Handbook of Science and Technology Studies, Revised Edition


Edited by: Sheila Jasanoff, Gerald E. Markle, James C. Petersen & Trevor Pinch

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Overview

    Part II: Theory and Methods

    Part III: Scientific and Technical Cultures

    Part IV: Constructing Technology

    Part V: Communicating Science and Technology

    Part VI: Science, Technology, and Controversy

    Part VII: Science, Technology, and the State

  • Handbook of Science and Technology Studies

    Sponsored by the Society for Social Studies of Science


    Mary Frank Fox, Chair

    Georgia Institute of Technology

    Charles Bazerman

    Georgia Institute of Technology

    Wiebe Bijker

    University of Limburg, the Netherlands

    Susan Cozzens

    Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

    Steve Fuller

    University of Durham, United Kingdom

    Lowell Hargens

    Ohio State University

    J. Scott Long

    Indiana University

    Arie Rip

    University of Twente, the Netherlands

    Wesley Shrum

    Louisiana State University

    Arnold Thackray

    University of Pennsylvania

    Harriet Zuckerman

    The Andrew Mellon Foundation


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    THE Society for Social Studies of Science (4S) was founded to “promote research, learning, and understanding in the social analysis of science” with membership open to all interested in the “social and policy aspects of science.” From the outset, the 4S has had two notable characteristics: multidisciplinarity and internationalism in its membership and their contributions. Thus in 1988, when the 4S proposed sponsorship of a handbook on science and technology studies in collaboration with Sage Publications, we sought to promote a volume with breadth in contributions, by national region, discipline, and theoretical and methodological perspectives. The handbook project, and the volume now produced, were designed to reflect, and we hope sustain, the vitality of the 4S and the contributions of those working in the study of science and technology.

    Gratitude for the project is extended throughout the 4S. For their long and committed work on the volume, appreciation goes to the editors. The authors were fundamental to the volume, as were the reviewers, who read and refereed each contribution, and we thank them. The 4S Handbook Committee served as an editorial and advisory board for the project. Appreciation goes to each member for his or her dedication and responsiveness. In addition, over the course of the project, four 4S presidents were involved: Presidents Arie Rip, Harriet Zuckerman, Harry Collins, and Sal Restivo lent their wisdom, judgment, and experience to the project's inception, development, and completion. Finally, for his colleagueship, good humor, and reliable good sense, we are grateful to Mitch Allen of Sage Publications.

    We believe that this Handbook captures the energy and directions in the field, and it is our hope that the volume has a role in generating continuing research and learning in science and technology studies.

    Mary Frank Fox Handbook Committee


    EDITING a handbook, especially for a still emerging field such as science and technology studies (STS), is like constructing a map of a half-seen world. For the editors, shaping this volume has been as much an act of imaginative risk taking as of diligent codification. What is the form of this world that we call STS? What are its divisions and boundaries? How might it be split into continents, let alone lesser domains, in ways that are fair to all its inhabitants? What, to begin with, does STS stand for? Is it “science, technology, and society” as in the last handbook for the field, or is it time now to adopt the newer guise of S#TS—“science and technology studies”? In asking these questions, the editors found that they had to reenvision their own role: It would not be possible to act as “neutral” gazetteers of already charted territory; any map making for STS would necessarily entail statecraft as well as politics.

    Like all good cartographers, we began by drawing the meridians and parallels, seeking to divide the spaces as even-handedly as possible. Our national and disciplinary backgrounds served us well in this enterprise. Among ourselves, we could claim reasonable familiarity with most recent strands of sociological, historical, political, and legal studies of STS. Building on these perspectives, we drafted a “proposal” that was approved by the Society for Social Studies of Science (4S), the sponsor of this Handbook. Even at this early stage, however, we conceived of the project as something more than the traditional, treatiselike handbook that would clinically describe the world of STS. The field, in our view, had not yet achieved the hoary respectability that merits such dispassionate, and unimaginative, treatment.

    To be sure, we wanted to compile scholarly assessments of the literature that could be presented to neophyte graduate students as the state of the art in STS. We also wanted definitive road maps of the terrain—careful summaries of work done in the 1970s and 1980s that would set new STS researchers on course for the 1990s. Equally, we wanted the book to project the field's broad interdisciplinary and international outlook. We hoped that no single depiction—especially that of one disciplinary specialty or national tradition—would dominate. But we wanted, above all, to capture for readers who come fresh to STS a little of the excitement and unpredictability that have drawn scholars from such a diversity of backgrounds to claim STS as their primary intellectual home.

    We conceived of this Handbook, then, as presenting an unconventional but arresting atlas of the field at a particular moment in its history. Not all the chapters would be of equal length and density or identical in theoretical and methodological orientation. Where appropriate, the book would present different “takes” on the same issues and several chapters would deal with them in a lively, theoretically informed fashion. Included in our first proposal therefore were empirical topics such as the human genome project and computers, which seemed to be turning into focal points for some of the most original work in STS. We are happy to report that this aspect of our proposal survived the politics of map making. Chapters by Harry Collins on artificial intelligence and science studies, by Paul Edwards on computers, and by Stephen Hilgartner on the human genome project all attest to the richness of STS's engagement with these novel areas of science and technology.

    We also encouraged authors addressing more established subjects to challenge and stretch the standard definition of a handbook chapter. Thus Wiebe Bijker metaphorically undergirds his essay on technology studies with a case study of the constructions that keep the Netherlands afloat—the technological system of drains, dikes, and polders. Similarly, Brian Martin and Evelleen Richards draw on their own researches on the vitamin C-cancer and fluoridation debates to support their general argument about scientific controversies. Malcolm Ashmore, Greg Myers, and Jonathan Potter adopt a consciously self-referential strategy in reviewing work on the discourse and rhetoric of science: By writing in an unconventional diary form, they exemplify the very experiments in “new literary forms” that their chapter surveys. Evelyn Fox Keller fittingly couches her review of gender and science in the style of personal reflection.

    Although the initial proposal successfully defined the oceans and continents, we felt that the lesser territorial markers—mountains, rivers, and lakes—should be supplied by our colleagues in STS. As editors, we were most concerned about the risk of creating black holes, but we consoled ourselves with the thought that this was mixing metaphors.

    To fill out the details of the map, we advertised widely in professional STS journals, newsletters, and the like, and we solicited contributions from lists of established scholars in the field. The process of solicitation provided our second major lesson in political geography. As some 160 prospective authors responded with chapter outlines, some imagined countries disappeared and even a continent was threatened. Other countries were balkanized as authors vigorously asserted a more refined geographic vision and sensibility than the editors possessed. Some challenging proposals arrived unsolicited as word of the handbook project spread. There seemed to be no shortage of authors who wanted to place their personal stamp on the contours of the field.

    In the negotiations between authors and editors, the history of science and technology, which has played a pivotal role in recent science studies, disappeared from the map as a discrete entity. Although there is no single chapter reviewing historical studies in STS, it is not far-fetched to say that historical methods have left their imprint on the field as a whole, contributing greatly to the convergence of “science, technology, and society” with “science and technology studies.” To a lesser extent, a similar statement could be made about the philosophy of science. Perhaps more surprising to some readers, the area of stratification, once the heartland of sociology of science, attracted little notice from potential contributors. Where the gaps seemed important enough, as in this particular case, we encouraged other authors to cover the ground. Thus Mary Frank Fox in her chapter on women in science draws heavily on the stratification literature.

    While some familiar territories were being annexed to others, new nation-states were also arising. Proposals came flooding in for chapters on topics such as rhetoric of science, gender and science, science policy and politics, and various forms of technology studies. The field, it seemed, was intent on defining itself in ways not initially contemplated. We decided to accept this movement toward self-definition. Rather than continue the search for authors to occupy every vacant slot in the proposal, we decided to redraw the boundaries so as to include more of the topics that authors did wish to address. As a result, STS theory, for example, is examined both through the lens of a French actant-network theorist, Michel Callon, and through the lens of a North American critical sociologist, Sal Restivo. The areas of gender and science, science and politics, and technology studies were additional beneficiaries of our restructuring.

    Supplementing the authors and editors, a multitude of referees and the supervisory 4S Handbook Committee offered their own cartographic critiques. A few mountains were moved, some rivers burst their banks, a few were dammed, and, of course, innumerable roadways were rerouted. The editors hope that the result of all this collective effort is a more interesting and comprehensive, if not always more coherent, guide to the field. That our original vision was refined and even partly displaced is no doubt a positive outcome. The landscape now abounds with inviting streams and eddies. There are to be sure a few gorges that are weakly bridged and must be crossed with care; readers will not find in this volume, for example, the ultimate resolution of the realism-relativism debate between philosophers and sociologists of science. In the final instance, however, the picture that emerges from the following pages is, as we had intended, a composite of many individual visions and much communal debate and reflection.

    Some lacunae inevitably remain. Most notable is the absence of distinct contributions on the economics of science and technology (although both Bijker and Callon mention such work in passing), on the psychology of science (except insofar as it is touched upon in Wynne's treatment of mental models), on law and science (possibly because there is not yet a sufficient volume of work to survey), and on science and race. The last topic was one that we, as editors, specifically debated. In the end we settled for a policy of avoiding marginalization by requesting that issues of race be raised in several of the chapters. Finally, what of the temptations of postmodernity, not to mention cyborgs and hyperspace? We assure the reader that these are present in the shadows, lurking in the hypertext surrounding our own map. Whether they will consume STS in the next millennium we leave to the next handbook to decide.

    David Edge's introductory essay—Chapter 1, “Reinventing the Wheel”—usefully reminds us of the distance that the field of S&TS has traveled since its inception and the important ways in which the obstacles it confronts remain unchanged. As the founder of the Science Studies Unit at Edinburgh and the longtime editor of Social Studies of Science, Edge is particularly well placed to provide this historical overview. He traces S&TS from the mid-1960s, when it was still possible to think that there was “no subject” corresponding to these initials, up to the present moment, when a shifting, complex, kaleidoscopic array of research projects are continually grouping and regrouping themselves under the banner of science and technology studies. Edge ends his chapter on a note of caution, however, as he observes how diehard, positivistic notions of science keep reasserting themselves in the public domain despite the best efforts of S&TS scholarship. Finding ways to combat this phenomenon is the major challenge that his chapter holds out to readers of this volume.

    A project as ambitious as this one could hardly have failed to be (as it assuredly was in turn) arduous, contentious, frustrating, time consuming, and exhausting. That it has also at times been energizing and fun speaks well not only for the intellectual vitality of STS but for the strength of many of its internal support systems. Thanks are due in particular to all the authors for their remarkable patience and perseverance; to Mary Frank Fox for gently mediating among the often vociferous parties to the project; to Harry Collins and Harriet Zuckerman for lending support as presidents of 4S; to the members of the handbook committee who offered both overt and covert encouragement; to the referees who valiantly reviewed the sometimes unorthodox contributions to the literature; to our secretarial staffs at Cornell and Western Michigan for facilitating complex editorial correspondence; and, not least, to Mitch Allen of Sage Publications for bearing with what must many times have seemed like terminal uncertainty and indecisiveness.

    Both editors and the Society owe a special debt of gratitude to the following individuals who provided invaluable critical comments on one or more draft chapters: Harvey Brooks, Frederick Buttel, Cynthia Cockburn, Steven Cole, Peter Dear, Sharon Dunwoody, Michael Gorman, Herbert Gottweis, Donna Haraway, Lowell Hargens, Dale Jamieson, Michael Lynch, Allan Mazur, Peter Meiksins, Judith Perrolle, Andrew Pickering, Judith Reppy, Aire Rip, Steven Shapin, Wesley Shrum, Stephen Turner, Ron Westrum, Peter Whalley, Rick Worthington, Steven Yearly. In coordinating the refereeing of chapters, as in other aspects of producing this volume, the editors attempted to maintain common standards and common vision of the enterprise, as reflected in this jointly written introduction.

    A good map should give the reader a sense of familiarity with the unknown, an understanding of previously unsuspected spatial relationships, and an educated eye for the appealing details of the landscape. We hope that ours will meet some of these needs for the once and future traveler in STS. In this spirit of expectation tempered by modesty, we offer this volume to the ever- expanding community that it seeks to represent.

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