Handbook of Science and Technology Studies, Revised Edition

Handbook of Science and Technology Studies, Revised Edition


Edited by: Sheila Jasanoff, Gerald E. Markle, James C. Petersen & Trevor Pinch


For the most current, comprehensive resource in this rapidly evolving field, look no further than the Revised Edition of the Handbook of Science and Technology Studies. This masterful volume is the first resource in more than 15 years to define, summarize, and synthesize this complex multidisciplinary, international field. Tightly edited with contributions by an internationally recognized team of leading scholars, this volume addresses the crucial contemporary issues—both traditional and nonconventional—social studies, political studies, and humanistic studies in this changing field. Containing theoretical essays, extensive literature reviews, and detailed case studies, this remarkable volume clearly sets the standard for the field. It does nothing less than establish itself as the benchmark, one that will carry the field well into the next century. 

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Overview

    Part II: Theory and Methods

    Part III: Scientific and Technical Cultures

    Part IV: Constructing Technology

    Part V: Communicating Science and Technology

    Part VI: Science, Technology, and Controversy

    Part VII: Science, Technology, and the State

  • Handbook of Science and Technology Studies

    Sponsored by the Society for Social Studies of Science


    Mary Frank Fox, Chair

    Georgia Institute of Technology

    Charles Bazerman

    Georgia Institute of Technology

    Wiebe Bijker

    University of Limburg, the Netherlands

    Susan Cozzens

    Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

    Steve Fuller

    University of Durham, United Kingdom

    Lowell Hargens

    Ohio State University

    J. Scott Long

    Indiana University

    Arie Rip

    University of Twente, the Netherlands

    Wesley Shrum

    Louisiana State University

    Arnold Thackray

    University of Pennsylvania

    Harriet Zuckerman

    The Andrew Mellon Foundation


    View Copyright Page


    THE Society for Social Studies of Science (4S) was founded to “promote research, learning, and understanding in the social analysis of science” with membership open to all interested in the “social and policy aspects of science.” From the outset, the 4S has had two notable characteristics: multidisciplinarity and internationalism in its membership and their contributions. Thus in 1988, when the 4S proposed sponsorship of a handbook on science and technology studies in collaboration with Sage Publications, we sought to promote a volume with breadth in contributions, by national region, discipline, and theoretical and methodological perspectives. The handbook project, and the volume now produced, were designed to reflect, and we hope sustain, the vitality of the 4S and the contributions of those working in the study of science and technology.

    Gratitude for the project is extended throughout the 4S. For their long and committed work on the volume, appreciation goes to the editors. The authors were fundamental to the volume, as were the reviewers, who read and refereed each contribution, and we thank them. The 4S Handbook Committee served as an editorial and advisory board for the project. Appreciation goes to each member for his or her dedication and responsiveness. In addition, over the course of the project, four 4S presidents were involved: Presidents Arie Rip, Harriet Zuckerman, Harry Collins, and Sal Restivo lent their wisdom, judgment, and experience to the project's inception, development, and completion. Finally, for his colleagueship, good humor, and reliable good sense, we are grateful to Mitch Allen of Sage Publications.

    We believe that this Handbook captures the energy and directions in the field, and it is our hope that the volume has a role in generating continuing research and learning in science and technology studies.

    Mary Frank Fox Handbook Committee


    EDITING a handbook, especially for a still emerging field such as science and technology studies (STS), is like constructing a map of a half-seen world. For the editors, shaping this volume has been as much an act of imaginative risk taking as of diligent codification. What is the form of this world that we call STS? What are its divisions and boundaries? How might it be split into continents, let alone lesser domains, in ways that are fair to all its inhabitants? What, to begin with, does STS stand for? Is it “science, technology, and society” as in the last handbook for the field, or is it time now to adopt the newer guise of S#TS—“science and technology studies”? In asking these questions, the editors found that they had to reenvision their own role: It would not be possible to act as “neutral” gazetteers of already charted territory; any map making for STS would necessarily entail statecraft as well as politics.

    Like all good cartographers, we began by drawing the meridians and parallels, seeking to divide the spaces as even-handedly as possible. Our national and disciplinary backgrounds served us well in this enterprise. Among ourselves, we could claim reasonable familiarity with most recent strands of sociological, historical, political, and legal studies of STS. Building on these perspectives, we drafted a “proposal” that was approved by the Society for Social Studies of Science (4S), the sponsor of this Handbook. Even at this early stage, however, we conceived of the project as something more than the traditional, treatiselike handbook that would clinically describe the world of STS. The field, in our view, had not yet achieved the hoary respectability that merits such dispassionate, and unimaginative, treatment.

    To be sure, we wanted to compile scholarly assessments of the literature that could be presented to neophyte graduate students as the state of the art in STS. We also wanted definitive road maps of the terrain—careful summaries of work done in the 1970s and 1980s that would set new STS researchers on course for the 1990s. Equally, we wanted the book to project the field's broad interdisciplinary and international outlook. We hoped that no single depiction—especially that of one disciplinary specialty or national tradition—would dominate. But we wanted, above all, to capture for readers who come fresh to STS a little of the excitement and unpredictability that have drawn scholars from such a diversity of backgrounds to claim STS as their primary intellectual home.

    We conceived of this Handbook, then, as presenting an unconventional but arresting atlas of the field at a particular moment in its history. Not all the chapters would be of equal length and density or identical in theoretical and methodological orientation. Where appropriate, the book would present different “takes” on the same issues and several chapters would deal with them in a lively, theoretically informed fashion. Included in our first proposal therefore were empirical topics such as the human genome project and computers, which seemed to be turning into focal points for some of the most original work in STS. We are happy to report that this aspect of our proposal survived the politics of map making. Chapters by Harry Collins on artificial intelligence and science studies, by Paul Edwards on computers, and by Stephen Hilgartner on the human genome project all attest to the richness of STS's engagement with these novel areas of science and technology.

    We also encouraged authors addressing more established subjects to challenge and stretch the standard definition of a handbook chapter. Thus Wiebe Bijker metaphorically undergirds his essay on technology studies with a case study of the constructions that keep the Netherlands afloat—the technological system of drains, dikes, and polders. Similarly, Brian Martin and Evelleen Richards draw on their own researches on the vitamin C-cancer and fluoridation debates to support their general argument about scientific controversies. Malcolm Ashmore, Greg Myers, and Jonathan Potter adopt a consciously self-referential strategy in reviewing work on the discourse and rhetoric of science: By writing in an unconventional diary form, they exemplify the very experiments in “new literary forms” that their chapter surveys. Evelyn Fox Keller fittingly couches her review of gender and science in the style of personal reflection.

    Although the initial proposal successfully defined the oceans and continents, we felt that the lesser territorial markers—mountains, rivers, and lakes—should be supplied by our colleagues in STS. As editors, we were most concerned about the risk of creating black holes, but we consoled ourselves with the thought that this was mixing metaphors.

    To fill out the details of the map, we advertised widely in professional STS journals, newsletters, and the like, and we solicited contributions from lists of established scholars in the field. The process of solicitation provided our second major lesson in political geography. As some 160 prospective authors responded with chapter outlines, some imagined countries disappeared and even a continent was threatened. Other countries were balkanized as authors vigorously asserted a more refined geographic vision and sensibility than the editors possessed. Some challenging proposals arrived unsolicited as word of the handbook project spread. There seemed to be no shortage of authors who wanted to place their personal stamp on the contours of the field.

    In the negotiations between authors and editors, the history of science and technology, which has played a pivotal role in recent science studies, disappeared from the map as a discrete entity. Although there is no single chapter reviewing historical studies in STS, it is not far-fetched to say that historical methods have left their imprint on the field as a whole, contributing greatly to the convergence of “science, technology, and society” with “science and technology studies.” To a lesser extent, a similar statement could be made about the philosophy of science. Perhaps more surprising to some readers, the area of stratification, once the heartland of sociology of science, attracted little notice from potential contributors. Where the gaps seemed important enough, as in this particular case, we encouraged other authors to cover the ground. Thus Mary Frank Fox in her chapter on women in science draws heavily on the stratification literature.

    While some familiar territories were being annexed to others, new nation-states were also arising. Proposals came flooding in for chapters on topics such as rhetoric of science, gender and science, science policy and politics, and various forms of technology studies. The field, it seemed, was intent on defining itself in ways not initially contemplated. We decided to accept this movement toward self-definition. Rather than continue the search for authors to occupy every vacant slot in the proposal, we decided to redraw the boundaries so as to include more of the topics that authors did wish to address. As a result, STS theory, for example, is examined both through the lens of a French actant-network theorist, Michel Callon, and through the lens of a North American critical sociologist, Sal Restivo. The areas of gender and science, science and politics, and technology studies were additional beneficiaries of our restructuring.

    Supplementing the authors and editors, a multitude of referees and the supervisory 4S Handbook Committee offered their own cartographic critiques. A few mountains were moved, some rivers burst their banks, a few were dammed, and, of course, innumerable roadways were rerouted. The editors hope that the result of all this collective effort is a more interesting and comprehensive, if not always more coherent, guide to the field. That our original vision was refined and even partly displaced is no doubt a positive outcome. The landscape now abounds with inviting streams and eddies. There are to be sure a few gorges that are weakly bridged and must be crossed with care; readers will not find in this volume, for example, the ultimate resolution of the realism-relativism debate between philosophers and sociologists of science. In the final instance, however, the picture that emerges from the following pages is, as we had intended, a composite of many individual visions and much communal debate and reflection.

    Some lacunae inevitably remain. Most notable is the absence of distinct contributions on the economics of science and technology (although both Bijker and Callon mention such work in passing), on the psychology of science (except insofar as it is touched upon in Wynne's treatment of mental models), on law and science (possibly because there is not yet a sufficient volume of work to survey), and on science and race. The last topic was one that we, as editors, specifically debated. In the end we settled for a policy of avoiding marginalization by requesting that issues of race be raised in several of the chapters. Finally, what of the temptations of postmodernity, not to mention cyborgs and hyperspace? We assure the reader that these are present in the shadows, lurking in the hypertext surrounding our own map. Whether they will consume STS in the next millennium we leave to the next handbook to decide.

    David Edge's introductory essay—Chapter 1, “Reinventing the Wheel”—usefully reminds us of the distance that the field of S&TS has traveled since its inception and the important ways in which the obstacles it confronts remain unchanged. As the founder of the Science Studies Unit at Edinburgh and the longtime editor of Social Studies of Science, Edge is particularly well placed to provide this historical overview. He traces S&TS from the mid-1960s, when it was still possible to think that there was “no subject” corresponding to these initials, up to the present moment, when a shifting, complex, kaleidoscopic array of research projects are continually grouping and regrouping themselves under the banner of science and technology studies. Edge ends his chapter on a note of caution, however, as he observes how diehard, positivistic notions of science keep reasserting themselves in the public domain despite the best efforts of S&TS scholarship. Finding ways to combat this phenomenon is the major challenge that his chapter holds out to readers of this volume.

    A project as ambitious as this one could hardly have failed to be (as it assuredly was in turn) arduous, contentious, frustrating, time consuming, and exhausting. That it has also at times been energizing and fun speaks well not only for the intellectual vitality of STS but for the strength of many of its internal support systems. Thanks are due in particular to all the authors for their remarkable patience and perseverance; to Mary Frank Fox for gently mediating among the often vociferous parties to the project; to Harry Collins and Harriet Zuckerman for lending support as presidents of 4S; to the members of the handbook committee who offered both overt and covert encouragement; to the referees who valiantly reviewed the sometimes unorthodox contributions to the literature; to our secretarial staffs at Cornell and Western Michigan for facilitating complex editorial correspondence; and, not least, to Mitch Allen of Sage Publications for bearing with what must many times have seemed like terminal uncertainty and indecisiveness.

    Both editors and the Society owe a special debt of gratitude to the following individuals who provided invaluable critical comments on one or more draft chapters: Harvey Brooks, Frederick Buttel, Cynthia Cockburn, Steven Cole, Peter Dear, Sharon Dunwoody, Michael Gorman, Herbert Gottweis, Donna Haraway, Lowell Hargens, Dale Jamieson, Michael Lynch, Allan Mazur, Peter Meiksins, Judith Perrolle, Andrew Pickering, Judith Reppy, Aire Rip, Steven Shapin, Wesley Shrum, Stephen Turner, Ron Westrum, Peter Whalley, Rick Worthington, Steven Yearly. In coordinating the refereeing of chapters, as in other aspects of producing this volume, the editors attempted to maintain common standards and common vision of the enterprise, as reflected in this jointly written introduction.

    A good map should give the reader a sense of familiarity with the unknown, an understanding of previously unsuspected spatial relationships, and an educated eye for the appealing details of the landscape. We hope that ours will meet some of these needs for the once and future traveler in STS. In this spirit of expectation tempered by modesty, we offer this volume to the ever- expanding community that it seeks to represent.

  • References

    Abbott, Andrew (1988). The system of professions: An essay on the division of expert labor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Abbott, G. F. (1990). American culture and its effects on engineering education. IEEE Communications Magazine, 28/12: 36–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/35.61719
    Abelson, Philip H. (1991a). Federal impediments to scientific research. Science, 251 (8 February): 605. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1992510
    Abelson, Philip H. (1991b). Industrial interactions with universities. Science, 252 (5 April): 9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.2011755
    Abir-Am, Pnina (1982). The discourse of physical power and biological knowledge in the 1930s: A reappraisal of the Rockefeller Foundation's “policy” in molecular biology. Social Studies of Science, 12/3 (August): 341–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631282012003001
    Abrams, Philip (1980). History, sociology, historical sociology. Past and Present, 87: 3–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/past/87.1.3
    Ackerman, Ron (1985). Data, instruments and theory: A dialectical approach to understanding science. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Adam, Ian & Tiffin, Helen (eds) (1991). Past the last post: Theorising post-colonialism and post-modernism. Hemel Hempstead, UK & New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Adler, Emanuel (1988). State institutions, ideology and autonomous technological development: Computers and nuclear energy in Argentina and Brazil. Latin American Research Review, 23: 59–90.
    Advisory Council on Science and Technology (1989). Defence R&D: A national resource. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
    Agarwal, Anil & Narain, Sunita (1992). Global warming in an unequal world: A case of environmental colonialism. Delhi: Centre for Science and Environment.
    Agarwhal, Suraj M (1985). Electronics in India: Past strategies and future possibilities. World Development, 13: 273–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X%2885%2990131-7
    Agassi, Joseph (1966). The confusion between science and technology in the standard philosophies of science. Technology and Culture 7: 348–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3101933
    Agnew, John A. (1982). Technology transfer and theories of development. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 17: 16–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002190968201700102
    Ahern, Nancy & Scott, Elizabeth (1981). Career outcomes in a matched sample of men and women PhDs. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    Ahiakpor, James (1989). Do firms choose inappropriate technology in LDCs? Economic Development and Cultural Change, 37: 557–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/451742
    Ahlström, Göran (1982). Engineers and industrial growth. London: Croom Helm.
    Ahmad, Aqueil (1981). Sociologically oriented studies of science in India. International Journal of Contemporary Sociology, 18: 135–65.
    Ahmad, Aqueil (1989). Evaluating appropriate technology for development: Before and after. Evaluation Review, 13: 310–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0193841X8901300308
    Ahmed, Iftikar (1986). Technology, production linkages and women's employment in South Asia. International Labour Review, 126: 21–40.
    Åkersten, S. Ingvar (1987). The strategic computing program. In Alan M. Din (Ed.), Arms and artificial intelligence: 87–99. [SIPRI] Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Akpakpam, Edet B. (1986). Acquisition of foreign technology: A case study of modern brewing in Nigeria. Development and Change, 17: 659–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7660.1986.tb00258.x
    Al-Ali, Salahaldeen (1991). Technology dependence in developing countries: A case study of Kuwait. Technology in Society, 13: 267–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0160-791X%2891%2990003-F
    Alam, Ghayur (1988). India's technology policy: Its influence on technology imports and technology development. In Desai (1988a): 136–56.
    Alam, Ghayur & Langrish, John (1981). Non-multinational firms and transfer of technology to less developed countries. World Development, 9: 383–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X%2881%2990084-X
    Alauddin, Mohammad & Tisdell, Clem (1989). Poverty, resource distribution and security: The impact of new agricultural technology in rural Bangladesh. Journal of Development Studies, 25: 550–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00220388908422129
    Alberger, Patricia L. & Carter, Virginia L. (eds) (1981). Communicating university research. Washington, DC: Council for Advancement and Support of Education.
    Alberts, Bruce et al. (1990). Molecular biology of the cell. New York: Garland.
    Albrecht, Ulrich (1990). The role of military R&D in arms build-ups. In Gleditsch & Njølstad (1990): 87–104.
    Albu, Austin (1980). British attitudes to engineering education: A historical perspective. In Keith Pavitt (Ed.), Technical innovation and British economic performance: 67–87. London: Macmillan.
    Alexander, Arthur J. (1982). Soviet science and weapons acquisition. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.
    Alic, John A., Branscomb, Lewis M., Brooks, Harvey, Carter, Ashton B. & Epstein, Gerald L. (1992). Beyond spinoff: Military and commercial technologies in a changing world. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School.
    Allison, Graham T. (1971). Essence of decision: Explaining the Cuban missile crisis. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.
    Allison, Graham T. & Morris, Frederic A. (1975). Armaments and arms control: Exploring the determinants of military weapons. Daedalus, 104/3: 99–129.
    Allport, Phil (1991). Still searching for the Holy Grail. New Scientist, 132 (5 October): 55–56.
    Almond, Gabriel & Verba, Sidney (1965). The civic culture. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.
    Althusser, Louis (1974). La philosophie spontanée des savants. Paris: Maspero.
    Amann, Klaus (1990). Natürliche Expertise und künstliche Intelligenz: eine mikrosoziologische Untersuchung von Naturwissenschaftlern. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Bielefeld.
    Amann, Klaus & Knorr Cetina, Karin (1988a). The fixation of (visual) evidence. In Lynch & Woolgar (1988): 133–69.
    Amann, Klaus, & Knorr Cetina, Karin. (1988b/{1989}). Thinking through talk: An ethnographic study of a molecular biology laboratory. In Lowell Hargens, Robert Alun Jones & Andrew Pickering (eds), Knowledge and society: Studies in the sociology of science past and present, 8: 3–26. Greenwich, CT & London: JAI.
    Amarasuriya, Nimala R. (1987). Development through information networks in the Asia-Pacific region. Information Development, 3: 87–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026666698700300202
    American Society for Engineering Education (1955). Report of the Committee on Evaluation of Engineering Education. Proceedings of the American Society for Engineering Education, 63: 37.
    Amor, Adlai J., Icamina, P. M. & Laing, Mack (1987). Science writing in Asia: The craft and the issues. Manila: Press Foundation of Asia.
    Ancarani, Vittorio (1990). Regime theories and the management of the international relations of science & technology. Reseax: Revue interdisciplinaire de philosophie morale et politique, 58: 191–204.
    Anderson, John (1972). [Statement from the 92nd Congress, 2nd Session]. Congressional Record (8 February): 3210.
    Anderson, Ray Lynn (1970). Rhetoric and science journalism. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 56/4: 358–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335637009383023
    Anderson, Robert S. (1983). Cultivating science as cultural policy: A contrast of agricultural and nuclear science in India. Pacific Affairs, 56: 38–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2758769
    Angier, Natalie (1988). Natural obsessions: The search for the oncogene. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
    Annerstedt, Jan & Jamison, Andrew (eds) (1988). From research policy to social intelligence. London: Macmillan.
    Anthony, Constance G. (1988). Mechanization and maize: Agriculture and the politics of technology transfer in East Africa. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Apel, Karl Otto (1973). Transformation der philosophie. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.
    Arce, A. & Long, N. (1987). The dynamics of knowledge interfaces between Mexican agricultural bureaucrats and peasants: A case-study from Jalisco. Boletin de Esudios Latinoamericanos y del Caribe, 43: 5–30.
    Arditti, Rita, Brennan, Pat & Cavrak, Steve (eds) (1979). Science and liberation. Boston, MA: South End.
    Armstrong, J. (1992). Trends in global science and technology and what they mean for intellectual property systems. Paper presented at the conference on “Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology,” National Research Council, Washington, DC.
    Armytage, W. H. G. (1965). The rise of the technocrats. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Arnold, Lorna (1992). Windscale 1957: Anatomy of a nuclear accident. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan.
    Arnold, W. (1988). Science and technology development in Taiwan and South Korea. Asian Survey, 28: 437–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/as.1988.28.4.01p0156s
    Aronowitz, Stanley (1988a). Science as power: Discourse and ideology in modern society. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press/London: Macmillan.
    Aronowitz, Stanley (1988b). The science of sociology and the sociology of science. In Aronowitz (1988a): 272–300.
    Artzt, Frederick (1966). The development of technical education in France, 1500–1850. Cleveland, OH: Society for the History of Technology.
    Arunachalam, Subbiah (1992). Peripherality in science: What should be done to help peripheral science get assimilated into mainstream science. In Arvanitis & Gaillard (1992): 67–76.
    Arvanitis, Rigas & Chatelin, Yvon (1988). National scientific strategies in tropical soil sciences. Social Studies of Science, 18/1 (February): 113–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631288018001005
    Arvanitis, Rigas & Gaillard, Jacques (eds) (1992). Science indicators for developing countries. Paris: ORSTOM.
    Ascher, Maria & Ascher, Robert (1972). Numbers and relations from ancient Andean quipus. Ar-chives for the History of the Exact Sciences, 8: 288–320. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00328435
    Ascher, Maria & Ascher, Robert (1981). Code of the quipu: A study in media, mathematics and culture. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
    Ashmore, Malcolm (1989). The reflexive thesis: Wrighting sociology of scientific knowledge. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Ashmore, Malcolm, Mulkay, Michael & Pinch, Trevor (1989). Health and efficiency: A sociology of health economics. Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press.
    Ashmore, Malcolm, Myers, Greg, & Potter, Jonathan (1995). Discourse, rhetoric, reflexivity: Seven days in the library. In Jasanoff, Markle, Petersen & Pinch (1995): 321–42.
    Astin, Helen & Davis, Diane (1985). Research productivity across the career- and life-cycle. In Mary Frank Fox (Ed.), Scholarly writing and publishing: Issues, problems, and solutions: 147–60. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Atkinson, Paul (1990). The ethnographic imagination: The textual construction of reality. London: Routledge.
    Atkinson, Paul & Delamont, Sara (1977). Mock-ups and cock-ups: The stage management of guided discovery instruction. In Peter Woods & Martin Hammersley (eds), School experience: 133–42. London: Croom Helm.
    Attewell, Paul (1987). Big brother and the sweatshop: Computer surveillance in the automated office. Sociological Theory, 5: 87–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/201997
    Aubert, Jan-Eric (1992). What evolution for science and technology policies? OECD Observer, 174: 4–6.
    Auster, C. J. (1981). The changing role of women in the work force: The case of women engineers. In Martha Moore Trescott (Ed.), Final report to the Rockefeller Foundation on “Refuting the image: A history of women engineers in the United States, 1850–1975.” Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
    Aveni, Anthony F. (Ed.) (1982). Archaeoastronomy in the New World: Proceedings of an international conference at Oxford 1981. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Averch, Harvey A. (1985). A strategic analysis of science and technology policy. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University.
    Axelrod, Robert (1984). The evolution of cooperation. New York: Basic Books.
    Baark, Erik (1987). Commercialized technology transfer in China 1981–86: The impact of science and technology policy reforms. China Quarterly, 111: 390–406. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0305741000050967
    Baark, Erik (1991). Fragmented innovation: China's science and technology policy reforms in retrospect. In Joint Economic Committee, China's dilemmas in the 1990s: The problems of reforms, modernization and interdependence, 2: 521–45. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Baark, Erik & Jamison, Andrew (1986). The technology and culture problematique. In Erik Baark & Andrew Jamison (eds), Technological development in China, India and Japan: 1–34. London: Macmillan.
    Baber, Zaheer (1992). Sociology of scientific knowledge: Lost in the reflexive funhouse? Theory and Society, 21: 105–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00993464
    Bachelard, Gaston (1934). Le Nouvel Esprit Scientifique. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
    Bachrach, Peter & Botwinick, Aryeh (1992). Power and empowerment. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
    Bader, Renate (1990). How science news sections influence newspaper science coverage: A case study. Journalism Quarterly, 67/1 (Spring): 88–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107769909006700114
    Badham, Richard (1984). The sociology of industrial and post-industrial societies. Current Sociology, 32: 1–136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001139284032001003
    Bailes, Kendall (1978). Technology and society under Lenin and Stalin: Origins of the Soviet technical intelligentsia, 1917–1941. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Bailey, Conner, Cycon, Dean & Morris, Michael (1986). Fisheries development in the Third World: The role of international agencies. World Development, 14: 1269–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X%2886%2990105-1
    Bailey, Frederick George (1968). A peasant view of the bad life. In Teodor Shanin (Ed.), Peasants and peasant society: 83–104. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.
    Baily, Martin (1991). Great expectations: PCs and productivity. In Dunlop & Kling (1991): 111–17.
    Bailyn, Lotte (1980). Living with technology: Issues at mid-career. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Bailyn, Lotte (1985). Autonomy in the industrial R&D lab. Human Resource Management, 24: 129–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hrm.3930240204-->
    Bailyn, Lotte & Lynch, J. T. (1983). Engineering as a life-long career: Its meaning, its satisfactions, its difficulties. Journal of Occupational Behavior, 4: 263–83.
    Bakx {Bakz}, Keith (1991). The “eclipse” of folk medicine in Western society. Sociology of Health and Illness, 13/1: 20–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.ep11340307-->
    Ball, Nicole & Leitenberg, Milton (1983). The structure of the defense industry. London: Croom Helm.
    Balogh, Brian (1991). Chain reaction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511600982
    Baran, Barbara (1987). The technological transformation of white-collar work: A case study of the insurance industry. In Hartmann, Kraut & Tilly (1986–1987), 1: 25–62.
    Baranson, Jack (1970). Technology transfer through the international firm. American Economic Review, 60: 435–40.
    Barber, Bernard (1962). Science and the social order. New York: Free Press.
    Barber, Bernard (1990). Social studies of science. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
    Barber, Bernard & Hirsch, Walter (eds) (1962). The sociology of science. New York: Free Press/London: Collier-Macmillan.
    Barber, Charles L. (1962). Some measurable characteristics of modern scientific prose. In Contributions to English syntax and phonology. Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell. Reprinted in John Swales (Ed.), Episodes in ESP (Oxford, UK: Pergamon, 1985): 3–14.
    Barbezat, Debra A. (1987). Salary differentials by sex in the academic labor market. Journal of Human Resources, 22: 423–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/145747
    Barnes, Barry (1971). Making out in industrial research. Science Studies, 1/2 (April): 157–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631277100100203
    Barnes, Barry (Ed.) (1972). Sociology of science: Selected readings. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.
    Barnes, Barry (1974). Scientific knowledge and sociological theory. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Barnes, Barry (1977). Interests and the growth of knowledge. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Barnes, Barry (1982a). The science-technology relationship: A model and a query. Social Studies of Science, 12/1 (February): 166–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631282012001013
    Barnes, Barry (1982b)/{1982}. T. S. Kuhn and social science. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Barnes, Barry (1983). On the conventional character of knowledge and cognition. In Knorr Cetina & Mulkay (1983): 19–51.
    Barnes, Barry (1985). About science. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
    Barnes, Barry & Edge, David (eds) (1982). Science in context: Readings in the sociology of science. Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press/Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Barnes, Barry & Shapin, Steven (eds) (1979). Natural order: Historical studies in scientific culture. London: Sage.
    Barnes, S. Barry & Dolby, R. G. Alex (1970). The scientific ethos: A deviant viewpoint. Archives of European Sociology, 11: 3–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0003975600001934
    Barnett, Correlli (1986). The audit of war: The illusion and reality of Britain as a great nation. London: Macmillan.
    Barnhart, Benjamin (1989). The Department of Energy Human Genome Initiative. Genomics, 5: 657–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0888-7543%2889%2990041-4
    Barozzi, Anna & Toschi, Victoria (1989). A cross-section of women engineers in Italy. European Journal of Engineering Education, 14: 381–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03043798908903381
    Barton, Len & Walker, Stephen (eds) (1983). Gender, class and education. Lewes, UK: Falmer.
    Basalla, George (1976). Pop science: The depiction of science in popular culture. In Holton & Blanpied (1976): 261–78.
    Basalla, George (1988). The evolution of technology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Bass, Thomas A. (1990). Camping with the prince, and other tales of science in Africa. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
    Bastide, Françoise (1990). The iconograpy of scientific texts: Principles of analysis. In Lynch & Woolgar (1990): 187–229. (Original work published 1985)
    Bateson, Gregory (1980). Mind and nature. New York: Bantam.
    The Battle of the Floods: Holland in February 1953, with a preface by Juliana, Queen of the Netherlands. (1953). Amsterdam: Netherlands Booksellers & Publishers Association, for the Benefit of the Netherlands Flood Relief Fund.
    Bauer, Henry H. (1990). Barriers against interdisciplinarity: Implications for studies of science, technology and society (STS). Science. Technology, & Human Values, 15/1 (Winter): 105–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016224399001500110
    Bauer, Henry H. (1992). Scientific literacy and the myth of the scientific method. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
    Bauer, Martin (1992). Mapping variety in public understanding of science. Paper presented to the 4S/EASST Joint Meeting, Göteborg (August); also mimeo, London Science Museum.
    Bauer, Martin & Durant, John (1992). British public perceptions of astrology: An approach from the sociology of knowledge. Paper presented to the annual meeting of the AAAS, Chicago.
    Baum, E. (1990). Recruiting and graduating women: The underrepresented student. IEEE Communications Magazine (December): 47–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/35.61720
    Baum, Richard (1982). Science and culture in contemporary China: The roots of retarded modernization. Asian Survey, 22: 1166–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/as.1982.22.12.01p0433y
    Baum, Robert J. (1980). Ethics and engineering curricula. New York: Hastings Center.
    Baum, Robert J. & Flores, Albert W. (eds) (1980). Ethical problems in engineering. Troy, NY: Center for the Study of the Human Dimensions of Science and Technology.
    Bayer, Alan & Astin, Helen (1975). Sex differentials in the academic reward system. Science, 188 (23 May): 796–802. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.188.4190.796
    Baynes, Ken & Pugh, Francis (1981). The art of the engineer. Woodstock, NY: Overlook.
    Bayri, Tulay Y. & Furtan, W. Hartley (1989). The impact of new wheat technology on income distribution: A Green Revolution case study—Turkey, 1960–1983. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 38: 113–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/451778-->
    Bazerman, Charles (1988). Shaping written knowledge: The genre and activity of the experimental article in science. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
    Bazerman, Charles (1989). Introduction. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 14/1 (Winter): 3–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016224398901400101
    Bazerman, Charles (1991). How natural philosophers can cooperate: The literary technology of coordinated investigation in Joseph Priestley's History and present state of electricity (1767). In Bazerman & Paradis (1991): 13–44.
    Bazerman, Charles & Paradis, James (eds) (1991). Textual dynamics of the professions. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
    Beaumont, C, Dingle, J. & Reithinger, A. (1981). Technology transfer and applications. R&D Management, 11: 149–56.
    Beck, Ulrich (1992). Risk society: Towards a new modernity. London: Sage. Translation of 1986 German version, Risikogesellsschaft: auf dem Weges einem andere Moderne, Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.
    Becker, Gary (1984). Pietism and science: A critique of Robert K. Merton's hypothesis. American Journal of Sociology, 89: 1065–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/227984
    Becker, Howard (1982). Art worlds. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Beechey, Veronica (1988). Rethinking the definition of work. In Jane Jenson et al. (eds), Feminization of the labour force: 45–62. Cambridge, UK: Polity.
    Beer, Gillian & Martins, Herminio (1990). Introduction. History of the Human Sciences, 3: 163–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/095269519000300201
    Beer, John (1959). The emergence of the German dye industry. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
    Beitz, Charles R. (1990). Political equality: An essay in democratic theory. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Bell, Daniel (1974). Coming of post-industrial society. New York: Basic Books.
    Bell, Martin & Scott-Kemmis, Don (1988). Technology import policy: Have the problems changed? In Desai (1988a): 30–70.
    Belt, Henk van den & Rip, Arie (1987). The Nelson-Winter-Dosi model and synthetic dye chemistry. In Bijker, Hughes, & Pinch (1987): 135–58.
    Benavot, Aaron, Cha, Yun-Kyung, Kamens, David, Meyer, John & Wong, Suk-Ying (1991). Knowledge for the masses: World models and national curricula, 1920–1986. American Sociological Review, 56/1 (February): 85–100. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095675
    Ben-David, Joseph (1968). Fundamental research and the universities. Paris: OECD.
    Ben-David, Joseph (1971). The scientist's role in society: A comparative study. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Ben-David, Joseph (1991). Scientific growth: Essays on the social organization and ethos of science (ed. Gad Freudenthal). Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Benedick, Richard (1991). Ozone diplomacy: New directions in safeguarding the planet. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Beniger, James R. (1986). The control revolution: Technological and economic origins of the information society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Benjamin, Andrew E., Cantor, Geoffrey N. & Christie, John R. R. (eds) (1987). The figural and the literal: Problems of language in the history of science and philosophy, 1630–1800. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.
    Benveniste, Guy (1972). The politics of expertise. Berkeley, CA: Glendessary.
    Ben-Yehuda, Nachman (1985). Deviance and moral boundaries. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Berg, Helen M. & Ferber, Marianne A. (1983). Men and women graduate students: Who succeeds and why. Journal of Higher Education, 54: 629–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1981934
    Berger, Peter & Luckmann, Thomas (1967). The social construction of reality. Garden City, NY: Anchor/London, UK: Allen Lane.
    Berlin, Brent & Kay, Paul (1969). Basic colour terms: Their universality and evolution. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Berman, Morris (1974). “Hegemony” and the amateur tradition in British science. Journal of Social History, 8: 30–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/jsh/8.2.30
    Berman, Morris (1984). The reenchantment of the world. New York: Bantam.
    Bernal, John Desmond (1939). The social function of science. London: Routledge.
    Bernal, John Desmond (1954). Science in history. London: C. A. Watts.
    Bernal, John Desmond (1965). Voluntary underemployment [Letter]. New Scientist (21 October): 215.
    Berner, Boel (1992). Professional or wage worker? Engineers and economic transformation in Sweden. In Smith & Meiksins (1992).
    Bezilla, Michael (1981). Engineering education at Penn State: A century in the land grant tradition. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.
    Bhagavan, M. R. (1988). India's industrial and technological policies into the late 1980s. Journal of Contemporary Asia, 18: 220–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00472338880000161
    Bhalla, A. S. & James, D. D. (1986). Technological blending: Frontier technology in traditional economic sectors. Journal of Economic Issues, 20: 453–62.
    Bhatt, V. V. (1979). Indigenous technology and investment licensing: The case of the Snaraj Tractor. Journal of Development Studies, 15: 320–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00220387908421736
    Biggs, Stephen D. & Clay, Edward J. (1981). Sources of innovation in agricultural technology. World Development, 9: 321–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X%2881%2990080-2
    Bijker, Wiebe E. (1987). The social construction of Bakelite: Towards a theory of invention. In Bijker, Hughes & Pinch (1987): 159–87.
    Bijker, Wiebe E. (1992). The social construction of fluorescent lighting—or how an artefact was invented in its diffusion stage. In Bijker & Law (1992): 75–102.
    Bijker, Wiebe E., Hughes, Thomas P. & Pinch, Trevor J. {Bijker, Pinch & Hughes} (eds) (1987). The social construction of technological systems: New directions in the sociology and history of technology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Bijker, Wiebe E. & Law, John (eds) (1992). Shaping technology/building society: Studies in sociotechnical change. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Bijker & Pinch (1987)}: see Pinch & Bijker (1987).
    Billig, Michael {1991}/(1994). Repopulating the depopulated pages of social psychology. Theory and Psychology, 4: 307–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0959354394043001
    Billington, David P. (1979). Robert Maillart's bridges: The art of engineering. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Billington, David P. (1983). The tower and the bridge: The new art of structural engineering. New York: Basic Books.
    Bimber, Bruce (1990). Karl Marx and the three faces of technological determinism. Social Studies of Science, 20/2 (May): 333–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631290020002006
    Birke, Lynda & Silvertown, Jonathan (eds) (1984). More than the parts: Biology and politics. London: Pluto.
    Blackburn, Phil, Coombs, Rod & Green, Kenneth (1985). Technology, economic growth and the labour process. London: Macmillan/New York: St. Martin's.
    Blanpied, William A. (1984). Balancing central planning with institutional autonomy: Notes on a visit to the People's Republic of China. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 9/2 (Spring): 67–72.
    Blaut, J. M. (1979). Some principles of ethnogeography. In Stephen Gale & Gunnar Olsson (eds), Philosophy in geography: 1–7. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Reidel. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-9394-5_1
    Blaxter, Mildred (1983). The causes of disease: Women talking. Social Science and Medicine, 17/2: 59–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2883%2990356-8
    Blecher, Marc J. & White, Gordon (1979). Micropolitics in contemporary China: A technical unit during and after the Cultural Revolution. International Journal of Politics, 9: 1–135.
    Bleier, Ruth (1984). Science and gender: A critique of biology and its themes on women. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon.
    Block, Ed, Jr. (1985). T. H. Huxley's rhetoric and the mind-matter debate 1868–1874. Prose Studies, 8: 19–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01440358508586252
    Bloomfield, Brian (1986). Capturing expertise by rule induction. Knowledge Engineering Review, 1: 30–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0269888900000643
    Bloomfield, Brian (1987). The culture of artificial intelligence. In Bloomfield (1987a): 59–105.
    Bloomfield, Brian (Ed.) (1987a). The question of artificial intelligence. London: Croom Helm.
    Bloomfield, Brian (1989). On speaking about computing. Sociology, 23: 409–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038589023003005
    Bloor, David (1976). Knowledge and social imagery. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Bloor, David (1991). Knowledge and social imagery (2nd edn). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Bloor, David (1992). Left and right Wittgensteinians. In Pickering (1992b): 266–82.
    Blume, Stuart (1974). Toward a political sociology of science. New York: Free Press.
    Blume, Stuart (1992). Insight and industry: On the dynamics of technological change in medicine. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Blume, Stuart S. & Sinclair, Ruth (1973). Chemists in British universities: A study of the reward system in science. American Sociological Review, 38: 126–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2094336
    Blume, Stuart, Bunders, Joske, Leydesdorff, Loet & Whitley, Richard (eds) (1987). The social direction of the public sciences, Sociology of the Sciences Yearbook, 11. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Reidel.
    Blumenthal, David, Gluck, Michael, Seashore Louis, Karen, Stoto, Michael A. & Wise, David (1986). University-industry research relations in biotechnology: Implications for the university. Science, 232 (13 June): 1361–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.3715452
    Blumenthal, Tuvia (1979). A note on the relationship between domestic research and development and imports of technology. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 27: 303–06. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/451094
    Blyn, George (1983). The Green Revolution revisited. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 31: 705–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/451354
    Bodmer, Walter F. et al. (1985). The public understanding of science. London: Royal Society.
    Boffey, Phillip M. (1975). The brain bank of America: An inquiry into the politics of science. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Boguslaw, Robert (1965). The new Utopians. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Böhme, Gernot & Stehr, Nico (eds) (1986). The knowledge society. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Reidel.
    Böhme, Gernot, van den Daele, Wolfgang, Hohfeld, Rainer, Krohn, Wolfgang, Schäfer, Wolf & Spengler, Tilman {Böhme, van den Daele, et al.} (1978). Die gesellschaftliche Orientie-rung des Wissenschaftlichen Fortschritts. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag.
    Böhme, Gernot, van den Daele, Wolfgang, Hohfeld, Rainer, Krohn, Wolfgang, Schäfer, Wolf & Spengler, Tilman (1978). The “scientification” of technology. In Krohn, Layton, & Weingart (1978): 219–50.
    Boltanski, Luc (1987). The making of a class: Cadres in French society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Boltanski, Luc & Maldidier, P. (1970). Carriere scientifique, moral scientifique et vulgarisation. Social Science Information, 9: 99–118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/053901847000900304
    Boltanski, Luc & Thévenot, Laurent (1991). De la justification: Les économies de la grandeur. Paris: Gallimard.
    Booker, Peter J. (1979). A history of engineering drawing. London: Northgate.
    Boorstin, Daniel J. (1978). The republic of technology. New York: Harper & Row.
    Borning, Alan (1987). Computer system reliability and nuclear war. Communications of the ACM, 30/2: 112–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/12527.12528
    Bose, Christine, Bereano, Philip & Malloy, Mary (1984). Household technology and the social construction of housework. Technology and Culture, 25: 53–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3104669
    Bostian, Lloyd R. (1983). How active, passive and nominal styles affect readability of science writing. Journalism Quarterly, 60: 635–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107769908306000408
    Boston Women's Health Book Collective (1984). The new our bodies, ourselves. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Botelho, Antonio Jose Junqueira (1990). The professionalization of Brazilian scientists, the Brazilian Society for the Progress of Science (SBPC), and the state, 1948–60. Social Studies of Science, 20/3 (August): 473–502. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631290020003004
    Bourdieu, Pierre (1971). Le marché des biens symboliques. L'Année Sociologique, 22: 49–126.
    Bourdieu, Pierre (1975a). La spécificité du champ scientifique et les conditions sociales du progrès de la raison. Sociologie et Sociétés, 7/1.
    Bourdieu, Pierre (1975b). The specificity of the scientific field and the social conditions of the progress of reason. Social Science Information, 14: 19–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/053901847501400602
    Bowden, Lord (1965a). Expectations for science: 1: To the limits of growth. New Scientist (30 September): 849–53.
    Bowden, Lord (1965b). Expectations for science: 2: The administrator becomes important. New Scientist (7 October): 48–52.
    Bowden, Lord (1965c). Growth rate for science [Letter]. New Scientist (11 November): 438.
    Bowes, John E., Stamm, Keith R., Jackson, K. M. & Moore, J. (1978). Communication of technical information to lay audiences. Seattle, WA: University of Washington, School of Communications (May).
    Bowker, Geof & Latour, Bruno (1987). A blooming discipline short of discipline: (Social) studies of science in France. Social Studies of Science, 17/4 (November): 715–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631287017004006
    Bowonder, B. & Mijake, T. (1988). Measuring innovativeness of an industry: An analysis of the electronics industry in India, Japan and Korea. Science and Public Policy, 15: 279–303.
    Boyer, Paul (1985). By the bomb's early light: American thought and culture at the dawn of the atomic age. New York: Pantheon.
    Bracken, Paul (1984). The command and control of nuclear forces. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Bramwell, Anna (1989). Ecology in the 20th century: A history. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Brancher, D. (Ed.) (1980). The environment in engineering education. Paris: UNESCO.
    Brannigan, Augustine (1981). The social basis of scientific discoveries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Branscomb, Lewis M. (Ed.) (1993). Empowering technology: Implementing a US strategy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Braudel, Fernand (1977). Afterthoughts on material civilization and capitalism. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Braun, T., Glaenzel, W. & Schubert, András (1988). The newest version of the facts and figures on publication output and relative citation impact of 100 countries, 1981–85. Scientometrics, 13: 181–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02019957
    Braverman, Harry (1974). Labor and monopoly capital: The degradation of work in the twentieth century. New York: Monthly Review Press.
    Brickman, Ronald (1984). Science and the politics of toxic chemical regulation: US and European contrasts. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 9/1 (Winter): 107–11.
    Brickman, Ronald, Jasanoff, Sheila & Ilgen, Thomas (1985). Controlling chemicals: The politics of regulation in Europe and the United States. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Bright, James R. (1964). Research, development, and technological development. Homewood, IL: Irwin.
    Brighton Women and Science Group (1980). Alice through the microscope. Brighton, UK: BW&SG.
    British Association for the Advancement of Science (1976). Science and the media: Report of a study group. London: BAAS.
    British Medical Association (1987). Living with risk. Chichester, UK: Wiley.
    Broad, William & Wade, Nicholas (1982). Betrayers of the truth. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Brodkey, Linda (1987). Academic writing as social practice. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
    Bromberg, Joan (1982). Fusion: Science, politics, and the invention of a new energy source. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Bromberg, Joan L. (1986). Engineering knowledge in the laser field. Technology and Culture, 27: 798–818. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3105328
    Brooks, Harvey (1975). The military innovation system and the qualitative arms race. Daedalus, 104/3: 75–97.
    Brooks, Harvey (1985). Current science and technology policy issues. Washington, DC: George Washington University.
    Brooks, Harvey (1986). National science policy and technological innovation. In Ralph Landau & Nathan Rosenberg (eds), The positive sum strategy: Harnessing technology for economic growth: 154–67. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences.
    Brooks, Harvey (1987). Introduction and overview. In Brooks & Cooper (1987): 1–10.
    Brooks, Harvey & Branscomb, Lewis (1989). [Interview]. Technology Review (August—September): 55–64.
    Brooks, Harvey & Cooper, Chester (eds) (1987). Science for public policy. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon.
    Brown, George W., interviewed by Richard R. Mertz. (1973, March 15). Smithsonian Computer Oral History, AC NMAH #196. Archive Center, National Museum of American History, Washington, DC.
    Brown, George E., Jr. (1991). A perspective on the federal role in science and technology. In Meredith, Nelson & Teich (1991): 23–30.
    Brown, George E., Jr. (1992). Rational science, irrational reality: A congressional perspective on basic research and society. Science, 258 (9 October): 200–01. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1411514
    Brown, Michael & May, John (1989). The Greenpeace story. London: Dorling Kindersley.
    Brown, Martin (Ed.) (1971). The social responsibility of the scientist. New York: Free Press/London: Collier-Macmillan.
    Brown, Michael & Lyon, Katherine A. (1992). Holes in the ozone layer. In Nelkin (1992): 59–79.
    Brown, Phil (1987). Popular epidemiology: Community response to toxic waste-induced disease in Woburn, Massachusetts. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 12/1 (Winter): 78–85.
    Brown, Phil & Mikkelski, Edwin (1990). No safe place: Toxic waste, leukemia and community action. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Brown, Richard Harvey (1977). A poetic for sociology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Brueckner, Leslie & Borrus, Michael (n.d.). The commercial impacts of military spending: The VHSIC case. In Paul N. Edwards & Richard Gordon (eds), Strategic computing: Defense research and high technology. Unpublished manuscript.
    Bruer, John T. (1984). Women in science: Toward equitable participation. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 9/3: 3–7.
    Brush, Stephen (1974). Should the history of science be rated X? Science, 183 (22 March): 1164–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.183.4130.1164
    Brush, Stephen (1991). Women in science and engineering. American Scientist, 79: 404–19.
    Bryant, Bunyan & Mohai, Paul (eds) (1992). Race and the incidence of environmental hazards: A time for discourse. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Bryant, Lynwood (1976). The development of the diesel engine. Technology and Culture, 17: 432–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3103523
    Bryner, Gary (1993). Blue skies, green politics: The Clean Air Act of 1990. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press.
    Brzezinski, Zbigniew (1970). America and the technetronic age. In Zbigniew Brzezinski, Between two ages: America's role in the technetronic era. New York: Viking.
    Bucciarelli, Louis L. (1988). Engineering design process. In Dubinskas (1988): 92–122.
    Buchanan, R. Angus (1983). Gentlemen engineers: The making of a profession. Victorian Studies, 26: 407–29.
    Buchanan, R. Angus (1985a). Institutional proliferation in the British engineering profession, 1847–1914. Economic History Review, 38: 42–60.
    Buchanan, R. Angus (1985b). The rise of scientific engineering in Britain. British Journal for the History of Science, 18: 218–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087400022135
    Buchanan, R. Angus (1986). The diaspora of British engineering. Technology and Culture, 27: 501–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3105383
    Buchanan, R. Angus (1988). Engineers and government in nineteenth-century Britain. In Roy MacLeod (Ed.), Government and expertise: 41–58. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Buchanan, R. Angus (1989). The engineers: A history of the engineering profession in Britain, 1750–1914. London: Jessica Kingsley.
    Buchanan, R. Angus (1991). Theory and narrative in the history of technology. Technology and Culture, 32: 365–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3105715
    Buchner, Bradley Jay (1988). Social control and diffusion of modern telecommunications technologies: A cross-national study. American Sociological Review, 53: 446–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095651
    Buchwald, Jed Z. (Ed.) (1995). Scientific practice: Theories and stories of doing physics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Bud, Robert (1988). The myth and the machine: Seeing science through museum eyes. In Fyfe & Law (1988): 138–64.
    Bukharin, Nicholas et al. (1931). Science at the cross roads. London: Cass. (Reprint 1971)
    Bullard, Robert D. (1990). Dumping in Dixie: Race, class, and environmental quality. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Bullard, Robert D. (1993). Confronting environmental racism: Voices from the grass roots. Boston: South End.
    {Bullard, Bryant & Mohai (1992)}: see Bullard (1993), Bryant & Mohai (1992).
    Bunders, Joske (1987). The practical management of scientists' actions: The influence of patterns of knowledge development in biology on cooperations between university biologists and non-scientists. In Blume, Bunders, Leydesdorff & Whitley (1987): 39–72.
    Bunge, Mario (1966). Technology as applied science. Technology and Culture, 7: 329–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3101932
    Burchfield, Joe Donald (1975). Lord Kelvin and the age of the earth. London: Macmillan.
    Burke, John G. (Ed.) (1966). The new technology and human values. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    Burke, Robert V. (1979). Green Revolution technologies and farm class in Mexico. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 28: 135–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/451157
    Burkett, Warren D. (1986). News reporting: Science, medicine, and high technology. Ames: Iowa State University Press.
    Burnham, John C. (1987). How superstition won and science lost: Popularization of science and health in America. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Burhop, E. H. S. (1974). The social responsibility of the scientist: A report of correspondence with members of the Jason Committee of the Institute for Defence Analysis. Scientific World, 28/1: 20–23.
    Burns, James MacGregor (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.
    Burton, John (1972). World society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511521669
    Busch, Lawrence, Lacy, William B., Burkhardt, Jeffrey & Lacy, Laura R. (1991). Plants, power, and profit: Social, economic, and ethical consequences of the new biotechnologies. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
    Bush, Vannevar (1945). Science: The endless frontier (Charter document for the U.S. National Science Foundation). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. (Reprinted 1960/1980)
    Buttel, Frederick (1989). How epoch making are high technologies? The case of biotechnology. Sociological Forum, 4: 247–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01112424
    Buttel, Frederick (1991). Beyond deference and demystification in the sociology of science and technology. Sociological Forum, 6: 567–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01114477
    Buttel, Frederick & Raynolds, Laura (1989). Population growth, agrarian structure, food production, and food distribution in the Third World. In David Pi mental & Carl W. Hall (eds), Food and natural resources: 325–62. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    Buttel, Frederick H., Kenney, Martin & Kloppenburg, Jack, Jr. (1985). From Green Revolution to biorevolution: Some observations on the changing technological bases of economic transformations in the Third World. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 34: 31–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/451508-->
    Button, Graham (1990). Going up a blind alley: Conflating conversation analysis and computational modelling. In Luff, Frohlich & Gilbert (1990): 67–90.
    Button, Graham (Ed.) (1993). Technology and working order: Studies of work, interaction, and technology. London & New York: Routledge.
    Buzan, Barry (1967). An introduction to strategic studies: Military technology and international relations. Houndmills, UK: Macmillan.
    Byatt, I. C. R. & Cohen, A. V. (1969). An attempt to quantify the economic benefits of scientific research (Science Policy Studies No. 4). London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
    Byres, T. J. (1981). The new technology, class formation, and class action in the Indian countryside. Journal of Peasant Studies, 8: 405–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03066158108438146
    Caldecott, Leonie & Leland, Stephanie (eds) (1983). Reclaim the earth. London: Women's Press.
    Caldwell, Lynton (1990). Between two worlds: Science, the environmental movement and policy choice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Callon, Michel (1980a). The state and technical innovation: A case study of the electrical vehicle in France. Research Policy, 9: 358–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0048-7333%2880%2990032-3
    Callon, Michel (1980b). Struggles and negotiations to decide what is problematic and what is not: The socio-logics of translation. In Knorr, Krohn, & Whitley (1980): 197–219.
    Callon, Michel (1981). Pour une sociologie des controverses technologiques. Fundamenta Scientiae, 2: 381–99.
    Callon, Michel (1986a). The sociology of an actor-network: The case of the electric vehicle. In Callon, Law & Rip (1986): 19–34.
    Callon, Michel (1986b). Some elements of a sociology of translation: Domestication of the scallops and the fishermen of St. Brieuc Bay. In Law (1986c): 196–229.
    Callon, Michel (1987). Society in the making: The study of technology as a tool for sociological analysis. In Bijker, Hughes & Pinch (1987): 83–103.
    Callon, Michel (Ed.) (1989). La science et ses réseaux: Genèse et circulation des fails scientifiques (Anthropologic des sciences et des techniques). Paris: La Découverte.
    Callon, Michel. (1991). Techno-economic networks and irreversibility. In Law (1991c): 132–64.
    Callon, Michel {1992}/(1993). Variety and irreversibility in networks of technique conception and adoption. In Dominique Foray & Christopher Freeman (eds), Technology and the wealth of nations: The dynamics of constructed advantage: 232–70. London: Frances Pinter.
    Callon, Michel, Larédo, Philippe, Rabeharisoa, Vololona, Gonard, Thiery & Leray, T. {in press}/(1992). The management and evaluation of technological programs and the dynamics of technoeconomic networks: The case of the AFME. Research Policy, 21/3: 215–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0048-7333%2892%2990017-X
    Callon, Michel & Latour, Bruno. (1992)/{1992a}. Don't throw the baby out with the Bath school! A reply to Collins and Yearley. In Pickering (1992b): 343–68.
    Callon, Michel & Law, John (1982). On interests and their transformation: Enrolment and counter-enrolment. Social Studies of Science, 12/4 (November): 615–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631282012004006
    Callon, Michel, Law, John & Rip, Arie (eds) (1986). Mapping the dynamics of science and technology: Sociology of science in the real world. Basingstoke, UK & London: Macmillan.
    {Cambrosio (1988)}/Cambrosio, Alberto & Keating, Peter (1988). “Going monoclonal”: Art, science and magic in the day-to-day use of hybridoma technology. Social Problems, 35/3 (June): 244–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/sp.1988.35.3.03a00040-->
    Cambrosio, Alberto & Keating, Peter (1991/1992). A matter of FACS: Constituting novel entities in immunology. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 6: 362–84. [Paper presented at ASA meeting, Chicago, August 1991] http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/maq.1992.6.4.02a00040
    Cambrosio, Alberto, Keating, Peter & Mackenzie, Michael (1990). Scientific practice in the courtroom: The construction of sociotechnical identities in a biotechnology patent dispute. Social Problems: 37/3 (August): 275–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/sp.1990.37.3.03a00010
    Cambrosio, Alberto, Limoges, Camille & Pronovost, Denyse (1990). Representing biotechnology: An ethnography of Quebec science policy. Social Studies of Science, 20/2 (May): 195–227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631290020002001
    Cameron, Susan Wilson (1978). Women faculty in academia: Sponsorship, informal networks, and scholarly success. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan.
    Campbell, Donald (1974). Evolutionary epistemology. In Paul A. Schlipp (Ed.), The philosophy of Karl Popper, 141: 413–63. La Salle, IL: Open Court.
    Campbell, Donald T. (1988). Methodology and epistemology for social sciences: Selected papers. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Campbell, John Angus (1987). Charles Darwin: Rhetorician of science. In Nelson, Megill & McCloskey (1987): 69–86.
    Canguilhem, Georges (1988). Ideology and rationality in the histories of the life sciences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Cantley, Mark (1988). Biotech safety regulations and public attitudes in the EEC. In World Biotech Report. London.
    Cantor, Geoffrey (1987). Weighing light: The role of metaphor in eighteenth-century optical discourse. In Benjamin, Cantor & Christie (1987): 124–46.
    Caporaso, James A. (1992). International relations theory and multilateralism: The search for foundations. International Organization, 3: 599–632. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300027843
    Cardwell, Donald S. L. (1957). The organisation of science in England. London: Heinemann.
    Cardwell, Donald S. L. (1971). From Watt to Clausius: The rise of thermodynamics in the early industrial age. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Carlson, W. Bernard (1988). Academic entrepreneurship and engineering education: Dugald C. Jackson and the MIT-GE Cooperative Engineering Course, 1907–1932. Technology and Culture, 29/3: 536–67, {at p. 396}/at p. 565. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3105273
    Carnap, Rudolf (1936). Testability and meaning. Philosophy of Science, 3: 419–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/286432
    Carnap, Rudolf (1937). Testability and meaning. Philosophy of Science, 4: 1–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/286443
    Carnap, Rudolf (1953)/{1955}. Testability and meaning. In Herbert Feigl & May Brodbeck (Eds.), Readings in the philosophy of science. New York: Appleton.
    Carpenter, Mark P., Cooper, M. & Narin, Francis (1980). Linkage between basic research literature and patents. Research Management, 23: 30–35.
    Carroll, James (1971). Participatory technology. Science, 171 (19 February): 647–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.171.3972.647
    Carr-Saunders, Alexander M. & Wilson, Paul A. (1933). The professions. Oxford, UK: Clarendon.
    Carson, Nancy (1992). Process, prescience, and pragmatism: The Office of Technology Assessment. In Carol W. Weiss (Ed.), Organizations for policy analysis: Helping government think: 236–51. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Carson, Rachel (1962). Silent spring. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.
    Cartwright, Nancy (1983). How the laws of physics lie. Oxford, UK: Clarendon. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/0198247044.001.0001
    Caspar, Barry (1981). The rhetoric and reality of congressional technology assessment. In Kuehn & Porter (1981): 327–45.
    Casper, Barry & Wellstone, Paul (1978). The science court on trial in Minnesota. The Hastings Center Report, 8/4: 5–7. Reprinted in Barnes & Edge (1982): 282–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3560965
    Casper, Barry M. & Wellstone, Paul D. (1981). Powerline: The first battle of America's energy war. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.
    Catalyst (1992). Women in engineering: An untapped resource. New York: Author.
    Caudill, Edward (1987). A content analysis of press views of Darwin's evolution theory. Journalism Quarterly, 64 (Winter): 782–86, 946. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107769908706400415
    Caudill, Edward (1989a). Darwinism in the press: The evolution of an idea. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Caudill, Edward (1989b). The roots of bias: An empiricist press and coverage of the Scopes trial. Journalism Monographs, 114.
    Chadney, James G. (1984). The economic implications of the new technologies in Punjab. Eastern Anthropologist, 37: 227–37.
    Chai, T. R. (1981). Chinese academy of sciences in the Cultural Revolution: A test of the red and expert concept. Journal of Politics, 43: 1215–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2130197
    Chandler, Alfred D., Jr. (1977). Visible hand: The managerial revolution in American business. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.
    Channell, David F. (1982). The harmony of theory and practice: The engineering science of W. J. M. Rankine. Technology and Culture, 23: 39–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3104442
    Channell, David F. (1984). The distinction between engineering science and natural science: W. J. M. Rankine. In Technology and science: Important distinctions for liberal arts colleges: 52–59. Davidson, NC: Davidson College.
    Channell, David F. (1986). William John Macquorn Rankine. Edinburgh: Scotland's Cultural Heritage.
    Channell, David F. (1988). Engineering science as theory and practice. Technology and Culture, 29: 98–103. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3105229
    Channell, David F. (1989). The history of engineering science: An annotated bibliography. New York: Garland.
    Charlesworth, Max, Farrall, Lyndsay, Stokes, Terry & Turnbull, David (1989). Life among the scientists: An anthropological study of an Australian scientific community. Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press.
    Charlton, Thomas Malcolm (1982). A history of theory of structures in the nineteenth century. New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511524677
    Charter of Paris (1991). In SIPRI Yearbook, World armaments and disarmament: 603–10. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Original date of document 1990)
    Chartier, Roger (1987). The cultural uses of print in early modern France. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Chartier, Roger (1988). Cultural history. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Charvolin, Florian, Limoges, Camille & Cambrosio, Alberto (1991). Discourse and policy: An ethnography of the constitution of Canadian bio-safety regulations. Paper presented at the 4S Meeting, Cambridge, MA (November).
    Chatel, B. H. (1979). Technology assessment and developing countries. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 35: 339–50.
    Chen, Edward (1981). The role of MNCs in the production and transfer of technology in host countries. Development and Change, 12: 579–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7660.1981.tb00106.x
    Chiang, Jong-tsong (1989). Technology and alliance strategies for follower countries. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 35: 339–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0040-1625%2889%2990070-X
    Child, John, Fores, Michael, Glover, Ian & Lawrence, Peter (1983). A price to pay? Professionalism and work organization in Britain and West Germany. Sociology, 17/1 (February): 63–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038583017001005
    Chodorow, Nancy (1974). Family structure and feminine personality. In Rosaldo & Lamphere (1974): 43–66.
    Choi, Hyung Sup (1988). Science policy mechanisms and technology development in the developing countries. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 33: 279–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0040-1625%2888%2990018-2
    Choudhuri, Arnab Rai (1985). Practising Western science outside the West: Personal observations on the Indian scene. Social Studies of Science, 15/3 (August): 475–505. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631285015003004
    Chubin, Daryl (1974). Sociological manpower and womanpower: Sex differences in career patterns of two cohorts of American doctorate scientists. American Sociologist, 9: 83–92.
    Chubin, Daryl E. (1990). Scientific malpractice and the contemporary politics of knowledge. In Cozzens & Gieryn (1990): 144–63.
    Chubin, Daryl E. (1992). The elusive second “S” in “STS”: Who's zoomin' who? Technoscience (Fall): 12–13.
    Chubin, Daryl & Hackett, Edward J. (1990). Peerless science: Peer review and US science policy. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Churchill, Frederick (1979). Sex and the single organism. Studies in History of Biology, 3: 139–77.
    Cicourel, Aaron (1974). Cognitive sociology. New York: Free Press.
    Cini, Marcello (1980). The history and ideology of dispersion relations: The pattern of internal and external factors in a paradigm shift. Fundamenta Scientiae, 1: 157–72.
    Clark, John (1991). Democratizing development: The role of voluntary organizations. London: Earthscan.
    Clark, Norman & Juma, Carl (1987). Long-run economics: An evolutionary approach to economic growth. London: Frances Pinter.
    Clark, Norman & Parthasarathi, Ashok (1982). Science based industrialization in a developing country: The case of the Indian scientific instruments industry 1947–1968. Modern Asian Studies, 16: 657–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0026749X00017297
    Clark, Tim & Westrum, Ron (1987). Paradigms and ferrets. Social Studies of Science, 17/1 (February): 3–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631287017001001
    Clarke, Adele (1987). Research materials and reproductive science in the United States, 1910–1940. In Gerald L. Geison (Ed.), Physiology in the American context, 1850–1940: 323–50. Bethesda, MD: American Physiological Society.
    Clarke, Adele (1990a). A social worlds research adventure: The case of reproductive science. In Cozzens & Gieryn (1990): 23–50.
    Clarke, Adele (1990b). Controversy and the development of reproductive sciences. Social Problems, 37: 18–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/sp.1990.37.1.03a00020
    Clarke, Adele & Fujimura, Joan (eds) (1992). The right tools for the job: At work in twentieth-century life sciences. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Clarke, Adele & Gerson, Elihu (1990). Symbolic interactionism in social studies of science. In Howard Becker & Michal M. McCall (eds), Symbolic interaction and cultural studies: 179–214. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Clarke, Lee (1992). The wreck of the Exxon Valdez. In Nelkin (1992): 80–96.
    Clemens, Elisabeth S. (1986). Of asteroids and dinosaurs: The role of the press in the shaping of scientific debate. Social Studies of Science, 16/3 (August): 421–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631286016003002
    Clemens, Harrie & de Groot, Jan P. (1988). Agrarian labor market and technology under different regimes: A comparison of Cuba and the Dominican Republic. Latin American Perspectives, 15: 6–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0094582X8801500402
    Clifford, James (1988). The predicament of culture: Twentieth-century ethnography, literature and art. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Clifford, James & Marcus, George E. (eds) (1986). Writing culture: The poetics and politics of ethnography. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Coase, R. (1937). The nature of the firm. Economica, 4: 386–405. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0335.1937.tb00002.x
    Cockburn, Cynthia (1983). Brothers: Male dominance and technological change. London: Pluto.
    Cockburn, Cynthia (1985). Machinery of dominance: Women, men and technical know-how. London: Pluto.
    Cohen, A. V. & Ivens, L. N. (1967). The sophistication factor in science expenditure (Science Policy Studies No. 1). London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
    Cohen, Benjamin J. (1990). The political economy of international trade. International Organization, 2: 261–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S002081830003527X
    Cohen, I. Bernard (Ed.) (1980). Testimony before the Joint Commission to consider the present organizations of the Signal Service, Geological Survey, Coast and Geodetic Survey and the Hydrographic Office of the Navy Department (Senate Miscellaneous Document 82, 49th Congress, 1st session, reprint from 1886). In Three centuries of science in America. New York: Arno.
    Cohen, Stanley H. {1982}/(1994). Interview with Stanley H. Cohen. Cited by Nicholas Wade in his Background paper, in The science business report of the 20th-century task force on the commercialisation of scientific research, (at p. 215)/at p. 31. New York: Priority Press (1994).
    Cohen, Stephen S. & Zysman, John (1987). Manufacturing matters: The myth of the post-industrial economy. New York: Basic Books.
    Cohn, Carol (1987). Sex and death in the rational world of defense intellectuals. Signs, 12/4: 687–718. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/494362
    Cohn, Victor (1989). News & numbers: A guide to reporting statistical claims and controversies in health and related fields. Ames: Iowa State University Press.
    Cole, B. J. (1975). Trends in science and conflict coverage in four metropolitan newspapers. Journalism Quarterly, 52: 465–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107769907505200309
    {Cole, J. (1973)}: see Cole & Cole (1973).
    Cole, Jonathan (1979). Fair science: Women in the scientific community. New York: Free Press.
    Cole, Jonathan & Cole, Stephen (1973). Social stratification in science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Cole, Jonathan & Zuckerman, Harriet (1984). The productivity puzzle: Persistence and change in patterns of publication among men and women scientists. In Martin L. Maehr & Marjorie W. Steinkamp (eds), Women in science: 217–58. London & Greenwich, CT: JAI.
    Cole, Jonathan & Zuckerman, Harriet (1987). Marriage, motherhood, and research performance in science. Scientific American, 256/2 (February): 119–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0287-119
    Cole, Leonard A. (1986). Resolving science controversies: From science court to science hearings panel. In Goggin (1986): 244–61.
    Cole, Stephen {1991}/(1992). Making science: Between nature and society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Coler, Myron A. (Ed.) (1963). Essays on creativity in the sciences. New York: New York University Press.
    Collingridge, David (1980). The social control of technology. London: Frances Pinter.
    Collingridge, David & Reeve, Colin (1986). Science speaks to power: The role of experts in policymaking. New York: St. Martin's.
    Collins, A. & Gentner, Dedre (1987). How people construct mental models. In Holland & Quinn (1987): 243–65.
    Collins, H. M. (1974). The TEA set: Tacit knowledge and scientific networks. Science Studies, 4/2 (April): 165–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631277400400203
    Collins, H. M. (1975). The seven sexes: A study in the sociology of a phenomenon, or the replication of experiments in physics. Sociology, 9: 205–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/003803857500900202
    Collins, H. M. (Ed.) (1981a). Knowledge and controversy: Studies in modern natural science. [Special issue]. Social Studies of Science, 11/1 (February): 3–158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631278101100101
    Collins, H. M. (1981b). Stages in the empirical programme of relativism. In Collins (1981a): 3–10.
    {Collins (1982b)}: see Collins & Pinch (1982b).
    Collins, H. M. (1983). The sociology of scientific knowledge: Studies of contemporary science. Annual Review of Sociology, 2: 265–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.09.080183.001405
    Collins, H. M. (1985). Changing order: Replication and induction in scientific practice. London: Sage.
    Collins, H. M. (1987). Certainty and the public understanding of science: Science on television. Social Studies of Science, 17/4 (November): 689–713. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631287017004005
    Collins, H. M. (1988). Public experiments and displays of virtuosity: The core-set revisited. Social Studies of Science, 78/4 (November): 725–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631288018004006
    Collins, H. M. (1989). Computers and the sociology of scientific knowledge. Social Studies of Science, 19/4 (November): 613–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631289019004003
    Collins, H. M. (1990/1992). Artificial experts: Social knowledge and intelligent machines. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (1990). French translation, Editions du Seuil (1992).
    Collins, H. M. (1992a)/(1992). Changing order: Replication and induction in scientific practice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Revised edition of Collins (1985).
    Collins, H. M. (1992b). The good, the bad and unquoted. Times Higher Education Supplement (10 January): 15.
    Collins, H. M. {in press-a}. Knowing and growing: Building an expert system for semiconductor crystal growers. Unpublished manuscript.
    Collins, H. M. {in press-b}/(1993). Skill and the Turing test. In Button (1993): 231–45.
    Collins, H. M., de Vries, Gerard H. & Bijker, Wiebe E. {in press}/(1997). Ways of going on: An analysis of skill applied to medical practice. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 22/3 (Summer): 267–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016224399702200301
    Collins, H. M., Green, Rodney H. & Draper, Robert C. (1985). Where's the expertise: Expert systems as a medium of knowledge transfer. In Martin J. Merry (Ed.), Expert systems 85: 323–34. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Collins, H. M. & Pinch, Trevor (1979)/{1982a}. The construction of the paranormal: Nothing unscientific is happening. In Wallis (1979): 237–69. Reprinted in H. M. Collins (ed), Sociology of scientific knowledge. Bath, UK: Bath University Press, 1982.
    Collins, H. M., & Pinch, Trevor (1982b)/{Collins (1982b)}. Frames of meaning: The social construction of extraordinary science. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Collins, Harry & Pinch, Trevor (1993). The Golem: What everyone should know about science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Collins, H. M. & Shapin, Steven (1983). The historical role of the experiment. In Fabio Bevilacqua & Peter J. Kennedy (eds), Using history of physics in innovatory physics education: 282–92. Pavia: Centro Studi per la Didattica della Facolta di Scienze Matematiche, Fisiche e Naturali, Universita di Pavia, and the International Commission on Physics Education.
    Collins, H. M. & Shapin, Steven A. (1989). Experiment, science teaching and the new history and sociology of science. In Michael Shortland & Andrew Warwick (eds), Teaching the history of science: 67–79. London: Blackwell.
    Collins, H. M. & Yearley, Steven (1992a). Epistemological chicken. In Pickering (1992b): 301–26.
    Collins, H. M. & Yearley, Steven (1992b). Journey into space. In Pickering (1992b): 369–89.
    Collins, Randall (1975). Conflict sociology. New York: Academic Press.
    Collins, Randall (1988). Theoretical sociology. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
    Collins, Randall (1989). Toward a theory of intellectual change: The social causes of philosophies. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 14/2 (Spring): 107–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016224398901400201
    Collins, Randall & Restivo, Sal (1983). Robber barons and politicians in mathematics: A conflict model of science. The Canadian Journal of Sociology, 8: 199–227. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3340126
    Commission on Professionals in Science & Technology (1964–1991). Manpower comments. Washington, DC: CPS&T.
    Commission on Professionals in Science & Technology (1989). Professional women and minorities: A manpower data resource service (
    8th ed
    .). Washington, DC: CPS&T.
    Commoner, Barry (1971). The closing circle. New York: Knopf.
    Conant, James Bryant (1947). On understanding science. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Conant, James Bryant (Ed.) (1948). Harvard case histories in experimental science (2 vols). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Conklin, Harold (1964). Ethnogenealogical method. In Ward Hunt Goodenough (Ed.), Explorations in cultural anthropology: 25–55. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Conrad, Jobst (Ed.) (1980). Society, technology and risk assessment. London & New York: Academic Press.
    Constant, Edward W. (1980). The origins of the turbojet revolution. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Constant, Edward W. (1983). Scientific theory and technological testability: Science, dynamometers, and water turbines in the 19th century. Technology and Culture, 24: 183–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3104036
    Contractor, Farok J. (1983). Technology importation policies in developing countries: Some implications of recent theoretical and empirical evidence. Journal of Developing Areas, 17: 499–520.
    Cook-Deegan, Robert M. (1991). The human genome project: The formation of federal policies in the United States, 1986–1990. In Kathi E. Hanna (Ed.), Biomedical politics: 99–168. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    Coombs, Roderick, Saviotti, Paolo & Walsh, Vivienne (1987). Economics and technological change. London: Macmillan Education.
    Cooter, Roger (1984). The cultural meaning of popular science: Phrenology and the organization of consent in nineteenth century Britain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    COPUS (n.d.). COPUS looks forward: The next five years. London: Royal Society Committee for the Public Understanding of Science (Chair, Sir Walter Bodmer).
    Corea, Gena (1985). The mother machine: Reproductive technologies from artificial insemination to artificial wombs. New York: Harper & Row.
    Corea, Gena et al. (1985). Man-made women: How new reproductive technologies affect women. London: Hutchinson.
    Cotgrove, Stephen (1982). Catastrophe or cornucopia: The environment, politics and the future. Chichester, UK: Wiley.
    Cotgrove, Stephen & Box, Stephen (1970). Science, industry and society. London: George Allen & Unwin.
    Cotkin, George (1984). The socialist popularization of science in America, 1901 to the First World War. History of Education Quarterly, 24/2: 201–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/367951
    Cottrill, Charlotte A., Rogers, Everett M. & Mills, Tamsy (1989). Co-citation analysis of the scientific literature of innovation research traditions: Diffusion of innovations and technology transfer. Knowledge: Creation, Diffusion, Utilization, 11: 181–208.
    Couchman, P. & Fink-Jensen, K. (1990). Public attitudes to genetic engineering in New Zealand. Christchurch, NZ: Department of Scientific & Industrial Research.
    Council for Science and Society (1977). The acceptability of risks. London: Barry Rose/CSS.
    Cowan, Ruth Schwartz (1976). The “industrial revolution” in the home: Household technology and social change in the twentieth century. Technology and Culture, 17: 1–23. Reprinted as “The industrial revolution in the home,” in MacKenzie & Wajcman (1985): 181–201. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3103251
    Cowan, Ruth Schwartz (1979). From Virginia Dare to Virginia Slims: Women and technology in American life. Technology and Culture, 20: 51–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3103111
    Cowan, Ruth Schwartz (1983). More work for mother: The ironies of household technology from the open hearth to the microwave. New York: Basic Books.
    Cowen, Regina H. E. (1986). Defense procurement in the Federal Republic of Germany: Politics and organization. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Cozzens, Susan E. (1987). Expert review in research evaluation. Science and Public Policy, 14/2 (April): 71–81.
    Cozzens, Susan E. (1988). Derek Price and the paradigm of science policy. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 1/3–4: 361–72.
    Cozzens, Susan E. {1989}/(1990). Autonomy and power in science. In Cozzens & Gieryn (1990): 164–84.
    Cozzens, Susan E. (1992). Women in the politics of science. Paper presented to a Science Policy Support Group Forum, Women in Science, London (13 March).
    Cozzens, Susan E. & Gieryn, Thomas F. (eds) (1990). Theories of science in society. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Cozzens, Susan E., Healey, Peter, Rip, Arie & Ziman, John (eds) (1990). The research system in transition. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, & Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic.
    Cramer, Jacqueline (1987). Mission orientation in ecology: The case of Dutch fresh-water ecology. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
    Cramer, Jacqueline, Eyerman, Ron & Jamison, Andrew (1987). The knowledge interests of the environmental movement and their potential for influencing the development of science. In Blume et al. (1987): 89–115.
    Cramer, Jacqueline & Hagendijk, Rob (1985). Dutch fresh-water ecology: The links between national and international scientific research. Minerva, 23: 43–61, {at pp. 492–493}/ at pp. 52–53.
    Cramer, Jacqueline & van den Daele, Wolfgang (1985). Is ecology an “alternative” natural science? Synthese, 65: 347–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00869275
    Crane, Diana (1972). Invisible colleges. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Crane, Diana (1977). Technological innovation in developing countries: A review of the literature. Research Policy, 6: 374–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0048-7333%2877%2990013-0
    Crary, Jonathan & Kwinter, Sanford (eds) (1992). Zone 6: Incorporations. New York: Urzone.
    Crawford, Elisabeth, Shinn, Terry & Sörlin, Sverker (eds) (1993). Denationalizing science: The contexts of international scientific practice. Sociology of the Sciences Yearbook, 16. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.
    Crawford, Mark (1989). MIT industry links draw congressional attention. Science, 244 (9 June): 1136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.244.4909.1136
    Crawford, Stephen (1989). Technical workers in an advanced society: The work, career and politics of French engineers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Crawford, Stephen (1991). Changing technology and national career structures: The work and politics of French engineers. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 16/2 (Spring): 173–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016224399101600203
    Crenson, Matthew A. (1971). The un-politics of air pollution: A study of non-decisionmaking in the cities. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Critchley, O. H. (1988). The enigma of the engineer: Hero of the industrial revolution—Mere henchman in the age of science. IEEE Proceedings, 135/A-5: 253–60.
    Crompton, Rosemary & Jones, Gareth (1984). White-collar proletariat: Deskilling and gender in clerical work. London: Macmillan.
    Cronholm, Margareta & Sandell, Rolf (1981). Scientific information: A review of research. Journal of Communication, 31/2: 85–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1981.tb01232.x
    Crow, Michael & Bozeman, Barry (1991). R&D laboratories in the USA: Structure, capacity and context. Science and Public Policy. 18/3 (June): 165–80.
    Crown, Patricia L. & Judge, W. James (1991). Chaco and Hohokam: Prehistoric regional systems in the American Southwest. Sante Fe, NM: School of American Research Press.
    Crowther, J. G. (1970). Fifty years with science. London: Barrie & Jenkins.
    Cutcliffe, Stephen H. (1989a). The emergence of STS as an academic field. Research in Philosophy and Technology, 9: 287–301.
    Cutcliffe, Stephen H. (1989b). Science, technology, and society: An interdisciplinary academic field. National Forum, 69/2: 22–25.
    Cutcliffe, Stephen H. (1990). The STS curriculum: What have we learned in twenty years? Science, Technology, & Human Values, 75/3 (Summer): 360–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016224399001500305
    Daedalus (1990). Risk. [Special issue]. Daedalus, 119/4.
    Daey Ouwens, C. [Kees], Van Hoogstraten, Pieter, Jelsma, Jaap, Prakke, Frits & Rip, Arie (1987). Constructive technology assessment. The Hague: Nota.
    Dahl, Robert A. (1956). A preface to democratic theory. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Dahl, Robert A. (1985). Controlling nuclear weapons: Democracy versus guardianship. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.
    Dahl, Robert A. (1989). Democracy and its critics. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Dahlberg, Kenneth A. (1979). Beyond the Green Revolution: The ecology and politics of global agricultural development. New York: Plenum. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-2910-7
    Dahlman, Carl J., Ross-Larson, Bruce & Westphal, Larry (1987). Managing technological development: Lessons from the newly industrializing countries. World Development, 15: 759–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X%2887%2990058-1
    Danhof, Clarence (1968). Government contracting and technological change. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
    Daniels, George H. (1967). The pure-science ideal and democratic culture. Science, 156 (30 June), 1699–1706. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.156.3783.1699
    Darnton, Robert (1984). Philosophers trim the tree of knowledge: The epistemological strategy of the Encyclopédie. In Robert Darnton, The great cat massacre: 191–213. New York: Basic Books.
    Daston, Lorraine & Galison, Peter {in press}/(1992). The image of objectivity. Representations, 40/1 (Fall): 81–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/rep.1992.40.1.99p0137h
    Daston, Lorraine & Otte, Michael (eds) (1991). Style in science. [Special issue]. Science in Context, 4/2.
    David, Paul A., Mowery, David C. & Steinmueller, W. Edward {1982}/{David (1992)}/(1992). Analysing the economic payoffs from basic research. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 2: 73–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10438599200000006
    Davidson, Donald (1984). Truth and interpretation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Davidson, William (1983). Structure and performance in international technology transfer. Journal of Management Studies, 20: 453–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.1983.tb00219.x
    Davies, D. M. (1985). Appropriate information technology. International Library Review, 17: 247–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0020-7837%2885%2980003-0
    Davis, Bernard D. & [22] Colleagues (1990). The human genome project and other initiatives. Science, 249 (27 July): 342–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.2377887
    Davis, Charles H. & Eisemon, Thomas O. (1989). Mainstream and non-mainstream scientific literature in four peripheral Asian scientific communities. Scientometrics, 15: 215–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02017200
    Davis, M. (1991). Thinking like an engineer: The place of a code of ethics in the practice of a profession. Philosophy and Public Affairs, 20: 150–67.
    Davis, Natalie Zemon (1975). Society and culture in early modern France. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Davis-Floyd, Robbie E. (1992). Birth as an American rite of passage. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    {Davy, Layton & Jenkins (1993)}: see Layton, Jenkins, Macgill & Davey (1993).
    Day, Charles R. (1978). The making of mechanical engineers in France: The Ecoles d'Arts et Métiers, 1803–1914. French Historical Studies, 10/2 (Spring): 439–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/286339
    Day, Charles R. (1987). Education for the industrial world: The Ecoles d'Arts et Métiers and the rise of French industrial engineering. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Dean, Genevieve (1972). Science, technology, and development: China as a “case study.” The China Quarterly, 51: 520–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0305741000052279
    Dean, Jonathan (1992). Constraining technological innovation in weapons. In Hans Günter Brauch, Henny J. van der Graaf, John Grin & Wim A. Smit (eds), Controlling destabilizing R&D and the export of dual use technology: Lessons from the past and challenges for the 1990s: 35–41. Amsterdam: Free University Press.
    Dear, Peter (1985). Totius in Verba: Rhetoric and authority in the early Royal Society. Isis, 76: 145–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/353797
    Dear, Peter (1987). Jesuit mathematical science and the reconstruction of experience in the early 17th century. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 18: 133–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0039-3681%2887%2990016-1
    Dear, Peter (Ed.) (1991). The literary structure of scientific argument: Historical studies. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    Deaux, Kay & Emswiller, Tim (1974). Explanations of successful performance in sex-linked tasks. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 22: 80–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0035733
    De Bruin, Renger E., Braam, Robert R. & Moed, Henk F. (1991). Bibliometric lines in the sand. Nature, 349 (14 February): 559–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/349559a0
    Dedijer, Stevan (1963). Underdeveloped science in underdeveloped countries. Minerva, 2: 61–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01100781
    Deem, Rosemary (Ed.) (1980). Schooling for women's work. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Defense Science Board (1988). The defense industrial and technology base (Summer study, October). Washington, DC: Department of Defense, Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition.
    DeGregori, Thomas R. (1985). A theory of technology: Continuity and change in human development. Ames: Iowa State University Press.
    Delacroix, Jacques & Ragin, Charles C. (1981). Structural blockage: A cross-national study of economic dependency, state efficacy, and underdevelopment. American Journal of Sociology, 86/6 (May): 1311–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/227387
    Delamont, Sara (1987). Three blind spots? A comment on the sociology of science by a puzzled outsider. Social Studies of Science, 17/1 (February): 163–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631287017001008
    DeLauer, Richard D. (1989). The good of it and its problems. [Special issue: Universities and the military]. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science: 502: 130–40. {de la Vega}: see Vega. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002716289502001010
    Del Campo, Enrique Martin (1989). Technology and the world economy: The case of the American hemisphere. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 35: 351–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0040-1625%2889%2990071-1
    Deleuze, Giles & Guattari, Felix (1987). A thousand plateaus: Capitalism and schizophrenia. Minneapolis, MN: Minneapolis University Press.
    Demchak, Chris C. (1991). Military organizations, complex machines: Modernization in the US armed services. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. {DeMey}: see Mey.
    Dennis, Michael A. (1987). Accounting for research: New histories of corporate laboratories and the social history of American science. Social Studies of Science, 17/3 (August): 479–518. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631287017003005
    Dennis, Michael A. {1992}/(1994). “Our first line of defense”: Two university laboratories in the postwar American state. Isis, 85 (1994): 427–55.
    Derakshani, Shidan (1984). Factors affecting success in international transfers of technology: A synthesis and a test of a new contingency model. Developing Economies, 22: 27–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1049.1984.tb00650.x-->
    Dertouzos, Michael L. et al. (1991). Communications, computers, and networks. [Special issue]. Scientific American, 265/3 (September): 30–120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0991-62
    Desai, Ashok V. (1988). Technological performance in Indian industry: The influence of market structures and policies. In Desai (1988a): 1–29.
    Desai, Ashok V. (Ed.) (1988a). Technology absorption in Indian industry. Delhi: Wiley Eastern.
    Desmond, Adrian (1987). Artisan resistance and evolution in Britain, 1819–1848. Osiris, 2nd series, 3: 77–110.
    Deutch, John (1991)/{1990}. The foreign policy of U.S. universities. Science, 253 (2 August): 492. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1857972
    Devlin, Keith (1991). A yen for teamwork. The Guardian (12 December): 31. {de Vries}: see Vries.
    Diamond, Stanley (1974). In search of the primitive: A critique of civilization. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
    DiBella, Suzan M., Ferri, Anthony J. & Padderud, Allan B. (1991). Scientists' reasons for consenting to mass media interviews: A national survey. Journalism Quarterly, 68/4: 740–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107769909106800415
    Dickens, Peter (1992). Society and nature: Towards a green social theory. New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Dickson, David (1979). Science and political hegemony in the 17th century. Radical Science Journal, 8: 7–37.
    Dickson, David (1984). The new politics of science. New York: Pantheon.
    Dickson, David (1987). OECD to set rules for international science. Science, 238 (6 November): 743. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.238.4828.743
    Dickson, David (1988). The new politics of science (
    2nd ed.
    ). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Dietz, T., Stern, P. & Rycroft, R. (1989). Definitions of conflict and the legitimation of resources: The case of environmental risk. Sociological Forum, 4: 47–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01112616
    Dijksterhuis, Eduard Jan (1961). The mechanization of the world picture. Oxford, UK: Clarendon.
    Dijkstra, Edsger (1989). On the cruelty of really teaching computing science (with replies by others). Communications of the ACM, 32/12: 1398–414.
    DiMaggio, Paul J. & Powell, Walter W. (1983). The iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. American Sociological Review, 48: 147–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095101
    Dimento, Joseph (1977). Citizen environmental litigation and administrative process. Duke Law Journal, 22: 409–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1372042
    Dinnerstein, Dorothy (1977). The mermaid and the minotaur. New York: Harper & Row.
    Disco, Cornelius (1990). Made in Delft: Professional engineering in the Netherlands, 1880–1940. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam Press.
    Disco, Cornelius, Rip, Arie & van der Meulen, Barend (1992)/{1990}. Technical innovation and the universities: Divisions of labour in cosmopolitan technical regimes. Social Science Information, 31/3: 465–507. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/053901892031003003
    DiSessa, Andrea (1985). Intuition as knowledge: Final report, laboratory for computer science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Divall, Colin (1990). A measure of agreement: Employers and engineering studies in the universities of England and Wales, 1897–1939. Social Studies of Science, 20/1 (February): 65–112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631290020001003
    Divall, Colin (1991). Fundamental science versus design: Employers and engineering studies in British universities, 1935–1976. Minerva, 29: 166–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01096407
    Diwan, Romesh & Kallianpur, Renu (1985). Biological technology and land productivity: Fertilizers and food production in India. World Development, 13: 627–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X%2885%2990026-9
    Dix, Linda S. (Ed.) (1987a). Women: Their underrepresentation and career differentials in science and engineering. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    Dix, Linda S. (Ed.) (1987b). Minorities: Their underrepresentation and career differentials in science and engineering. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    Dobson, Andrew (1990). Green political thought. London: Unwin Hyman.
    Donohue, George A., Tichenor, Phillip J. & Olien, Clarice N. (1973). Mass media functions, knowledge, and social control. Journalism Quarterly, 50: 652–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107769907305000404
    Donovan, Arthur (1986). Thinking about technology. Technology and Culture, 27: 674–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3105322
    Doorman, S. J. (Ed.) (1989). Images of science: Scientific practice and the public. Aldershot, UK: Gower.
    Doran, Chris (1989). Grasping reflexivity. Social Studies of Science, 19/4 (November): 755–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631289019004015
    Dore, Ronald (1989). Technology in a world of national frontiers. World Development, 17: 1665–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X%2889%2990192-7
    Dorf, Richard C. (1974). Technology and society. San Francisco, CA: Boyd & Fraser.
    Dornan, Christopher (1988). The “problem” of science and the media: A few seminal texts in their context, 1956–1965. Journal of Communication Inquiry, 12/2: 53–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019685998801200205
    Dornan, Christopher (1990). Some problems in conceptualizing the issue of “science and the media.” Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 7: 48–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15295039009360163
    Dosi, Giovant (1984). Technical change and industrial transformation: The theory and an application to the semiconductor industry. London: Macmillan.
    Dosi, Giovant, Freeman, Chris, Nelson, Richard, Silverberg, Gerald & Soete, Luc (eds) (1988). Technical change and economic theory. London: Frances Pinter.
    Dougherty, Kevin & Etzkowitz, Henry {in press}/(1993). The hidden industrial policy: Science and technology policy at the state level. Paper presented at the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting.
    Douglas, Mary (1966). Purity and danger: An analysis of concepts of pollution and taboo. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul/New York: Praeger. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203361832
    Douglas, Mary (1970). Natural symbols: Explorations in cosmology. London: Barrie & Rockliff/Cresset Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203426623
    Douglas, Mary (1975). Deciphering a meal. In Mary Douglas, Implicit meanings: Essays in anthropology: 249–75. London & Boston, MA: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Douglas, Mary (Ed.) (1982). Essays in the sociology of perception. London & Boston, MA: Routledge & Kegan Paul with Russell Sage.
    Douglas, Mary (1986a). How institutions think. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press/London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Douglas, Mary (1986b). Risk acceptability according to the social sciences. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul/New York: Basic Books.
    Douglas, Mary & Wildavsky {Wildawsky}, Aaron {1984}/(1982). Risk and culture: An essay on the selection of technical and environmental dangers. Berkeley & London: University of California Press.
    Douglas, Susan (1987). Inventing American broadcasting, 1899–1922. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Downey, Gary Lee (1986). Ideology and the clamshell identity. Cultural Anthropology, 33: 35–37.
    Downey, Gary Lee (1992a). CAD/CAM saves the nation? Toward an anthropology of technology. Knowledge and Society, 9: 143–68.
    Downey, Gary Lee (1992b). Human agency in CAD/CAM technology. Anthropology Today, 8: 2–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2783567
    Downey, Gary Lee {1992c}/(1995). Steering technology through computer-aided design. In Rip, Misa & Schot (1995): 83–110.
    Downey, Gary Lee {in press-a}/(1998). The machine in me: An anthropologist sits among computer engineers. New York: Routledge.
    Downey, Gary Lee (in press-b). Training engineers as boundary subjects. Unpublished manuscript.
    Downey, Gary Lee, Donovan, Arthur & Elliott, Timothy J. (1989). The invisible engineer: How engineering ceased to be a problem in science and technology studies. Knowledge and Society, 8: 189–216.
    {Downey, Hegg & Lucena (in press)}/Downey, Gary Lee & Lucena, Juan C. (1998). Engineering selves: Hiring in to a contested field of education. In Gary Downey & Joseph Dumit (eds), Cyborgs and citadels: Anthropological interventions in emerging sciences and technologies: 117–41. Santa Fe, NM: School for American Research Press.
    Drake, Karl & Wildavsky, Aaron (1990). Theories of risk perception: Who fears what and why? Daedalus, 11 9/4: 41–60.
    Dresselhaus, Mildred S. (1984). Responsibilities of women faculty in engineering schools. In Hass & Perrucci (1984): 128–36.
    Dreyfus, Hubert (1972). What computers can't do. New York: Harper & Row (
    2nd ed.
    , 1979).
    Drori, Gili S. {in press}/(1993). The relationship between science, technology and the economy in lesser developed countries. Social Studies of Science, 23/1 (February): 201–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631293023001007
    Dubeck, Leroy W., Mosher, Suzanne & Boss, Judith E. (1988). Science in cinema: Teaching science fact through science fiction films. New York: Teacher's College Press.
    Dubinskas, Frank A. (Ed.) (1988). Making time: Ethnographies of high-technology organizations. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
    Dulong, Renaud & Ackermann, Werner (1971). Popularisation of science for adults. Social Sci-ence Information, 11/1: 113–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/053901847201100109
    Dumas, Lloyd J. (Ed.) (1982). The political economy of arms reduction: Reversing economic decay. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Dunlop, Charles & Kling, Rob (eds) (1991). Computerization and controversy. New York: Academic Press.
    Dunn, Peter D. (1978). Appropriate technology: Technology with a human face. London: Macmillan.
    Dunwoody, Sharon (1980). The science writing inner club: A communication link between science and the lay public. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 5/1 (Winter): 14–22.
    Dunwoody, Sharon (1982). A question of accuracy. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, PC-25 (December): 196–99.
    Dunwoody, Sharon & Long, Marilee (compilers) (1991). Annotated bibliography of research on mass media science communication. Madison: University of Wisconsin, Center for Environmental Communications and Education Studies.
    Dunwoody, Sharon & Scott, Byron T. (1982). Scientists as mass media sources. Journalism Quarterly, 59: 52–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107769908205900108
    Dupree, A. Hunter (1964). Science in the federal government: A history of policies and activities to 1940. New York: Harper & Row.
    Dupree, A. Hunter (1990). Science policy in the United States: The legacy of John Quincy Adams. Minerva, 28: 259–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01096291
    Durant, John (Ed.) (1992). Media coverage of Chernobyl. [Special issue]. Public Understanding of Science, 1/3 (July).
    Durant, John (Ed.) (1992a). Biotechnology in public: A review of recent research. London: Science Museum.
    Durant, John R., Evans, Geoffrey A. & Thomas, Geoffrey P. (1989). The public understanding of science. Nature, 340 (6 July): 11–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/340011a0
    Durant, John R., Evans, Geoffrey A. & Thomas, Geoffrey P. (1992). Public understanding of science in Britain: The role of medicine in the popular representation of science. Public Understanding of Science, 1/3 (July): 161–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0963-6625/1/2/002
    Durant, John R., Miller, Jon D., Tchernia, J. & van Deelen, W. (1991). Europeans, science and technology. Paper presented to the AAAS Annual Meeting, Washington, DC.
    Durbin, Paul T. (Ed.) (various years). Research in philosophy and technology (various vols). London & Greenwich, CT: JAI.
    Durkheim, Émile (1938). The rules of sociological method. New York: Free Press. (Original work published 1895)
    Durkheim, Émile (1961). The elementary forms of the religious life. New York: Collier.
    Duster, Troy (1990). Backdoor to eugenics. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Easlea, Brian (1980). Witch hunting, magic, and the new philosophy. Brighton, UK: Harvester.
    Easton, David (1958). The political system. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
    Ebadi, Y. M. & Dilts, D. A. (1986). The relation between research and development project performance and technical communication in a developing country: Afghanistan. Management Science, 32: 822–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.32.7.822
    Eckaus, Richard S. (1987). Appropriate technology: The movement has only a few clothes on. Issues in Science and Technology, 3/2: 62–71.
    Eco, Umberto (1983). The name of the rose (trans. W. Weaver). London: Martin Secker & Warburg.
    Edelman, Murray (1985). The symbolic uses of politics. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
    Edelstein, Michael R. (1988). Contaminated communities. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Edge, David (1974). Moral education and the study of science. In K. Gerald Collier, Peter Tomlinson & John Wilson (eds), Values and moral development in higher education: 147–59. London: Croom Helm.
    Edge, David (1975). On the purity of science. In W. Roy Niblett (Ed.), The sciences, the humanities, and the technological threat: 42–64. London: University of London Press.
    Edge, David (1977). Why I am not a co-citationist. 4S Newsletter, 2/3: 13–19.
    Edge, David (1979). Quantitative measures of communication in science: A critical review. History of Science, 17: 102–34.
    Edge, David (1985). Dominant scientific methodological views: Alternatives and their implications. In David Gosling & Bert Musschenga (eds), Science education and ethical values: Introducing ethics and religion into the science classroom and laboratory: 1–9. Geneva: WCC Publications/Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
    Edge, David (1988a). Twenty years of science studies in Edinburgh. In Evelies Mayer (Ed.), Ordnung, rationalisierung, kontrolle (Symposium an der Technischen Hochschule Darmstadt vom 7. bis 9. Mai 1987): 17–29. THD-schriftenreihe wissenschaft und technik, 42.
    Edge, David (1988b). Review. British Journal of Educational Studies, 36/1: 76–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3121602
    Edge, David (1990). Competition in modern science. In Tore Frängsmyr (Ed.), Solomon's house revisited: The organization & institutionalization of science: 208–32. Canton, MA: Science History Publications.
    Edgerton, David (1992). British scientists and engineers and the relations of science, technology and war. Unpublished paper presented at the 4S-EASST joint Conference, Göteborg (12–15 August).
    Edgerton, David (1993). Tilting at paper tigers. British Journal for the History of Science, 26: 67–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087400030144
    Edmondson, Ricco (1984). Rhetoric in sociology. London: Macmillan.
    Edquist, Charles (1985). Capitalism, socialism and technology: A comparative study of Cuba and Jamaica. London: Zed Books.
    Edwards, Derek & Mercer, Neil (1987). Common knowledge: The development of understanding in the classroom. London: Routledge.
    Edwards, Paul N. (1987). A history of computers in weapons systems. In David Bellin & Gary Chapman (eds), Computers in battle: 45–60. New York: Harcourt.
    Edwards, Paul N. (1989). The closed world: Systems discourse, military policy, and post-WWII U.S. historical consciousness. In Levidow & Robins (1989): 135–58.
    Edwards, Paul N. (1990). The army and the microworld: Computers and the militarized politics of gender. Signs, 16/1: 102–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/494647-->
    Edwards, Paul N. {1991}/(1994). Hyper text and hypertension: Post-structuralist critical theory, social studies of science and software. Social Studies of Science, 24/2 (May 1994): 229–78. Original paper delivered at 4S Annual Meeting, Cambridge, MA (November 1991). http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631279402400203
    Edwards, Paul N. {in press}/(1996). The closed world: Computers and the politics of discourse in Cold War America. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Eichler, Margrit (1986). The relationship between sexist, non-sexist, woman-centered and feminist research. Studies in Communication, 3: 37–74.
    Einsiedel, Edna F. (1992). Framing science and technology in the Canadian press. Public Understanding of Science, 7/1 (January): 89–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0963-6625/1/1/011
    Eisemon, Thomas Owen (1980). Scientists in Africa. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 36: 17–22.
    Eisemon, Thomas Owen (1982). The science profession in the Third World. New York: Praeger.
    Eisenstein, Elizabeth (1979). The printing press as an agent of change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Eisenstein, Hester (1984). Contemporary feminist thought. London: Allen & Unwin.
    Eliade, Mircea (1972). Shamanism: Archaic techniques of ecstasy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Elliott, David & Elliott, Ruth (1976). The control of technology. London: Wykeham.
    Ellis, Jacques (1987). The social history of the machine gun. London: Cresset Library. (Reprint of 1975 ed.)
    Ellul, Jacques (1964). The technological society. New York: Knopf. Published in French as La Technique ou l'enjeu du siècle. Paris: Librairie Armand Colin (1954).
    Elster, Jon (1983). Explaining technical change: A case study in the philosophy of science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Elzen, Boelie, Enserink, Bert & Smit, Wim A. (1990). Weapon innovation: Networks and guiding principles. Science and Public Policy, 17/1: 171–93.
    Elzinga, Aant (1980). “Science studies” in Sweden. Social Studies of Science, 10/2 (May): 181–214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631278001000204
    Elzinga, Aant (1981). Evaluating the evaluation game: On the methodology of project evaluation with special reference to development cooperation. Stockholm: Swedish Agency for Research Cooperation (SAREC) R1.
    Elzinga, Aant (1985). Research, bureaucracy and the drift of epistemic criteria. In Wittrock & Elzinga (1985): 191–220.
    Elzinga, Aant (1988). Bernalism, Comintern and the science of science: Critical science movements then and now. In Annerstedt & Jamison (1988): 87–113.
    Elzinga, Aant (1990). Large scale military funding induces culture clash. Space Policy (August): 187–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0265-9646%2890%2990062-3
    Engelhardt {Engelhart}, H. Tristram, Jr. & Caplan, Arthur L. (eds) (1987). Scientific controversies: Case studies in the resolution and closure of disputes in science and technology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511628719
    England, J. Merlon (1983). A patron for pure science: The National Science Foundation's formative years, 1945–57. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation.
    Enos, John L. & Park, William H. (1984). The adoption and diffusion of imported technology: The case of Korea. London: Croom Helm.
    Enserink, Bert, Smit, Wim A. & Elzen, Boelie (1990). Assessments and the B-1 bomber network. Project Appraisal, 5/4: 235–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02688867.1990.9726779
    Environmental Health Center (1990). Chemicals, the press, and the public: A journalist's guide to reporting on chemicals in the community. Washington, DC: National Safety Council, Environmental Health Center.
    Enzensberger, Hans-Magnus (1974). A critique of political ecology. New Left Review, 84: 3–31.
    Erber, Fabio Stefano (1985). The development of the “electronics complex” and government policies in Brazil. World Development, 13: 293–309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X%2885%2990132-9
    Ernst, Dieter (1981). Technology policy for self-reliance: Some major issues. International Social Science Journal, 33: 466–80.
    Esch, Marvin L. (1972). [Statement from the 92nd Congress, 2nd Session]. Congressional Record (8 February): 3200.
    Etzkowitz, Henry (1983)/{1984}. Entrepreneurial scientists and entrepreneurial universities in American academic science. Minerva, 21: 198–233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01097964
    Etzkowitz, Henry (1988). The making of an entrepreneurial university: The traffic among MIT, industry and the military, 1860–1960. In Mendelsohn, Smith, & Weingart (1988): 515–40.
    Etzkowitz, Henry (1989). Entrepreneurial science in the academy: A case of the transformation of norms. Social Problems, 36/1: 14–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/sp.1989.36.1.03a00020
    Etzkowitz, Henry (1990a). The capitalization of knowledge. Theory and Society, 19: 107–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00148456
    Etzkowitz, Henry (1990b)/{1990}. The second academic revolution: The role of the research university in economic development. In Cozzens, Healey, Rip & Ziman (1990): 109–24. {cited as (1990) on p. 612}
    Etzkowitz, Henry (1991a). Inventions. In Encyclopedia of sociology. New York: Macmillan.
    Etzkowitz, Henry (1991b). Regional industrial and science policy in the United States. Science and Technology Policy, 4 (April): 10–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02693085
    Etzkowitz, Henry (1992a)/{1992}/{1991}. Individual investigators and their research groups. Minerva, 30/1 (Spring): 28–50. {cited as (1992) on p. 487 & (1991) on p. 501} http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01096395
    Etzkowitz, Henry {1992b}/{1992}/(1993). Redesigning Solomon's house: The university and the internationalization of science and business. In Crawford, Shinn & Sörlin (1993). {cited as (1992) on p. 488}
    Etzkowitz, Henry (1992c)/{1992}. Capitalizing science in post-socialist eastern Europe. Unpublished manuscript. {cited as (1992) on p. 485}
    Etzkowitz, Henry (1993a). The National Science Foundation and United States industrial and science policy. Science and Technology Policy, 6 (February): 10–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02696280
    Etzkowitz, Henry (1993b). Enterprises from science: The origins of science-based regional economic development and the venture capital firm. Minerva, 31/3 (Autumn): 326–60. {cited as (1993) on p. 499} http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01098626
    Etzkowitz, Henry (in press). The second academic revolution: MIT and the rise of the entrepreneurial university. London: Gordon & Breach.
    {Etzkowitz, Balazs, Healey, Stankiewicz & Webster (1992)}: see Webster (1994).
    Etzkowitz, Henry & Peters, Lois (1991). Profit from knowledge: Organizational innovations and normative change in American universities. Minerva, 29/2 (Summer): 133–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01096406
    Evangelista, Matthew (1988). Innovation and the arms race: How the United States and the Soviet Union develop military technologies. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Evans, Peter B. (1979). Dependent development: The alliance of multinational, state and local capital in Brazil. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Evans, Peter B. (1986). State, capital, and the transformation of dependence: The Brazilian computer case. World Development, 14: 791–808. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X%2886%2990032-X
    Evans, Peter B., Rueschemeyer, Dietrich & Skocpol, Theda (1985). Bringing the state back in. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511628283
    Evans, Peter B. & Stephens, John D. (1988). Development in the world economy. In Neil Smelser (Ed.), Handbook of sociology: 739–73. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Evans, Peter B. & Timberlake, Michael (1980). Dependence, inequality and the growth of the tertiary: A comparative analysis of less developed countries. American Sociological Review, 48: 421–28.
    Evans, William A., Krippendorf, Michael, Yoon, Jae H., Posluszny, Paulette & Thomas, Sari (1990). Science in the prestige and national tabloid presses. Social Science Quarterly, 71/1: 105–17.
    Evered, David & O'Connor, Maeve (eds) (1987). Communicating science to the public. Chichester, UK: Wiley.
    Eyerman, Ron & Jamison, Andrew (1991). Social movements: A cognitive approach. Cambridge, UK: Polity.
    Ezrahi, Yaron (1971). The political resources of American science. Science Studies, 1/2 (April): 117–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631277100100201
    Ezrahi, Yaron {1980}/(1979). Science and the problem of authority in democracy. In Gieryn (1980): 43–60.
    Ezrahi, Yaron (1990)/{1991}. The descent of Icarus: Science and the transformation of contemporary democracy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Fagen, M. D. (1978). A history of engineering and science in the Belt system. Murray Hill, NJ: Bell Telephone Laboratories.
    Fahnestock, Joanne (1989). Arguing in different forums: The Bering Strait crossover controversy. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 14/1 (Winter): 26–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016224398901400103
    Fairchild, Loretta G. & Sosin, K. (1986). Evaluating differences in technological activity between transnational and domestic firms in Latin America. Journal of Development Studies, 22: 697–708. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00220388608422006
    Fairclough, Sir John (1992). Sizzling start for the white heat. Times Higher Education Supplement (23 October): 17.
    Fangyi, Huang (1987). China's introduction of foreign technology and external trade: Analysis and options. Asian Survey, 27: 577–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/as.1987.27.5.01p00597
    Farley, John (1982). Gametes and spores. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Farrall, Lyndsay (1981). Knowledge and its preservation in oral cultures. In D. Denoon & R. Lacey (eds), Oral traditions in Melanesia: 71–86. Port Moresby: Institute of Papua New Guinea Studies.
    Faulkner, Wendy & Arnold, Erik (eds) (1985). Smothered by invention: Technology in women's lives. London: Pluto.
    Fausto-Sterling, Anne (1989). Life in the XY Corral. Women's Studies International Forum, 12/3: 319–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-5395%2889%2980009-3
    Favereau, Olivier {in press}/(1994). Règies, organisation et apprentissage collectif. In André Orléan (Ed.), Analyse économique des conventions: 132–57. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
    Fayard, Pierre (1988). La communication scientifique publique: De la vulgarisation a la mediatisation. Lyon: Chronique sociale.
    Feldberg, Roslyn & Glenn, Evelyn Nakano (1983). Technology and work degradation: Effects of office automation on women clerical workers. In Rothschild (1983): 59–78.
    Feldt, Barbara (1986). The faculty cohort study: School of medicine. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Office of Affirmative Action.
    Ferber, Marianne & Kordick, Betty (1978). Sex differentials in the earnings of PhDs. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 31: 227–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2522390
    Ferguson, Eugene (1992). Engineering and the mind's eye. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Ferguson, Herman A. (1988). Delta-Visie: Een terugblik op 40 jaar natte waterbouw in Zuidwest-Nederland. ‘s-Gravenhage: Rijkswaterstaat.
    Feyerabend, Paul (1975). Against method. London: New Left Books.
    Fidell, Linda S. (1975). Empirical verification of sex discrimination in hiring practices in psychology. In Rhonda K. Unger & Florence L. Denmark (eds), Woman: Dependent or independent variable?: 773–85. New York: Psychological Dimensions.
    Figert, Anne E. (1992). Women and the ownership of PMS: The professional, gendered and scientific structuring of a psychiatric disorder. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, Bloomington.
    Finnegan, Ruth & Horton, Robin (eds) (1973). Modes of thought. London: Faber.
    Fischer, Amy Weaver & McKenney, James L. (1993). The development of the ERMA banking system: Lessons from history. IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, 15/1: 44–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/85.194091
    Fischer, Claude (1988). “Touch someone”: The telephone industry discovers sociability. Technology and Culture, 29: 32–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3105226
    Fischer, Frank (1990). Technocracy and the politics of expertise. London: Sage.
    Fischer, William A. (1984). Scientific and technological planning in the People's Republic of China. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 25: 189–208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0040-1625%2884%2990001-5
    Fisher, Donald (1990). Boundary work and science: The relation between power and knowledge. In Cozzens & Gieryn (1990): 98–119.
    Fisher, Lawrence (1992). Texas Instruments gets chip case ruling. The New York Times (22 February): 39.
    Fiske, Richard S. (1984). Volcanologists, journalists, and the concerned local public: A tale of two crises in the eastern Caribbean. In Geophysics Study Committee, Geophysics Research Forum, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics & Resources, NRC, Studies in geophysics: Explosive volcanism: Inception, evolution, and hazards: 170–76. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    Fitchen, Jance M., Fessenden Raden, June & Heath, Jennifer S. (1987). Providing risk information in communities: Factors influencing what is heard and accepted. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 12/3–4: 94–101.
    Fitzgerald, Deborah (1986). Exporting American agriculture: The Rockefeller Foundation in Mexico, 1943–1953. Social Studies of Science, 16/3 (August): 457–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631286016003003
    Flamm, Kenneth (1987). Targeting the computer: Government support and international competition. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
    Flamm, Kenneth (1988). Creating the computer: Government, industry and high technology. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
    Fleck, Jamie (1987). Development and establishment of artificial intelligence. In Bloomfield (1987a): 106–64.
    Fleck, Ludwik (1935). Entstehung und Entwicklung einer Wissenschaftlichen Tatsache. English translation published as Genesis and development of a scientific fact (1979). Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press. New German edition (1980), with an introduction by Lother Schäfer & Thomas Schnelle. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.
    Fleron, Fredric (Ed.) (1977). Technology and communist culture. New York: Praeger.
    Fletcher, Ronald (1991). Science, ideology and the media: The Cyril Burt scandal. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
    {Flores (1989)}/Flores, Albert (1982). The philosophical bases of engineering codes of ethics. In James H. Schaub & Sheila K. Dickerson (eds), Engineering and humanities: 219–76. New York: John Wiley.
    Flores-Moya, Piedad, Evenson, Robert E. & Yujiro Hayami (1978). Social returns to rice research in the Philippines: Domestic benefits and foreign spillover. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 26: 591–608. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/451041
    Florman, Samuel (1968). Engineering and the liberal arts. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Florman, Samuel (1976). The existential pleasures of engineering. New York: St. Martin's.
    Florman, Samuel (1981). Blaming technology: The irrational search for scapegoats. New York: St. Martin's.
    Florman, Samuel (1987). The civilized engineer. New York: St. Martin's.
    Fores, Michael (1988). Transformations and the myth of “engineering science”: Magic in a white coat. Technology and Culture, 29: 62–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3105227
    Forester, Tom (Ed.) (1989). Computers in the human context. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Forgan, Sophie (1989). The architecture of science and the idea of a university. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 20: 405–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0039-3681%2889%2990017-4
    Forje, John W. (1986). Two decades of science and technology in Africa. Science and Public Policy, 13: 89–96.
    Forman, Paul (1987). Behind quantum electronics: National security as basis for physical research in the United States, 1940–1960. Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences, 18/1: 149–229.
    Forrester, Jay W. (1946–1948). Computation books. Cambridge, MA: MIT Archives.
    Forrester, Jay W., Boyd, Hugh R., Everett, Robert E. & Fahnestock, Harris (1948). A plan for digital information handling equipment in the military (Project DIC 6345). Cambridge, MA: MIT Servomechanisms Laboratory.
    Forsyth, David, McBain, Norman S. & Solomon, Robert F. (1980). Technical rigidity and appropriate technology in less developed countries. World Development, 9: 371–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X%2880%2990072-8
    Forsythe, Diana E. (1987). Engineering knowledge: An anthropological study of an artificial intelligence laboratory. Paper presented at the 12th Annual 4S Meeting, Worcester, MA (19–22 November).
    Forsythe, Diana E. (1993a). Engineering knowledge: The construction of knowledge in artificial intelligence. Social Studies of Science, 23/3 (August): 445–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306312793023003002
    Forsythe, Diana E. (1993b). The construction of work in artificial intelligence. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 18/4 (Autumn): 460–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016224399301800404
    Forsythe, Diana E. & Buchanan, B. G. (1988). An empirical study of knowledge elicitation: Some pitfalls and suggestions. In P. E Lehner & L. Adelman (eds), Methods in Knowledge Engineering. [Special issue]. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 18.
    Forsythe, Diana E. & Buchanan, B. G. (1989). Knowledge acquisition for expert systems: Some pitfalls and suggestions. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 19/3 (May/June): 435–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/21.31050
    Forsythe, Diana E. & Buchanan, B. G. (1991). Non-technical problems in knowledge engineering: Suggestions for project managers. In J. Liebowitz (Ed.), Proceedings of the World Congress of Expert Systems. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon.
    Foucault, Michel (1970). The order of things. New York: Random House.
    Foucault, Michel (1975). Surveiller et Punir. Paris: Gallimard.
    Foucault, Michel (1980). Power/knowledge: Selected interviews and other writings 1972–77 (ed. Colin Gordon). New York: Pantheon.
    Foucault, Michel (1984). Space, knowledge, power. In Paul Rabinow (Ed.), The Foucault reader: 239–56. New York: Pantheon.
    Fowler, Roger (1977). Linguistics and the novel. London: Methuen.
    Fox, Daniel M. & Lawrence, Christopher (1988). Photographing medicine: Images and power in Britain and America since 1840. New York: Greenwood.
    Fox, Mary Frank (1981). Sex, salary, and achievement: Reward-dualism in academia. Sociology of Education, 54: 71–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2112352
    Fox, Mary Frank (1991). Gender, environmental milieu, and productivity in science. In Zuckerman, Cole & Bruer (1991): 188–204.
    Fox, Mary Frank & Faver, Catherine (1985). Men, women, and publication productivity. Sociological Quarterly, 26: 537–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1985.tb00243.x
    Fox, Mary Frank & Hesse-Biber, Sharlene (1984). Women at work. Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield.
    Fox, Patrick (1989). From senility to Alzheimer's disease: The rise of the Alzheimer's disease movement. Milbank Quarterly, 67/1: 58–102. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3350070
    Frake, Charles (1962). The ethnographic study of cognitive systems. In Thomas Gladwin et al. (eds), Anthropology and human behaviour: 72–85, 91–93. Seattle: Anthropology Society of Washington.
    Fraley, Pierre C. (1963). The education and training of science writers. Journalism Quarterly, 40: 323–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107769906304000306
    Frame, J. Davidson, Narin, Francis & Carpenter, Mark P. (1977). The distribution of world science. Social Studies of Science, 7/4 (November): 501–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631277700700414
    Franke, Richard H. (1989). Technological revolution and productivity decline: The case of U.S. banks. In Forester (1989): 281–90.
    Frankena, Frederick & Frankena, Joann Koelin (1988). Citizen participation in environmental affairs, 1970–1986: A bibliography. New York: AMS Press.
    Franklin, H. Bruce (1988). War stars: The superweapon and the American imagination. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Fransman, Martin (1985). Conceptualising technical change in the Third World in the 1980s: An interpretive survey. Journal of Development Studies, 21: 572–652. Republished as Technology and economic development (1986). Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Frazier, Kendrick (1986). People of Chaco: A canyon and its culture. New York: Norton.
    Freeman, Christopher (1969). Measurement of output of research and experimental development: A review paper. Paris: UNESCO.
    Freeman, Christopher (1977). Economics of research and development. In Spiegel-Rösing & Price (1977): 223–75.
    Freeman, Christopher (1982). The economics of industrial innovation. London: Frances Pinter.
    Freeman, Christopher (1987). Technology policy and economic performance: Lessons from Japan. London: Frances Pinter.
    Freeman, Christopher (1988). Quantitative and qualitative factors in national policies for science and technology. In Annerstedt & Jamison (1988): 114–28.
    Freeman, Christopher & Hagedoorn, John (1992). Globalisation of technology (Monitor-Fast paper). Brussels: Commission of the European Communities.
    Freeman, Christopher, Sharp, Margaret & Walker, William (eds) (1991). Technology and the future of Europe. London: Frances Pinter.
    Frei, Daniel (1982). Risks of unintentional nuclear war. Geneva: United Nations.
    Freidson, Eliot (1970). Profession of medicine. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Freier, Shalheveth (1991). Report on the International Forum on Government and Science. In Golden (1991): 15–27.
    Frenkel, Karen A. (1990). Women & computing. Communications of the ACM, 33/11: 34–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/92755.92756
    Freudenburg, Nicholas (1984). Not in our backyards! New York: Monthly Review Press.
    Freudenburg, William R. (1988). Perceived risk, real risk: Social science and the art of probabilistic risk assessment. Science, 242 (7 October): 44–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.3175635
    Freudenburg, William R. (1992). Heuristics, biases and not-so-general publics. In Krimsky & Golding (1992): 229–50.
    Freudenthal, Gad (1986). Atom and individual in the age of Newton. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Reidel. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-4500-5
    Freudenthal, Gad (1990). Science studies in France: A sociological view. Social Studies of Science, 20/2 (May): 353–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631290020002007
    Frieden, Jeffrey A. (1991). Invested interests: The politics of national economic policies in a world of global finance. International Organization, 4: 425–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300033178
    Friedman, Alan J. (1987). The influence of pseudoscience, parascience and science fiction. In Evered & O'Connor (1987): 190–204.
    Friedman, Sharon & Friedman, Kenneth (1988). Reporting on the environment: A handbook for journalists. Bangkok: Asian Forum of Environmental Journalists.
    Friedman, Sharon M. (1989). TMI: The media story that will not die. In Walters, Wilkins & Walters (1989): 161–70.
    Friedman, Sharon M., Dunwoody, Sharon & Rogers, Carol L. (eds) (1986). Scientists and journalists: Reporting science as news. New York: Free Press.
    Friends of the Earth UK (FoE) (1990). Annual report and accounts 1989/90. London: FoE.
    Fries, Sylvia D. (1984). The ideology of science during the Nixon years: 1970–76. Social Studies of Science, 14/3 (August): 323–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631284014003001
    Frischtak, Claudio {1991}/(1992). Harmonization vs. differentiation in IPR regimes. Paper presented at the conference on “Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology,” National Research Council, Washington, DC.
    Fuchs, Stephen (1992). The professional quest for truth: A social theory of science and knowledge. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Fuhrman, Ellsworth R. & Oehler, Kay (1986). Discourse analysis and reflexivity. Social Studies of Science, 16/2 (May): 293–307. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306312786016002005
    Fujimura, Joan H. (1987). Constructing “do-able” problems in cancer research: Articulating alignment. Social Studies of Science, 17/2 (May): 257–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631287017002003
    Fujimura, Joan H. (1988). The molecular biological bandwagon in cancer research: Where social worlds meet. Social Problems, 35/3: 261–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/sp.1988.35.3.03a00050
    Fujimura, Joan H. (1992a). Crafting science: Standardized packages, boundary objects and “translation.” In Pickering (1992b): 168–211.
    Fujimura, Joan H. (1992b)/{n.d.}. Problem paths: A tool for dynamic analysis of situated scientific problem construction. Unpublished manuscript.
    Fuller, Steve (1988). Social epistemology. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press.
    Fuller, Steve (1992). STS as a social movement: On the purpose of graduate programs. Science, Technology & Society: Curriculum Newsletter of the Lehigh University STS Program & Technology Studies Resource Center, 91: 1–5.
    Fuller, Watson (Ed.) (1971). The social impact of modern biology. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Funtowicz, Silvio & Ravetz, Jerome (1990). Global environmental science and the emergence of second-order science (EUR 12803EN). Ispra, Italy: Joint Research Centre of the Commission of the European Communities.
    Fuqua, Don (1972). [Statement from the 92nd Congress, 2nd Session.] Congressional Record (8 February): 3209.
    Fusfeld, Herbert I. (1986). The technical enterprise: Present and future patterns. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.
    Fuss, Diana (1989). Essentially speaking: Feminism, nature and difference. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Fyfe, Gordon & Law, John (eds) (1988). Picturing power: Visual depiction and social relations, Sociological Review Monograph: 35. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Gabriel, Kathryn (1991). Roads to center place: A cultural atlas of Chaco Canyon and the Anasazi. Boulder, CO: Johnson.
    Gaddy, Gary D. & Tanjong, Enoh (1986). Earthquake coverage by the Western press: Testing geographical bias in international news. Journal of Communication, 36 (Spring): 105–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1986.tb01428.x-->
    Gaillard, Jacques (1991). Scientists in the Third World. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.
    Galbraith, John K. (1967). The new industrial state. London: Hamish Hamilton.
    Galison, Peter (1987). How experiments end. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Galison, Peter (1988). Physics between war and peace. In Mendelsohn, Smith & Weingart (1988): 47–86.
    Galison, Peter (1989)/{1990}). The trading zone: The coordination of action and belief. Preprint for TECH-KNOW Workshops on Places of Knowledge, Their Technologies and Economies. UCLA Center for Cultural History of Science and Technology, Los Angeles.
    Galison, Peter & Assmus, Alexi (1989). Artificial clouds, real particles. In Gooding, Pinch & Schaffer (1989): 225–74.
    Gambetta, Diego (Ed.) (1988). Trust: The making and breaking of cooperative relations. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
    Gang, Ira N. & Gangopadhyay, Shubhashis (1987). Employment, output and the choice of techniques: The trade-off revisited. Journal of Development Economics, 25: 321–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-3878%2887%2990088-5
    Gansler, Jacques S. (1980). The defense industry. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Gansler, Jacques S. (1988). The need—and opportunity—for greater integration of defence and civil technologies in the United States. In Gummett & Reppy (1988): 138–58.
    Gansler, Jacques S. (1989). Affording defense. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Ganz Brown, Carole & Rushing, Francis. (1990). Intellectual property rights in the 1990s. In Francis Rushing & Carole Ganz (Eds.), Intellectual property rights in science, technology and economic performance: 1–16. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Gardner, R. E. (1976). Women in engineering: The impact of attitudinal differences on educational institutions. Engineering Education, 67: 233–40.
    Garfield, Eugene (1983). Mapping science in the Third World. Science and Public Policy, 10: 112–27.
    Garfinkel, Harold, Lynch, Michael & Livingston, Eric (1981). The work of discovering science constructed with material from the optically discovered pulsar. Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 11: 131–58.
    Garson, Barbara (1988). The electronic sweatshop. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Garvey, William D. (1979). Communication: The essence of science—facilitating information exchange among librarians, scientists, engineers and students. Oxford, UK: Pergamon.
    Garwin, Richard L. & Bethe, Hans A. (1968). Anti-ballistic missile systems. Scientific American (March): 21–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0368-21
    Gastel, Barbara (1983). Presenting science to the public. Philadelphia, PA: ISI Press.
    Gaston, Jerry (1973). Originality and competition in science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Gaston, Jerry (1978). The reward system in British and American science. New York: John Wiley.
    Gauthier, Luc (1991). Construction de représentations visuelles et organisation spatio-temporelle des ressources en astronomie. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Montréal.
    Gayle, Dennis J., Denamark, Robert A. & Stiles, Kendall W. (1991–1992). International political economy: Evolution and prospects. International Studies Notes, 3/1: 64–68.
    Geertz, Clifford (1973a). The interpretation of culture. New York: Basic Books.
    Geertz, Clifford (1973b). Thick description: Toward an interpretive theory of culture. In C. Geertz, The interpretation of cultures: Selected essays: 3–32. New York: Basic Books.
    Geertz, Clifford (1983). Local knowledge: Further essays in interpretative anthropology. New York: Basic Books.
    Geertz, Clifford (1990). Alab of one's own. New York Review of Books, 37 (8 November): 19–23.
    Geiger, Roger L. (1986). To advance knowledge: The growth of American research universities, 1900–1940. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press.
    {Geller (1964)}: see Gellner (1964).
    Gellner, Ernst (1964). Thought and change. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Gentner, Dedre & Gentner, D. R. (1983). Flowing waters or teeming crowds: Folk models of electricity. In Gentner & Stevens (1983): 99–129.
    Gentner, Dedre & Stevens, Albert L. (eds) (1983). Mental models. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Gerbner, George, Gross, Larry, Morgan, Michael & Signorelli, Nancy (1981). Health and medicine on television. New England Journal of Medicine, 305/15 (8 October): 901–04. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM198110083051530
    Gerjuoy, Edward & Baranger, Elizabeth Urey (1989). The physical sciences and mathematics. [Special issue: Universities and the military]. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 502: 58–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002716289502001005
    Gerson, Elihu (1983). Scientific work and social worlds. Knowledge, 4: 357–77.
    Gerver, Elisabeth (1985). Humanizing technology. New York: Plenum.
    Ghazanfar, S. M. (1980). Individual modernity in relation to economic-demographic characteristics: Some evidence from Pakistan. Studies in Comparative International Development, 15: 37–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02686465
    Ghosh, Pradip (Ed.) (1984). Technology policy and development: A Third World perspective. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
    Ghosh, Pradip & Morrison, Denton (eds) (1984). Appropriate technology in Third World development. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
    Gibbons, Ann (1992). Key issue: Tenure. Science, 255 (13 March): 1386. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.256.5062.1386
    Gibbons, John H. (1988a). Technology and law in the third century of the Constitution. In Golden (1988): 415–19.
    Gibbons, John H. (1988b). Technology policy. Speech presented at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, sponsored by the MIT Program in Science, Technology, and Society (28 April).
    Gibbons, John H. & Gwin, Holly L. (1986). Technology and governance. Technology in Society, 7: 333–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0160-791X%2885%2990002-8
    Gibbons, Michael (1984). Is science industrially relevant? The interaction between science and technology. In Michael Gibbons & Philip Gummett (eds), Science, technology and society today: 96–116. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.
    Gibbons, Michael & Wittrock, Bjørn (eds) (1985). Science as a commodity: Threats to the open community of scholars. Harlow, UK: Longman.
    Giddens, Anthony (1977)/{1976}. New rules of sociological method. New York: Basic Books.
    Giddens, Anthony (1979). Central problems in social theory. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Giddens, Anthony {1990}/(1991). Modernity and self-identity: Self and society in the late modern age. Cambridge, UK: Polity.
    Giedion, Sigfried (1948). Mechanization takes command: A contribution to anonymous history. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Giere, Ron (1988). Explaining science: A cognitive approach. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Gieryn, Thomas F. (Ed.) (1980). Science and social structure: A festschrift for Robert K. Merton. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, series II, 39. New York: NYAS.
    Gieryn, Thomas F. (1983). Boundary-work and the demarcation of science from non-science: Strains and interests in professional ideologies of scientists. American Sociological Review, 48: 781–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095325
    Gieryn, Thomas F. (1992). The ballad of Pons and Fleischmann: Experiment and narrative in the (un)making of cold fusion. In McMullin (1992): 217–43.
    Gieryn, Thomas F. & Figert, Anne (1986). Scientists protect their cognitive authority: The status degradation ceremony of Sir Cyril Burt. In Böhme & Stehr (1986): 67–86.
    Gieryn, Thomas F. & Figert, Anne (1990). Ingredients for the theory of science in society: O-rings, ice water, c-clamp, Richard Feynman and the press. In Cozzens & Gieryn (1990): 67–97.
    Gilbert, G. Nigel (1991). Artificial societies. Inaugural lecture, University of Surrey (November).
    Gilbert, G. Nigel & Mulkay, Michael (1984). Opening Pandora's box: A sociological analysis of scientists' discourse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Gilbert, G. Nigel & Woolgar, Steve (1974). The quantitative study of science: An examination of the literature. Science Studies, 4/3 (July): 279–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631277400400305
    Gilbert, G. Nigel & Wooffitt, Robin {in press}. Sociology in machines: Applying sociology to software design and software to sociology. Unpublished manuscript.
    Gilbert, Sandra & Gubar, Susan (1979). The madwoman in the attic. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Gilbert, Scott [Biology & gender study group]. {1979}/(1987)/(1988). The importance of feminist critique for contemporary cell biology. Hypatia, 3/1 (1988): 61–76. Also in Tuana {1987}/(1989).
    Gilbert, Walter (1991). Towards a paradigm shift in biology. Nature, 349 (10 January): 99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/349099a0
    Gilfillan, S. Colum (1935a). The sociology of invention. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Paperback edn, 1970)
    Gilfillan, S. Colum (1935b). Inventing the ship. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Gillespie, Brendan, Eva, Dave & Johnston, Ron. (1979). Carcinogenic risk assessment in the United States and Great Britain: The case of Aldrin/Dieldrin. Social Studies of Science, 9/3 (August): 265–301. Reprinted in Barnes & Edge (1982): 303–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631277900900301
    Gilligan, Carol (1982). In a different voice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Gilpin, Robert (1962). American scientists and nuclear weapons policy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Gilpin, Robert (1987). The political economy of international relations. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Gilpin, Robert & Wright, Christopher (eds) (1964). Scientists and national policy-making. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Gingras, Yves (1991). Physics and the rise of scientific research in Canada. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.
    Gingras, Yves {in press}/(1995). Following scientists through society? Yes, but at arm's length! In Buchwald (1995): 123–48.
    Gingras, Yves & Trépanier, Michel (1993). Constructing a Tokamak: Political, economic and technical factors as constraints and resources. Social Studies of Science, 23/1 (February): 5–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631293023001001
    Ginzberg, Eli (Ed.) (1964). Technology and social change. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Girvan, N. P. & Marcelle, G. (1990). Overcoming technological dependency: The case of Electric Arc (Jamaica) Ltd, a small firm in a small developing country. World Development, 18: 91–108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X%2890%2990105-7
    Gispen, C. W. R. [Kees]. (1988). German engineers and American social theory: Historical perspectives on professionalization. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 30: 550–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0010417500015371
    Gispen, C. W. R. [Kees]. (1990). New profession, old order: Engineers and German society, 1815–1914. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511528842
    Gladwin, Thomas (1970). East is a big bird: Navigation and logic on Puluwat. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Gleditsch, Nils Petter & Njølstad, Olav (eds) (1990). Arms races: Technological and political dynamics. London: Sage/Oslo: International Peace Research Institute [SIPRI].
    Glenn, Marian, Monroe, Dorrie & Lamont, Judith (1993). Pathways to the podium: Women organizing women speaking. In Deborah C. Fort (Ed.), A hand up: Women mentoring women in science: 226–32. Washington, DC: Association for Women in Science.
    Glover, Ian A. & Kelly, Michael P. (1987). Engineers in Britain: A sociological study of the engineering dimension. London: Allen & Unwin. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-8530-5
    Glyde, Henry R. & Sa-yakanit, Virulh (1985). Institution links: An example in science and technology. Higher Education in Europe, 10: 51–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0379772850100408
    Goggin, Malcolm (Ed.) (1986). Governing science and technology in a democracy. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.
    Gold, Barry (1993). Congressional activities regarding misconduct and integrity in science. In Responsible science: Ensuring the integrity of the research process (Vol. 2): 90–116. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    Golden, William T. (Ed.) (1980). Science advice to the president. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon.
    Golden, William T. (Ed.) (1988). Science and technology advice to the president, Congress, and judiciary. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon.
    Golden, William T. (Ed.) (1991). Worldwide science and technology advice to the highest levels of government. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon.
    Goldsmith, Maurice (1965). The science of science foundation. Nature, 205 (2 January): 10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/205010a0
    Goldsmith, Maurice & Mackay, Alan (eds) (1963)/{MacKay & Goldsmith (1964, 1966)}. The science of science. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin; London: Souvenir Press (1964); Harmondsworth, UK: Pelican (rev. edn 1966)
    Goldstein, Jeffrey H. (Ed.) (1986). Reporting science: The case of aggression. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Goldstine, Herman (1972). The computer from Pascal to von Neumann. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Goldstnim, Max (1985). Popular political economy for the British working class reader in the nineteenth century. In Shinn & Whitley (1985): 259–73.
    Golinski, Jan V. (1987). Robert Boyle: Skepticism and authority in seventeenth-century chemical discourse. In Benjamin, Cantor & Christie (1987): 58–82.
    Golinski, Jan V. (1990a). Language, discourse and science. In Olby, Cantor, Christie & Hodge (1990): 110–23.
    Golinski, Jan V. (1990b). The theory of practice and the practice of theory: Sociological approaches in the history of science. Isis, 81: 492–505. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/355457
    Golinski, Jan V. (1992). Science as public culture: Chemistry and enlightenment in Britain, 1760–1820. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Gomezgil, Maria Luisa Rodriguez Sala, de (1975). Mexican adolescents' image of the scientist. Social Studies of Science, 5/3 (August): 355–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631277500500306
    Gooday, Graeme (1991). “Nature” in the laboratory: Domestication and discipline with the microscope in Victorian life science. British Journal for the History of Science, 24: 307–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087400027382
    Gooday, Graeme (1992). Laboratory electricians at large: Electrotechnical translation in the late Victorian landscape. Paper presented at the BSHS/CSHPS/HSS Anglo-American Conference, Toronto, Canada (July).
    Goodell, Rae (1977). The visible scientists. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.
    Goodell, Rae (1980). The gene craze. Columbia Journalism Review (November/December): 2041–45.
    Goodell, Rae (1986). How to kill a controversy: The case of recombinant DNA. In Friedman, Dunwoody & Rogers (1986): 170–81.
    Goodenough, Ward Hart & Thomas, S. D. (n.d). Traditional navigation in the Western Pacific: A search for pattern. In Expedition, 30. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology.
    Goodfield, June (1981). Reflections on science and the media. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science.
    Gooding, David (1989). History in the laboratory: Can we tell what really went on? In Frank A. J. L. James (Ed.), The development of the laboratory: Essays on the place of experiment in industrial civilisation: 63–82. London: Macmillan.
    Gooding, David (1990). Experiment and the making of meaning. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-0707-2
    Gooding, David (1992). Putting agency back into experiment. In Pickering (1992b): 65–112.
    Gooding, David C. & Addis, Tom R. (1990). Towards a dynamical representation of experimental procedures. In David Gooding (Ed.), Bath 3: Rediscovering skill: 61–68. Bath, UK: Science Studies Centre, University of Bath (September).
    Gooding, David, Pinch, Trevor & Schaffer, Simon (eds) (1989). The uses of experiment: Studies in the natural sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Goody, Jack (1977). The domestication of the savage mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Goody, Jack (1980). Rice burning and Green Revolution in Northern Ghana. Journal of Development Studies. 16: 136–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00220388008421752
    Goonatilake, Susantha (1988). Epistemology and ideology in science, technology and development. In Wad (1988): 93–114.
    Gopnik, Myrna (1972). Linguistic structures in scientific texts. The Hague: Mouton.
    Gordon, D. R. (1982). Rochester Institute of Technology: Industrial development and educational innovation in an American city. New York: Edwin Mellen.
    Gorman, Michael (1989). Beyond strong programmes: How cognitive approaches can complement SSK. Social Studies of Science, 19/4 (November): 643–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631289019004006
    Gorman, Michael E. & Carlson, W. Bernard (1990). Interpreting invention as a cognitive process: The case of Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Edison, and the telephone. Science, Technology. & Human Values, 15/2 (Spring): 131–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016224399001500201
    Gouldner, Alvin (1979). The future of intellectuals and the rise of the new class. New York: Seabury.
    Graham, Frank (1970). Since silent spring. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
    Graham, Loren (1967). The Soviet Academy of Sciences and the Communist Party 1927–1932. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Graham, Loren (1985). The socio-political roots of Boris Hessen: Soviet Marxism and the history of science. Social Studies of Science, 15/4 (November): 705–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631285015004005
    Graham, Loren (1979). Concerns about science and attempts to regulate inquiry. In Holton & Morison (1979): 1–21.
    {Graham (1991)}: see Huggan (1991).
    Granger, John V. (1979). Technology and international relations. San Francisco, CA: Freeman.
    Granovetter, Marc S. (1973). The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78: 1360–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/225469
    Graubard, Stephen (Ed.) (1983). Science literacy. [Special issue]. Daedalus, 112/2.
    Gray, Chris (1989). The cyborg soldier: The U.S. military and the post-modern warrior. In Levidow & Robins (1989): 43–72.
    Gray, Chris Hables (1991). Computers as weapons and metaphors: The U.S. military 1940–1990 and postmodern war. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Santa Cruz.
    Grayson, L. P. (1977). A brief history of engineering education in the United States. Engineering Education (December): 246–64.
    Greenberg, Daniel S. (1967). The politics of pure science. New York: New American Library.
    Greenfield, L. B., Holloway, E. L. & Remus, L. (1982). Women students in engineering: Are they so different from men? Journal of College Student Personnel, 23: 508–14.
    Greenwood, Ted (1990). Why military technology is difficult to restrain. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 15/4 (Autumn): 412–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016224399001500402
    Greimas, A. J. & Courtés, J. (1979). Sémiotique: Dictionnaire raisonnté de la théorie du langage. Paris: Hachette.
    Griffin, Keith (1974). The political economy of agrarian change. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Griffin, Susan (1978). Woman and nature. New York: Harper & Row.
    Griliches, Zvi (1958). Research costs and social returns: Hybrid corn and related innovations. Journal of Political Economy, 66: 419–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/258077
    Grimston, M. (1991). Green science as pseudo science. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Plymouth (August).
    Gross, Alan G. (1990). The rhetoric of science. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Grove, J. W. (1989). Nonsense and good sense about women in science. Minerva, 27/4: 535–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01096543
    Gruber, William H. & Marquis, Donald G. (eds) (1969). Factors in the transfer of technology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Grünbaum, Adolf (1960). The Duhemian argument. Philosophy of Science, 27/1: 75–87.
    Grünbaum, Adolf & Salmon, Wesley C. (eds) (1988). The limitations of deductivism. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Grunig, James E. (1980). Communication of scientific information to non-scientists. In Brenda Dervin & M. J. Voight (eds), Progress in communication sciences, 1: 167–214. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Grynspan, D. (1982). Technology transfer patterns and industrialization in LDCs: A study of licensing in Costa Rica. International Organization, 36: 795–806. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S002081830001910X
    Guagnini, Anna (1988). Higher education and the engineering profession in Italy: The Scuole of Milan and Turin, 1859–1914. Minerva, 26: 512–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01096496
    Guillierie, Renee & Schoenfeld, A. Clay (1979). An annotated bibliography of environmental communication research and commentary. Columbus, OH: ERIC/SMEAC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education.
    Gummett, Philip (1988). The government of military R&D in Britain. In Mendelsohn, Smith & Weingart (1988): 481–506.
    Gummett, Philip (1989). What issues are raised for science & technology studies by defence science & technology policy? Paper presented to the 4S/EASST meeting, Amsterdam (November).
    Gummett, Philip (1990). Issues for STS raised by defence science and technology policy. Social Studies of Science, 20/3 (August): 541–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631290020003007
    Gummett, Philip (Ed.) (1991). Future relations between defence and civil science and technology: A report for the [UK] Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology, SPSG Review Paper, 2. London: Science Policy Support Group.
    Gummett, Philip & Reppy, Judith (eds) (1988). The relations between defence and civil technologies. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.
    Gummett, Philip & Reppy, Judith (1990). Military industrial networks and technical change in the new strategic environment. Government and Opposition, 25/3 (Summer): 287–303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-7053.1990.tb00584.x
    Gusfield, Joseph (1976). The literary rhetoric of science. American Sociological Review, 41: 16–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2094370
    Guston, David H. (1991). Science and the social contract. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, San Francisco (September). [See Guston (2000): Chapter 2]
    Guston, David H. (2000). Between politics and science: Assuring the integrity and productivity of research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511571480
    Haas, Ernst B. (1980). Technological self-reliance for Latin America: The OAS contribution. International Organization, 34: 541–70.
    Haas, Peter M. (1989). Do regimes matter? Epistemic communities and Mediterranean pollution control. International Organization, 43: 377–403. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300032975
    Haas, Peter M. (1990). Saving the Mediterranean: The politics of international environmental cooperation. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Haas, Peter M. (Ed.) (1992). Knowledge, power, and international policy coordination. [Special issue]. International Organization, 46/1: 1–390. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300001442
    Haas, Peter M., Keohane, Robert O. & Levy, Marc A. (eds) (1993). Institutions for the heart. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Haber, Samuel (1964). Efficiency and uplift: Scientific management in the progressive era. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Haberer, Joseph (1969). Politics and the community of science. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
    Haberfeld, Yitchak & Shenhav, Yehouda (1990). Are women and blacks closing the gap? Salary discrimination in American science during the 1970s and 1980s. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 44: 68–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2523430
    Habermas, Jürgen (1987). Théorie de l'agir communicationnel, 2: Pour une critique de la raison fonctionaliste. Paris: Fayard.
    Hacker, Sally (1981). The culture of engineering: Woman, workplace and machine. Women's Studies International Quarterly, 4: 341–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0148-0685%2881%2996559-3
    Hacker, Sally (1989). Pleasure, power and technology: Some tales of gender, engineering, and the cooperative workplace. Boston, MA: Unwin Hyman.
    Hacker, Sally. (1990). “Doing it the hard way”: Investigations of gender and technology. Boston, MA: Unwin Hyman.
    Hacking, Ian. (1983). Representing and intervening: Introductory topics in the philosophy of natural science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Hacking, Ian (1992). The self-vindication of the laboratory sciences. In Pickering (1992b): 29–64.
    Hafner, Katie & Markoff, John (1991). Cyberpunk: Outlaws and hackers on the computer frontier. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Hagedoorn, John (1989). The dynamic analysis of innovation and diffusion. London: Frances Pinter.
    Hagendijk, Rob (1990). Structuration theory, constructivism, and scientific change. In Cozzens & Gieryn (1990): 43–65.
    Haggard, Stephen & Simmons, Beth A. (1987). Theories of international regimes. International Organization, 41: 491–517. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300027569
    Hagstrom, Warren O. (1966). The scientific community. New York: Basic Books.
    Hainsworth, Geoffrey B. (1982). Village level modernization in South East Asia. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.
    Halloran, Michael (1986). The birth of molecular biology. Rhetoric Review, 3: 70–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07350198409359083
    Hamelink, Cees (1988). The technology gamble: A study of technology choice. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Hamlett, Patrick W. (1990a). Dialogue on science and Congress. In Science, technology and politics, 1990: A yearbook: 23–74. Ottawa: Odda Tala.
    Hamlett, Patrick W. (1990b). Technology and the arms race. In Hamlett (1990c): 461–73.
    Hamlett, Patrick W. (ed.) (1990c). Special section: Technology and the arms race. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 15/4 (Autumn): 379–473. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016224399001500405
    Hamlett, Patrick W. (1992). Understanding technological politics: A decision-making approach. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Hamlin, Christopher (1992). Reflexivity in technology studies: Toward a technology of technology (and science)? Social Studies of Science, 22/3 (August): 511–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306312792022003004
    Hanmer, Jalna (1985). Transforming consciousness: Women and the new reproductive technologies. In Corea et al. (1985): 88–109.
    Hansen, Anders (1990). Socio-political values underlying media coverage of the environment. Media Development, 2: 3–6.
    Hansen, Anders (Ed.) (1993). The mass media and environmental issues. Leicester, UK: Leicester University Press.
    Hanson, Norwood Russell (1965). Patterns of discovery. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Haraway, Donna (1985). A manifesto for cyborgs: Science, technology and socialist feminism in the 1980s. Socialist Review, 15/2: 65–108.
    Haraway, Donna (1989). Primate visions: Gender, race, and nature in the world of modern science. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Haraway, Donna (1991a/1992)/{1991}. Simians, cyborgs, and women: The reinvention of nature. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul (1991)/London: Free Association Books (1992).
    Haraway, Donna (1991b). Situated knowledges: The science question in feminism and the privilege of partial perspective. In Haraway (1991a/1992): 183–203.
    Harding, Jan (1983). Switched off: The science education of girls. York, UK: Longman, for the Schools Council.
    Harding, Sandra (1986). The science question in feminism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Harding, Sandra (1991). Whose science? Whose knowledge? Thinking from women's lives. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Harding, Sandra & Hintikka, Merrill B. (eds) (1983). Discovering reality. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Reidel.
    Haritos, Rosa & Glassman, Ronald (1991). Emile Durkheim and the sociological enterprise. In Henry Etzkowitz & Ronald Glassman (eds), The renascence of sociological theory: 69–98. Itasca, IL: F. E. Peacock.
    Harré, Rom (1981). Rituals, rhetoric and social cognition. In Joseph Forgas (Ed.), Social cognition: 211–24. London: Academic Press.
    Harris, Randy A. (1991). Rhetoric of science. College English, 53: 282–307. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/378102
    Hart, Herbert L. H. (1955). Are there any natural rights? Philosophical Review, 64/2: 175–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2182586
    Hartland, Joanne {in press}/(1993). The use of “intelligent” machines for electrocardiograph interpretation. In Button (1993): 55–80.
    Hartmann, Heidi (1976). Capitalism, patriarchy and job segregation by sex. In Martha Blaxall & Barbara Reagan (Eds.), Women and the workplace: 137–69. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Hartmann, Heidi, Kraut, Robert & Tilly, Louise (eds) (1986–1987). Computer chips and paper clips: Technology and women's employment (Vols. 1,2). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    Harvey, Bill (1981). Plausibility and the evaluation of knowledge: A case-study of experimental quantum mechanics. In Collins (1981a): 95–130.
    Hass, Violet B. & Perrucci, Carolyn C. (eds) (1984). Women in scientific and engineering professions. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
    Hayami, Yujiro & Ruttan, Vernon W. (1971). Agricultural development: An international perspective. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Hayden, Dolores (1982). The granddomestic revolution: A history of feminist designs for American homes, neighborhoods, and cities. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Hayes, Donald P. (1992). The growing inaccessibility of science. Nature, 356 (30 April): 739. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/356739a0
    Hayles, Katherine (1990). Chaos bound: Orderly disorder in contemporary literature and science. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Hays, Samuel P. (1987). Beauty, health and permanence: Environmental politics in the United States 1955–1985. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511664106
    Hazen, Robert M. & Trefil, James (1991). Science matters: Achieving scientific literacy. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
    Headrick, Daniel R. (1988). The tentacles of progress: Technology transfer in the age of imperialism, 1850–1940. New York: Oxford University Press.
    {Healey (1993)}: see Cozzens, Healey, Rip & Ziman (1990).
    Hedges, A. (1991). Attitudes towards energy conservation in the home. London: UK Department of the Environment.
    Heffner, Alan G. (1980). Authorship recognition of subordinates in collaborative research. Social Studies of Science, 9/3 (August): 377–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631277900900305
    Heimer, Carol A. (1984). Organizational and individual control of career development in engineering project work. Acta Sociologica, 4: 283–310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000169938402700401
    Hein, Hilde S. (1990). The exploratorium: The museum as laboratory. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
    Helleiner, G. K. (1988). Transnational enterprises in the manufacturing sector of the less developed countries. In H. W Singer et al. (eds), Technology transfer by multinationals: 203–23. New Delhi: Ashish.
    Heller, Peter B. (1985). Technology transfer and human values: Concepts, applications, cases. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
    Helman, Cecil (1978). “Feed a cold, starve a fever”: Folk models of infection in an English suburban community, and their relation to medical treatment. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry, 2: 107–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00054580
    {Helman (1986)}: see Helman, Cecil (1992). The body of Frankenstein's monster: Essays in myth and medicine. New York & London: Norton. (Originally published as Body myths [London: Chatto & Windus, 1991])
    Helmreich, Robert, Spence, Janet, Beane, William, Lucker, G. William & Matthews, Karen. (1980). Making it in academic psychology: Demographic and personality correlates of attainment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39: 896–908. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.39.5.896
    Henderson, Kathryn (1991a). Flexible sketches and inflexible data bases. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 16/4 (Autumn): 448–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016224399101600402
    Henderson, Kathryn (1991b). On line and on paper: Visual representations, visual culture, and computer-graphics in design engineering. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, San Diego.
    Henderson, Kathryn {1992}/(1995). The political career of a prototype: Visual presentation in design engineering. Social Problems, 42 (1995): 274–99. Paper presented at the Visualization Workshop, Princeton University, Department of History (December 1992). http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/sp.1995.42.2.03x0114j-->
    Henig, Robin Marantz (1979). Science for the people: Revolution's evolution. BioScience, 29/6: 341–44.
    Hennen, Leo (1992). Technisierung des Alltags (Studien zur Sozialwissenschaft, Band 104). Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.
    Herbert, Sandra (1991). Charles Darwin as a prospective geological author. British Journal for the History of Science, 24: 159–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007087400027060
    Herdt, Robert W. (1987). A retrospective view of technological and other changes in Philippine rice farming, 1965–1982. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 35: 329–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/451588
    Herken, Gregg (1983). Counsels of war. New York: Knopf.
    Herrera, Amilcar O. (1981). The generation of technologies in rural areas. World Development, 9: 21–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X%2881%2990074-7
    Hershey, Robert D., Jr. (1989). Capitol Hill's high-tech tutor. New York Times (16 July): F1–F2.
    Hess, David (1991). Spirits and scientists: Ideology, spiritism, and Brazilian culture. University Park: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    Hess, David J. (1992). Introduction: The new ethnography and the anthropology of science and technology. In Hess & Layne (1992).
    Hess, David J. & Layne, Linda (eds) (1992). Knowledge and society, 9: The anthropology of science and technology. London & Greenwich, CT: JAI.
    Hesse, Mary (1974). The structure of scientific inference. London: Macmillan.
    Hessenbruch, Arne (1992). Balancing the lab and the non-lab. Talk presented at the joint BSHS/HSS/CSHS meeting, Toronto, Canada (July).
    Hetman, Francois (1977). Social assessment of technology and some of its international aspects. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 11: 303–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0040-1625%2878%2990015-X
    Hettne, Bjorn (1983). The development of development theory. Acta Sociologica, 26: 247–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000169938302600303
    Hétu, C. (1989). Skills, knowledge and models: An ethnographic study of conversations among engineers and workers in the semiconductor industry. In M. de Montmollin & A. Hingel (eds), Information technology, competence and employment. New York: John Wiley.
    Hewlett, Richard G. & Holl, Jack M. (1989). Atoms for peace and war, 1953–1961. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Hicks, E. K. & Callebaut, W. (eds) (1989). Evaluative proceedings 4S/EASST 1988 (SISWO publikatie no. 343). Amsterdam: SISWO.
    Hilgartner, Stephen (1990). The dominant view of popularization: Conceptual problems, political uses. Social Studies of Science, 20/3 (August): 519–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631290020003006
    Hilgartner, Stephen (1992). Who speaks for science: Disputes among experts in the diet-cancer debate. In Nelkin (1992): 115–29.
    Hilgartner, Stephen & Brandt-Rauf, Sherry I. {1990}/(1994). Data access, ownership, and control: Toward empirical studies of access practices. Knowledge, 14: 355–72.
    Hill, Stephen (1986). From light to dark: Seeing development strategies through the eyes of S&T indicators. Science and Public Policy, 13: 254–75.
    Hilpert, Ulrich (Ed.) (1991). State policies and techno-industrial innovation. London: Routledge.
    Hilton, Rodney H. & Sawyer, Peter H. (1952). Technical determinism: The stirrup and the plough. Past and Present, 24: 90–100.
    Hinkle, Gerald & Elliot, William R. (1989). Science coverage in three newspapers and three supermarket tabloids. Journalism Quarterly, 66: 353–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107769908906600212
    Hirsch, Walter (1968). Scientists in American society. New York: Random House.
    Hirschauer, Stefan (1991). The manufacture of bodies in surgery. Social Studies of Science, 21/2 (May): 279–319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631291021002005
    Hirschauer, Stefan (1992). Die medizinische Konstruktion von Transsexualität. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.
    Hobbs, Jerry R. & Moore, Robert C. (eds) (1985). Formal theories of the commonsense world. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Hobday, Michael (1985). The impact of microelectronics on developing countries: The case of Brazilian communications. Development and Change, 16: 313–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7660.1985.tb00212.x-->
    Hobday, Michael (1989). The European semiconductor industry: Resurgence and rationalization. Journal of Common Market Studies, 28: 155–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-5965.1989.tb00361.x
    Hoch, Paul (1988). The crystallization of a strategic alliance: The American physics elite and the military in the 1940s. In Mendelsohn, Smith & Weingart (1988): 87–116.
    Hodges, Andrew (1983). Alan Turing: The enigma. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Hoffmann, Erik P. (1979). Contemporary Soviet theories of scientific, technological and social change. Social Studies of Science, 9/1 (February): 101–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631277900900106
    Hohenemser, Cristoph, Kasperson, Roger & Kates, Robert (1977). The distrust of nuclear power. Science, 196 (1 April): 25–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.841337
    Holdren, John P. (1982). Energy hazards: What to measure, what to compare. Technology Review (April): 32–38, 74–75.
    Holland, Dorothy & Quinn, Naomi (eds) (1987). Cultural models in language and thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Holland, Susan S. (1976). Exchange of people among international companies: Problems and benefits. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 424: 52–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000271627642400107
    Hollander, Rachelle & Steneck, Nicholas (1990). Science- and engineering-related ethics and values studies: Characteristics of an emerging field of research. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 15/1 (Winter): 84–104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016224399001500109
    Hollinger, David (1983). The defense of democracy and Robert K. Merton's formulation of the scientific ethos. Knowledge and Society, 4: 1–15.
    Hollis, Martin & Lukes, Stephen (eds) (1982). Rationality and relativism. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
    Holloway, David (1983). The Soviet Union and the arms race. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Holmes, Frederic Lawrence (1987). Scientific writing and scientific discovery. Isis, 78: 220–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/354391
    Holmes, Frederic Lawrence (1992). Between biology and medicine: The formation of intermediary metabolism (Berkeley Papers in the History of Science, 24). Berkeley: University of California, Office for History of Science and Technology.
    Holmstrom, Engin Inel & Holmstrom, Robert (1974). The plight of the woman graduate student. American Educational Research Journal, 11: 1–17.
    Holsinger, Donald B. & Theisen, Gary L. (1977). Education, individual modernity, and national development: A critical appraisal. Journal of Developing Areas, 11: 315–34.
    Holton, Gerald (Ed.) (1965). Science and culture. Boston, MA: Beacon.
    Holton, Gerald (1973). Thematic origins of scientific thought: Kepler to Einstein. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Holton, Gerald (1992). How to think about the “anti-science” phenomenon. Public Understanding of Science, 1/1 (January): 103–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0963-6625/1/1/012
    Holton, Gerald & Blanpied, William A. (eds) (1976). Science and its public: The changing relationship. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Reidel.
    Holton, Gerald & Morison, Robert (eds) (1979). Limits of scientific inquiry. New York: Norton.
    Holtzman, Neil A. (1989). Proceed with caution: Predicting genetic risks in the recombinant DNA era. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Hornig, Susanna (1990). Science stories: Risk, power, and perceived emphasis. Journalism Quarterly, 67/4: 767–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107769909006700431
    Horton, Robin (1967). African traditional thought and Western science. Africa, 37: 50–72, 155–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1158253
    Horton, Robin & Finnegan, Ruth (eds) (1973). Modes of thought: Essays on thinking in Western and non-Western societies. London: Faber & Faber.
    Hounshell, David (1980). Edison and the pure science ideal in America. Science, 207 (8 February): 612–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.207.4431.612
    Hounshell, David (1983). From the American system to mass production, 1800–1932: The development of manufacturing technology in the United States. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Howells, Jeremy (1990a). The location and organization of research and development: New horizons. Research Policy, 19: 133–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0048-7333%2890%2990043-6
    Howells, Jeremy {1990}/(1990b). The globalisation of research and development: A new era of change? Science & Public Policy, 17: 273–85.
    Howells, Jeremy & Wood, Michelle (1991). The globalisation of technology (Monitor-Fast FOP 274). Brussels: Commission of the European Communities.
    Howes, Michael (1979). Appropriate technology: A critical evaluation of the concept and the movement. Development and Change, 10: 115–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7660.1979.tb00033.x
    Høyrup, Else (1978). Women and mathematics, science and engineering: A partially annotated bibliography…. Roskilde, Denmark: Roskilde University Library.
    Høyrup, Else (1987). Women of science, technology and medicine: A bibliography. Roskilde, Denmark: Roskilde University Library.
    Hubbard, Ruth (1990). The politics of women's biology. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Hubbard, Ruth, Henefin, Mary Sue & Fried, Barbara (eds) (1982). Biological woman: The convenient myth. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman.
    Hubbard, Ruth & Lowe, Marian (eds) (1979). Genes and gender. Staten Island, NY: Gordian.
    Hubbard, Ruth & Wald, Elijah (1993). Exploding the gene myth. Boston, MA: Beacon.
    Huber, Peter W. (1991). Galileo's revenge: Junk science in the courtroom. New York: Basic Books.
    Huddleston, Rodney D. (1971). The sentence in written English: A syntactic study based on the analysis of scientific texts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Hudson, Liam (1962). Intelligence, divergence and potential originality. Nature, 196 (10 November): 601–02. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/196601a0
    Hudson, Liam (1963). Personality and scientific attitude. Nature, 198 (1 June): 913–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/198913a0
    Hudson, Liam (1966). Contrary imaginations: A psychological study of the English schoolboy. London: Methuen.
    Hufbauer, Karl (1986). Federal funding and sudden infant death research, 1945–80. Social Studies of Science, 16/1 (February): 61–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631286016001004
    Huggan, Graham (1991). Decolonizing the map: Post-colonialism, post-structuralism and the cartographic connection. In Adam & Tiffin (1991): 125–38.
    Hughes, Everett (1971). The sociological eye. Chicago: Aldine.
    Hughes, P. (1992). Preparing for accidents at nuclear power stations: The role of emergency planning in a technological society. Unpublished MPhil thesis, University of Lancaster, UK.
    Hughes, Thomas P. (1983). Networks of power: Electrification in Western society, 1880–1930. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Hughes, Thomas P. (1986)/{1987b}. The seamless web: Technology, science, etcetera, etcetera. Social Studies of Science, 16/2 (May): 281–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306312786016002004
    Hughes, Thomas P. (1987a)/{1989b}. The evolution of large technological systems. In Bijker, Hughes & Pinch (1987): 51–82.
    Hughes, Thomas P. (1989a). American genesis: A century of invention and technological enthusiasm. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.
    Hughes, Thomas P. & Hughes, Agatha C. (1990). Lewis Mumford: Public intellectual. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Hull, David (1988). Science as a process: An evolutionary account of the social and conceptual development of science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Hunt, Lynn (Ed.) (1989). The new cultural history. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Hustopecky, J. & Vlachy, Jan (1978). Identifying a set of inequality measures for science studies. Scientometrics, 1: 85–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02016841
    Hutchins, Edwin (1983). Understanding Micronesian navigation. In Gentner & Stevens (1983): 191–225.
    Hutchins, Edwin (1989). The technology of team navigation. In Jolene Galegher, Robert E. Kraut & Carmen Egido (eds), Intellectual teamwork: Social and technological foundations of cooperative work: 22–51. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Hutton, Stanley P. & Lawrence, Peter (1981). German engineers: The anatomy of a profession. Oxford, UK: Clarendon.
    IIT Research Institute (1968). Technology in retrospect and critical events in science (TRACES). Chicago: IITRI.
    Ikenberry, G. John, Lake, David A. & Mastanduno, Michael (eds) (1988). The state and American foreign economic policy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Ilerbaig, Juan (1992). The two STS subcultures and the sociological revolution. Science, Technology & Society: Curriculum Newsletter of the Lehigh University STS Program & Technology Studies Resources Center, 90: 1–6.
    Inkeles, Alex (1975). The emerging social structure of the world. World Politics, 27: 467–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2010011
    Inkster, Ian (1989). Appropriate technology, alternative technology, and the Chinese model: Terminology and analysis. Annals of Science, 46: 263–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00033798900200241
    Irvine, John & Martin, Ben (1984). Foresight in science. London: Frances Pinter.
    Irwin, Alan (1993). Acid pollution and public policy: The changing climate of environmental decision-making. In Miroslav Radojevic & Roy Harrison (eds), Atmospheric acidity: Sources, consequences and abatement: 549–76. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
    Irwin, Alan, Dale, Alison & Smith, Denis {in press}/(1996). Science and Hell's kitchen: The local understanding of hazard issues. In Irwin & Wynne (1996): 47–64.
    Irwin, Alan & Wynne, Brian (eds) {in press}/(1996). Misunderstanding science? The public reconstruction of science and technology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511563737
    Ivins, William M. (1973). On the rationalization of sight. New York: Plenum.
    Jackson, Tim (1991). Moonshine and magnanimity of the fusion fantasists. The Guardian (15 November): 31.
    Jacky, Jonathan (n.d.). Software engineers and hackers: Programming and military computing. In Paul N. Edwards & Richard Gordon (eds), Strategic computing: Defense research and high technology. Unpublished manuscript.
    Jacob, Margaret (1988). The cultural meaning of the scientific revolution. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
    Jacob, Pierre (1981). De Vienne à Cambridge. Paris: Gallimard.
    Jacobi, Daniel (1985). References iconiques et modèles analogiques dans des discours de vulgarisation scientifique. Information sur les Sciences Sociales/Social Science Information, 24: 847–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/053901885024004010
    Jacobi, Daniel & Schiele, Bernard (1989). Scientific imagery and popularized imagery: Differences and similarities in the photographic portraits of scientists. Social Studies of Science, 19/4 (November): 731–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631289019004014
    Jacobs, John F. (1983). SAGE overview. Annals of the History of Computing, 5/4: 323–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MAHC.1983.10101
    Jacobsson, Staffan (1985). Technical change and industrial policy: The case of computer numerically controlled lathes in Argentina, Korea and Taiwan. World Development, 13: 353–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X%2885%2990135-4
    Jacobus, Mary, Keller, Evelyn Fox & Shuttleworth, Sally (eds) (1990). Body/politics: Women and the discourses of science. New York: Routledge.
    Jagacinski, Carolyn M. (1987a). Engineering careers: Women in a male-dominated field. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 11: 97–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1987.tb00777.x
    Jagacinski, Carolyn M. (1987b). Androgyny in a male-dominated field: The relationship of sex-typed traits to performance and satisfaction in engineering. Sex Roles, 17: 529–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00287734
    Jagacinski, Carolyn M. & LeBold, W. K. (1981). A comparison of men and women undergraduate and professional engineers. Engineering Education, 72: 213–20.
    Jaireth, Jasveen (1988). Class relations and technology use: A study of tubewell utilization in Punjab (India). Development and Change, 19: 89–114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7660.1988.tb00296.x-->
    James, Dilmus D. (1988). Accumulation and utilization of internal technological capabilities in the Third World. Journal of Economic Issues, 22: 339–53.
    James, John (1982). Chartres: The masons who built a legend. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    James, John (1989). The template-makers of the Paris basin. Leura, NSW: West Grinstead Nominees.
    Jamison, Andrew (1988). Social movements and the politicization of science. In Annerstedt & Jamison (1988): 69–86.
    Jamison, Andrew (1989). Technology's theorists: Conceptions of innovation in relation to science and technology policy. Technology and Culture, 30/3: 505–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3105949
    Jamison, Andrew & Baark, Erik (1990). Modes of biotechnology assessment in the USA, Japan and Denmark. Technology Analysis and Strategic Management, 2/2: 111–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09537329008524001
    Jamison, Andrew & Baark, Erik (1991). Technological innovation and environmental concern: Contending policy models in China and Vietnam. Lund, Sweden: Research Policy Institute.
    Jamison, Andrew, Eyerman, Ron & Cramer, Jacqueline, with Lœessöe, Jeppe (1990). The making of the new environmental consciousness: A comparative study of the environmental movements in Sweden, Denmark and the Netherlands. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    Jamison, E. (1985). Women of the world: A chartbook for developing regions. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Center for International Research.
    Jamison, Wesley V. & Lunch, William M. (1992). The rights of animals, perceptions of science, and political activism: Profile of American animal rights activists. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 17/4 (Autumn): 438–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016224399201700402
    Jansen, Sue Curry (1990). Is science a man? New feminist epistemologies and reconstructions of knowledge. Theory and Society, 19: 235–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00137261
    Jasanoff, Sheila (1986). Risk management and political culture. New York: Russell Sage.
    Jasanoff, Sheila S. (1987). Contested boundaries in policy-relevant science. Social Studies of Science, 17/2 (May): 195–230. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631287017002001
    Jasanoff, Sheila (1990a)/{1990}. The fifth branch: Science advisers as policymakers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Jasanoff, Sheila (1990b). American exceptionalism and the political acknowledgment of risk. Daedalus, 119: 61–81.
    Jasanoff, Sheila (1992a). Science, politics, and the renegotiation of expertise at EPA. Osiris, 7: 1–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/368710
    Jasanoff, Sheila (1992b). What judges should know about the sociology of science. Jurimetrics, 32: 345–59.
    Jasanoff, Sheila (1993)/{1993c}. Bridging the two cultures of risk analysis. Risk Analysis. 13/2: 123–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.1993.tb01057.x
    Jasanoff, Sheila (Ed.) (1994). Learning from disaster: Risk management after Bhopal. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    Jasanoff, Sheila, Markle, Gerald E., Petersen, James C. & Pinch, Trevor (eds) (1995). Handbook of science and technology studies. Thousand Oaks, CA, London & New Delhi: Sage http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412990127.
    Jasper, James (1990). Nuclear politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Jasper, James M. & Nelkin, Dorothy (1992). The animal rights crusade: The growth of a moral protest. New York: Free Press.
    Jenkins, J. Craig (1983). Resource mobilization theory and the study of social movements. Annual Review of Sociology, 9: 527–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.so.09.080183.002523
    Jerome, Fred (1986). Gagging government scientists: A new government policy? Technology Review (September): 25–35.
    Jewkes, John, Sawers, David & Sillerman, Richard (1969). The sources of invention. London: Macmillan.
    Jimenez, Jaime, Campos, Miguel A. & Escalante, Juan C. (1991). Distribution of scientific tasks between center and periphery in Mexico. Social Science Information, 30/3 (September): 471–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/053901891030003005
    Joerges, Bernward (1988). Technik im Alltag. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag.
    Johnson, Deborah G. (1989). The social/professional responsibility of engineers. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 577: 106–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1989.tb15055.x
    Johnson, Jim (aka Latour, Bruno) (1988). Mixing humans and non-humans together: The sociology of a door-closer. Social Problems, 35: 298–310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/sp.1988.35.3.03a00070-->
    Johnson, Jonathon K., Schatzberg, Walter & Waite, Ronald A. (eds) (1987). The relations of literature and science: An annotated bibliography of scholarship, 1880–1980. New York: Modern Language Association of America.
    Johnson, Lee Z. (1957). Status and attitudes of science writers. Journalism Quarterly, 34 (Spring): 247–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107769905703400210
    Jokisch, Rodrigo (1982). Techniksoziologie. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag.
    Jonsen, Albert R. (1991). American moralism and the origin of bioethics in the United States. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 16: 113–30.
    Jordan, Kathleen & Lynch, Michael (1992). The sociology of a genetic engineering technique: Ritual and rationality in the performance of the plasmid prep. In Clarke & Fujimura (1992): 77–114.
    Jordanova, Ludmilla (1989). Sexual visions: Images of gender in science and medicine between the eighteenth and twentieth centuries. New York: Harvester.
    Joseph, Lawrence E. (1991). Gaia: The growth of an idea. London: Arkana.
    Joynson, Robert B. (1989). The Burt affair. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Judge, W. James (1984). New light on Chaco Canyon. In David Grant Noble (Ed.), New light on Chaco Canyon: 1–12. Santa Fe, NM: School of American Research Press.
    Juma, Carl (1989). The gene hunters: Biotechnology and the scramble for seeds. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Jupp, A. (1989). The provision of hazard information to the public. Unpublished MSc thesis, University of Manchester, UK.
    Kachaunov, Stefan & Simeonova, Kostadinka (1979). Social studies of science in Bulgaria. Social Studies of Science, 9/1 (February): 91–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631277900900105
    Kaldor, Mary (1983). The baroque arsenal. London: Sphere.
    Kaplan, Barbara Beigun (1991). STS, women's studies, and the transformation of the undergraduate curriculum. Science, Technology & Society: Curriculum Newsletter of the Lehigh University STS Program & Technology Studies Resource Center, 86/87: 1–11.
    Kaplan, Norman (Ed.) (1965). Science and society. Chicago: Rand McNally.
    Kaplinsky, Raphael (1988). Export-oriented growth: A large international firm in a small developing country. In H. W. Singer, Neelambar Hatti, & Rameshwar Tandon (eds), Technology transfer by multinationals: 466–87. New Delhi: Ashish.
    Karp, Herbert & Restivo, Sal P. (1974). Ecological factors in the emergence of modern science. In Sal Restivo & Christopher K. Vanderpool (eds), Comparative studies in science and society: 123–43. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
    Kashet, Eva, Robbins, Mary Louise, Lieve, Loretta & Huang, Alice (1974). Status of women microbiologists. Science, 183 (8 February): 488–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.183.4124.488
    Katrak, Homi (1989). Imported technologies, and R&D in a newly industrialising country: The experience of Indian enterprises. Journal of Development Economics, 31: 123–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-3878%2889%2990034-5
    Katriel, Tamar & Sanders, Robert E. (1989). The meta-communicative role of epigraphs in scientific text construction. In Simons (1989): 183–94.
    Katz, Jorge M. (Ed.) (1987). Technology generation in Latin American manufacturing industries. New York: St. Martin's.
    Kay, W. D. (1991–1992). The politics of fusion research. Issues in Science and Technology, 8/2 (Winter): 40–46.
    Kaysen, Carl (1989). Can universities cooperate with the defense establishment? [Special issue: Universities and the military]. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 502: 29–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002716289502001003
    Keller, Alex (1984). Has science created technology? Minerva, 22: 160–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02207947
    Keller, Evelyn Fox (1978). Gender and science. Psychoanalysis and Contemporary Thought, 1/3: 409–33.
    Keller, Evelyn Fox (1983)/{1982}. A feeling for the organism: The life and work of Barbara McClintock. San Francisco, CA: Freeman.
    Keller, Evelyn Fox (1985). Reflections on gender and science. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Keller, Evelyn Fox (1990). Gender and science: 1990. In The Great Ideas Today, 1990 (Encyclopedia Britannica): 69–93.
    Keller, Evelyn Fox (1992). Secrets of life, secrets of death: Essays on language, gender, and science. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Keller, Kenneth H. (1990). Science and technology. Foreign Affairs, 69: 123–38 {not 1370}. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/20044501
    Kellert, Stephen (1993). In the wake of chaos. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Kelly, Alison (1979). Girls and science (Monographs of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, 9). Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International.
    Kelly, Alison (Ed.) (1987). Science for girls? Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press.
    Kelly-Godol, Joan (1976). The social relations of the sexes: Methodological implications of women's history. Signs, 1/4: 809–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/493302-->
    Kemp, Louis W. (1986). Aesthetes and engineers: The occupational ideology of highway design. Technology and Culture, 27: 759–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3105327
    Kempton, W. (1987). Two theories of home heat control. In Holland & Quinn (1987): 222–42.
    Kempton, W. (1991). Public understanding of global warming. Society and Natural Resources, 4: 331–45. [Expanded version: Global Environmental Change, 1/3 (1991): 183–208]
    Kempton, W. & Montgomery, L. (1982). Folk quantification of energy. Energy: The International Journal, 7: 817–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0360-5442%2882%2990030-5
    Kennedy, Michael D. (1987). Polish engineers' participation in the Solidarity movement. Social Forces, 65: 641–69.
    Kenney, Martin (1983). Is biotechnology a blessing for less developed nations? Monthly Review, 34: 10–19.
    Kenney, Martin (1986). Biotechnology: The university-industrial complex. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Keohane, Robert O. & Nye, Joseph S. (1977). Power and interdependence. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.
    Kevles, Daniel J. (1978). The physicists: The history of a scientific community in modern America. New York: Knopf.
    Kevles, Daniel J. (1985). In the name of eugenics: Genetics and the uses of human heredity. New York: Knopf.
    Kevles, Daniel J. (1988). R&D and the arms race: An analytical look. Mendelsohn, Smith & Weingart (1988): 465–80.
    Kevles, Daniel J. (1990). Principles and politics in federal R&D policy, 1945–1990: An appreciation of the Bush report. [Preface to reprint of Bush (1945)]. In Vannevar Bush, Science: The endless frontier. Washington, DC: NSF.
    Kidd, Jerry S. (1988). The popularization of science: Some basic measurements. Scientometrics, 14/1–2: 127–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02020247
    Killian, James R. (1982). Sputnik, scientists, and Eisenhower. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Kingdon, John W. (1981). Congressmen's voting decisions (
    2nd edn
    ). New York: Harper & Row.
    Kingsland, Sharon E. (1992). An elusive science: Ecological enterprise in the southwestern United States. Paper presented at the HSS/BSHS meetings, Toronto, Canada (July).
    Kinmoth, Earl (1986). Engineering education and its rewards in the United States and Japan. Comparative Education Review, 30: 396–416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/446615
    Kinsella, James (1989). Covering the plague: AIDS and the American media. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Kirkup, Gill & Keller, Laurie S. (eds) (1992). Inventing women: Science, technology and gender. Cambridge, UK: Polity.
    Kistiakowski, Vera (1989). Military funding of university research. [Special issue: Universities and the military]. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 502: 141–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002716289502001011
    Kitzinger, Celia (1988). The social construction of lesbianism. London: Sage.
    Kjerulff, Kristen & Blood, Milton. (1973). A comparison of communication patterns in male and female graduate students. Journal of Higher Education, 44: 623–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1980396
    Klaidman, Stephen D. (1991). Health in the headlines: The stories behind the stories. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Klein, Renate (1985). What's “new” about the “new” reproductive technologies? In Corea et al. (1985): 64–73.
    Kleinman, Daniel Lee {1993}/(1995). Politics on the endless frontier: Postwar research policy in the United States. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Kline, Ronald (1987). Science and engineering theory in the invention and development of the induction motor, 1880–1900. Technology and Culture, 28: 283–313. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3105568
    Kling, Rob & Iacono, Suzanne (1984). Computing as an occasion for social control. Journal of Social Issues, 40/3: 77–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1984.tb00193.x
    Kling, Rob & Scacchi, Walt (1982). The web of computing: Computing technology as social organization. Advances in Computers, 21: 3–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2458%2808%2960567-7
    Kloppenberg, Jack Ralph, Jr. (1988). First the seed: The political economy of plant biotechnology, 1492–2000. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Kneen, P. (1984). Soviet scientists and the state. London: Macmillan.
    Knezo, Genevieve J. (1990). Defense basic research priorities: Funding and policy issues (CRS Report for Congress). Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service.
    Knight, Nancy (1986). The new light: X rays and medical futurism. In Joseph J. Com (Ed.), Imagining tomorrow: 10–34. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Knights, David & Willmott, Hugh (eds) (1988). New technology and the labour process. London: Macmillan.
    Knorr, Karin (1977). Producing and reproducing knowledge: Descriptive or constructive? Toward a model of research production. Social Science Information, 16: 669–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/053901847701600602
    Knorr {Cetina}, Karin (1981). The manufacture of knowledge: An essay on the constructivist and contextual nature of science. Oxford, UK: Pergamon. (rev. edn, 1984, Die Fabrikation von Erkenntnis, Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp)
    Knorr, Karin D., Krohn, Roger & Whitley, Richard D. (eds) (1980). The social process of scientific investigation. Sociology of the Sciences yearbook, 4. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Boston, MA, & London: Reidel.
    Knorr-Cetina, Karin (1982)/{1983}. Scientific communities or transepistemic arenas of research? A critique of quasi-economic models of science. Social Studies of Science, 12/1 (February): 101–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631282012001005
    Knorr Cetina, Karin (1987). Toward a reconception of macrosocial order. In Nigel Fielding et al. (Eds.), Macrotheory and microresearch: 21–53. London: Sage.
    Knorr Cetina, Karin (1988)/{1988a}. The internal environment of knowledge claims: One aspect of the knowledge-society connection. Argumentation, 2: 369–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00176973
    Knorr Cetina, Karin {1991, in press}/(1991). Epistemic cultures: Forms of reason in science. History of Political Economy, 23: 105–22. (see also Knorr Cetina [1999]) http://dx.doi.org/10.1215/00182702-23-1-105
    Knorr Cetina, Karin {1992a, in press}/(1992a). The couch, the cathedral, and the laboratory: On the relationship between experiment and laboratory in science. In Pickering (1992b): 113–38.
    Knorr Cetina, Karin {1992b}/(1993). Liminal and referent epistemologies in contemporary science: An ethnography of the empirical in two sciences. Teoria Sociologica, 2: 283–308.
    Knorr Cetina, Karin {in press}/(1999). Epistemic cultures: How the sciences make knowledge. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Knorr Cetina, Karin & Amann, Klaus (1990). Image dissection in natural scientific inquiry. Science, Technology, & Human Values. 15/3 (Summer): 259–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016224399001500301
    Knorr Cetina, Karin & Amann, Klaus (1992). Konsensprozesse in der Wissenschaft. In H. Giegel (Ed.), Kommunikation and Konsens in modern Gesellschaften: 212–35. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.
    Knorr Cetina, Karin & Mulkay, Michael (eds) (1983). Science observed: Perspectives on the social study of science. London: Sage.
    Kollard, F. (1990). National cultures and technology-transfer: The influence of Mexican life-style on technology transfer. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 14: 319–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767%2890%2990018-R
    Kolodziej, Edward A. (1987). Making and marketing arms: The French experience and its implications for the international system. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Koppel, Bruce & Oasa, Edmund (1987). Induced innovation theory and Asia's Green Revolution: A case study of an ideology of neutrality. Development and Change, 18: 29–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-7660.1987.tb00262.x
    Kornhauser, William (1962). Scientists in industry: Conflict and accommodation. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Kramarae, Chris (Ed.) (1988). Technology and women's voices. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203221938
    Kranakis, Eda (1982). The French connection: Giffard's injector and the nature of heat. Technology and Culture, 23: 3–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3104441
    Kranakis, Eda (1989). Social determinants of engineering practice: A comparative view of France and America in the nineteenth century. Social Studies of Science, 79/1 (February): 5–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631289019001001
    Kranzberg, Melvin & Pursell, Carroll W., Jr. (eds) (1967). Technology in Western civilization (2 vols). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Krasner, Stephen D. (1978). Defending the national interest. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Kreps, David & Wilson, Robert (1982). Reputation and imperfect information. Journal of Economic Theory, 27: 253–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-0531%2882%2990030-8
    Krieghbaum, Hillier (1940). The background and training of science writers. Journalism Quarterly. 17: 15–18.
    Krieghbaum, Hillier (Ed.) (1963). Science news. [Special section]. Journalism Quarterly, 40: 291–338. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107769906304000301
    Krieghbaum, Hillier (1967). Science and the mass media. New York: New York University Press.
    Krimsky, Sheldon (1982). Genetic alchemy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Krimsky, Sheldon (1984). Epistemic considerations on the value of “folk-wisdom” in science and technology. Policy Studies Review, 3: 246–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-1338.1984.tb00118.x
    Krimsky, Sheldon (1991). Biotechnics and society: The rise of industrial genetics. New York: Praeger.
    Krimsky, Sheldon, Ennis, James G. & Weissman, Robert (1991). Academic-corporate ties in biotechnology: A quantitative study. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 16/3 (Summer): 275–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016224399101600301
    Krimsky, Sheldon & Golding, Dominic (eds) (1992). Social theories of risk. New York: Praeger.
    Krishna, Venni Venkata (1992). The colonial “model” and the emergence of national science in India: 1876–1920. In Patrick Petitjean, Catherine Jami & Anne Marie Moulin (Eds.), Science and empires: Historical studies about scientific development and European expansion: 57–72. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-2594-9_8-->
    Krohn, Wolfgang, Küppers, Günter & Nowotny, Helga (eds) (1990). Self-organization: Portrait of a scientific revolution, Sociology of the Sciences yearbook, 14. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.
    Krohn, Wolfgang, Layton, Edwin & Weingart, Peter (eds) (1978). The dynamics of science and technology, Sociology of the Sciences yearbook, 2. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Boston, MA, & London: Reidel.
    Krugman, Paul R. (1986). Introduction: New thinking about trade policy. In P. R. Krugman (Ed.), Strategic trade policy and the new international economics: 1–22. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Krupat, Arnold (1992). Ethnocriticism: Ethnography, history, literature. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Kuehn, Thomas J. & Porter, Alan L. (eds) (1981). Science, technology, and national policy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Kuhn, Thomas S. (1962). The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (rev.
    2nd edn
    , 1970)
    Kuhn, Thomas S. (1970). Logic of discovery or psychology of research? In Lakatos & Musgrave (1970): 1–23.
    Kuhn, Thomas S. (1977a). The essential tension: Selected studies in scientific tradition and change. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Kuhn, Thomas S. (1977b). The function of measurement in modern physical science. In Kuhn (1977a): 178–239.
    Kuhn, Thomas S. (1992). The trouble with the historical philosophy of science (Robert & Maurine Rothschild Distinguished Lecture, 19 November 1991). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, Department of the History of Science.
    Kuklick, Henrika (1980). Boundary maintenance in American sociology: Limitations to academic “professionalization.” Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 16: 201–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1520-6696%28198007%2916:3%3C201::AID-JHBS2300160302%3E3.0.CO;2-3-->
    Kumar, Nagesh (1987). Technology imports and local research and development in Indian manufacturing. Developing Economies, 25: 220–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1049.1987.tb00107.x
    Kumazawa, Makoto & Yamada, Jun (1989)/(1992). Jobs and skills under the lifelong nenko employment practice. In Stephen Wood (Ed.), The transformation of work?: Skill, flexibility and the labour process: 102–26. London: Unwin Hyman (1989)/London & New York: Routledge (1992).
    Kunda, Gideon (1992). Engineering culture: Control and commitment in a hi-tech corporation. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
    Kuznick, Peter J. (1987). Beyond the laboratory: Scientists as political activists in 1930s America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Kwa, Chunglin (1987). Representations of nature mediating between ecology and science policy: The case of the International Biological Programme. Social Studies of Science, 17/3 (August): 413–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631287017003002
    Kwa, Chunglin (1989). Mimicking nature: The development of systems ecology in the United States, 1950–1975. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam Press.
    Lachmund, J. (1994). Die Transformation der medizinischen Kultur. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Bielefeld, Faculty of Sociology.
    Laetsch, W. M. (1987). A basis for better public understanding of science. In Evered & O'Connor (1987): 1–10.
    LaFollette, Marcel C. {1989}/(1990b). U.S. policy on intellectual property issues in R&D. [“Panel on autonomy”]. In Cozzens et al. (1990): 125–39.
    LaFollette, Marcel C. (1990a). Making science our own: Public images of science, 1910–1955. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Laird, Frank N. (1993). Participatory analysis, democracy, and technological decision making. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 18/3 (Summer): 341–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016224399301800305
    Lakatos, Imre (1974). History of science and its rational reconstructions. In Yehuda Elkana (Ed.), The interaction between science and philosophy: 195–241. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities.
    Lakatos, Imre & Musgrave, Alan (eds) (1970). Criticism and the growth of knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Lakoff, Sanford A. (Ed.) (1966). Knowledge and power. New York: Free Press/London: Collier-Macmillan.
    Lakoff, Sanford A. (1977). Scientists, technologists and political power. In Spiegel-Rösing & Price (1977): 355–92.
    Lakoff, Sanford A. & Bruvold, W. Erik (1990). Controlling the qualitative arms race: The primacy of politics. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 15/4 (Autumn): 382–411. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016224399001500401
    Lall, Sanjaya (1987). Learning to industrialize: The acquisition of technological capability in India. London: Macmillan.
    Lambert, Helen & Rose, Hilary {in press}/(1996). Disembodied knowledge? Making sense of medical science. In Irwin & Wynne (1996): 65–83.
    Lambourne, Robert, Shallis, Michael & Shortland, Michael (1990). Close encounters? Science and science fiction. Bristol, UK: Adam Hilger.
    Landes, David S. (1969). The unbound Prometheus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Langer, Erick D. (1989). Generations of scientists and engineers: Origins of the computer industry in Brazil. Latin American Research Review, 24/2: 95–112.
    Langley, Pat, Simon, Herbert A., Bradshaw, Gary L. & Zytkow, Jan M. (1987). Scientific discovery: Computational explorations of the creative process. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Lankford, John (1981). Amateurs vs. professionals: The controversy over telescope size in late Victorian science. Isis, 72: 11–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/352648-->
    La Porte, Todd R. (Ed.) (1989). Social responses to large technical systems: Control or anticipation. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.
    Lapp, Ralph E. (1965). The new priesthood: The scientific elite and the uses of power. New York: Harper & Row.
    Laqueur, Tom (1990). Making sex. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Larson, Magali Sarfatti (1977). The rise of professionalism. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Lash, Scott & Friedman, Jonathan (eds) (1992). Modernity and identity. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
    Latour, Bruno (1980). The three little dinosaurs, or a sociologist's nightmare. Fundamenta Scientiae, 1: 79–85.
    Latour, Bruno (1981). Insiders and outsiders in the sociology of science: Or, how can we foster agnosticism? In Robert Alun Jones & Henrika Kuklick (eds). Knowledge and society: 199–216. London & Greenwich, CT: JAI.
    Latour, Bruno (1983). Give me a laboratory and I will raise the world. In Knorr Cetina & Mulkay (1983): 141–70.
    Latour, Bruno (1984). Les Microbes: Guerre et Paix, suivi de Irréductions. Paris: Editions A. M. Métailié. See Latour (1988).
    Latour, Bruno (1985). Les “vues” de l'esprit. In Latour & de Noblet (1985). Translated as Latour (1986); also as “Drawing things together,” in Lynch & Woolgar (1990): 19–68.
    Latour, Bruno (1986). Visualization and cognition: Thinking with eyes and hands. In Henrika Kuklick (Ed.), Knowledge and society: 6: 1–40. London & Greenwich, CT: JAI.
    Latour, Bruno (1987). Science in action: How to follow scientists and engineers through society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Latour, Bruno (1988). The pasteurization of France (followed by Irreductions: A politico-scientific essay). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Translation of Latour (1984).
    Latour, Bruno (1989). Do we really need the notion of ideology? A case to get rid of the notion by using Pasteur's historiography. Paper presented at the Conference on Ideology in the Life Sciences, Harvard University (April).
    Latour, Bruno (1990). Postmodern? No, simply amodern! Steps towards an anthropology of science. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 21/1: 145–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0039-3681%2890%2990018-4
    Latour, Bruno (1991a). Nous n'avons jamais été modernes: Essai d'anthropologie symérique. Paris: La Découverte. Published in English as We have never been modern (trans. Catherine Porter). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press (1993).
    Latour, Bruno (1991b). Technology is society made durable. In Law (1991c): 103–30.
    Latour, Bruno (1991c). The impact of science studies on political philosophy. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 16:1 (Winter): 3–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016224399101600101
    Latour, Bruno (1992). ARAMIS, ou l'amour des techniques. Paris: Éditions la découverte. Translated as Aramis or the love of technology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press (1996).
    Latour, Bruno & de Noblet, Jocelyn (eds) (1985). Les “vues” de l'esprit. [Special issue]. Culture Technique, 14 (June).
    Latour, Bruno, Mauguin, Philippe & Teil, Geneviève (1992). A note on socio-technical graphs. Social Studies of Science, 22/1 (February): 33–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306312792022001002
    Latour, Bruno & Woolgar, Steve (1979). Laboratory life: The social construction of scientific facts. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Latour, Bruno & Woolgar, Steve (1986). Laboratory life: The construction of scientific facts. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Revised
    2nd edn
    of Latour & Woolgar (1979).
    Laudan, Larry (1983). The demise of the demarcation problem. In Rachel Laudan (Ed.), The demarcation between science and pseudo-science: 7–35. Blacksburg: Virginia Tech, Center for the Study of Science in Society.
    Laudan, Larry (1990). Science and relativism: Some key controversies in the philosophy of science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Laudan, Rachel (Ed.) (1984). The nature of technological knowledge: Are models of scientific change relevant? Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Reidel.
    Lave, Jean (1988). Cognition in practice: Mind, mathematics and culture in everyday life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511609268
    Lave, Jean, Murtaugh, M. & de la Rocha, O. (1984). The dialectic of arithmetic in grocery shopping. In Barbara Rogoff & Jean Lave (eds), Everyday cognition: Its development in social context: 67–94. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Law, John (1986a). Laboratories and texts. In Callon, Law & Rip (1986): 35–50.
    Law, John (1986b). On the methods of long-distance control: Vessels, navigation and the Portuguese route to India. In Law (1986c): 234–63.
    Law, John (Ed.) (1986c). Power, action and belief: A new sociology of knowledge? Sociological Review Monograph, 32. Keele, UK: University of Keele/London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Law, John (1987a). Technology and heterogeneous engineering: The case of Portuguese expansion. In Bijker, Hughes, & Pinch (1987): 111–34.
    Law, John (1987b). The structure of sociotechnical engineering: A review of the new sociology of technology. Sociological Review, 35: 404–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-954X.1987.tb00015.x-->
    Law, John (1988). The anatomy of a socio-technical struggle: The design of the TSR 2. In Brian Elliott (Ed.), Technology and social process: 44–69. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    Law, John (1991a). Power, discretion and strategy. In Law (1991c): 165–91.
    Law, John (1991b). Theory and narrative in the history of technology: Response. Technology and Culture, 32: 377–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3105716
    Law, John (Ed.) (1991c). A sociology of monsters: Essays on power, technology and domination. Sociological Review Monograph, 38. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Law, John (1993). Modernity, myth and materialism. London: Blackwell.
    Law, John & Bijker, Wiebe E. (1992). Postscript: Technology, stability and social theory. In Bijker & Law (1992): 290–308.
    Law, John & Callon, Michel (1988). Engineering and sociology in a military aircraft project: A network analysis of technological change. Social Problems, 35/2 (June): 284–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/sp.1988.35.3.03a00060
    Law, John & Williams, R. J. (1982). Putting facts together: A study of scientific persuasion. Social Studies of Science, 12/4 (November): 535–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631282012004003
    Lawless, Edward W. (1977). Technology and social shock. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Laymon, Ronald (1989). Applying idealized scientific theories to engineering. Synthese, 81: 353–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00869321
    Layne, Linda (1992). Of fetuses and angels: Fragmentation and integration in narratives of pregnancy loss. In Hess & Layne (1992): 29–59.
    Layton, David (1973). Science for the people. London: Allen & Unwin.
    Layton, David, Davey, Angela & Jenkins, Edgar (1986). Science for specific social purposes. Studies in Science Education, 13: 17–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03057268608559929
    Layton, David, Jenkins, Edgar, Macgill, Sally & Davey, Angela (1993). Inarticulate science? Perspectives on the public understanding of science and some implications for science eduction. Driffield, UK: Studies in Education.
    Layton, Edwin T. {1966}/(1971). Mirror image twins: The communities of science and technology in 19th-century America. Technology and Culture, 12/4 (October): 562–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3102571
    Layton, Edwin T. (1974). Technology as knowledge. Technology and Culture, 15: 31–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3102759
    Layton, Edwin T. (1976). American ideologies of sciences and engineering. Technology and Culture, 77: 688–700. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3103675
    Layton, Edwin T. (1977). Conditions of technological development. In Spiegel-Rösing & Price (1977): 197–222.
    Layton, Edwin T. (1984). Engineering and science as distinct activities. In Technology and science: Important distinctions for liberal arts colleges: 6–13. Davidson, NC: Davidson College.
    Layton, Edwin T. (1985). Engineering needs a loyal opposition: An essay review. Business and Professional Ethics Journal, 2: 57.
    Layton, Edwin T. (1986)/{1966}. The revolt of the engineers: Social responsibility and the American engineering profession. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Layton, Edwin T. (1987). Through the looking glass, or news from Lake Mirror Image. Technology and Culture, 28: 594–607. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3104989
    Layton, Edwin T. (1988a). Science as a form of action: The role of the engineering sciences. Technology and Culture, 29: 82–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3105228
    Layton, Edwin T. (1988b). The dimensional revolution: The new relations between theory and experiment in engineering in the age of Michelson. In Stanley Goldberg & Roger H. Stuewer (eds), The Michelson era in American science, 1870–1930: 23–39. New York: American Institute of Physics.
    Leaf, Murray (1983). The Green Revolution and cultural change in a Punjab village, 1965–1978. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 31: 227–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/451320
    Leavis, F. R. (1963). Two cultures? The significance of C. P. Snow. New York: Pantheon.
    Leder, Philip (1990). Can the human genome project be saved from its critics … and itself? Cell, 63 (5 October): 1–3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674%2890%2990279-N
    Lederman, Leon (1991). Science: The end of the frontier? Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science.
    Lee, Chong-ouk (1988). The role of the government and R&D infrastructure for technology development. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 33: 33–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0040-1625%2888%2990054-6
    Lee, Jinjoo, Lee, Sangjin & Bae, Zong-tae (1986). The practice of R&D management: An empirical study of Korean firms. R&D Management, 16: 297–308.
    Le Grand, Homer E. (1986). Steady as a rock: Methodology and moving continents. In Schuster & Yeo (1986): 259–97.
    Leitenberg, Milton (1973). The dynamics of military technology today. International Social Science Journal, 25/3: 336–57.
    Leith, Phillip (1987). Involvement, detachment and programming: The belief in PROLOG. In Bloomfield (1987a): 220–57.
    Lekson, Stephen, Windes, Thomas C., Stein, John R. & Judge, W. James (1988). The Chaco Canyon community. Scientific American, 259/7 (July): 100–09. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0788-100
    Leonard, David K. (1987). The political realities of African management. World Development, 15: 899–910. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X%2887%2990041-6
    Leonard, Hugh Jeffrey (1988). Pollution and the struggle for the world product. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511895487
    Leveson, Nancy (1989). Women in computer science. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation.
    Levidow, Les & Robins, Kevin (eds) (1989). Cyborg worlds: The military information society. London: Free Association Books.
    Levin, Alexey (1984). Soviet science studies: A dissident view. Social Studies of Science, 14/3 (August): 451–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631284014003007
    Levine, Adeline (1982). Love Canal: People, science and politics. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Levy, Steven (1984). Hackers. New York: Anchor.
    Lévy-Leblond, Jean-Marc (1992). About misunderstandings about misunderstandings. Public Understanding of Science, 1/1 (January): 17–22.
    Lewenstein, Bruce V. (1992a). Cold fusion and hot history. Osiris, 2nd series, 7: 135–63.
    Lewenstein, Bruce V. (1992b). Industrial life insurance, public health campaigns, and public communication of science. Public Understanding of Science, 1/4 (October): 347–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0963-6625/1/4/001
    Lewenstein, Bruce V. (1992c). The meaning of “public understanding of science” in the United States after World War II. Public Understanding of Science, 1/1 (January): 45–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0963-6625/1/1/009
    Lewenstein, Bruce V. (Ed.) (1992d). When science meets the public. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science.
    Lewis, D. H. (1975). We, the navigators: The ancient art of landfinding in the Pacific. Canberra: Australian National University Press/Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
    Lewis, Eugene (1990). The qualitative arms race: Pluralism gone mad? Science, Technology, & Human Values, 15/4 (Autumn): 430–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016224399001500403
    Lewontin, Richard C. (1992a). Biology as ideology: The doctrine of DNA. New York: Harper Perennial.
    Lewontin, Richard C. (1992b). The dream of the human genome. New York Review of Books (28 May): 31–40.
    Leyten, A. J. M. K. [Jos] & Smits, Ruud (1987). The revival of technology assessment: The devel-opment of TA in five European countries and in the USA. The Hague: Ministry of Education and Science.
    Lighthall, Frederick F. (1991). Launching the space shuttle Challenger: Disciplinary deficiencies in the analysis of engineering data. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 38: 63–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/17.65761
    Lilienthal, David E. (1980). Atomic energy: A new start. New York: Harper & Row.
    Lindblom, Charles E. (1965). The intelligence of democracy. New York: Free Press.
    Lindblom, Charles E. (1977). Politics and markets. New York: Basic Books.
    Lindblom, Charles E. & Woodhouse, Edward J. (1993). The policy-making process (
    3rd edn
    ). New York: Prentice Hall.
    Lindsay, Alexander D. (1943). The modern democratic state. Oxford & London: Oxford University Press.
    Lipscombe, Barry (1989). Expert systems and computer-controlled decision making in medicine. AI and Society, 3: 184–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01891429
    Lipscombe, Barry (1990). Minds, machines and medicine: An epistemological study of computer diagnosis. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Bath, UK.
    Lipton, Michael (1988). The place of agricultural research in the development of sub-Saharan Africa. World Development, 16: 1231–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X%2888%2990088-5
    Lipton, Michael, with Longhurst, Richard (1989). New seeds and poor people. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Litan, Robert E. & Suchman, Peter O. (1990). U.S. trade policy at a crossroad. Science, 247 (5 January): 33–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.247.4938.33
    Livingston, Eric (1986). The ethnomethodological foundations of mathematics. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Locke, Robert R. (1984). The end of the practical man: Entrepreneurship and higher education in Germany, France and Great Britain, 1880–1940. London & Greenwich, CT: JAI.
    Logan, Robert A. (1991). Popularization vs. secularization: Media coverage of health. In Wilkins & Patterson (1991): 43–59.
    Lomnitz, Larissa A., Rees, Martha A. & Cameo, Leon (1987). Publication and referencing patterns in a Mexican research institute. Social Studies of Science, 17/1 (February): 115–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631287017001005
    Long, Franklin A. (1978). Basic needs strategy for development of technology in low income countries. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 37: 261–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1536-7150.1978.tb01228.x-->
    Long, Franklin A. & Reppy, Judith (eds) (1980). The genesis of new weapons. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon.
    Long, Franklin A. & Reppy, Judith (1984). The decision process for U.S. military R&D. In Kosta Tsipis & Penny Janeway (eds), Review of U.S. military research and development: 4–19. Washington, DC: Pergamon-Brassey's.
    Long, J. Scott (1987). Discussion: Problems and prospects for research on sex differences. In Dix (1987a): 163–69.
    Long, J. Scott (1990). The origins of sex differences in science. Social Forces, 68: 1297–315.
    Long, J. Scott (1992). Measures of sex differences in scientific productivity. Social Forces, 70 (September): 159–78.
    Long, J. Scott & McGinnis, Robert (1985). The effects of the mentor on the academic career. Scientometrics, 7: 255–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02017149
    Longino, Helen (1989/1990). Science as social knowledge: Values and objectivity in scientific inquiry. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Longino, Helen E. (1992). Essential tensions—Phase two: Feminist, philosophical and social studies of science. In McMullin (1992): 198–216.
    Longino, Helen & Doell, Ruth (1983). Body, bias, and behavior. Signs, 9/2: 206–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/494044
    Looney, R. E. (1988). The impact of technology transfer on the structure of the Saudi Arabian labor force. Journal of Economic Issues, 22: 485–92.
    Lotka, A. J. (1926). The frequency distribution of scientific productivity. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, 26: 317.
    Loughlin, J. (1993). The challenge of feminism to social studies of science. In Thomas Brante, Steve Fuller & William Lynch (eds), Controversial science: 3–20. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Low, Morris Fraser (1989). The butterfly and the frigate: Social studies of science in Japan. So-cial Studies of Science, 19/2 (May): 313–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631289019002006
    Lowe, Philip D. & Flynn, Andrew (1989). Environmental politics and policy in the 1980s. In John Mohan (Ed.), The political geography of contemporary Britain: 255–79. London: Macmillan.
    Lowrance, William M. (1976). Of acceptable risk: Science and the determination of safety. Los Altos, CA: William Kaufmann.
    Lubek, Ian (1976). Some tentative suggestions for analysing and neutralising the power structure in social psychology. In Lloyd H. Strickland, Francis E. Aboud, & Kenneth J. Gergen (Eds.), Social psychology in transition: 28–43. New York: Plenum.
    Luff, P., Frohlich, D. M. & Gilbert, G. Nigel (1990). Computers and conversation. London: Academic Press.
    Lynch, Michael (1982). Technical work and critical inquiry: Investigations in a scientific laboratory. Social Studies of Science, 12/4 (November): 499–534. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631282012004002
    Lynch, Michael (1985a). Art and artifact in laboratory science: A study of shop work and shop talk in a research laboratory. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Lynch, Michael (1985b). Discipline and the material form of images: An analysis of scientific visibility. Social Studies of Science, 15/1 (February): 37–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631285015001002
    Lynch, Michael (1988)/(1990). The externalized retina: Selection and mathematization in the visual documentation of objects in the life sciences. Human Studies, 11/2–3 (April/July): 201–34. Reprinted in Lynch & Woolgar (1990): 153–86.
    Lynch, Michael (1991). Laboratory space and the technological complex: An investigation of topical contextures. Science in Context, 4/1: 51–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0269889700000156
    Lynch, Michael (1992). Extending Wittgenstein: The pivotal move from epistemology to sociology of science. In Pickering (1992b): 215–65.
    Lynch, Michael & Edgerton, Samuel (1988). Aesthetics and digital image processing: Representational craft in contemporary astronomy. Sociological Review Monograph, 35: 184–220.
    Lynch, Michael, Livingston, Eric & Garfinkel, Harold. (1983). Temporal order in laboratory work. In Knorr Cetina & Mulkay (1983): 205–38.
    Lynch, Michael & Woolgar, Steve (eds) (1988). Representation in scientific practice. [Special issue]. Human Studies, 11/2–3 (April/July).
    Lynch, Michael & Woolgar, Steve (eds) (1990). Representation in scientific practice. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Lyne, John & Howe, Henry (1986). “Punctuated equilibria”: Rhetorical dynamics of a scientific controversy. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 72: 132–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335638609383764
    Lyotard, Jean-François (1984). The postmodern condition: An inquiry into knowledge. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.
    MacCormack, Carol & Strathern, Marilyn (eds) (1980). Nature, culture and gender. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    MacCormack, John (1989). The global environmental movement: Paradise regained. London: Belhaven Press.
    Macdonald, Sharon & Silverstone, Roger (1992). Science on display: The representation of scientific controversy in museum exhibitions. Public Understanding of Science, 1/1 (January): 69–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0963-6625/1/1/010
    Macdonald-Ross, Michael (1987). The role of science books for the public. In Evered & O'Connor (1987): 175–89.
    Machlup, Fritz (1962). The production and distribution of knowledge in the United States. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Machlup, Fritz (1980). Knowledge and knowledge production. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Macioti, Manfredo (1978). Technology and development: The historical experience. Impact of Science on Society, 28: 93–108.
    Mack, Pamela Etter (1990). Viewing the earth: The social construction of the Landsat satellite system. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    {MacKay & Goldsmith (1964, 1966)}: see Goldsmith & Mackay (1964/1966).
    Mackenzie, Debora & Milne, Roger (1989). A fresh green tinge to Europe's research. New Scientist (19 August): 23–25.
    MacKenzie, Donald A. (1981). Statistics in Britain: 1865–1930. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
    MacKenzie, Donald A. (1984). Marx and the machine. Technology and Culture, 25: 473–502. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3104202
    MacKenzie, Donald (1989). From Kwajalein to Armageddon? Testing and the social construction of missile accuracy. In Gooding, Pinch & Schaffer (1989): 409–36.
    MacKenzie, Donald (1990a). Inventing accuracy: A historical sociology of nuclear missile guidance. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    MacKenzie, Donald (1990b)/(1992). Economic and sociological explanations of technological change. Paper presented at the Conference, “Firm Strategy and Technical Change: Micro Economics or Micro Sociology,” Manchester, UK (September 1990). Published in Roderick Coombs, Paolo Saviotti & Vivenne Walsh (eds), Technical change and company strategies: Economic and sociological perspectives: 25–58. London: Academic Press (1992). Reprinted in Donald MacKenzie, Knowing machines: Essays on technical change: 49–65. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (1996).
    MacKenzie, Donald (1991). The fangs of the VIPER. Nature, 352 (8 August): 467–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/352467a0
    MacKenzie, Donald {n.d.}/(1993). Negotiating arithmetic, constructing proof: The sociology of mathematics and information technology. Social Studies of Science, 23/1 (February): 37–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631293023001002
    MacKenzie, Donald & Spinardi, Graham (1988). The shaping of nuclear weapon system technology: U.S. fleet ballistic missile guidance and navigation: I: From Polaris to Poseidon; II: “Going for broke”—The path to Trident II. Social Studies of Science, 18/3 (August): 417–63; 18/4 (November): 581–624. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631288018004002
    MacKenzie, Donald & Wajcman, Judy (eds) (1985). The social shaping of technology: How the refrigerator got its hum. Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press.
    Mackenzie, Michael, Keating, Peter & Cambrosio, Alberto (1990)/{MacKenzie et al. (1990)}. Patents and free scientific information in biotechnology: Making monoclonal antibodies proprietary. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 15/1 (Winter): 65–83, {at p.6}/at p. 67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016224399001500108
    Mackie, Marlene (1977). Professional women's collegial relations and productivity. Sociology and Social Research, 61: 277–93.
    Magee, Stephen P. (1981). The appropriability theory of the multinational corporation. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 458: 123–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000271628145800110
    Mahnken, T. G. & Hoyt, T. D. (1990). The spread of missile technology to the Third World. Comparative Strategy, 9: 245–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01495939008402813
    Mahoney, Michael S. (1988). The history of computing in the history of technology. Annals of the History of Computing, 10/2: 113–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MAHC.1988.10011
    Majone, Giandomenico (1984). Science and trans-science in standard setting. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 9/1: 15–22.
    Malcolm, Shirley Mahaley, Hall, Paula Quick & Brown, Janet Welsh (1976). The double bind: The price of being a minority woman in science (AAAS Report No. 76-R-3, April). Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science.
    Malik, Yogendra K. (1982). Attitudinal and political implications of diffusion of technology: The case of North Indian youth. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 17: 1–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002190968201700101
    Mallet, Serge (1975). New working class. Nottingham, UK: Spokesman Books.
    Mamdani, Mahmood (1972). The myth of population control: Family caste and class in an Indian village. New York: Monthly Review Press.
    Mandula, Barbara & Blockstein, David. (1992). Federal funding for environmental research. Unpublished manuscript.
    Manegold, Karl-Heinz (1978). Technology academised: Education and training of the engineer in the nineteenth century. In Krohn, Layton & Weingart (1978): 137–58.
    Mansfield, Edwin (1965). Rates of return from industrial research and development. American Economic Review, 55/2: 310–22.
    Mansfield, Edwin (1975). International technology transfer: Forms, resource requirements, and policies. American Economic Review, 65: 372–76.
    Mansfield, Edwin (1991). Academic research and industrial innovation. Research Policy, 20/1: 1–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0048-7333%2891%2990080-A
    Mansfield, Edwin (1992). Unauthorized use of intellectual property: Effects on investment, technology transfer, and innovation. Paper presented at the conference on “Global Dimensions of Intellectual Property Rights in Science and Technology,” National Research Council, Washington, DC.
    Mansfield, Edwin, Romeo, Anthony, Schwartz, Mark, Teece, David, Wagner, Samuel & Brach, Peter (1983). New findings in technology transfer, productivity and development. Research Management, 26 (March-April): 11–20.
    Marcson, Simon (1960). The scientist in American industry. New York: Harper.
    {Marcus (1987)}: see Markus (1987).
    Marcus, George & Cushman, Dick (1982). Ethnographies as texts. Annual Review of Anthropology, 11: 25–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.an.11.100182.000325
    Marcus, George E. & Fischer, Michael M. J. (1986). Anthropology as cultural critique: An experimental moment in the human sciences. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Markle, Gerald E. & Petersen, James C. (1980). Politics, science and cancer: The Laetrile phenomena. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Markle, Gerald E. & Petersen, James C. (1981). Controversies in science and technology: A protocol for comparative research. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 6: 25–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016224397600600107
    Markus, Gyorgy (1987). Why is there no hermeneutics of the natural sciences? Some preliminary theses. Science in Context, 1: 5–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0269889700000041
    Markusen, Ann R. & Yudken, Joel (1992). Dismantling the cold war economy. New York: Basic Books.
    Marlier, Eric (1992). Eurobarometer 35.1: Opinions of Europeans on biotechnology in 1991. In Durant (1992a): 52–108.
    Marshack, Alexander (1989). North American Indian calendar sticks: The evidence for a widely distributed tradition. In Anthony F. Aveni (Ed.), World archaeoastronomy: 308–24. Selected papers from the 2nd Oxford International Conference on Archaeoastronomy held at Mérida, Yucatan, Mexico (1986). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Martin, Ben & Irvine, John (1989). Research foresight. London: Frances Pinter.
    Martin, Brian (1989). The sociology of the fluoridation controversy: A reexamination. Sociological Quarterly, 30: 59–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1989.tb01511.x-->
    Martin, Brian (1991). Scientific knowledge in controversy: The social dynamics of the fluoridation debate. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Martin, Emily (1989). The woman in the body. Milton Keynes, UK: Open University Press.
    Martin, Emily (1990). Science and women's bodies: Forms of anthropological knowledge. In Jacobus, Keller & Shuttleworth (1990): 69–82.
    Martin, Emily (1991). The egg and the sperm: How science has constructed a romance based on stereotypical male-female roles. Signs, 16/3: 485–501. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/494680
    Martin, Michèle (1991). “Hello Central?”: Gender, technology, and culture in the formation of telephone systems. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.
    Martin, Mike W. & Schinzinger, Roland (1989). Ethics in engineering. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Martin, Sam & Tait, Joyce (1992). Attitudes of selected groups in the UK to biotechnology. In Durant (1992a): 28–41.
    Marton, Katherin (1986). Technology transfer to developing countries via multinationals. World Economy, 9: 409–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9701.1986.tb00453.x
    Marvin, Carolyn (1987). When old technologies were new: Thinking about communications in the late nineteenth century. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Marwell, Gerald, Rosenfeld, Rachel & Spilerman, Seymour (1979). Geographic constraints on women's careers in academia. Science, 205 (21 September): 1225–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.472739
    Marx, Karl (1867). Das Kapital: Kritik der politischen ökonomie. Erster Band. Hamburg: Verlag von Otto Meissner. (Modern republications are commonly based on the
    4th edn
    , revised by F. Engels and published in 1890; 1976 English publication, Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.)
    Marx, Karl (1956). Economic and philosophic manuscripts of 1844. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House.
    Marx, Karl (1973). Grundrisse: Foundations of the critique of political economy. New York: Vintage.
    Marx, Karl & Engels, Friedrich {1974}/(1947). The German ideology. New York: International.
    Marx, Leo (1964). The machine in the garden: Technology and the pastoral ideal in America. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Massey, Doreen, Quintas, Paul & Wield, David (1992). High-tech fantasies: Science parks in society, science, and space. London: Routledge. (p. 268 of this book makes the same point as {Monck et al. [1988]})
    Masterman, Margaret (1970). The nature of a paradigm. In Lakatos & Musgrave (1970): 59–89.
    Mathews, John (1989a). Tools of change: New technology and the democratisation of work. Sydney: Pluto.
    Mathews, John (1989b). Age of democracy: The politics of post-Fordism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Mayhew, David R. (1974). Congress: The electoral connection. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Maynard-Moody, Steven (1992). The fetal research dispute. In Nelkin (1992): 3–25.
    Mayntz, Renate & Hughes, Thomas P. (eds) (1988). The development of large technical systems. Frankfurt am Main: Campus Verlag.
    Mazur, Allan (1973). Disputes between experts. Minerva, 11: 243–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01557719
    Mazur, Allan (1977). Science courts. Minerva. 15: 1–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01096317
    Mazur, Allan (1981). The dynamics of technical controversy. Washington, DC: Communications Press.
    McAfee, N. (1974). Brighter prospects for women in engineering. Engineering Education, 64: 23–25.
    McCall, Robert B. & Stocking, S. Holly (1982). Between scientists and public: Communicating psychological research through the mass media. American Psychologist, 37 (September): 985–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.37.9.985
    McCarthy, John & Zald, Mayer (1973). The trend of social movements in America: Professionalization and resource mobilization. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.
    McCloskey, Donald (1985). The rhetoric of economics. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press/Brighton, UK: Wheatsheaf.
    McCloskey, Donald (1987). A strong programme in the rhetoric of science (review of Collins [1985]). Journal of Economic Psychology, 8: 128–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0167-4870%2887%2990014-6
    McCloskey, M. (1983). Naive theories of motion. In Gentner & Stevens (1983): 299–324.
    McCluskey, Stephen (1980). Science, society, objectivity, and the Southwest. In J. B Carlson & W. James Judge (eds), Astronomy and ceremony in the prehistoric Southwest: 205–17. (Papers of the Maxwell Museum of Anthropology, No. 2). Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
    McCluskey, Stephen (1982). Historical archaeoastronomy: The Hopi example. In Aveni (1982): 31–59.
    {McCormick (1989)}: see MacCormack (1989).
    McCormick, Kevin (1988). Engineering education in Britain and Japan: Some reflections on the use of the “best practice” models in international comparison. Sociology, 22: 583–605. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038588022004007
    McCormick, Kevin (1989). The development of engineering education and training in Britain and Japan (mimeo). Brighton, UK: University of Sussex, School of Social Sciences.
    McCormick, Kevin (1992). Japanese engineers as corporate salary men. In Smith & Meiksins (1992).
    McCrea, Frances B. & Markle, Gerald E. (1984). The estrogen replacement controversy in the USA and U.K.: Different answers to the same question? Social Studies of Science, 14/1 (February): 1–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631284014001002
    McCullock, Rachel D. (1981). Technology transfer to developing countries: Implications of international regulation. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 458: 110–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000271628145800109
    McDermott, Drew (1981). Artificial intelligence meets natural stupidity. In John Haugeland (Ed.), Mind design: 143–60. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    McDonald, Ronald H. & Tamrowski, Nina (1987). Technology and armed conflict in Central America. Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, 29: 93–108. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/165644
    McGaw, Judith (1982). Women and the history of American technology. Signs, 7: 798–828. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/493922
    McGrew, Anthony (1990). The political dynamics of the new environmentalism. Industrial Crisis Quarterly, 4: 291–305.
    McGucken, William (1984). Scientists, society, and state: The social relations of science movement in Great Britain, 1931–1947. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.
    McIlwee, Judith S. & Robinson, J. Gregg (1992). Women in engineering: Gender, power and workplace culture. Albany: State University of New York Press.
    McIntosh, Robert (1976). Ecology since 1900. In Benjamin J. Taylor & Thurman J. White (eds), Issues and ideas in America: 353–72. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
    McIntosh, Robert (1985). The background of ecology: Concept and theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    McKechnie, Rosemary {in press}/(1996). Insiders and outsiders: Identifying experts on home ground. In Irwin & Wynne (1996): 126–51.
    McKinlay, Andrew & Potter, Jonathan (1987). Model discourse: Interpretative repertoires in scientists' conference talk. Social Studies of Science, 17/3 (August): 443–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631287017003003
    McKusick, Victor A. & Ruddle, Frank H. (1987). A new discipline, a new journal, a new name. Genomics, 1: 1–2. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0888-7543%2887%2990098-X
    McMahon, A. Michal (1984). The making of a profession: A century of electrical engineering in America. New York: IEEE Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/9780470616352
    McMath, Robert C. (1985). Engineering the New South: Georgia Tech. 1885–1985. Athens: University of Georgia Press.
    McMullin, Ernan (Ed.) (1992). The social dimensions of science. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
    McNeil, Maureen (Ed.) (1987). Gender and expertise. London: Free Association Books.
    McNeil, Maureen, Varcoe, Ian & Yearley, Steven (eds) (1990). The new reproductive technologies. London: Macmillan.
    McRobie, George (1979). Intermediate technology: Small is successful. Third World Quarterly, 1: 71–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01436597908419424
    Mead, Margaret (1954). Coming of age in Samoa: A study of adolescence and sex in primitive societies. London: Pelican.
    Mead, Margaret & Metraux, Rhoda (1957). The image of the scientist among college students. Science, 126 (20 August): 384–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.126.3270.384
    Meadows, A. Jack (1974). Communication in science. London: Butterworth.
    Medawar, Peter B. (1964). Is the scientific paper a fraud? In David Edge (Ed.), Experiment: A series of scientific case histories: 7–12. London: British Broadcasting Corporation. Reprinted as “Is the scientific paper fraudulent?” in The Saturday Review (1 August): 42–43.
    Meehan, Richard L. (1981). Getting sued and other tales of the engineering life. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Megill, Allan (Ed.) (1992). Rethinking objectivity. [Special issue]. Annals of Scholarship, 9/1–3 (Spring).
    Mehan, Hugh (1979). Learning lessons: Social organization in the classroom. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Meiksins, Peter F. (1982). Science in the labor process: Engineers as workers. In Charles Derber (Ed.), Professionals as workers: 121–40. Boston, MA: G. K. Hall.
    Meiksins, Peter F. (1986). Professionalism and conflict: The case of the American Association of Engineers. Journal of Social History, 19: 403–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/jsh/19.3.403
    Meiksins, Peter F. (1988). The “revolt of the engineers” reconsidered. Technology and Culture, 29: 219–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3105524
    Meiksins, Peter & Smith, Chris (1991). The organization of professional technical workers: A comparative analysis. Paper presented at the American Sociological Association Meetings, Cincinnati, OH (August).
    Meiksins, Peter F. & Smith, Chris (in press)/(1993). Why American engineers aren't unionized: A comparative perspective. Theory and Society, 22: 57–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00993448
    Meiksins, Peter F. & Watson, J. M. (1989). Professional autonomy and organizational constraint: The case of engineers. Sociological Quarterly, 30: 561–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1989.tb01535.x-->
    Meissner, Frank (1988). Technology transfer in the developing world: The case of the Chile Foundation. New York: Praeger.
    Meltsner, Arnold (1979). The communication of scientific information to the wider public: The case of seismology. Minerva, 17: 331–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01096219
    Mendelsohn, Everett (1964). The emergence of science as a profession in nineteenth century Europe. In Karl G. Hill (Ed.), The management of scientists: 3–48. Boston, MA: Beacon.
    Mendelsohn, Everett (1977). The social production of scientific knowledge. In Mendelsohn, Weingart & Whitley (1977): 3–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-1186-0
    Mendelsohn, Everett (1990). Science, technology and the military: Patterns of interaction. In Jean-Jacques Salomon (Ed.), Science, war and peace: 49–74. Paris: Economica.
    Mendelsohn, Everett, Weingart, Peter & Whitley, Richard (eds) (1977). The social production of scientific knowledge, Sociology of the Sciences yearbook, 5. Dordrecht, London & Boston, MA: Reidel. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-010-1186-0
    Mendelsohn, Everett, Smith, Merritt Roe & Weingart, Peter (eds) (1988). Science, technology and the military, Sociology of the Sciences yearbook, 12. Dordrecht & Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic.
    Mendelssohn, Kurt (1976). Science and Western domination. London: Thames & Hudson.
    Merchant, Carolyn (1980). The death of nature: Women, ecology and the scientific revolution. New York: Harper & Row.
    Meredith, Margaret O., Nelson, Stephen D. & Teich, Albert H. (eds) (1991). AAAS science and technology yearbook, 1991. Washington, DC: AAAS.
    Merleau-Ponty, Maurice (1945). Phenomenologie de la perception. Paris: Gallimard. English translation, Phenomenology of perception, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul (1962).
    Merriam, Charles E. (1945). Systematic politics. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
    Merrifield, J. (1989). Putting the scientists in their place: Participatory research in environmental and occupational health. New Market, TN: Highlander Center.
    Merton, Robert K. (1933)/(1938)/(1970). Science, technology and society in seventeenth-century England. Bruges, Belgium: St. Catherines (1933). Also in Osiris (1938), and reprinted New York: Howard Fertig/Harper & Row (1970).
    Merton, Robert K. (1942). Science and technology in a democratic order. Journal of Legal and Political Sociology, 1: 15–26.
    Merton, Robert K. (1967/1968). Social theory and social structure. New York: Free Press, enlarged edition. (Original work published 1948)
    Merton, Robert K. (1968). The self-fulfilling prophecy. In Merton (1967/1968): 475–90.
    Merton, Robert K. (1973a). The normative structure of science. In Merton (1973b): 267–78 (Chapter 13).
    Merton, Robert K. (1973b). The sociology of science: Theoretical and empirical investigations (ed. Norman W. Storer). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Merton, Robert K. (1973c). The Matthew effect in science. In Merton (1973b): 439–59.
    Merton, Robert K. (1975). Structural analysis in sociology. In Peter M. Blau (Ed.), Approaches to the study of social structures: 21–52. New York: Free Press.
    Merton, Robert K. (1976). Sociological ambivalence and other essays. New York: Free Press.
    Merton, Robert K. (1977). The sociology of science: An episodic memoir. In R. K Merton & Jerry Gaston (eds), The sociology of science in Europe: 3–141. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
    Merton, Robert K. (1984). The fallacy of the latest word: The case of “pietism and science.” American Journal of Sociology, 89: 91–121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/227985-->
    Merton, Robert K. & Gieryn, Thomas F. (1978). Institutionalized altruism: The case of the professions. In Man Singh Das & T. Lynn Smith (eds), Sociocultural change since 1950: 309–44. New Delhi: Vikas.
    Mervis, Jeffrey (1988). A threat to monitor science is quashed. The Scientist (31 October): 1.
    Messing, Karen (1990). Union-initiated research in genetic effects of workplace agents. Genewatch, 6/4–5: 8–14.
    Mey, Marc De (1982). The cognitive paradigm. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Reidel. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-7956-7
    Meyer, John, Hannan, Michael, Rubinson, R. & Thomas, G. (1979). National economic development, 1950–70: Social and political factors. In John Meyer & Michael Hannan (eds), National development and the world system: Educational, economic, and political change, 1950–1970: 85–116. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Mezey, Michael (1991). The legislature, the executive, and public policy: The futile quest for congressional power. In Thurber (1991): 9–37.
    Michael, Mike (1992). Lay discourses of science: Science-in-general, science-in-particular, and self. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 17/3 (Summer): 313–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016224399201700303
    Michalet, Charles Albert (1979). The international transfer of technology and the multinational enterprise. Development and Change, 2: 157–74.
    Michie, Donald & Johnston, Rory (1985). The creative computer: Machine intelligence and human knowledge. Harmondsworth, UK: Pelican.
    Mies, Maria (1987). Why do we need all this? A call against genetic engineering and reproductive technology. In Spallone & Steinberg (1987): 34–47.
    Migdal, Joel S. (1988). Strong societies and weak states: State-society relations and state capabilities in the Third World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Milkman, Ruth (1987). Gender at work: The dynamics of job segregation by sex during World War 11. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
    Millar, Robin (1989). Doing science: Images of science in science education. Brighton, UK: Falmer.
    Millar, Robin H. & Wynne, Brian (1988). Public understanding of science: From contents to processes. International Journal of Science Education, 10/4: 388–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0950069880100406
    Millard, Rodney J. (1988). The master spirit of the age: Canadian engineers and the politics of professionalism 1887–1922. Toronto & London: University of Toronto Press.
    Miller, Carolyn R. (1989). The rhetoric of decision science, or Herbert A. Simon says. Science, Technology, & Human Values 14/1 (Winter): 43–46. Summary of a longer article in Simons (1990). http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016224398901400104
    Miller, Jean Baker (1976)/{1974}. Toward a new psychology of women. Boston, MA: Beacon.
    Miller, Jon D. (1983a). The American people and science policy: The role of public attitudes in the policy process. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon.
    Miller, Jon D. (1983b). Scientific literacy: A conceptual and empirical review. Daedalus, 112/2: 29–48.
    Miller, Jon D. (1987). Scientific literacy in the United States: Communicating science to the public. New York: John Wiley.
    Miller, Jon D. (1990). The public understanding of science and technology in the United States. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation (December).
    Miller, Jon D. (1991). The public understanding of science and technology in the U.S.: Report to the U.S. National Science Foundation. DeKalb, IL: University of Chicago, National Opinion Research Center.
    Miller, Perry (1962). The New England mind. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Millett, Kate (1970). Sexual politics. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
    Mills, C. Wright (1957). The power elite. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Mirsky, E. M. (1972). Science studies in the USSR (history, problems, prospects). Science Studies, 2/3 (July): 281–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631277200200304
    Misa, Thomas (1988). How machines make history, and how historians (and others) help them to do so. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 13: 308–31.
    Mitcham, Carl (1980). Philosophy of technology. In Paul T. Durbin (Ed.), A guide to the culture of science, technology and medicine: 282–363. New York: Free Press.
    Mitchell, Juliet (1975). Psychoanalysis and feminism. New York: Vintage.
    Mitford, Jessica (1992). The American way of birth. New York: E. P. Dutton.
    Mitman, Gregg (1991). Review of Haraway (1989). Isis, 82/1: 163–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/355708-->
    Mitroff, Ian I. (1974a). Norms and counter-norms in a select group of the Apollo moon scientists: A case study in the ambivalence of scientists. American Sociological Review, 39: 579–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2094423
    Mitroff, Ian I. (1974b). The subjective side of science: A philosophical inquiry into the psychology of the Apollo moon scientists. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
    {Mitroff (1983)}: see Mitroff, Ian I., Mason, Richard O. & Barabba, Vincent P. (1983). The 1980 census: Policymaking amid turbulence. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    {Monck et al. (1988)}: see Massey, Quintas & Wield (1992).
    Mooney, Pat (1989). From cabbages to kings: Intellectual property vs. intellectual integrity. In Patenting life forms in Europe, Conference proceedings, European Parliament (7–8 February 1989): 31–33. Barcelona: ICDA Seeds Campaign.
    Moore, Sally Falk (1985). Power and property in Inca Peru. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
    Moravcsik, Michael J. (1975). Science development: The building of science in less-developed countries. Bloomington, IN: International Development Center.
    Moravcsik, Michael & Ziman, John (1985). Paradisia and Dominitia: Science and the developing world. Foreign Affairs, 53: 699–724. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/20039541
    Morehouse, Ward (1976). Professional estates as political actors: The case of the Indian scientific community. Philosophy and Social Action, 2: 61–95.
    Morgall, Jane (1992). Developing technology assessment. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
    Morison, Elting (1966). Men, machines and modern times. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Morita-Lou, Hiroko (Ed.) (1985). Science and technology indicators for development. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Morone, Joseph G. & Woodhouse, Edward J. (1986). Averting catastrophe: Strategies for regulating risky technologies. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Morone, Joseph G. & Woodhouse, Edward J. (1989). The demise of nuclear energy: Lessons for democratic control of technology. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Morse, Dean & Warner, Aaron W. (eds) (1966). Technological innovation and society. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Moscovici, Serge (1984). The phenomenon of social representations. In Robert M. Farr & Serge Moscovici (eds), Social representations: 3–70. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Mowery, David C. & Rosenberg, Nathan (1989). Technology and the pursuit of economic growth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511664441
    Mowery, David C. & Rosenberg, Nathan (1993). The U.S. national innovation system. In Richard R. Nelson (Ed.), National innovation systems: A comparative analysis: 29–75. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Muga, D. A. (1987). The effect of technology on an indigenous people: The case of the Norwegian Sami. Journal of Ethnic Studies, 14: 1–24.
    Mukerji, Chandra (1989). A fragile power: Scientists and the state. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Mulkay, Michael. (1969). Some aspects of cultural growth in the natural sciences. Social Research, 36: 22–52.
    Mulkay, Michael (1972). The social process of innovation. London: Macmillan.
    Mulkay, Michael {1975}/(1976). Norms and ideology in science. Social Science Information, 15: 637–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/053901847601500406
    Mulkay, Michael (1979). Science and the sociology of knowledge. London: Allen & Unwin.
    Mulkay, Michael (1980). Interpretation and the use of rules: The case of the norms of science. In Gieryn (1980): 111–25.
    Mulkay, Michael (1985). The word and the world: Explorations in the form of sociological analysis. London: Allen & Unwin.
    Mulkay, Michael (1989). Looking backward. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 14/4 (Autumn): 441–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016224398901400407
    Mulkay, Michael, Potter, Jonathan & Yearley, Steven (1983). Why an analysis of scientific discourse is needed. In Knorr Cetina & Mulkay (1983): 171–203.
    Mullins, Nicholas C. (1972). The development of a scientific specialty: The Phage Group and the origins of molecular biology. Minerva, 10/1: 51–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01881390
    Mullins, Nicholas C. (1973). Science: Some sociological perspectives. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill.
    Mullins, Nicholas C. (1977). Rhetorical resources in natural science papers. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University, Institute for Advanced Study.
    Mumford, Lewis (1934). Technics and civilization. New York: Harcourt, Brace.
    Mumford, Lewis (1938). The culture of cities. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
    Mumford, Lewis (1961). The city in history: Its origins, its transformations, and its prospects. New York: Harcourt, Brace.
    Mumford, Lewis (1964). Authoritarian and democratic technics. Technology and Culture, 5: 1–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3101118
    Mumford, Lewis (1967). The myth of the machine: Vol. 1. Technics and human development. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
    Mumford, Lewis (1970). The myth of the machine: Vol. 2. The pentagon of power. New York: Harcourt, Brace.
    Murrell, Rachel Kerys (1987). Telling it like it isn't: Representations of science in Tomorrow's World. Theory, Culture, Society, 4: 489–506.
    Myers, Greg (1985). Texts as knowledge claims: The social construction of two biology articles. Social Studies of Science, 15/4 (November): 593–630. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631285015004002
    Myers, Greg (1990a). Writing biology: Texts and the social construction of scientific knowledge. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
    Myers, Greg (1990b). The double helix as an icon. Science as Culture, 9: 49–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09505439009526279
    Myers, Greg (1992). Fictions from facts: The form and authority of the scientific dialogue. History of Science, 30: 221–47.
    Mytelka, Lynn Krieger (1978). Licensing and technology dependence in the Andean group. World Development, 6: 447–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0305-750X%2878%2990094-3
    Nagel, Thomas (1986). The view from nowhere. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Nagpaul, P. S. & Krishnaiah, V. S. R. (1988). Dimensions of research planning: Comparative study of research units in six countries. Scientometrics, 14: 383–410. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02017098
    Nandy, Ashis (1988). Science, hegemony and violence: A requiem for modernity. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
    Nanney, David (1957). The role of cytoplasm in development. In William David McElroy & Hiram Bentley Glass (eds), The chemical basis of heredity: 134–63. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Narin, Francis, & Noma, Elliot (1985). Is technology becoming science? Scientometrics, 7: 369–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02017155
    Natarajan, R. (1987). Science, technology and Mrs. Ghandi. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 22: 232–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002190968702200307
    National Academy of Engineering (1983). International competition in advanced technology: Decisions for America. Washington, DC: NAE.
    National Academy of Engineering (1985). Technological frontiers and foreign relations. Washington, DC: NAE.
    National Academy of Engineering (1986). The positive sum strategy: Harnessing technology for economic growth. Washington, DC: NAE.
    National Academy of Engineering (1987a). Technology and global industry: Companies and nations in the world economy. Washington, DC: NAE.
    National Academy of Engineering (1987b). Technology and employment: Innovation and growth in the U.S. economy. Washington, DC: NAE.
    National Academy of Engineering (1989). Education and employment of engineers: A research agenda for the 1990s. Washington, DC: NAS Press.
    National Academy of Sciences (NAS) (1965). Basic research and national goals. Washington, DC: NAS Press.
    National Academy of Sciences (NAS) (1968). Technology: Processes of assessment and choice. Washington, DC: NAS Press.
    National Academy of Sciences (NAS) (1988). Engineering personnel data needs for the 1990s. Washington, DC: NAS Press.
    National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine (1991). Biomedical politics. Washington, DC: NAS Press.
    National Institutes of Health and Department of Energy (1990). Understanding our genetic inheritance, the U.S. human genome project: The first five years, FY 1991–1995 (DOE/ER-0452P). Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services and Department of Energy.
    National Research Council, Committee on the Education and Employment of Women in Science and Engineering (1979). Climbing the academic ladder: Doctoral women scientists in academe. Washington, DC: NAS Press.
    National Research Council, Committee on the Education and Employment of Women in Science and Engineering (1983). Climbing the ladder: An update on the status of doctoral women scientists and engineers. Washington, DC: NAS Press.
    National Research Council (1985a). Engineering technology education. Washington, DC: NAS Press.
    National Research Council (1985b). Engineering graduate education and research. Washington, DC: NAS Press.
    National Research Council (1985c). Engineering in society. Washington, DC: NAS Press.
    National Research Council (1985d). Support organizations for the engineering community. Washington, DC: NAS Press.
    National Research Council (1985e). Engineering employment characteristics. Washington, DC: NAS Press.
    National Research Council (1985f). Continuing education of engineers. Washington, DC: NAS Press.
    National Research Council (1985g). Engineering education and practice in the United States. Washington, DC: NAS Press.
    National Research Council (1986a). Engineering undergraduate education. Washington, DC: NAS Press.
    National Research Council (1986b). Engineering infrastructure diagraming and modeling. Washington, DC: NAS Press.
    National Research Council, Committee on Mapping and Sequencing the Human Genome (1988). Mapping and sequencing the human genome. Washington, DC: NAS Press.
    National Research Council (1991). Women in science and engineering: Increasing their numbers in the 1990s. Washington, DC: NAS Press.
    National Science Board (1989). Science and engineering indicators: 1989. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    National Science Board (1991). Science and engineering indicators: 1991. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Studies (1987). Federal funds for research and development: Fiscal years 1986, 1987 and 1988 (NSF Science Resources Series). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Studies (1988). Academic science/engineering: Graduate enrollment and support (NSF Science Resources Series). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    National Science Foundation (1989). Effect of downsized DOD budget on engineering (memo from John White & F. Karl Willenbrick, December 28). Washington, DC: NSF.
    National Science Foundation (1990). Women and minorities in science and engineering (NSF 90–301). Washington, DC: NSF.
    National Science Foundation (1991a). Biennial PhD survey. In Constance Holden, Career trends for the '90s. Science, 252 (24 May): 1110–17.
    National Science Foundation (1991b). Attitudes towards science and technology. In Science and engineering indicators, 1991: 166–91. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Studies (n.d.). Federal funds for research and development: Federal obligations for research to universities and colleges by agency and detailed field of science/engineering—fiscal years 1973–1987. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Nau, Henry R. (1975). Collective responses to R&D problems in western Europe: 1955–1958. International Organization, 3: 617–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300031714
    Ndonko, W. A. & Anyang, S. O. (1981). Concept of appropriate technology: An appraisal from the Third World. Monthly Review, 32: 35–43.
    Needless quarrel over research (1988). Nature, 331 (4 February): 375–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/331375a0
    Nelkin, Dorothy (1971). Nuclear power and its critics: The Cayuga Lake controversy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Nelkin, Dorothy (1972). The university and military research: Moral politics at MIT. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Nelkin, Dorothy (1975). The political impact of technical expertise. Social Studies of Science, 5/1 (February): 35–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631277500500103
    Nelkin, Dorothy (1977a). Technology and public policy. In Spiegel-Rösing & Price (1977): 393–442. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Nelkin, Dorothy (1977b). Thoughts on the proposed science court. Harvard Newsletter on Science, Technology, & Human Values, 18: 20–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016224397700200105
    Nelkin, Dorothy (1977c). Scientists and professional responsibility: The experience of American ecologists. Social Studies of Science, 7/1 (February): 75–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631277700700110
    Nelkin, Dorothy (Ed.) (1979)/(1984)/(1992). Controversy: Politics of technical decisions. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. (
    2nd edn
    , 1984;
    3rd edn
    , 1992)
    Nelkin, Dorothy (1982)/(1984a). The creation controversy: Science or scripture in the schools. New York: Norton. (Paperback edn, 1984)
    Nelkin, Dorothy (1984b). Science as intellectual property. Washington, DC: AAAS.
    Nelkin, Dorothy (Ed.) (1985). The language of risk: Conflicting perspectives on occupational health. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Nelkin, Dorothy (1987). Science, technology and public policy. [Entire issue]. Newsletter of the History of Science Society (January).
    Nelkin, Dorothy (1989). Communicating technological risk. Annual Reviews of Public Health, 10: 95–113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pu.10.050189.000523
    Nelkin, Dorothy (Ed.) (1992). Controversy: Politics of technical decisions (
    3rd edn
    ). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Nelkin, Dorothy (1994). Selling science: How the press covers science and technology (
    2nd edn
    ). New York: Freeman.
    Nelkin, Dorothy & Pollak, Michael (1979). Public participation in technological decisions: Reality or grand illusion? Technology Review, 81/1 (August/September): 55–64.
    Nelkin, Dorothy & Tancredi, Laurence (1994). Dangerous diagnostics: The social power of biological information (
    2nd edn
    ). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Nelson, John S. & Megill, Alan (1986). Rhetoric of inquiry: Projects and prospects. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 72: 20–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335638609383756
    Nelson, John S., Megill, Alan & McCloskey, Don (eds) (1987). The rhetoric of the human sciences: Language and argument in scholarship and public affairs. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
    Nelson, Lynn (1991). Who knows? From Quine to a feminist empiricism. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
    Nelson, Richard R. (1959). The simple economics of basic scientific research: A theoretical analysis. Journal of Political Economy. 67: 297–306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/258177-->
    Nelson, Richard R. (1984). High-technology policies: A five nation comparison. New York: American Enterprise Institute.
    Nelson, Richard R. (1990). U.S. technological leadership: Where did it come from and where did it go? Research Policy, 19: 117–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0048-7333%2890%2990042-5
    Nelson, Richard R., Peck, Merton J. & Kalachek, Edward D. (eds) (1967). Technology, economic growth and public policy. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
    Nelson, Richard R. & Winter, Sidney G. (1977). In search of a useful theory of innovation. Research Policy, 6: 36–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0048-7333%2877%2990029-4
    Nelson, Richard R. & Winter, Sidney G. (1982). An evolutionary theory of economic change. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
    Nelson, William R. (Ed.) (1968). The politics of science. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Newby, Howard (1992). Join forces in modern marriage. Times Higher Education Supplement (17 January): 20.
    Nickles, Thomas (1988). Reconstructing science: Discovery and experiment. In Diderik Batens & Jean Paul Van Bendegem (eds), Theory and experiment: 33–85. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Reidel. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-2875-6_3
    Nietzsche, Friedrich (1974). The gay science. New York: Vintage.
    Nieva, Veronica & Gutek, Barbara (1980). Sex differences in evaluation. Academy of Management Review, 5: 267–76.
    Nilsen, Svein Erik (1979). The use of computer technology in some developing countries. International Social Science Journal, 31: 513–28.
    Noble, David F. (1977). America by design: Science, technology, and the rise of corporate capitalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Noble, David F. (1979). Social choice in machine design. In Zimbalist (1979): 18–49.
    Noble, David F. (1984). Forces of production: A social history of industrial automation. New York: Knopf.
    Noble, David F. (1985). Command performance: A perspective on the social and economic consequences of military enterprise. In Smith (1985b): 329–46.
    Noble, David F. (1992). A world without women. New York: Knopf.
    Norman, Colin (1979). The god that limps. New York: Norton.
    Nowotny, Helga & Rose, Hilary (eds) (1979). Counter-movements in the sciences, Sociology of the sciences yearbook, 3. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Reidel. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-009-9421-8
    Nuffield Foundation (1975). Case-studies in interdisciplinarity: 2: Science, technology and society. London: Nuffield Foundation.
    Nye, Joseph S. (1987). Nuclear learning and U.S.-Soviet security regimes. International Organization, 41: 371–402. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300027521
    Nye, Mary Jo (1992). New views of old science. In D. Calhoun (Ed.), 1993 yearbook of science and the future: 220–40. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
    Oakley, Anne (1987). From walking wombs to test-tube babies. In Stanworth (1987): 36–56.
    O'Brien, James A. (1968). The impact of computers on banking. Boston, MA: Bankers.
    Ochs, Kathleen H. (1992). The rise of American mining engineers: A case study of the Colorado School of Mines. Technology and Culture, 33/2: 278–301. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3105859
    O'Connor, Jean G. (1969). Growth of multiple authorship. DRTC Seminar, 7: 463–83.
    Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), U.S. Congress (1986). Basic research as an investment: Can we measure the returns? Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), U.S. Congress (1987). New developments in biotechnology (Background paper, Public perceptions of biotechnology). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), U.S. Congress (1988a). The defense technology base. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), U.S. Congress (1988b). Mapping our genes—The genome projects: How big, how fast? (OTA-BA-373). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), U.S. Congress (1989). Holding the edge: Maintaining the defense technology base. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), U.S. Congress (1991a). Federally funded research: Decisions for a decade. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), U.S. Congress (1991b). Redesigning defense: Planning the transition to the future U.S. defense industrial base. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Ogan, Christine (1988). Media imperialism and the videocassette recorder: The case of Turkey. Journal of Communication, 38: 93–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1988.tb02049.x
    Ogburn, William F. (1945). The social effects of aviation. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
    Ogburn, William F., with the assistance of Gilfillan, S. Colum (1933). The influence of invention and discovery. In Recent social trends in the United States (Report of the President's Research Committee on Social Trends): 122–66. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Ogburn, William F. & Meyers Nimkoff, F. (1955). Technology and the changing family. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
    O'Keefe, M. (1970). The mass media as sources of medical information for doctors. Journalism Quarterly, 47: 95–100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107769907004700113
    Olby, Robert, Cantor, Geoffrey, Christie, John R. R. & Hodge, M. J. S. (eds) (1990). Companion to the history of science. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Olson, Maynard, Hood, Leroy, Cantor, Charles & Botstein, David (1989). A common language for physical mapping of the human genome. Science, 245 (29 September): 1434–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.2781285
    Onn, Fong Chan (1980). Appropriate technology: An empirical study of bicycle manufacturing in Malaysia. Developing Economies, 18: 96–115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1049.1980.tb00406.x
    Ophir, Adi & Shapin, Steven (eds), with Schaffer, Simon (1991). The place of knowledge: The spatial setting and its relation to the production of knowledge. [Special issue]. Science in Context, 4/1 (Spring): 3–218.
    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (1963). Science and the policies of governments. Paris: OECD.
    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (1965). The research and development effort. Paris: OECD.
    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (1966a). Government and allocation of resources to science. Paris: OECD.
    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (1966b). Fundamental research and the policies of governments. Paris: OECD.
    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (1971). Science, growth and society: A new perspective. Paris: OECD.
    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (1981). Science and technology policy for the 1980s. Paris: OECD.
    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (1984). Industry and university: New forms of co-operation and communication. Paris: OECD.
    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (1990). University enterprise relations in OECD member countries (DSTI/SPR/89.37; 1st revision). Paris: OECD.
    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (1992). Science and technology policy outlook. Paris: OECD.
    Orlans, Harold (Ed.) (1968). Science policy and the university. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
    Orsenigo, Luigi (1989). The emergence of biotechnology. London: Frances Pinter.
    Orth, Charles D., Bailey, Joseph C. & Wolek, Francis W. (eds) (1964). Administering research and development. New York: Irwin.
    Ortner, Sherry B. (1974). Is female to male as nature is to culture? In Rosaldo & Lamphere (1974): 67–88.
    Ostry, Sylvia (1990). Governments and corporations in a shrinking world: Trade and innovation policies in the United States, Europe and Japan. New York: Council on Foreign Relations.
    Otake, Hideo (1982). Corporate power in social conflict: Vehicle safety and Japanese motor manufacturers. International Journal of the Sociology of Law, 10: 75–103.
    Otero, Gerardo (1991). The coming revolution in biotechnology: A critique of Buttel. Sociological Form, 6: 551–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01114476
    Ott, M. D. (1978a). Differences between men and women engineering students. Journal of College Student Personnel, 19: 552–57.
    Ott, M. D. (1978b). Retention of men and women engineering students. Research in Higher Education, 9: 127–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00977395
    Ott, M. D. & Reese, N. A. (eds) (1975). Women in engineering: Beyond recruitment. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Otway, Harry (1992). Public wisdom, expert fallibility: Towards a contextual theory of risk. In Krimsky & Golding (1992): 215–28.
    Otway, Harry & Gow, H. B. F. (1990). Communicating information to the public about major industrial hazards. London: Elsevier.
    Ovensen, N. K. (1980). Advances in the continuing education of engineers. Paris: UNESCO.
    Ovitt, G. (1989). Appropriate technology: Development and social change. Monthly Review, 40: 22–32.
    Owens, Larry (1986). Vannevar Bush and the differential analyzer: The text and context of an early computer. Technology and Culture, 27: 63–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3104945
    Pacey, Arnold (1976). The maze of ingenuity. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Pack, Howard & Westphal, Larry E. (1986). Industrial strategy and technological change: Theory versus reality. Journal of Development Economics, 22: 87–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-3878%2886%2990053-2
    Paine, Robert (1992). “Chernobyl” reaches Norway: The accident, science and the threat to cultural knowledge. Public Understanding of Science, 1/3 (July): 261–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0963-6625/1/3/003
    Palca, Joseph (1991). NIH unveils plan for women's health project. Science, 254 (8 November): 792. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1948061
    Palter, Robert (1987). Saving Newton's text: Documents, readers, and the ways of the world. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 18: 385–439. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0039-3681%2887%2990001-X
    Pancaldi, Giuliano (1980). The history and social studies of science in Italy. Social Studies of Science. 10/3 (August): 351–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631278001000305
    Paquet, Gilles (1990). Internationalization of domestic firms and governments: Anamorphosis of a palaver. Science & Public Policy, 17: 327–32.
    Parker, Ian & Shotter, John (eds) (1990). Reconstructing social psychology. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Parsons, Talcott (1954). The professions and social structure. In Talcott Parsons, Essays in sociological theory: 34–49. New York: Free Press. (Original work published 1939)
    Patel, Surendra (1984). Technology in UNCTAD: 1970 to 1984. IDS Bulletin. 15/3: 63–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1759-5436.1984.mp15003013.x-->
    Pattnaik, Binay Kumar (1989). Scientific temper and religious beliefs. Journal of Sociological Studies, 8: 13–40.
    Pauly, Philip J. (1979). The world and all that is in it: The National Geographic Society, 1888–1918. American Quarterly, 31/4 (Fall): 517–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2712270
    Pavitt, Keith (1973). Technology, international competition and economic growth: Some lessons and perspectives. World Politics, 25: 183–205. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2010493
    Pavitt, Keith (1991). What makes basic research economically useful? Research Policy, 20: 109–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0048-7333%2891%2990074-Z
    Pearl, Amy, Pollack, Martha E., Riskin, Eve, Thomas, Becky, Wolf, Elizabeth & Wu, Alice (1990). Becoming a computer scientist: A report by the ACM Committee on the Status of Women in Computing Science. Communications of the ACM, 33/11: 48–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/92755.92757
    Pearse, Andrew (1980). Seeds of plenty, seeds of want: Social and economic implications of the Green Revolution. Oxford, UK: Clarendon.
    Peláez, Eloina {in press}. Software: A very peculiar commodity. Unpublished manuscript.
    Pelz, Donald C. & Andrews, Frank M. (1966). Scientists in organizations: Productive climates for research and development. New York: John Wiley.
    Penick, James L., Jr., Pursell, Carroll W., Jr., Sherwood, Morgan B. & Swain, Donald C. (eds) (1965). The politics of American science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Perkins, F. C. (1983). Technology choice, industrialisation and development experiences in Tanzania. Journ