott is Distinguished Professor Emérita and adjunct research professor in the Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Her research focuses broadly on factors that alter the behavioral and cognitive impact of alcohol and other drugs. Her studies examine the effects of environmental consequences of drug-induced behavioral impairment and ensuing learned expectancies that foster tolerance, as well as factors that alter the intensity of drug effects on particular cognitive processes governing behavior. Her publications include a book on behavioral tolerance to alcohol and its implications for addiction, as well as numerous book chapters, research papers, and monographs.

    Anne-Marie Wall is an associate professor in the Department of Psychology at York University, Ontario, Canada. Her research focuses on substance use and abuse and its overlap with various forms of violence and health-compromising behaviors. Ongoing projects are directed at understanding familial, environmental, societal, and cognitive determinants of addictive behaviors and co-occurring maladaptive behavioral patterns.

    Andrew J.Waters is an assistant professor in the Department of Behavioral Science at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. His research examines cognitive processes in smoking initiation and smoking cessation. Dr. Waters conducts laboratory studies that examine the clinical utility of computerized cognitive tasks administered in smoking-cessation studies. He also conducts studies using handheld computers in an Ecological Momentary Assessment setting, and studies that investigate genetic associations with cognitive measures.

    Peter Weyers has served as a research associate in the Department of Psychology, University of Würzburg, Germany, since 1989. His research interests include emotional facial expressions, addiction, stress and coping, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Henry H.Yin is currently a postdoctoral fellow at the Laboratory for Integrative Neuroscience, National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction. He received his PhD in cognitive neuroscience from the University of California, Los Angeles. His work in graduate school focused on the role of the striatum in the acquisition and performance of goal-directed actions, and he is currently conducting research on the pharmacological modulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity in the striatum.

    Martin Zack is a scientist in the Neuroscience Department at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health and assistant professor of pharmacology at the University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. His research focuses on pharmacological modulation of addiction-related semantic memory networks. Most of his work deals with problem gambling and problem drinking. The goal of this research is to advance the development of medications for these and other addictive disorders by examining how specific neurochemical probes influence cognitive processes related to addictive motivation.

    Corien Zijlstra is a PhD student in the Department of Nuclear Medicine at the Academic Medical Center of Amsterdam. In December 2002, she graduated in neuropsy-chology (MSc) from Maastricht University, The Netherlands. Currently she is working on her thesisDopamine and Opiate Craving in the Human Brain: An Imaging Approach. In this study, both SPECT and fMRI (3T) are used to relate instant and chronic drug-craving to the d2 receptor density and activity, and brain activity in general.


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