The SAGE Handbook of Child Research

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Edited by: Gary B. Melton, Asher Ben-Arieh, Judith Cashmore, Gail S. Goodman & Natalie K. Worley

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  • Part I: Setting-Specific Issues in Child Research

    Part II: Population-Specific Issues in Child Research

    Part III: Methods in Research on Children and Childhood

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    Dedication

    The Sage Handbook of Child Research is dedicated to the memory of Stewart Asquith, who conceived of this volume and who was its initial lead editor. He died in April 2009 at age 61 after years of battling multiple myeloma – a personal struggle that characteristically included advocacy and guidance for others through a blog (http://www.stewartsrevlimid.blogspot.com) under the auspice of Myeloma UK. Also characteristically, Stewart continued as the lead editor of this volume until the day that he was advised to withdraw from an experimental treatment because he was showing no progress in fighting the myeloma.

    Even then, after an exhausting array of treatments involving most of his body systems, Stewart found a way to enjoy almost every moment of his life. The following excerpt from his blog, written less than two months before his death, was illustrative:

    Not finished yet! … Just in case you think the myeloma has completely gone for me, [in the two weeks] since the last post (Does sound final, doesn't it!)…, I've finished one bike, nearly finished another; sanded the stairwell; sanded our bathroom door (new bathroom put in) in prep for painting; built a cupboard for Elspeth (screw missing…. I wonder if I have an Ikea gene because various folks have commented on the fact that I also have a screw missing!). So still working away…. Still hanging in there.

    I was able to spend time in person with Stewart on only a few occasions. However, he left a strong impression on me, as he did on many others, and I considered him to be not only a distant colleague but also a good friend. My memory of Stewart can be summarized as follows: a doggedly determined Scotsman with a strong love of country, an enthusiasm for folk culture, and a wry sense of humour; above all, a tireless, passionate advocate for children, especially those whose way in life was most unfair (for example, children who had been sexually exploited and trafficked or who had been brutalized in institutions).

    Stewart's academic accomplishments were enviable. He was the first holder of the St. Kentigern chair for childhood studies at the University of Glasgow, and in his last years he developed the Centre for Rural Childhood at the University of the Highlands and Islands. However, he was without pretence, and he lost neither his appreciation of the richness of the culture in which he grew up nor his understanding of the hardships that children in poverty and other troubles must overcome. I suspect that he was most comfortable when he was assisting children who were striving to cope with repeated trauma.

    Stewart's empathy and determination were rooted in his own experience, as described in his obituary:

    Stewart Asquith was the youngest of six children. His mother was a cinema usherette who took in lodgers to supplement her wages. Stewart never knew his father, nor even clearly established his identity, although he was believed to be a Polish soldier. This combination of childhood deprivation and unresolved questions about his personal origin were to prove driving forces throughout his life and career …

    His work was always moulded by strong theoretical principles and moral values, and he was equally appreciated for his personal skills as negotiator, adviser, trusted colleague and friend …

    While he achieved international eminence, he never lost touch with his origins or distanced himself from the ways and lives of the wider community …1

    Although The Sage Handbook of Child Research was written and edited after Stewart's death, this book was unquestionably his brainchild. Completion of the book was not a task that the ultimate editors had sought, but we were privileged to assume that role. We hope that it communicates the respect that Stewart had for children, especially those who cope each day with challenges that would be forbidding even to most adults. We hope, too, that this book will enable others to illuminate the everyday experiences of children in diverse circumstances around the world and to describe those realities with sensitivity and clarity.

    For peace and auld lang syne,

    Gary B.Melton
    Note

    ‘Professor Stewart Asquith’. Available at http://www.scotsman.com/news/obituaries/professor-stewart-asquith-1-1034215

    Notes on the Editors and Contributors

    About the Editors

    The editors of The SAGE Handbook of Child Research are diverse in nationality and educational background. However, they share a commitment to advancement of the well-being of children and their parents, a passion for the protection of human rights, a history of distinguished scholarship and public service, and an appreciation of the usefulness of international and interdisciplinary studies in the generation and application of knowledge about children and childhood. Moreover, all of the editors have contributed knowledge relevant to assurance of safety for children in their homes and communities and to creation of conditions conducive to meaningful participation by children in proceedings affecting them.

    Asher Ben-Arieh is associate professor of social work at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, director of its Joseph J. Schwarz MA programs in early childhood and non-profit management, adjunct professor of family and community studies at Clemson University in South Carolina, and director of the Haruv Institute, a non-profit organization for advancement and communication of knowledge useful in child protection practice in Israel and around the world. Prof. Ben-Arieh has been the editor of the annual report on State of the Child in Israel: A Statistical Abstract since 1990. Prof. Ben-Arieh's scholarship has focused on the nature of children's well-being and the factors affecting it, methodology in social indicators research, and the use of child indicators in making and implementing public policy. Prof. Ben-Arieh's work is centred on explication of three constructs: the power of information, the rights of children, and the importance for its own sake of experience in childhood.

    Active in both Israeli and international policy debates and scientific discussions in regard to children's well-being, Prof. Ben-Arieh has served on national panels on child health and the situation for children at risk. He also represents Israel on the European Union's working group on child welfare (COST A/19).

    Prof. Ben-Arieh was the principal organizer of a global network of scholars involved in monitoring of child well-being. That network developed into the International Society for Child Indicators, which Prof. Ben-Arieh co-chairs. He also founded and now edits the journal Child Indicators Research and a book series on child well-being.

    Judith Cashmore, a developmental psychologist, is associate professor of law at the University of Sydney and an adjunct professor at Southern Cross University, where she is the inaugural chair of the advisory board of the Centre for Children and Young People. In 2010, Prof. Cashmore was honoured as an Officer in the Order of Australia (AO), which recognizes ‘distinguished service of a high degree to Australia or to humanity at large.’ She received the 2013 Stanley Cohen Distinguished Research Award by the Association of Family and Conciliation Courts for research related to family law.

    Prof. Cashmore's research focuses on children's involvement in decisions about their care and protection and their guardianship. Focusing on children's own perceptions, understanding, and experiences of participation in the legal process, Prof. Cashmore takes a child-centred approach to analysis of policy pertaining to these contexts.

    Prof. Cashmore has been active in bringing her findings to the attention of legal authorities in Australia. She has frequently led or participated in national or state government committees pertaining to child protection. She is a member of the New South Wales Judicial Commission, which conducts research, provides judicial education, and responds to complaints against judicial officers. She has worked as a consultant to the NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, the Australian Law Reform Commission, the NSW Department of Community Services, the NSW Community Services Commission, and the NSW Child Protection Council.

    Prof. Cashmore is a board member in several non-governmental organizations (e.g., the National Children's and Youth Law Centre). She is an author of Australian non-governmental organizations' shadow report to the U.N. Committee on the Rights of the Child.

    Gail S. Goodman is distinguished professor of psychology at the University of California, Davis, and professor of forensic psychology at the University of Oslo. Prof. Goodman also directs UC Davis's Center for Public Policy Research, which applies social science to public policy, especially in regard to child protection, foster care, and assistance to families in poverty.

    Prof. Goodman has devoted her career to two related major areas of study: memory development and children's abilities and experiences as victim/witnesses. In the memory development area, she has contributed to understanding of the general relation of emotion to memory and the specific relation of trauma to memory. She also has studied attachment and memory, implicit and explicit memory, and semantic associates and memory. In research on child witnesses, Prof. Goodman has been a leader in study of children's ability to provide testimony about events (especially child abuse) that they have experienced or witnessed. She also has conducted seminal studies on children's experience of the legal process (including testimony itself) and on the psychological effects of the process on child victims. Prof. Goodman's psycholegal research has been cited by US courts at all levels.

    Prof. Goodman is also currently studying the effects of child abuse on mental health. That work includes analyses of the relations among child maltreatment, re-victimization, and juvenile delinquency.

    Prof. Goodman has served as president of several entities in the American Psychological Association: the Society for Child and Family Policy and Practice, its Section on Child Maltreatment, and the American Psychology-Law Society. She has been a consulting editor of Child Development, Law and Human Behavior, and Contemporary Psychology, among other journals. Among the organizations that have honoured her for research, public service, and/or teaching are APA (twice), its Division of Developmental Psychology, the American Academy of Forensic Psychology, the American Professional Society on Abuse of Children, the National Organization for Victim Assistance, the Society for Child and Family Policy and Practice, and the Society for Psychological Study of Social Issues.

    Gary B. Melton is associate director for community development and social policy in the Kempe Center for Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect, professor of paediatrics in the University of Colorado School of Medicine, professor of community and behavioural health in the Colorado School of Public Health, and adjunct professor of family and community studies at Clemson University in South Carolina. Prof. Melton has served as president of the American Orthopsychiatric Association, Childwatch International, the American Psychology-Law Society, and the Society for Child and Family Policy and Practice. He has received awards for distinguished contributions to research and public service from the American Psychological Association (three times), two APA divisions, the American Orthopsychiatric Association, the American Professional Society on Abuse of Children, the American Psychological Foundation, Prevent Child Abuse America, and Psi Chi. He is currently co-editor of the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry and Child Abuse and Neglect.

    Prof. Melton has travelled in almost 50 countries. He was a Fulbright professor at the Norwegian Centre for Child Research. He has served as a consultant to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, chair of APA's Working Group on the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and a member of an analogous panel for the American Bar Association.

    Prof. Melton was vice-chair of the US Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect. He long led a regular congressional briefing series, and he contributed heavily to several amicus briefs in the US Supreme Court and various other appellate courts in the United States.

    Natalie K. Worley is a PhD candidate in international family and community studies at Clemson University. Her scholarly interests include community factors in children's well-being, public policy on child maltreatment, and youth participation in community development, particularly in rural areas and developing nations.

    Ms. Worley is a research assistant in Clemson's Institute on Family and Neighborhood Life. In this position, Ms. Worley participates in the design, implementation, and evaluation of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) curricula for youth in after-school programmes in traditionally underperforming school districts.

    For her outstanding performance as a graduate student, Ms. Worley received the Social Work Endowment Award from the University of Tennessee, where she earned her master's degree in social work. As a doctoral student, she received the Graduate Student Award of Excellence from Clemson's College of Health, Education, and Human Development.

    Ms. Worley has studied, travelled, and worked in Africa, Australia, the Caribbean, Central America, and Eastern and Western Europe. She completed a master's internship in the South African Education and Environment Project in Cape Town, South Africa. She is currently engaged in program evaluation and strategic planning for Clemson Engineers for Developing Countries in their community development projects in Haiti.

    About the Contributors

    Priscilla Alderson PhD is Professor Emerita of Childhood Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London. With Professor Berry Mayall she designed the Institute's MA course in international children's rights. Recent books include Young Children's Rights (Jessica Kingsley/Save the Children, 2008), The Ethics of Research with Children and Young People: A Practical Handbook (with V. Morrow, Sage, 2011) and Childhoods Real and Imagined: An Introduction to Critical Realism and Childhood Studies, Volume 1 (Routledge, 2013).

    Steven R. Asher PhD is a Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience at Duke University. His research focuses on the linkages between social competence and friendship and on the associations between peer relations processes and feelings of loneliness in school. Recent publications examine individual differences in response to challenging situations that arise in friendships. As part of their research, Dr Asher and his doctoral students have created widely used measures for assessing social competence, peer acceptance, friendship quality, and feelings of loneliness. Steven Asher's research is published in major journals in developmental, educational, and clinical psychology and he has co-edited two influential volumes, The Development of Children's Friendships and Peer Rejection in Childhood, both published by Cambridge University Press. He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association, the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues, the Association for Psychological Science, and the American Educational Research Association.

    Else-Marie Augusti PhD is a postdoctoral fellow at the Cognitive Developmental Research Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Norway. Dr Augusti's research focuses on maltreated children's cognitive development, and how emotion and executive functions interact in typically developing children compared to maltreated children. Dr Augusti has worked both in the USA and Norway on research concerning children's development. She has published in journals such as the Journal of Traumatic Stress and Child Neuropsychology.

    Oscar A Barbarin PhD is the Hertz Endowed Chair in the Department of Psychology at Tulane University in New Orleans. He earned a PhD in clinical psychology at Rutgers University and completed a post-doctoral fellowship in social psychology at Stanford University. His research has focused on the social and familial influences on the development of boys of color. He has developed ABLE, a universal mental health screening tool for young children. His work on children of African descent extends to a 20 year longitudinal study of the effects of poverty and violence on child development in South Africa. He is Co-editor of the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. He chaired the US National Committee for Psychology and served on the Governing Council of the Society for Research in Child Development.

    Bryony Beresford is a research director at the Social Policy Research Unit (SPRU) in the University of York, United Kingdom. She has been carrying out applied social research projects concerned with the lives of disabled children and young peoples and their families for over twenty years, publishing widely on this topic. Much of her work is government funded and relates to policy and/or practice issues. Along with other members of her research team, she has been at the forefront of developing methods by which children, including those with autistic spectrum conditions (ASC), who are deaf and/or do not use speech to communicate, can participate directly in research. Recent projects include: specialist mental health services for deaf children; an evaluation of parent training programmes for parents with disabled children; transition experiences for young people with ASC; condition-management transitions for young people with life-limiting conditions.

    Stephanie Block PhD is assistant professor at the University of Massachusetts, Lowell. Her research has broadly focused on children in the legal system, the effects of trauma on children's wellbeing and memory for emotional events, and the prevention of child maltreatment. Guided by a social-ecological perspective and interdisciplinary training, she conducts research that generates knowledge and informs public policy relevant to children in the child welfare and legal systems. Dr Block has published in Applied Developmental Science, Law and Human Behavior, Child Abuse & Neglect, and Journal of Applied Social Psychology.

    Marc H. Bornstein is senior investigator and head of child and family research at the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. He holds a BA from Columbia College, MS and PhD degrees from Yale University, and an honorary doctorate from the University of Padua. Bornstein has held faculty positions at Princeton University and New York University as well as academic appointments as visiting scientist in Munich, London, Paris, New York, Tokyo, Bamenda, Seoul Trento, and Santiago. Bornstein is a past member of the Governing Council of the SRCD and the Executive Committee of the ISIS. Bornstein has administered both Federal and Foundation grants, sits on the editorial boards of several professional journals, and consults for governments, foundations, universities, publishers, scientific journals, the media, and UNICEF. Bornstein is editor emeritus of Child Development and founding editor of Parenting: Science and Practice. He is author or editor of numerous scholarly volumes and several children's books, videos, and puzzles and has published widely in experimental, methodological, comparative, developmental, and cultural science as well as neuroscience, pediatrics, and aesthetics. Visit http://www.cfr.nichd.nih.gov and http://www.tandfonline.com/HPAR.

    Ragnhild Brusdal is a senior researcher at the National Institute for Consumer Research in Norway. Her research fields are all connected to consumption and cover many areas such as household economics, consumption and debt among young grown-ups, and children and consumption in different aspects such as well-being, commercialization and gender equality. Latest publications in this field are; Children as Consumer (with Frones, forthcoming), The purchase of moral positions (2012, with Frones) and Are Parents Gender Neutral when Financing their Children's Consumption? (2011 with L. Berg).

    Lorinda B. Camparo PhD is a professor in the Psychology Department at Whittier College where she has taught and conducted research on enhancing children's narrative reports since 1997. Dr Camparo has published numerous articles and book chapters, and recently co-authored the book, Evidence-based Child Forensic Interviewing: The Developmental Narrative Elaboration Interview (with Karen Saywitz, 2014, Oxford University Press). As an active member of The Society for Child and Family Policy and Practice (APA Division 37), Dr Camparo served as Program Chair, Editor of The Advocate, and Member-at-Large for Communication & Technology. Dr Camparo has also conducted workshops on interviewing children for lawyers, judges, police officers, and social workers, has served as an expert witness on cases involving children alleging sexual abuse, and as a child development expert, has been interviewed for World News Tonight and Good Morning America.

    Ingrid Cordon is research director and assistant project scientist at the Center for Public Policy Research at the University of California, Davis. She has conducted research and published numerous articles, chapters, and reports on such topics as child maltreatment, children in court, child welfare, juvenile delinquency, memory development, and emotion processing. Dr Cordon received a Bachelor's degree from UCLA (summa cum laude); a Master's degree from California State University, Northridge; and a PhD from UC Davis. She then served as a post-doctoral fellow at the University of Minnesota, Harvard Medical School, and Children's Hospital, Boston. Dr Cordon's educational background includes training in developmental psychology, developmental neuroscience, statistics, and research methods and design. She also served as part-time faculty at California State University, Sacramento.

    Lyn Craig is an Australian Research Council Queen Elizabeth II Fellow at the Social Policy Research Centre at the University of New South Wales. Her research interests include parenthood and the time costs of care, work-family balance and the intra-household effects of work-care policy structures.

    Tove I. Dahl is a professor of educational psychology in the Department of Psychology at UiT The Arctic University of Norway in Tromsø, Norway. She is also dean of Skogfjorden, the Norwegian language and culture immersion program for youth run by the Concordia Language Villages of Concordia College in Moorhead, Minnesota. Her research endeavors reflect her interest in language, culture and facilitating meaningful and lasting interactions with others. She has studied foreign (and native) language learning and comprehension, peace education and, most recently, the concept of interest and how to use it to build bridges among people who travel and the people and places of their destinations. In all of this research, voice is central – both as something to be expressed and to be heard. Hence her big question for this book's chapter: What happens when we give children voice in the world of research and why should it matter?

    Ryan A. Dickson is a Graduate School Dissertation Chair at Northcentral University. He received his MS in psychology from Western Washington University, conducting research on implicit and explicit memory as well as on ethnic identity, and received his PhD from the University of New Hampshire in developmental psychology where he conducted research on autobiographical memory across the lifespan with an emphasis on the reminiscence bump.

    Jacinthe Dion PhD is a psychologist and professor at the Université du Québec à Chicoutimi (Quebec, Canada). She is a member of the CRIPCAS (Interdisciplinary Research Centre on Conjugal Problems and Sexual Abuse) and scientific director of the axis 3 of the VISAJ Chair (on youth development). Her research pertains to child sexual abuse among vulnerable populations, such as youth with a disability and Indigenous people, as well as risk factors for body image dissatisfaction.

    Amy Dworsky is a senior researcher who has spent much of her career studying vulnerable youth populations including youth aging out of foster care, homeless youth and foster youth who are pregnant and/or parenting. She is currently the PI for several projects: a HUD-funded study of housing programs for youth aging out of foster care; a FSBY-funded impact evaluation of a pregnancy prevention program; and an Illinois Department of Children and Family Services funded study of foster youth who are pregnant and parenting. Previously, Dr Dworsky was the P.I. for the evaluation of an employment program for youth in foster care, a study of runaway and homeless youth who were pregnant and/or parenting; and an investigation of campus support programs for former foster youth. She was also a Co-Investigator for the Midwest Evaluation of the Adult Functioning of Former Foster Youth, a longitudinal study of young people making the transition from foster care to adulthood. Dr Dworsky has a PhD in social welfare from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Her most recent publications focus on the predictors of homelessness among youth aging out of foster care, the implications of health care reform for young women aging out of foster care and the parenting experiences of runaway and homeless youth.

    Ivar Frones is professor of sociology at the University of Oslo, and senior researcher at The Norwegian Center for Child Behavioural Development. His work and international experience covers a variety of areas, with an emphasis on life course analysis, the sociology of childhood and youth, well-being and social exclusion. Frones is a member of the Board of the International Society for Child Indicators, and the founder of the journal Childhood. His numerous publications cover a variety of perspectives on childhood, include Among Peers (1995) Status Zero Youth (2007), ‘On theories of dialogue, self and society’ (2007), ‘Theorizing indicators: On indicators, signs and trends (2007), and ‘The purchase of moral positions' (with Brudsel, 2013). In Scandinavia he has published on digital divides, modern childhood, marginalization and risk, cultural trends and a variety of subjects related to childhood, youth and life course development.

    Robert M. Goerge is a senior research fellow at Chapin Hall at the University of Chicago, with more than 25 years of research focused on improving the available data and information on children and families. He is also a Senior Fellow at the UC Computation Institute and at the UC Harris School of Public Policy Studies, where he directs the Master's Degree on Computational Analysis and Public Policy. Dr Goerge developed Chapin Hall's Integrated Database on Child and Family Programs in Illinois, which links the administrative data on child maltreatment, social service receipt, education, criminal and juvenile justice, employment, healthcare, and early childhood programs to provide a comprehensive picture of child and family use of publicly provided or financed service programs. Dr Goerge received his PhD from the School of Social Service Administration of the University of Chicago. He is also co-founder of the International Society for Child Indicators.

    Jacqueline Goodnow is a professorial (emeritus) research fellow at the Child and Family Research Centre, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia. Her main interests have to do with cultural contexts, development, and the relevance of concepts and procedures developed in one context to research in others (cf. Goodnow & Lawrence, in press, Carmichael, Handbook of Child Psychology, Vo. 4). Her life has been roughly divided between time in Australia and in the United States, with awards in both countries for distinguished contributions to research. She personally still feels most honored by the citation accompanying inclusion in a list of Distinguished Women in Psychology (American Psychological Association, 1992), ‘Significant contributions: Opening up new content areas, indicating not only their significance but also how one might proceed with research; integrating areas of knowledge, bringing together models from several fields … and consistently underlining the significance … of the social context’.

    Daphna Gross-Manos is a PhD candidate in the Paul Baerwald School of Social Work at the Hebrew University. Her thesis focuses on ‘The Relationship of Material Deprivation and Social Exclusion to the Subjective Well-being of Children in Israel’. She serves as the managing editor of The Journal of Child Indicator Research and the Handbook of Child Well-being. She is also the editor of The International Society for Child Indicators newsletter – Indicators. Until 2011 Gross-Manos was a board member of the Israel Social Workers Union for three years. Her awards include the Hebrew University president scholarship and the Luxembourg foundation scholarship. Gross-Manos research interests are: child deprivation; child social exclusion; children subjective well-being; poverty and inequality; social policy.

    Whitney Brechwald Guerry PhD is a postdoctoral research scientist in the Department of Pediatrics at Columbia University Medical Center/New York Presbyterian Hospital, where she works with children and families impacted by pediatric cancer and blood diseases. Dr Guerry received her BA from the University of California, Berkeley, and her MA and PhD in clinical psychology from Duke University. Dr Guerry also has received clinical and research training at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill and at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, where she completed her pre-doctoral clinical internship. Dr Guerry has published research examining the role of peer and other relationships on the physical and socio-emotional well being of children and adolescents. She has a particular interest in how social influence processes may promote positive and negative health-related behaviors in young people.

    Harlene Hayne is the vice-chancellor at the University of Otago and she also holds a personal chair in the Psychology Department. Professor Hayne is a Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand and of the American Psychological Society. She is also the Co-chair of the Office of the Prime Minister's Science Advisory Committee Working Party on Reducing Social and Psychological Morbidity during Adolescence and the co-director of the Innocence Project, New Zealand. In 2009, Professor Hayne was appointed an Officer of the New Zealand Order of Merit for services to scientific and medical research. She is the Deputy Chair of the Board of Fulbright New Zealand, and a member of the Board of the New Zealand Treasury. Her specialist research interests are memory development, interviews with children in clinical and legal contexts, and adolescent risk-taking.

    Scott W. Henggeler PhD is professor at the Medical University of South Carolina and founding director of the Family Services Research Center (FSRC). The FSRC has received numerous awards, including a Points of Light Foundation President's Award in recognition of excellence in service directed at solving community problems. Likewise, Dr Henggeler has received several research and education awards from national organizations including being named one of the twelve people who saved rehabilitation by the American Society of Criminology. He has published 10 books, and his work has been translated into Norwegian, German, Japanese, Dutch, and Spanish. In addition, he has published more than 250 journal articles and book chapters; and has received grants from NIMH, NIDA, NIAAA, OJJDP, CSAT, the Annie E. Casey Foundation, and others. He was Associate Editor of the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, and has been on the editorial boards of more than 10 journals.

    Sue D. Hobbs MA is a developmental psychology doctoral student at the University of California, Davis. Her research interests include factors related to child development in the context of child maltreatment and early life stressors. Specifically, she is interested in memory and suggestibility, parent-child attachment, emotion regulation development, and biological stress regulation processes, and how these are associated with child maltreatment and early-life stressors.

    Dari Jigjidsuren, a native of Mongolia, earned her PhD from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Currently Dari is an evaluation specialist at the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute in Chapel Hill. Her research interests are on early education, school readiness, and socio-economic factors affecting young children's educational achievement and well-being.

    Jan Kampmann is a professor in Childhood research, Dept. for Psychology and Educational studies, Roskilde University, Denmark. For many years Kampmann's research has been on children and young people's everyday life, early childhood education and schooling. His research has been based on institutional ethnography, policy ethnography and participatory action research. He has a special interest in researching implications of gender, class and ethnicity in a children's perspective.

    Bong Joo Lee is professor of social welfare at Seoul National University. He earned his PhD from the School of Social Service Administration at University of Chicago. Before joining to the faculty of SNU, he had taught at Boston University School of Social Work and University of Chicago. His research focuses on child indicators, child poverty, child welfare, social development, and social service reform issues. He is a co-editor of Child Indicators Research, an international journal on child indicators. He is also on the editorial boards of Child Abuse & Neglect, Asian Social Work and Policy Review and Journal of Asian Pacific Social Work and Development. He has published many books and papers in domestic and international peer-reviewed journals. Recently, he worked on development of the We Start model, which is a targeted early human capital investment neighborhood program to combat intergenerational transmission of poverty and inequality in Korea. Email: bongjlee@snu.ac.kr; Tel: (82-2) 880-5724; Fax: (82-2) 875-5724

    Roger J.R. Levesque is a professor of criminal justice at Indiana University and teaches courses on children's rights at the Maurer School of Law. He is editor-in-chief of the Journal of Youth and Adolescence as well as the New Criminal Law Review. Professor Levesque's research focuses on the legal regulation of adolescence and the nature of adolescents' rights. In addition to having published numerous journal articles, he is the author of several books dealing mainly with the nature of adolescence, family life, and the laws that shape our intimate lives. He is the author of Not by Faith Alone: Religion, Law and Adolescence (New York University Press) and Adolescence, Media and the Law (Oxford University Press).

    Michael R. McCart PhD is the Associate Director of the Family Services Research Center and an Associate Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the Medical University of South Carolina. He holds a secondary appointment in the Department of Pediatrics. Dr McCart's research focuses primarily on the development and evaluation of interventions for adolescents presenting serious clinical problems (e.g., delinquent behavior, substance use, trauma-related psychopathology). He has received grants from the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to support his research. Dr McCart has published over 50 journal articles and book chapters; and has received awards from the US Department of Justice and the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children for his research with youth and their families.

    Kristina L. McDonald PhD is an assistant professor at the University of Alabama. She received her BA from Illinois Wesleyan University and her MA and PhD from Duke University. She completed postdoctoral training at the University of Maryland and at the Center for the Prevention of Youth Behavioral Problems at the University of Alabama. Her research focuses on the peer relationships of children and adolescents, specifically the social cognitive processes underlying problematic peer interactions as well as how context may affect peer interactions. Her most recent publications address the precursors and consequences for youth who endorse hostile social motivations, like revenge goals; how friendship interactions may influence social cognitions; and how social context may affect peer relationships and social cognitions during peer interactions.

    Kelly McWilliams MA is currently a doctoral student at the University of California, Davis in the laboratory of Dr Gail S. Goodman. Her research interests include memory development, emotion understanding, children's eyewitness testimony, children's memory for trauma, and children's experiences in the legal system. Ms. McWilliams has published several articles and book chapters concerning children's memory for abuse and trauma. In addition, she has been awarded grants from NSF and APF to conduct her dissertation work.

    Jennifer Mason is professor of sociology and co-director of the Morgan Centre for the Study of Relationships and Personal Life at the University of Manchester, UK. She has conducted research into a wide range of family and relationship matters, including children's kinship. She is an advocate for the creative potential of qualitative mixed methods approaches. She has published widely in the spheres of personal life and relationships, and research methodologies.

    Annika Melinder PhD is professor of psychology and director of the Cognitive Developmental Research Unit (EKUP) at the Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Norway. Dr Melinder holds graduate degrees in experimental and clinical psychology. Her research focuses on neurocognitive development in typical and maltreated children, and legal procedures regarding children as witnesses. She has published extensively including in such journals as Developmental Psychology, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, and Cognition.

    Terje Ogden PhD is research director at the Norwegian Center for Child Behavioral Development, Unirand and professor at the Institute of Psychology, University of Oslo, Norway. His research interests include clinical trials and implementation of empirically supported interventions (ESI) targeting antisocial children and youth, and the longitudinal development of social competence and externalizing problem behavior in early childhood. Dr Ogden has published several articles on interventions like Multisystemic Therapy, Parent Management Training – the Oregon model, Positive Behavior and Learning Support in schools (N-PALS) and Early Interventions for Children at Risk (the TIBIR project). Publications also include articles on moderators and mediators of interventions, and the large-scale implementation of ESIs.

    Charlotte J. Patterson PhD is professor of psychology and director of the interdisciplinary Women, Gender & Sexuality Program at the University of Virginia. Best known for her research on child development in lesbian- and gay-parented families, Patterson is a Fellow of the Association for Psychological Science (APS) and of the American Psychological Association (APA), and a past-President of the Society for Psychological Research on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Issues. Patterson has won a number of awards, including the American Psychological Association's 2009 award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy, and the Society for the Psychology of Women's 2011 Laura Brown Award for Outstanding Contributions to Lesbian and Bisexual Women's Psychology. Patterson's Handbook of Psychology and Sexual Orientation, co-edited with Anthony R. D'Augelli, was published in 2013 by Oxford University Press.

    David B. Pillemer is the Dr Samuel E. Paul Professor of Developmental Psychology at the University of New Hampshire and Senior Fellow at the Carsey Institute for Families and Communities. Pillemer's research specialty is autobiographical memory across the life span. He has studied memory development in children, memory and self-esteem, memory and motivation, ‘flashbulb’ memories of momentous events, memories of educational experiences, and gender and cultural differences in memory performance. He is the author or editor of several books, including Momentous Events, Vivid Memories and Developmental Psychology and Social Change.

    Juliana Raskauskas is currently associate professor of child development at California State University, Sacramento. Her research interests are in the areas of middle childhood and adolescent development, peer relationships, bullying, and cyber bullying. She has researched bullying both in the United States and New Zealand and published several book chapters and research articles. Notable publications include ‘Relations between traditional and internet bullying among adolescent females' in Developmental Psychology and “Bullying on the School Bus: A Video Analysis” and “Text-bullying: Associations with Traditional Bullying and Depression among New Zealand Adolescents” in Journal of School Violence. Her most recent publication was a chapter called ‘Bullying: Students Hurting Students' in the new edition of Crisis Counseling, Prevention and Intervention in the Schools.

    Kim Rasmussen is associate professor, Mag. Art and PhD at the Department of Psychology and Educational Studies, Roskilde University, Denmark. His research is about childhood and children's life in preschool institutions with focus on children's everyday life, children's culture and children's places. He has done several research projects together with children including children with intellectual disabilities. The approach and empirical methods is often based on children's visual practice and photographs. He is author, co-author or editor of several books including: Traces of Children's Institutional Life (2001, co-author), Childhood in Pictures (2002, co-author), Children in the Neighbourhood: The neighbourhood in children (2004), Children's Places (2005, editor), The Everyday Life of Children (with intellectual disabilities) (2008), Visual Approaches and Methods (2013, editor).

    Eugene C. Roehlkepartain is vice president of research and development at Search Institute, a US-based non-profit organization that provides research, consulting, and other services focused on what young people need to succeed in their families, schools, and communities. He focuses on family strengths and engagement, international youth development, and integrating research and practice for positive community and social change. From 2006–2009 he co-led, with the late Peter L. Benson, Search Institute's Center for Spiritual Development in Childhood and Adolescence. He is author, co-author, or editor of more than 200 publications, including The Handbook of Spiritual Development in Childhood and Adolescence (Sage, 2006) and Nurturing Child and Adolescent Spirituality: Perspectives from the World's Religious Traditions (Rowman and Littlefield, 2006). He is a PhD candidate in Education, Curriculum, and Instruction with a specialization Family, Youth, and Community at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

    Karen J. Saywitz PhD is a professor at the UCLA, School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and a developmental and clinical psychologist. For over 20 years, she has directed programs providing mental health services to children and families in the public sector and taught normative child development to students in medicine, law, psychology, and social work. Her research on children in the legal system applies developmental science to legal decision-making. Her work has been cited by the US Supreme Court and numerous appellate courts. She has won national awards for her pioneering research, distinguished teaching, advocacy, and clinical service from organizations such as the American Psychological Association and the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children. She is a past president of the APA Division of Child, Youth, and Family Services. Her most recent publication is a book titled, Evidence-based Child Forensic Interviewing: The Developmental Narrative Elaboration Interview.

    Anna K. Skosireva is a physician educated in Uzbekistan, where she specialized in internal medicine. Subsequently earning an MS degree in international health policy and management from Brandeis University and a PhD degree in international family and community studies from Clemson University, she did her post-graduate studies in social science and health policy. She then completed a post-doctoral research and teaching fellowship in the Institute on Family and Neighborhood Life at Clemson University and a research fellowship in the Canadian Institutes of Health ACHIEVE program at St Michael's Hospital in Toronto. As a physician and sociologist, she integrates perspectives from medicine, health policy, epidemiology, and sociology in her research. Her work is focused on socio-cultural determinants of population health and health disparities, with particular foci on the health of ethnic minorities, children, and people affected by mental illness and drug abuse.

    Patricia Sloper was professor of children's healthcare at the Social Policy Research Unit, University of York, UK until her retirement in 2010. Her background is in psychology, and throughout her career her research has focused on the needs and experiences of children with disabilities or chronic illnesses and their families.

    Michal Soffer PhD is a senior lecturer at the School of Social Work, Faculty of Social Welfare and Health Sciences, University of Haifa, Israel. Her main research interests are stigma toward disability and illness, as reflected in social policies, structures and processes. She has co-authored a book on women inmates in Israel and published papers on illness-related stigma, mediated images of illness and disabilities, women inmates, and disability-related policies.

    Emma Sterrett PhD is a clinical psychologist and an assistant professor in the Kent School of Social Work at the University of Louisville. Her research focuses, in general, on the ways interpersonal relationships affect youth well-being, as well as on dissemination and implementation of evidence-based family and systemic interventions. She has published several papers on family relationships, other contextual influences, and youth psychosocial adjustment among low-income and ethnic minority youth.

    Becky Tipper is a sociologist whose research interests include qualitative methods and everyday social life (in particular, family and kin relationships and human-animal interactions). She completed her PhD in Sociology in 2012 at the University of Manchester, UK. Prior to that she worked as an academic researcher. She is currently an Honorary Research Fellow at the Morgan Centre for the Study of Relationships and Personal Life at the University of Manchester.

    Anu Toots is a professor of comparative public policy in the Institute of Politics and of Governance, Tallinn University, Estonia. Her research interests include governance of the welfare state, citizenship and education policy. She has been engaged in comparative educational research including large-scale surveys by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievements (IEA) and education reform analyses by the Council of Europe. Her research articles have appeared in the Journal of Baltic Studies, International Journal of Educational Research, Studies of Transition States and Societies and many others.

    Karen Tustin PhD recently completed her PhD in psychology from the University of Otago. Karen's research interests include examining age-related changes in childhood amnesia (the inability of adults to recall their infancy and early childhood) across the lifespan and the specific mechanisms responsible for childhood amnesia. In particular, Karen is interested in how the development of episodic memory contributes to our understanding of childhood amnesia. Recent publications include (with Hayne, 2010) ‘Defining the boundary: Age-related changes in childhood amnesia’ in Developmental Psychology and (with Hayne, Gross, McNamee, Fitzgibbon, Tustin, 2011) ‘Episodic memory and episodic foresight in 3- and 5-year-old children’ in Cognitive Development.

    Drika Weller PhD is an American Association for the Advancement of Science, Science & Technology Policy Fellow, working at the US Agency for International Development. Dr Weller's work focuses on promoting research-driven solutions to advance the wellbeing of underserved populations, with an emphasis on children and youth. Drika has worked in the US, Asia, Africa, and Eastern Europe. She has published in Child Development, Handbook of Moral Development, and Attachment and Human Development.

    Ekaterina Yazykova has addressed questions of legal and psychosocial protections for various vulnerable populations, including children left without parental care, victims of family violence, and communities recovering from armed conflict. She has worked in academic, intergovernmental, and nongovernmental settings on issues that promote recovery and develop confidence in trauma affected individuals and groups. For her doctoral dissertation in international family and community studies at Clemson University, Yazykova conducted field research in communities that were struggling with ethnic strife, poverty, and lack of personal security in post-independence Kosovo. As an intern at the Hague Conference for Private International Law, Yazykova worked on measures to make intercountry adoption a safer practice for children from orphanages in Russia. At Amnesty International, Yazykova reported on violations of rights of disaster victims, victims of domestic abuse, prisoners, and other vulnerable groups in the United States. Yazykova has taught classes on social policy and policy analysis.

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