Handbook of Professional Ethics for Psychologists: Issues, Questions, and Controversies
Publication Year: 2003
The Handbook of Professional Ethics for Psychologists considers the compatibility of science and morality. Challenging readers to question the fundamental philosophical values of professional psychology, the editors and contributors inspire the ethical impulse and encourage active moral leadership. An essential reference for professional and academic psychologists and counselors, the Handbook of Professional Ethics for Psychologists is also an exceptional primary or supplementary reader for graduate students enrolled in courses on Ethics in Psychology and Ethics and Professional Concerns and for anyone considering the compatibility of science and morality.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: Foundations
- Chapter 2: Philosophical Foundations of Professional Ethics
- Chapter 3: Thinking Well about Ethics: Beyond the Code
- Chapter 4: Moral Reasoning and Development
Part II: Psychology and Professional Ethics
- Chapter 5: Ethical Principles of the Psychology Profession and Professional Competencies
- Chapter 6: The Mismeasure of Psychologists: A Review of the Psychometrics of Licensing Requirements
- Chapter 7: Institutional Review Boards: Balancing Conflicting Values in Research
Part III: Special Topics
- Chapter 8: Ethics and the Allocation of Healthcare
- Chapter 9: Fees and Financial Arrangements
- Chapter 10: The Termination and Referral of Clients
- Chapter 11: Ethical Principles of the Psychology Profession and Involuntary Commitment
- Chapter 12: Ethics of Multiple and Overlapping Relationships
- Chapter 13: Ideals and Realities in the Development and Practice of Informed Consent
- Chapter 14: Seven “Sins” of Misdirection? Ethical Controversies Surrounding the Use of Deception in Research
- Chapter 15: Confronting Ethical Issues in the Use of Animals in Biomedical and Behavioral Research: The Search for Principles
- Chapter 16: Ethical Considerations in Psychological Assessment
Part IV: Special Populations
- Chapter 17: Confidentiality in Psychotherapy and Related Contexts
- Chapter 18: Ethical Principles of the Psychology Profession and Ethnic Minority Issues
- Chapter 19: Sexual Orientation and Professional Ethics
- Chapter 20: Ethical Issues for Psychologists Working with Persons with Developmental Disabilities
- Chapter 21: Ethical Principles of Correctional Psychology
- Chapter 22: The Central Role of Informed Consent in Ethical Treatment and Research with Children
- Chapter 23: Ethical Principles and Practice in Couple and Family Therapy
- Chapter 24: Ethics and the School Psychologist
- Chapter 25: Issues in the Ethical Treatment of Older Adults
Copyright © 2003 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Handbook of professional ethics for psychologists / editors, William T.
O'Donohue, Kyle E. Ferguson.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-7619-1188-X-ISBN 0-7619-1189-8 (pbk.)
1. Psychologists-Professional ethics. I. O'Donohue, William T.
II. Ferguson, Kyle E.
BF76.4 .H36 2003
02 03 04 05 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquiring Editor: Jim Brace-Thompson
Editorial Assistant: Karen Ehrmann
Production Editor: Claudia A. Hoffman
Copy Editor: Carla Freeman
Indexer: Molly Hall
This book is designed to fill a gap in the literature on professional ethics for psychologists. First, it seeks to be more comprehensive than existing books and therefore covers topics typically neglected, such as moral reasoning and the ethics of professional licensing. Second, this book, at times, is more radical and controversial than much of the literature in this area. Too many authors take ethical pronouncements associated with some organizations as dogmatic authoritarian edicts not to be questioned, but simply to be understood and observed. We, on the other hand, encourage a questioning, critical attitude that attempts to root out both error and ethical slovenliness (think Socrates as a model). This book in part is an attempt to push harder on the ethical impulse in psychologists to expose quality as well as mendacity. Ethics need not be as comfortable as it is for most psychologists. Moral leadership often disturbs.
There are many individuals we wish to thank. All the chapter authors deserve thanks—particularly the ones who submitted their chapters on time. We owe a large debt of gratitude to Jim Brace-Thompson for his patience and excellent stewardship. We would also like to thank Sara Ashby for her administrative assistance. Finally, we wish to thank our families Jane Fisher, Katie and Anna and Robin Ferguson for their patience and support.William T.O'DonohueKyle E.Ferguson, Reno, NV[Page x]
About the Editors[Page 463]
William T. O'Donohue is a professor of psychology at the University of Nevada at Reno. He received a doctorate in clinical psychology from the State University of New York at Stony Brook and a master's degree in philosophy from Indiana University. He is editor and coeditor of a number of books, including the Handbook of Behaviorism; Learning and Behavior Therapy; Management and Administration Skills for the Mental Health Professional (with Jane Fisher); The Philosophy of Psychology (with Richard Kitchener); and Theories of Behavior Therapy and the Handbook of Psychological Skills Training (both with Leonard Krasner). He coauthored the recent Sage book The Psychology of B.F. Skinner (2001) with Kyle E. Ferguson.
Kyle E. Ferguson is pursuing his Ph.D. in psychology at the University of Nevada, Reno. He received a master's degree in behavior analysis from Southern Illinois University and a bachelor's degree from the University of Alberta. He coauthored a previous book, Working Through Anger (with Mark Dixon), and two manuals, Working Through Anger: Therapist's Manual (with John Guercio and Martin McMorrow) and A Practitioner's Guide to Behavioral-Medical Interventions (with John Guercio). He coauthored the recent Sage book The Psychology of B.F. Skinner (2001) with William T. O'Donohue.[Page 464]
About the Contributors[Page 465]
Henry E. Adams is Emeritus Research Professor of clinical psychology at the University of Georgia. He received his bachelor's degree in psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, and his M.A. and Ph.D. in clinical psychology from Louisiana State University. He was director of clinical psychology training (1965–1978) at the University of Georgia, Chair of the Division of Social and Behavioral Sciences (1978–1982), and a research professor (1983–1997) at the institution. His primary research interest has been in behavioral approaches to sexual deviations and other disorders.
Devjani Banerjee-Stevens is a doctoral student in counseling psychology at the University of Minnesota, where she also received her M.A. in counseling and student personnel psychology. Her research interests include bicultural identity development in college students and multicultural competence development in counseling trainees.
Jordan B. Bell received his bachelor's degree in 1994 at the Pennsylvania State University, where he specialized in Eastern philosophy and values. He is currently a senior graduate student in clinical psychology with interests in cross cultural psychology, substance abuse, and the ethics of animal research. He is also Research Associate for the Research Ethics Service Project at the University of New Mexico.
Jeffrey A. Buchanan is a doctoral student in clinical psychology at the University of Nevada, Reno, and an intern at the Minneapolis VA Medical Center. He received his M.A. in clinical psychology from Minnesota State University at Mankato. His research interests are in the areas of behavior analysis, managing challenging behaviors in persons with dementia, and psychological interventions for caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease.
Charles D. Claiborn is associated with Arizona State University.
Nicholas A. Cummings, Ph.D., Sc.D., is President of the Foundation for Behavioral Health and Chairman of the Nicholas & Dorothy Cummings Foundation, Inc. He is the founding CEO of American Biodyne (MedCo/Merck, then Merit, now Magellan Behavioral Care). Cummings is a former president of the American Psychological Association. He is founder [Page 466]of the four campuses of the California School of Professional Psychology, the National Council of Professional Schools of Psychology, the American Managed Behavioral Healthcare Association, and the National Academy of Practice. He was Chief Psychologist at Kaiser Permanente and is the former Executive Director of the Mental Research in Palo Alto, California.
Cummings currently serves as Distinguished Professor at the University of Nevada, Reno.
Deborah Davis received her Ph.D. from Ohio State University in 1973. She taught at Southern Illinois University and Georgia State University before coming to the University of Nevada-Reno in 1978. Dr. Davis pursues research in the areas of romantic relationship behavior across the lifespan, adult attachment theory, and several areas in psychology and law, including perceptions of rape victims, witness memory, and empirical approaches to evidentiary rulings. She has served on the editorial boards of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology and the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. Dr. Davis is also the founder and President of Sierra Trial and Opinion Consultants, a firm offering jury research and a variety of trial preparation services for attorneys.
Jane E. Fisher, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of psychology at the University of Nevada, Reno. She completed her B.S. degree at the University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana and a Ph.D. in clinical psychology at Indiana University, Bloomington. She is the founder of the Nevada Caregiver Support Centre, a statewide facility that offers assistance to caregivers of patients with dementia. Her research interests include clinical gerontology, lifespan development, and environmental design for dementia and healthy aging.
Victoria Follette is a clinical scientist with a special emphasis in theory-based empirical research on the longterm impacts of trauma. Extending these findings to therapeutic practices that can be implemented in the community is central to her work. Dr. Follette is particularly interested in the links between interpersonal victimization, substance abuse, and high risk sexual behaviors. She has conducted research in the areas of child sexual abuse, adult rape, and domestic violence. Her current and future research will emphasize substance abuse both as a result of victimization and as a risk factor for future abuse. Currently she supervises six doctoral level students who conduct both basic and applied research related to trauma. In addition, she supervises a clinical team that provides individual, couples, and group therapy for issues related to trauma.
William C. Follette received his Ph.D. in clinical psychology from the University of Washington in 1984. He is currently an associate professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Nevada, Reno. Dr. Follette is involved in psychotherapy research and treatment [Page 467]development, research design, philosophy of science, and conceptual challenges associated with empirically supported treatments.
Alan E. Fruzzetti, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of psychology and Director of the Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) and Research Program at the University of Nevada at Reno. He received his B.A. from Brown University and M.S. and Ph.D. from the University of Washington in Seattle. His research focuses on the interplay between psychopathology and couple and family interactions, and the development of effective treatments for these problems. Dr. Fruzzetti is Research Advisor and Member of the Board of Directors of the National Educational Alliance for Borderline Personality Disorder, maintains a clinical practice with individuals and families, and has provided extensive training in the United States, Europe, and Australia in DBT with individuals, couples, and families.
John P. Gluck received his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin – Madison in 1971. For many years he researched the effects of early experience on learning in nonhuman primates. He is currently Professor of psychology, Director of the Research Ethics Service Project, and Senior Bioethicist at the Health Science Center Institute for Ethics at the University of New Mexico. He is also Faculty Affiliate at the Kennedy Institute of Ethics, Georgetown University.
Lori Goodkey is a Ph.D. candidate in counseling psychology at the University of Alberta in the department of educational psychology. Her research interests include ethics in psychology, forensics, and qualitative inquiry. For her dissertation, she is examining the counseling experience of incarcerated women.
Gordon C. Nagayama Hall is Professor of psychology at the University of Oregon. He was previously a professor of psychology at Kent State University and the Pennsylvania State University. His research interests are in the cultural context of psychopathology, particularly sexual aggression. Dr. Hall has grants from the National Institute of Mental Health to study culture-specific models of men's sexual aggression and monocultural versus multicultural academic acculturation. He coauthored Multicultural Psychology with Christy Barongan and coedited Asian American Psychology: The Science of Lives in Context with Sumie Okazaki. Dr. Hall was president of the American Psychological Association Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues and received the Distinguished Contribution Award from the Asian American Psychological Association.
John Hansen is a psychology student at the University of Nevada, Reno. He is the project coordinator of a research grant using mathematical modeling techniques to capture change within therapy. His current research [Page 468]interests include psychotherapeutic process, relational learning, and decision-making.
Gregory J. Hayes is associated with the University of Nevada.
Karl H. Hennig is Assistant Professor of psychology at St. Francis Xavier University. He received his Ph.D. from the University of British Columbia and did postdoctoral work at the University of Western Ontario. His current research examines the role of family and peer processes in the development of healthy, nonviolent relationships among youth at risk for delinquency and dating violence and the efficacy of family and peer group interventions.
Sarah E. Herbert, M.D., M.S.W., is Assistant Professor in the department of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta, Georgia. She is Director of the Psychiatry Obstetrics Consultation/Liaison Service at Grady Memorial Hospital. She currently is President of the Lesbian and Gay Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Association. She is one of the founding board members of YouthPride, a nonprofit organization that provides services for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning youth in Georgia.
Gayle Y. Iwamasa is Associate Professor at DePaul University. She received her Ph.D. from Purdue University and has been on the faculties of Ball State University, Oklahoma State University, and the University of Indianapolis. Her reserch and clinical interests are in multicultural mental health across the life span. Her research has been supported by the National Institute of Mental Health. Dr. Iwamasa won the Emerging Professional Award from the American Psychological Association Society for the Psychological Study of the Ethnic Minority Issues and the Early Career Achievement Award from the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). She also was president of AAPA. She is the coeditor of Culturally Diverse Mental Health: The Challenges of Research and Practice and is an associate editor for Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology.
Susan Jacob, Ph.D., is Professor of Psychology at Central Michigan University. Her areas of professional interest include ethical and legal issues for school psychologists and intellectual assessment. She is author (with T. S. Hartshorne) of Ethics and Law for School Psychologists, now in its fourth edition, and is author or co-author of more than 30 book chapters and journal articles. She was Director of CMU's School Psychology Programs 1991–1998 and was coordinator of the University's Institutional Review Board for Review of Research Involving Human Subjects 1997–2000. She has served on professional ethics committees at the national and state levels. Dr. Jacob earned her Ph.D. in educational psychology from Michigan State University in 1981.
[Page 469]Markus Kemmelmeier received his Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Michigan in 2001. He is currently an assistant professor in the Interdisciplinary Ph.D. Program in Social Psychology at the University of Nevada. His research focuses on culture, attitudes and social-cognitive processes in interpersonal interaction.
Michael Lavin is in private practice in Washington, DC. He holds a Ph.D. in philosophy and humanities from Stanford (1983) and a Ph.D. in clinical psychology from the University of Arizona (1999). He is formerly an assistant and then Associate Professor of philosophy at the University of Tennessee at Knoxville (1983–1994). He has held postdoctoral positions at the University of Wisconsin (1982–83) and at University of Minnesota Medical School's Program in Human Sexuality (1999–2000). He has worked as a clinical administrator at St. Elizabeth Hospital's John Howard Pavilion. In his private practice, he treats persons facing a variety of psychological issues, including compulsive sexual behavior and illegal sexual behavior. He is a candidate at the Baltimore-Washington Institute for Psychoanalysis. He can be reached at ML1952@stanfordalumni.org.
Andrew Lloyd earned his M.A. in philosophy from the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) in 1998. Since then he has been working toward his Ph.D. in psychology and is currently an advanced student in the clinical psychology program at UNR. Andrew has published in the areas of self control, delusional disorders, and philosophy. He enjoys working, writing, teaching, and researching on topics that share both philosophical and psychological features.
Kristen A. Luscher, Ph.D., is a recent graduate from the University of Georgia Clinical Psychology Program. Her current research interests include risk factors associated with sexual victimization and sexual violence, as well as psychological consequences associated with sexual victimization.
Brian P. Marx is a licensed clinical psychologist and Assistant Professor of psychology at Temple University. He received his Ph.D. in 1996 from the University of Mississippi. His research focuses on risk factors for and responses to sexual victimization and emotion and psychopathology. His research has been published in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Behavior Therapy, Journal of Traumatic Stress, and Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology.
Robert Miranda, Jr., Ph.D., is a postdoctoral fellow at the Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies at Brown University. Upon completion of an internship through the Clinical Psychology Training Consortium at Brown, he received a Ph.D. in clinical psychology from Oklahoma State University. In addition to training in clinical psychology, he formally respecialized in biological psychology at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, [Page 470]with an emphasis in psychophysiology and affective neuroscience. His primary research interests center on how abnormalities in brain regions important for the generation of emotional reactivity and regulation confer liability for antisocial behavior and drug abuse.
Melody Pearson-Bish received her bachelor's degree from York College in 1995 and a M.A. degree from Towson University in 1998. She is currently a senior level clinical graduate student at the University of New Mexico. Her research interests include evolutionary psychology, bioethics, ethical decision making in animal and human research, and ethics education.
Ype H. Poortinga, Ph.D., is part-time Professor of cross-cultural psychology at Tilburg University in the Netherlands and at the University of Leuven in Belgium. He has conducted research on similarities and differences in behavior across a variety of cultural populations and aspects of behavior. He has been president of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology (IACCP), the Netherlands Institute of Psychologists (NIP), and the European Federation of Psychologists Associations (EFPA). Currently he is on the executive committees of the International Association of Applied Psychology (IAAP) and the International Union of Psychological Science (IUPsyS).
David W. Purcell, J.D., Ph.D., is an attorney and clinical psychologist. He currently works as a behavioral scientist at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia. He also maintains a private practice in Atlanta, where many of his clients are gay men and male couples. He is coeditor of On the Road to Same-Sex Marriage (1998). He is one of the founding board members YouthPride Inc., a nonprofit organization that provides services for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning youth in Georgia.
David F. Richards, Ph.D., holds bachelor degrees in mechanical engineering (University of Florida) and psychology (Arizona State University), a master's dgree in clinical psychology (Millersville University), and a Ph.D. in behavior analysis (University of Nevada, Reno). He holds a staff position as a behavior analyst at Area Cooperative Educational Services (ACES), North Haven, CT. He provides behavioral services and training to approximately 160 teachers in support of three magnet schools with a total of approximately 1,500 children. His research interests include conducting functional based behavioral assessments within the school setting and developing and evaluating techniques for improving teacher classroom behavior management skills.
Natalie M. Rice is a doctoral candidate in clinical psychology at the University of Nevada, Reno, where she also received her M.A. in [Page 471]psychology. Her master's project examined the characteristics, potential moderating factors, and longterm correlates of child and adolescent sexual abuse in a Latina community sample. Her current research interests include trauma, cultural issues in psychology, and emotion regulation.
Janet E. Schank, Ph.D., is a licensed psychologist and counseling supervisor at a social services agency in St. Paul, Minnesota. She received her M.A. and Ph.D. in counseling and student personnel psychology/educational psychology from the University of Minnesota—Twin Cities. She is a former Chair of the Minnestoa Psychological Association Ethics Committee and has written, consulted, and presented on a number of issues related to ethics in psychology. Her primary interest is in ethical dilemmas of psychologists who practice in a range of small communities, including rural areas, communities of color, small colleges, and others.
Thomas Skovholt, Ph.D. is Professor of counseling and student personnel psychology at the University of Minnesota. He is an author or editor of six books, including Ethics in Small Worlds: A New Definition of Small-Community Psychology (with Janet E. Schank), now in press. He is a Fellow of APA, Diplomate of ABPP, Fulbright Lecturer in Turkey, and Member of the Academy of Distinguished Teachers at the University of Minnesota. He has been an active part-time practitioner for over 25 years.
Rachel P. Slater is a doctoral student in counseling psychology at the University of Minnesota. She received her M.A. in counseling psychology from Saint Mary's University of Minnesota. Current interests include exploring new clients' expectations of the counseling process and applying reflexive research methods to the practice of therapy.
Jessica N. Smith is a doctoral student of developmental psychology at the Univeristy of Oregon in Eugene. She received her B.A. degree in psychology from Gonzaga University and an M.S. from the University of Oregon. Her current reseach interests lie in the broad area of developmental psychopathology; more specifically, she is interested in the influence of the cultural context and familiar relationships on both normal and problematic social-emotional development.
Karel A. Soudijn obtained his Ph.D. at the University of Amsterdam and is Associate Professor of psychology at Tilburg University. He has published several books and numerous articles on methodology, psychotherapy, the writing of scientific papers, and professional ethics for psychologists. He is a member of the Ethics Committee of the Netherlands Institute of Psychologists (NIP).
Shoba Sreenivasan, Ph.D., is Clinical Professor of psychiatry and the behavioral sciences at the University of Southern California, Keck School [Page 472]of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry. She is also the Coordinator of Forensic Neuropsychology at the USC Institute of Psychiatry, Law, and Behavioral Science. In addition, Dr. Sreenivasan is the Director of Forensic Outreach Services at the Greater Los Angeles V.A. She received her doctorate in clinical psychology from the University of California, Los Angeles. She also serves as a forensic psychology expert for local county courts and is on the California State Department of Mental Health Sexually Violent Predator evaluation panel. Her research interests and publications have been in the area of assessment of violence, forensic ethical issues, and suicide among adults and minors.
Stephanie K. Swann, L.C.S.W., is a licensed clinical social worker who is currently working on a Ph.D. in clinical social work at Smith College in Northhampton, MA. She also maintains a private practice in Atlanta, Georgia, where she spends most of her time (except summers, when she is in Northhampton). She is founder YouthPride, Inc., a nonprofit organization that provides services for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning youth in Georgia.
Steven R. Thorp, Ph.D., is a postdoctoral research fellow at Duke University Medical Center. He received his doctorate in clinical psychology from the University of Nevada, Reno, and completed his internship training at the University of California, San Diego. He investigates cognitive-behavioral treatments for adult clients, and he has applied these treatments in VA hospitals, community and university outpatient clinics, a state hospital inpatient unit, and a locked forensic unit. His primary research interests include how interactions with family members, romantic partners, or caregivers influence clients' anxiety, depression, or personality disorders. He studies the mechanisms of change involved in Integrative Couple Therapy (ICT), Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT), and other treatments that address acceptance and change, especially as they apply to older adults. He is also actively involved in discussions of professional issues, including ethics, training practices, and dissemination of science-based practice in psychology.
Nancy E. Tribbensee is Deputy General Counsel at Arizona State University and a member of the Board of Directors for the Association for Interdisciplinary Initiatives in Higher Education Law and Policy. Her primary areas of practice include student affairs, academic affairs, risk management, research, computer use, intellectual property, and free speech issues. She received her law degree and an M.A. and a B.A. in philosophy from Arizona State University. She is currently a doctoral candidate in the counseling psychology program. Her research interests include professional ethics, confidentiality, and appropriate response to issues that arise in graduate clinical training.
[Page 473]Derek Truscott, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of counseling psychology at the University of Alberta in the department of educational psychology. He is also currently Chair of the Practice Review Committee of the College of Alberta Psychologists and has served in numerous regulatory capacities. He is in the process of writing (with Kenneth Cook) Ethics for the Practice of Psychology in Canada. His interests include ethics, standards of professional practice, life-threatening behavior, and psychotherapeutic processes.
Lawrence J. Walker is Professor of psychology and coordinator of the graduate program in psychology at the University of British Columbia, having received his Ph.D. from the University of Toronto in 1978. He is past-president of the Association for Moral Education and currently serves as associate editor for the Merrill-Palmer Quarterly. His research focuses on issues relating to the psychology of moral development, including processes in the development of moral reasoning and the formation of moral personality.
Linda E. Weinberger, Ph.D., is Professor of clinical psychiatry and the behavioral sciences at the University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry. She is also the Chief Psychologist at the USC Institute of Psychiatry, Law, and Behavioral Science. She received her doctorate in clinical psychology from the University of Houston. For more than 20 years, she has trained clinical psychologists and psychiatrists in a postdoctoral fellowship program in forensic psychology/psychiatry. In addition, she is a consultant to a number of agencies, including the Federal Bureau of Prisons, California Department of Corrections, parole and probation departments, jails, district attorneys' and public defenders' offices, superior courts, coroners' departments, and the California Board of Psychology. Her publications reflect her interests in mental health laws, evaluation and treatment of mentally disordered offenders, and psychological autopsies.
Kevin D. Williams is associated with the University of Nevada, Reno.
W. Larry Williams, Ph.D. (University of Manitoba, 1977), has worked in the field of developmental disabilities for over 30 years. He helped design, implement, and chair the first master's degree program in special education in Latin America at the University of Sao Carlos in Sao Paulo Brazil. From 1984–1994, he directed several clinical behavior analysis programs in developmental disabilities as a senior manager at Surrey Place Center in Toronto, Canada, where he oversaw intervention services for over 1,000 cases and trained 50 behavior therapists. He is the founder and member emeritus of the Ontario Association for Behavior Analysis and is a registered psychologist in Ontario. As an Associate Professor of [Page 474]psychology at the University of Nevada, Reno since 1995, his teaching and research interests are in basic learning processes in persons with developmental disabilities and organizational behavior analysis applied to human service delivery. He is also the director of the UNR PATH program for adults with developmental disabilities. Williams is the author of a book on mental retardation, co-author of two books concerning autism and education, and is currently preparing a book on recent advances in mental retardation as well as a book on anger management. He is on the board of editors of two professional journals, has published over 35 book chapters and professional research articles, and has made over 200 professional and research presentations over the last 20 years.
Craig A. Yury is a doctoral student at the University of Nevada, Reno. He received his B.A. with honors in psychology from the University of Manitoba. His current research interests include geriatric care, dementia related illnesses, and behavioral pharmacology.