The Handbook of Organizational Culture and Climate


Edited by: Neal M. Ashkanasy, Celeste P. M. Wilderom & Mark F. Peterson

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Culture, Climate, and Multilevel Analysis

    Part II: Toward Positive Work Cultures and Climates

    Part III: State-of-the-Art Reviews on Social-Organizational Processes

    Part IV: Organizational Dynamics and Identity: Defining the New Paradigm

    Part V: Organizational Culture and Organization Theory

    Part VI: International Themes in Organizational Culture Research

  • Dedication

    In memory of my niece, Nicola Miriam Bookey (1960–2010)—Neal Ashkanasy

    To Usama, Noor, and Senna—Celeste Wilderom

    To Susan and faraway places—Mark Peterson


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    This second edition of the Handbook of Organizational Climate and Culture represents the cumulative efforts of a great number of people. First and foremost, we acknowledge the contribution of our authors. We have been privileged to have had the support of such leading scholars in the field, with representation from all over the world. There was also substantial pressure to meet deadlines—possibly more pressure than many academics are accustomed to. We are especially appreciative that our authors managed to meet these targets, although we must say it was a close scrape in some instances.

    We would also like to express our appreciation to the graduate students and research assistants who helped with the preparation of the manuscripts, especially in the final stages. March To conducted a literature survey to identify the latest topics in the field at the outset of the project. Anna Wickham is Neal Ashkanasy's senior research assistant and worked as administrative assistant for most of the duration of the project. Rebecca Michalak and Marissa Edwards assisted with the final stages of submission when we had to make the critical publishing deadlines.

    A special thank you must go to the editorial staff at Sage Publications, Lisa Shaw and MaryAnn Vail, who provided invaluable assistance throughout the project—and pushed us to meet those deadlines! Last, but certainly not least, we also would like to acknowledge the contribution of the late Al Bruckner, who was so encouraging in the early stages of this project. Al was a larger-than-life figure at Sage, and we miss him.


    Edgar H.Schein

    This second edition of the Handbook of Culture and Climate is a testament to the viability of these two concepts. The amount of new research that is reviewed in chapter after chapter is mind-boggling. The search for further conceptual clarity also shows up in chapter after chapter, and the obsession with proving that climate and culture make a difference to human well-being and organizational performance is alive and well.

    So do we declare success? Are these concepts now a firm part of organizational theory and practice? Yes and no. On the yes side, I doubt that there is a manager or scholar alive who does not take the concepts of climate and culture seriously. One may choose not to study them, one may regard them as too vague or abstract, but no one would question today that in some form or another, there are palpable phenomena in groups, organizations, and industries that are best described as climate and/or culture.

    The confusion between culture and climate is gradually being reduced by the multitude of research approaches that are exemplified in this second edition. Although conceptual confusion may reign for a while yet, when the researcher makes a concrete decision about how to measure a phenomenon and, in that process, defines the concept empirically, he or she is adding a bit of clarity that others can then incorporate into their thinking. Although we academics may continue to argue about definitions, a growing pile of survey instruments, interview protocols, group diagnostic exercises, dialogue formats, and observational schemes will evolve that will make these concepts concrete and more usable by practitioners. In the end, it will make more sense to argue about whether to use measurement approach A, B, or C than to argue about how culture or climate should be defined in the abstract.

    The connection of culture and climate to other important concepts such as group development and identity formation is yet another positive trend that informs both theory and practice. Culture can be thought of as a series of layers of personality formation resulting from the various groups into which a person has been socialized, and climate can be thought of as the result of the various processes of reward and punishment that parents and other authorities provided in the person's environment. In this sense, both cultural and climatic experiences provide the raw material out of which identity, personality, and character are shaped.

    The growing recognition that culture is a concept that can be applied to larger units such as ethnic groups, industries, and countries is yet another positive development. Applying culture to larger units also clarifies one of the important essences of climate, namely that it tends to be associated more with a physical setting or a set of relationships which may or may not be colocated, while culture as a residue of prior learning may be applicable to whole sets of people who transcend time and space. It is in this context that I find the two concepts most clearly distinguishable. A climate can be locally created by what leaders do, what circumstances apply, and what the environment affords. A culture can only evolve out of mutual experience and shared learning. It is for this reason that the notion of creating a culture continues to be nonsensical. Leaders can create climates and dictate behavior changes, but only a shared learning process of what works over some period of time for a given set of people will create culture.

    Now for some issues. One persistent problem is that a researcher takes one or two dimensions of culture or climate, relates them to some other variable such as productivity or turnover, finds a correlation, and now claims that this proves that culture and/or climate have been shown to be important correlates of other important things. The irony in this search for a provable relationship between culture and performance is that anyone who has done any field research or analyzed cases of organizations already knows very well that these effects exist. Most researchers who have done fieldwork also know how these processes work by observing them over time. But for some reason, there continues to be a huge bias in the literature cited in many articles in this Handbook in favor of cross-sectional and correlational studies reported in journals. Field studies, cases, and longitudinal studies do not make it in, the most notable examples being the omission of studies of Digital Equipment Corporation and IBM (e.g., Gerstner, 2002; Kunda, 1992; Schein, 2003). For some reason, we do not respect clinical field studies as empirically valid even when they show clearly how climate, culture, and organizational performance are linked in organizations.

    Evidently, there is still confusion about just how to conceptualize climate, culture, and the relationship between these two ideas—this shows up in many papers. One reason why this confusion persists is that we are dealing with two abstractions that are operationally defined differently by practically every researcher who touches them. Worse, having defined them once in some idiosyncratic manner, we then use the words as if we now understood them. In other words, to say that culture and/or climate influence organizational effectiveness is a meaningless statement unless each of these abstractions is defined more concretely. By staying at this high level of abstractness, we then fall into the trap of not only advocating culture change or climate improvement, but also of convincing ourselves and managers that we now know how to do this and have “proof” that it works.

    If we are to make progress in this murky domain, we need to become more concrete. In my own research and practice, I find myself increasingly avoiding the word culture altogether. What the cultural perspective does for us, however, is to become alert to the taken-for-granted aspects of social life and human affairs. Just as a “good climate” is only a useful construct if we begin to specify temperature and humidity ranges (the variables that actually we can feel and that influence us), so culture as a construct is only useful if it leads us to find some shared taken-for-granted dimensions of behavior, thought, or feeling that have some relevance to the conceptual or practical problem we are trying to solve.

    For example, the growing concern with positive psychology and positive climates and cultures only begins to make sense if we can specify just what kind of behavior we are looking for that can be defined as “positive.” If we specify that the climate has to be one in which supervisors “encourage people” and advocate “openness and transparency,” then the culture variable comes into play in raising the very interesting question of whether the tacit assumptions of the macroculture in which this is to be done supports such behavior. Before we can launch successful transparency programs, we have to examine the specific deep assumptions in the culture that legitimize certain kinds of communication and forbid others. For instance, to admit fault or criticize another person might be considered totally inappropriate in some macrocultures. Other relevant dimensions for advocating positive programs might be the nature of human nature, how relationships are defined, and how one deals with authority and intimacy. Culture as a concept is useful only insofar as it leads us to examine the shared and deeper dimensions of human consciousness. Climate is only useful insofar as it leads us to look for the characteristics of social and work situations that make us more or less comfortable or productive.

    At a theoretical level, the confusion over what culture is and how best to think about it can be very useful in guiding us empirically. What should the culture scholar look for—overt behavioral regularities; rituals; patterns of discourse; use of symbols; how identity is constructed in groups, organizations, and societies; and taken-for-granted assumptions about time, space, authority, human nature? All can be relevant and can come to play a key part in understanding why some changes that are advocated might or might not work.

    Having said all this, my advice to readers is to view both climate and culture as abstractions that lead them to taking a useful perspective toward human behavior in complex systems. It is the perspective that is important, not a particular research result nor a broad generalization about how important climate or culture is to some practical phenomenon.

    Gerstner, L. V. (2002). Who says elephants can't dance?New York: HarperCollins.
    Kunda, G. (1992). Engineering culture. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
    Schein, E. H. (2003). DEC is dead, long live DEC. San Francisco: Berrett-Kohler.
  • About the Editors

    Neal M. Ashkanasy is Professor of Management in the UQ Business School at the University of Queensland. His PhD is in social and organizational psychology, also from the University of Queensland. He is a Fellow of the Association for Psychological Science, the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, the Academy of Social Sciences in Australia, and the Australia and New Zealand Academy of Management. His research focuses on the role of emotion in organizational life and on leadership, culture, and ethics. He has published over 100 articles, including publishing in leading peer-reviewed journals such as the Academy of Management Journal, the Academy of Management Review, and the Journal of Management. Ashkanasy is Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Organizational Behavior, Associate Editor for Emotion Review, and Series Editor for Research on Emotion in Organizations. He administers two Listservs (Orgcult—The Organizational Culture Caucus, and Emonet—Emotions in Organizations) with a combined subscription of over 1,500.

    Mark F. Peterson is Professor of International Management at Florida Atlantic University and holds the Hofstede Chair in Cultural Diversity at Maastricht University. His principal interests are in questions of how culture and international relations affect the way organizations should be managed. He has published over 120 articles and chapters, a similar number of conference papers, and several books. The articles have appeared in major management and international management journals such as Administrative Science Quarterly, the Academy of Management Journal, the Journal of International Business Studies, the Journal of Organizational Behavior, Leadership Quarterly, Human Relations, and Organization Science. He has also contributed international management themes to the basic social science literature through chapters in the Annual Review of Psychology, the Communication Yearbook, the Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, and Research in the Sociology of Organizations. He is an Associate Editor for the Journal of Organizational Behavior and a Consulting Editor for the Journal of International Business Studies.

    Celeste P. M. Wilderom is Professor of Management and Organizational Behavior at the University of Twente, the Netherlands. She obtained a PhD from the State University of New York, Buffalo. Her main research pertains to organizational service, leadership, change, and culture. A recent culture publication, coauthored with Robert Ford and John Caparella, appeared in the Journal of Strategy and Management (2008). Other of her more than 100 publications appeared in Leadership Quarterly, Organization Science, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Management Learning, European Journal of Information Systems, Public Management Review, and Accounting, Organizations & Society. Since 2003, she chairs—within the annual conference of the European Group of Organization Studies (EGOS)—the standing work group “Professional Service Organizations and Knowledge-Intensive Work”. Currently a senior editor of the BritishJournal of Management, previously she was associate editor of the Academy of Management Executive (now Perspectives) and the International Journal of Service Industry Management (now Journal of Service Management). For more information (including a more complete list of publications), See

    About the Contributors

    Mats Alvesson is Professor of Business Administration at the University of Lund, Sweden, and at University of Queensland Business School, Australia. He is Honorary Professor at University of St. Andrews and Visiting Professor at Exeter University. His research interests include critical theory, gender, power, management of professional service (knowledge intensive) organizations, leadership, identity, organizational image, organizational culture and symbolism, qualitative methods, and philosophy of science. Recent books include Metaphors We Lead By (2010, Routledge, edited with Andre Spicer), Oxford Handbook of Critical Management Studies (2009, Oxford University Press, edited with Todd Bridgman and Hugh Willmott), Understanding Gender and Organizations (2009, Sage, with Yvonne Billing), Reflexive Methodology (2009, Sage, with Kaj Skoldberg), Changing Organizational Culture (2008, Routledge, with Stefan Sveningsson), Knowledge Work and Knowledge-Intensive Firms (2004, Oxford University Press), Postmodernism and Social Research (2002, Open University Press), and Understanding Organizational Culture (2002, Sage).

    Sharon Arieli is a PhD candidate at the School of Business Administration at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Her research focuses on cross-cultural psychology, cognitive processes, and creativity. Her current research focuses on the impact of cultural autonomy versus embeddedness on creativity and problem solving. She is also studying how creative performance is affected by externally imposed and internally induced structure.

    M. Teresa Cardador is Assistant Professor of labor and employment relations at the University of Illinois in Urbana-Champaign. She received her PhD in organizational behavior at the University of Illinois. Cardador's research explores issues related to workplace attachment, work orientation, prosocial motivation, and the experience of employees who find work to be meaningful and fulfilling. She is a member of the Academy of Management, American Psychological Association, and for Society Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Before receiving her PhD, Cardador spent several years doing policy analysis and advocacy work to improve health care access and directing programs designed to enhance community-based medical education.

    Wendy R. Carroll is Associate Professor in the School of Business at the University of Prince Edward Island and the Faculty Director of the UPEI Workforce Strategies Research Group. Her research focuses primarily on strategic human resource management, employee relations, labor force dynamics, and workforce strategies.

    Cary L. Cooper, Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE), is Distinguished Professor of Organizational Psychology and Health at Lancaster University Management School, England. He is Chair of the Academy of Social Sciences (an umbrella organization of 38 learned societies), Editor of the journal Stress and Health, Chair of the Global Agenda Council on Chronic Disease and Conditions of the World Economic Forum, and President of the British Association of Counseling and Psychotherapy. He is author of over 300 scholarly articles and author and/or editor of over 100 books. He was awarded the CBE by the Queen in 2001 for his contribution to occupational health.

    John B. Cullen (PhD, Columbia University) is Professor of Strategy at Amsterdam Business School. His research has appeared in journals such as Administrative Science Quarterly, Journal of International Business Studies, Academy of Management Journal, Journal of Management, Organizational Studies, Management International Review, Journal of Vocational Behavior, American Journal of Sociology, Organizational Dynamics, and the Journal of World Business. His major research interests include the effects of social institutions and national culture on ethical outcomes and work values; the management of entrepreneurial firms in changing environments, trust, and commitment in international strategic alliances; ethical climates in multinational organizations; and the dynamics of organizational structure. He is the past president of the Western Academy of Management and a senior editor for the Journal of World Business.

    Fred Dansereau, PhD, is Professor of Organization and Human Resources and Associate Dean for Research in the School of Management at the State University of New York at Buffalo. He received his PhD from the Labor and Industrial Relations Institute at the University of Illinois with a specialization in Organizational Behavior. Dansereau has extensive research experience in the areas of leadership and managing at the individual, dyad, group, and collective levels of analysis. Along with others, he has developed a theoretical and empirical approach to theorizing and testing at multiple levels of analysis. He has served on the editorial review boards of the Academy of Management Review, Group and Organization Management, and Leadership Quarterly. Dansereau is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and the American Psychological Society. He has authored 12 books and over 80 articles and is a consultant to numerous organizations, including the Bank of Chicago, Occidental, St. Joe Company, Sears, TRW, the U.S. Army and Navy, Worthington Industries, and various educational institutions.

    Daniel Denison is Professor of Management and Organization at IMD Business School in Lausanne, Switzerland, and CEO and Founding Partner of Denison Consulting, LLC., in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Previously, he was Associate Professor of Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Management at the University of Michigan. He received his bachelor's degree from Albion College in Psychology, Sociology, and Anthropology and his PhD from the University of Michigan in Organizational Psychology. He has written several books, including Corporate Culture and Organizational Effectiveness (1990) and is author of the Denison Organizational Culture Survey and the Denison Leadership Development Survey. These surveys have been used by more than 5,000 organizations globally to bring about positive change and development. His writings have appeared in a number of leading journals including The Academy of Management Journal, The Academy of Management Review, Organization Science, Organizational Dynamics, The Journal of Organizational Behavior, and Policy Studies Review. His most recent book, Driving Culture Change in Organizations, will be published in 2011.

    Marcus W. Dickson is Professor of Organizational Psychology at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan. He received his PhD from the University of Maryland. His work has focused on issues of leadership and culture at both the societal and organizational levels. He was active for nearly a decade in several roles, including co-principal investigator and member of the Coordinating Team with Project GLOBE. His current research is exploring issues of leadership trust and betrayal.

    Linda Duxbury is Professor at the Sprott School of Business, Carleton University. Within the past decade, she has completed major studies on balancing work and family in the public and private sectors and in the not-for-profit sectors. Duxbury has published widely in both the academic and practitioner literatures in the area of work–family conflict, change management, and the use and impact of office technology. Within the business school at Carleton, Duxbury teaches master's and PhD courses in managing change, the master's course in organizational behaviour, and the PhD course in organizational theory. Duxbury has received numerous awards for both her research and teaching.

    Kelly Dye is an Associate Professor at the F. C. Manning School of Business at Acadia University. She currently teaches Organizational Behavior, Gender and Diversity in Organizations, and Change Management. Key areas of her research include gender and diversity in organizations and organization change management. Her thesis work culminated in a modified framework that can be used to better understand gendered processes within organizations. Her work has been published internationally in various books, encyclopedias, and journals. Recent publications include a coauthored textbook titled Understanding Organizational Change (2008, Routledge), entries in the Encyclopedia of Case Study Research (2009, Sage) and The International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (2007 MacMillan Library Reference), and a coauthored journal article in the Journal of Change Management.

    Mark G. Ehrhart is Associate Professor in the Department of Psychology at San Diego State University. He received his PhD in Industrial and Organizational Psychology from the University of Maryland. His current research interests include organizational climate and culture, organizational citizenship behavior, leadership, work stress, and the application of these topics across levels of analysis and in service and health–mental health settings. His research on these topics has been published in such journals as the Journal of Applied Psychology, Academy of Management Journal, Personnel Psychology, and Journal of Management. He is on the editorial board for the Journal of Applied Psychology and is actively involved in the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, the Academy of Management, and San Diego Industrial/Organizational Professionals.

    Barbara L. Fredrickson, PhD, is the Kenan Distinguished Professor of Psychology and Principal Investigator of the Positive Emotions and Psychophysiology Lab at the University of North Carolina. She received her PhD in psychology, with a minor in organizational behavior in 1990, from Stanford University and is now a leading scholar within social psychology, affective science, and positive psychology. Her current research centers on positive emotions and human flourishing and is supported by grants from the National Institute of Mental Health. Her research and her teaching have been recognized with numerous honors, including the 2000 American Psychological Association's Templeton Prize in Positive Psychology. Her work is cited widely, and she is regularly invited to give keynotes nationally and internationally. She lives in Chapel Hill with her husband and two sons.

    Michael Frese is Professor at the National University of Singapore Business School and Leuphana (University of Lueneburg, Germany). He has published more than 200 articles in such journals as Journal ofApplied Psychology, Personnel Psychology, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Journal of Vocational Behavior, and Journal of Business Venturing. His research interests span a wide range of topics, for example, psychological effects of unemployment, stress at work, and a psychological theory of errors. He has worked on innovation, personal initiative and work design, entrepreneurship, and cultural issues (both national culture and organizational culture). He is currently Field Editor for Psychology for the Journal of Business Venturing.

    Philip C. Gibbs is Senior Research Associate within the Centre for Organizational Health and Weil-Being at Lancaster University School of Health and Medicine, England. He was awarded the Stevens Williams international PhD Scholarship at Lancaster University Management School, which investigated factors contributing to employee health and well-being. He is an active member of the British Psychology Society and Division of Occupational Psychology and was recently elected as the Chair for the Post Graduate Occupational Psychology committee. His primary research interests have been measuring and improving organizational health and well-being, employee engagement, and organizational effectiveness. He has worked on large-scale projects reporting to senior executives and chief medical officers advising on a number of organizational well-being initiatives within multinational contexts. He has published several book chapters forthcoming in the International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (2010, Hodgkinson & Ford) and New Directions in Organizational Psychology and Behavioral Medicine (in press, Antoniou & Cooper).

    Laura Gover is currently a PhD candidate with the Sprott School of Business at Carleton University in Ottawa, Canada. Gover's primary research interests are in the organizational behavior field. More specifically, she has been involved in research studies examining issues related to stress in the workplace, role overload, work–life balance, succession planning, and managing change. Her prior work experience includes working with private and public sector employers with whom she served in varying functions such as policy analysis and marketing.

    Ashley M. Guidroz is a culture transformation consultant with Trinity Health where she supports hospitals in managing transformational change and serving the mission of Trinity Health. Ashley earned her PhD in Industrial-Organizational Psychology from Bowling Green State University in 2008. She earned a Master's in I-O at Minnesota State University, Mankato and her Bachelor's degree in Psychology and English from Tulane University in New Orleans, Louisiana. She conducts research on conflict and incivility in the workplace, HR issues in healthcare, organizational culture, leadership development, workplace diversity, and judgment and decision making. She has been an active researcher publishing in a number of academic outlets as well as consulting with organizations to enhance the effectiveness of organizational and leadership development programs.

    Charmine E. J. Hártel is Management Cluster Leader (Research) and Professor of Management in the UQ Business School at The University of Queensland. Her pioneering work on the characteristics of positive work environments has identified a number of the drivers of unhealthy and toxic work environments along with the leadership and human resource management practices, organizational policies and strategies to turn such situations around. She is the recipient of five awards for innovation in organizational practice and an elected Fellow of the Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management. Professor Härtel's work appears in books and over 70 refereed journal articles, including Academy of Management Review, Journal of Applied Psychology, Leadership Quarterly, Journal of Management, and Human Resource Management Review. She is the author of the textbook Human Resource Management (2010, Pearson) which adopts a human well-being paradigm, and is Series Coeditor of Research on Emotion in Organizations.

    Chad Hartnell is a PhD student in management in the Arizona State University's W. P. Carey School of Business. His research interests include leadership, organizational climate and culture, and multilevel issues in research.

    Mary Jo Hatch (PhD, Stanford University) is the C. Coleman McGehee Eminent Scholars Research Professor Emerita of Banking and Commerce, University of Virginia; Visiting Professor, Gothenburg University School of Business, Economics and Law (Business and Design Lab); and Adjunct and Visiting Professor, Copenhagen Business School. She has published extensively in the areas of organizational culture, identity, and corporate branding and has worked with companies such as LEGO Group, Novo Nordisk, Johnson & Johnson, Nissan, Petrobras, and Volvo Group. Her research has been published in numerous journals in the fields of organization studies and marketing, and she has written several books including Organization Theory: Modern, Symbolic and Postmodern Perspectives (2006, Oxford University Press), The Three Faces of Leadership: Manager, Artist, Priest (2005, Blackwell), and, most recently, Taking Brand Initiative: How Corporations Can Align Strategy, Culture and Identity Through Corporate Branding (2008, Jossey-Bass/Wiley). She recently completed a new book titled Organizations: A Very Short Introduction (in press, Oxford University Press).

    Mark P. Healey is Senior Research Fellow in Organizational Psychology at the Centre for Organizational Strategy, Learning and Change at the University of Leeds, United Kingdom. He received his PhD in management sciences from the University of Manchester. Mark's research focuses on cognition in organizations, including adaptive cognition—how decision makers update their knowledge and thinking in response to changing conditions—and its influence on individual, group, and organizational responsiveness. As a Research Fellow with the Economic and Social Research Council and Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council Advanced Institute of Management Research, he examined the psychological bases of organizational inertia and the efficacy of various techniques for its alleviation. Further information on Mark and his work is hosted at

    Gerard P. Hodgkinson is Professor of Organizational Behaviour and Strategic Management and Director of the Centre for Organizational Strategy, Learning and Change at the University of Leeds, United Kingdom. A Fellow of both the British Psychological Society and the British Academy of Management and an Academician of the Academy of Social Sciences, his research focuses on the analysis of cognitive processes in organizations and the psychology of strategic management. In recent years, his work on these topics has been taken forward through the award of a Senior Fellowship of the Advanced Institute of Management Research, the U.K.'s research initiative on management funded jointly by the Economic and Social Research Council and Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. From 1999 to 2006 he was the Editor-in-Chief of the British Journal of Management and currently serves on several editorial boards including the Academy of Management Review and Organization Science. A chartered occupational psychologist, registered with the U.K. Health Professions Council as a practitioner psychologist, he has conducted numerous consultancy assignments for leading private and public sector organizations. Further information about Gerard and his work can be found at the following addresses: (a) (b)

    Aycan Kara is currently completing a PhD in International Management at Florida Atlantic University. Her primary research interest is the effects of national cultural differences on people and social situations in organizations, specifically formation and functioning of multinational/multicultural teams. She has presented papers at the annual meeting of Academy of International Business.

    Nina Keith is Professor of Organizational and Business Psychology at the Technical University of Darmstadt (Technische Universität Darmstadt), Germany. She received her diploma degree in psychology (MS in Psychology) in 2000 from the University of Frankfurt (Germany) and her PhD in Industrial/Organizational Psychology from the University of Giessen (Germany). For her dissertation, she has received the George E. Briggs Dissertation Award of Division 21 (Applied Experimental and Engineering Psychology) of the American Psychological Association. Keith worked as Post-Doctoral Fellow at Florida State University in Tallahassee. Her research focuses on learning in organizations, including topics such as learning from errors, training effectiveness, and the role of self-regulated practice activities in the workplace. Keith has published a variety of articles on these and related topics in international journals including Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology, and Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied.

    Glen E. Kreiner (PhD, Arizona State University) serves or has served on the editorial boards for the Academy of Management Journal (AMJ) and Administrative Science Quarterly. He has published his research in several of the field's top journals (e.g., Academy of Management Review, Organization Science, Journal of Organizational Behavior), and his research findings have been reported on by the Associated Press, The Wall Street Journal, and print and broadcast news organizations internationally. His research areas include role transitions, dirty work/stigma, emotions in the workplace, social identification, person–environment fit, and organization identity change. Currently, he is engaging in multimethod, long-term research projects on the Episcopal Church and on the sub-prime mortgage crisis. He is also conducting research on positive identities, temporary workers, stigmatized managers, and family businesses. Kreiner is married to his wonderful wife Katherine. Together they enjoy gardening and musical theater. They have three young, active, and delightful children.

    Catherine T. Kwantes is Associate Professor, Industrial/Organizational Psychology, at the University of Windsor in Canada. She has authored numerous articles in professional journals and several book chapters. She has lived and worked in several countries and continues to consult with organizations in these regions. Her research focus is on the effects of societal cultural norms on organizational behavior, specifically work motivation and organizational culture.

    Stephen Linstead (D. Litt, AcSS) is Professor of Critical Management at the University of York, United Kingdom. His PhD (Sheffield Hallam, 1984) was an ethnography of a manufacturing bakery, deploying structuralist and poststructuralist theory. His supervisor, the late Oxford industrial anthropologist Dan Gowler was, and has remained, inspirational, especially for Linstead's coedited collection of organizational anthropologies, Understanding Management (1996, Sage). His work on organizational culture and theory, including popular, discursive, aesthetic, and visual culture, has appeared in a variety of outlets and resulted in his election as an Academician of the Academy of the Social Sciences (2003) and in the award of a higher Doctorate of Letters (Durham, 2004). A member of the Standing Conference on Organizational Symbolism, he served as its chair (1998–2001) and coeditor of its journal Culture and Organization (2002–2006), organizing its international conference twice (1992 and 2000). He currently sees an exciting future for critical organizational cultural studies enriched by new and emerging approaches and by other disciplines. He is keen to hear from anyone sharing this view.

    Kelly D. Martin (PhD) is Assistant Professor of Marketing at Colorado State University in Fort Collins. She earned her PhD in business administration from Washington State University in 2007. She also has an MBA from Creighton University and an undergraduate business degree from Gonzaga University. Her research interests involve marketing ethics and firm strategy, consumer welfare, and the role of social institutions and culture in corruption. Her work has appeared in journals such as the Academy of Management Journal, the Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, Business Ethics Quarterly, and Business & Society, among others. She serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of Public Policy & Marketing and the Journal of World Business.

    William H. Macey is CEO of Valtera Corporation and has more than 30 years of experience consulting with organizations to design and implement survey research programs. He served as an advisor to the Mayflower Group from 1992 to 2010 and is the coauthor of several recent publications on employee engagement. He is a Fellow of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP), the American Psychological Association, and the American Psychological Society and is a SIOP past president. He received his PhD from Loyola University Chicago in 1975.

    Malcolm McIntosh is an internationally renowned leader in corporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainable enterprise. Over the last 20 years he has pioneered the teaching of corporate responsibility and sustainability in universities in the United Kingdom, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa and has been involved in publishing numerous books and articles in this discipline and producing documentary films for the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). He has been a Special Advisor to the UN Secretary-General's Global Compact and has worked for the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the United Nations Development Programme and many global corporations, including Shell, BP, and Pfizer, and has served on the stakeholder advisory boards of ABB, the BBC., and AccountAbility. Since 1980 he has concentrated on accountability, governance, sustainability, ethics, corporate responsibility, and global governance issues, and he was the founding Editor of the Journal of Corporate Citizenship. He is the founding Director of the Asia Pacific Centre for Sustainable Enterprise at Griffith University, Queensland, Australia.

    Mark Meckler, PhD, is Associate Professor of Management at the Robert B. Pamplin Jr. School of Business Administration at the University of Portland. His research focuses on organizational beliefs and organizational knowledge, and the relationship between social constructions, truth, and the decisions we make when working. He teaches a variety of management courses relating strategy and social context to innovation and leadership. He received his PhD from Florida Atlantic University, his MBA from Michigan State University, and his BA in philosophy from Brandeis University.

    Grant Michelson, PhD, is Professor and Director of Research at Audencia Nantes School of Management, France. Prior to joining the school in January 2008, he worked for 12 years at the University of Sydney, Australia. He helped establish the Business and Professional Ethics Group at the University of Sydney and was its inaugural general convenor. He remains an honorary member of this group. He has a background in organizational behavior and human resource management, and his research interests include organizational change, gossip in organizations, business ethics, and employment well-being. His research has appeared in a range of international journals including Group & Organization Management, Journal of Management Studies, International Studies of Management and Organization, British Journal of Industrial Relations, Journal of Organizational Change Management, Journal of Business Ethics, and Management Communication Quarterly.

    K. Praveen Parboteeah is a Professor of International Management in the Department of Management, University of Wisconsin–Whitewater. He received his PhD from Washington State University, holds an MBA from California State University–Chico, and a BSc (Honors) in Management Studies from the University of Mauritius. Parboteeah regularly teaches international management, business ethics, and strategic management at both undergraduate and graduate levels. Parboteeah's research interests include international management, ethics, and technology and innovation management. He has been actively involved in developing alternative models to national culture to explain cross-national differences in individual behaviors. He has also been investigating business ethics issues and their relationships with critical organizational outcomes. He has published over 30 articles in leading journals such as the Academy of Management Journal, Organization Science, Decision Sciences, Journal of Business Ethics, Journal of International Business Studies, Journal of World Business, Human Relations and Management International Review.

    Betty Jane Punnett (PhD, New York University), a native of St. Vincent and the Grenadines, taught in Canada for many years and returned to the Caribbean in 1997. She has worked and taught in a variety of other countries and has received a variety of awards, including a Fulbright Fellowship and a Highly Commended award from the 2009 Emerald/Africa Research awards. Her research focuses on culture and management, particularly in the Caribbean and she has published over 70 papers in a wide variety of journals. She has published several texts, most recently Experiencing International Business and Management (3rd ed.) and International Perspective on Organizational Behavior and Management (2nd ed.), and she is preparing a book on managing in developing countries. Punnett also reviews for several international journals, serves on various editorial boards, and has been active with both the Academy of International Business and the Academy of Management.

    Anat Rafaeli is a Professor of Organizational Behavior in the Faculty of Industrial Engineering and Management of the Technion—Israel's Institute of Technology, in Haifa, Israel. Prior to the Technion, she was at the Graduate School of Business of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and at the University of Michigan. She coedited (with Mike Pratt) the book Artifacts and Organizations (published by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates) and has been or currently is on the editorial boards of the Academy of Management Journal, Administrative Science Quarterly, Organizational Science, Journal of Management, Human Relations, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Journal of Service Research, and Journal of Service Management. Her research examines emotions felt and displayed in organizations, organizational artifacts (e.g., employee dress, workstation design, employment ads), and customer service interactions. Her current research focuses on expressions of anger and aggression in customer service interactions and their effects on customer service providers.

    Andreas W. Richter is a University Lecturer in Organizational Behavior at Judge Business School (JBS), University of Cambridge, United Kingdom. Prior to joining JBS, he was an assistant professor of organizational behavior at Instituto de Empresa Business School, Madrid, Spain. He earned his PhD from Aston University in 2005 (intergroup conflict and team working effectiveness). His work has been published in journals such as the Academy of Management Journal, Leadership Quarterly, and Journal of Applied Psychology. His current research interests include effective intergroup relations and creativity in teams.

    Deborah E. Rupp is an Associate Professor of the School of Labor and Employment Relations, Department of Psychology and College of Law at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. She conducts research on organizational justice, behavioral ethics, corporate social responsibility, and the emotion regulation of individuals at work. She is also known for her work on the assessment center method, its use for training and development, and the role of technology in facilitating remote and cross-cultural behavioral assessment. Her work has been cited in U.S. Supreme Court proceedings (Ricci v. DeStefano, 129 S. Ct. 2658, 2009). She is currently an associate editor at the Journal of Management and serves on the editorial boards of Journal of Applied Psychology and Journal of Organizational Behavior. Her research has received corporate support and funding from the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada and the Korean Psychological Testing Institute. Her work appears in outlets such as Journal of Applied Psychology, Personnel Psychology, and Academy of Management Review.

    Sally V. Russell is a Lecturer of Corporate Social Responsibility, Environmental Management, and Organizational Change at the Griffith Business School, Griffith University in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Her research explores the drivers of pro-environmental behavior both within and outside the workplace. She received her doctorate from the University of Queensland in 2009. Her doctoral research examined individual-level workplace pro-environmental behaviors, particularly the role of emotions as drivers of behavior. Her doctoral thesis was awarded the 2009 Best Dissertation Award by the Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management (ANZAM). During her dissertation, she held scholarships including an Australian Postgraduate Award (APA) and a Smart State PhD Scholarship. She has held positions at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), the University of Queensland, and Tourism Queensland. Her research has appeared in journals including Water Resources Research, Journal of Management & Organization, and Business, Strategy and the Environment.

    Sonja A. Sackmann is Chair in Organizational Behavior at the University BW Munich and is Director of the Institute for Developing Viable Organizations. She received her PhD in management from the Graduate School of Management, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), and her MS and BS in psychology from the University of Heidelberg, Germany. She was awarded Fulbright and German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) scholarships, the Wechsler Fund Award, the Glady's Byram Fellowship, and the best paper award from the Western Academy of Management. Her research, teaching, and consulting focus on organizational culture, leadership, intercultural management, and personal, team, and organizational development predominantly in multinational contexts. She has published several books and numerous articles in reviewed journals and has contributed to handbooks and edited volumes. She has taught in the Graduate School of Management at UCLA, St. Gallen, Constance, Vienna, EBS (European Business School), and Shanghai; has held positions as head of research and development and partner and managing partner at MZSG (Management Zentrum St. Gallen); and has been responsible for consulting projects and for developing and delivering innovative development programs for managers and executives of major multinationals and governmental organizations.

    Lilach Sagiv is a tenured Associate Professor at the School of Business Administration, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. She received her PhD from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. She then spent a postdoctoral year at the Psychology Department at the University of Michigan, where she also spent a sabbatical as a visiting professor in 2005. Her research interests focus on the role of personal, organizational, and cultural values in organizations. Her current research focuses on the impact of personal and cultural dimensions of values on organizational behavior and processes. She is also studying the nature of identification with groups and organizations.

    Edgar H. Schein is the Sloan Fellows Professor of Management Emeritus at the MIT Sloan School of Management. He received his PhD in Social Psychology from Harvard in 1952, worked at the Walter Reed Institute of Research for 4 years and then joined MIT where he taught until 2005. He has published extensively on organizational psychology (Organizational Psychology, 1980), process consultation (Process Consultation Revisited, 1999), career dynamics (Career Anchors, 2006), organizational culture texts (Organizational Culture and Leadership, 2010; The Corporate Culture Survival Guide, 2009), and analyses of Singapore's economic miracle (Strategic Pragmatism, 1996) and of Digital Equipment Corp.'s rise and fall (DEC Is Dead, Long Live DEC, 2003). He continues to consult and recently has published a book on the general theory and practice of giving and receiving help (Helping, 2009). He is the 2009 recipient of the Distinguished Scholar-Practitioner Award of the Academy of Management.

    Benjamin Schneider (PhD) is Senior Research Fellow at Valtera and Professor Emeritus of the University of Maryland. Schneider's interests concern employee engagement, service quality, organizational climate and culture, staffing issues, and the role of leader personality in organizational life. He has published 140 journal articles and book chapters as well as nine books, the most recent being (with W H. Macey, K. M. Barbera, and S. A. Young), Employee Engagement: Tools for Analysis, Practice and Competitive Advantage (2009, Wiley-Blackwell). Schneider has won numerous scientific contributions awards (from the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, from the Human Resources Division of the Academy of Management, from the Services Marketing Division of the American Marketing Association, and from the Society for Human Resources Management—the Losey Award). Schneider consults on service quality issues with numerous Fortune 500 companies focusing on the links between human capital practices and organizational customer satisfaction and financial outcomes.

    Shalom H. Schwartz is Emeritus Professor of Psychology at the Hebrew University. He has also taught at the Universities of Wisconsin and Princeton. He is a past president of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology and a fellow of the American Psychological Association. His individual and culture level value theories have been used in research in more than 75 countries. His current research applies his value theories in the fields of politics, religion, and ethnicity.

    Leslie E. Sekerka is Associate Professor of Organizational Behavior, Positive Psychology, and Ethics in the Management and Psychology Departments at Menlo College in Atherton, California. She founded and directs activities at the Ethics in Action Research and Education Center (Menlo College) and serves as an academic member of the Business and Organizational Ethics Partnership (Santa Clara University). She received her MA in communication theory from Cleveland State University and her PhD in organizational behavior from Case Western Reserve University. Her research explores human strengths in the workplace, specifically focusing on adult moral development, professional moral courage, and the impact of emotions. Sekerka's scholarship has appeared in a variety of publications, including Business Horizons, Journal of Business Ethics, Organizational Management Journal, International Journal of Training and Development, International Journal of Organization Theory and Behavior, Business Ethics: A European Review, Public Integrity, Positive Organizational Scholarship, and the Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions.

    Tanya Vacharkulksemsuk is a doctoral candidate in the Social Psychology Program at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Her research focuses on interpersonal relationship formation, social coordination, human synchrony, and the role of emotions in achieving each. In particular, she is interested in the implications of healthy, positive relationships operating within organizations, including teams and leadership contexts. To answer her research questions, Vacharkulksemsuk combines methods of psychophysiology, behavioral coding, and self-report measures.

    Ad van Iterson is Associate Professor of Organization Studies at Maastricht University, the Netherlands. He graduated in sociology at the University of Amsterdam, after which he received his PhD with a thesis on the early factory system. Currently, he mainly publishes on microsociological processes in organizations, such as gossip, rumor, and cynicism, as manifestations of wider civilizing and de-civilizing trends (e.g., Ad van Iterson, Willem Mastenbroek, Tim Newton, & Dennis Smith [Eds.], The Civilized Organization: Norbert Elias and the Future of Organization Studies, 2002). He also writes novels and columns.

    Iris Vilnai-Yavetz is a senior lecturer of marketing and the head of the Department of Business Administration in Ruppin Academic Center, Israel. She received her PhD in management from the Technion, Israel's Institute of Technology in Haifa, and her BA in psychology and her MBA from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Before her graduate studies, Vilnai-Yavetz held a senior managerial position in a marketing research and consulting firm. She has conducted and published research on various aspects of interactions between customers and employees and elements of the physical and virtual Servicescapes, including customer dress, cleanliness, office design, colors, and website design. Her current studies examine the relationships between the service encounter script and emotional reactions of customers and service providers. She has published in outlets such as the Journal of Service Research and Organization Science.

    Kathryn Waddington is Senior Lecturer in Interdisciplinary Studies in Professional Practice and Director of Interprofessional Practice at City University, London, United Kingdom. Her primary research interests include the role of emotion at work, how gossip can inform professional awareness within organizations, and leadership in the nursing and health care sector. She received her PhD in psychology from the University of London.

    Terry H. Wagar is a Professor of Human Resource Management and Industrial Relations at the Sobey School of Business and a Senior Research Associate at the Centre for the Study of Sport and Health at Saint Mary's University in Halifax, Nova Scotia. He has also taught at Wilfrid Laurier University and has been a Visiting Professor/Scholar at Flinders University of South Australia, University of Kentucky, University of Waikato, Queen's University, and University of Western Australia. He is coauthor of Canadian Human Resource Management: A Strategic Approach (now in its 9th edition). He has received several awards for his research and teaching, and his work has been published in Canada, the United States, and overseas.

    Fred O. Walumbwa is Associate Professor of Management in the Arizona State University's W. P. Carey School of Business. He is also a senior research advisor with the Gallup Organization, Washington, DC. His research interests include leadership, organizational climate and culture, business ethics, and cross-cultural issues in management research.

    Michael A. West is the Executive Dean at Aston Business School, Aston University, Birmingham, United Kingdom. He graduated from the University of Wales in 1973 and received his PhD in 1977. He has authored, edited, or coedited 18 books. He has also published over 200 articles for scientific and practitioner publications and chapters in scholarly books. He is a Fellow of the British Psychological Society, the American Psychological Association (APA), the APA Society for Industrial/Organizational Psychology, the Higher Education Academy, the British Academy of Management, the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce, the International Association of Applied Psychologists, and a Chartered Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. His areas of research interest are team and organizational innovation and effectiveness, particularly in relation to the organization of health services.

    Katherine Xin is Professor of Management at China Europe International Business School in Shanghai, China. She is the editor-in-chief of the Harvard Business Review (China). She received her PhD from the University of California, Irvine. Xin was previously on the faculty of IMD, Switzerland, University of Southern California, and Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. She current serves as the academic director for the bilingual EMBA program at Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. Her current research focuses on the areas of leadership, organizational culture, and change management. She is a frequent contributor to academic and executive conferences and journals. Her recent books Made in ChinaSecrets of China's Dynamic Entrepreneurs (2009) and Globalization of Chinese Firms (2009) received broad attention globally. For the last two decades, she worked and lived in the United States, Europe, and Asia conducting research, teaching, and consulting for many companies.

    Francis J. Yammarino is SUNY Distinguished Professor of Management and Director of the Center for Leadership Studies at the State University of New York at Binghamton. He received his PhD from the State University of New York at Buffalo; was Editor of The Leadership Quarterly and Research in Multi-Level Issues; has served on eight scholarly journal editorial review boards; and is a Fellow of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP) and the Association for Psychological Sciences. He has published 14 books and over 140 journal articles and book chapters, has received several teaching and research awards, and is the recipient of about $3 million in research grants from various public and private organizations. Yammarino has been a consultant to numerous organizations including IBM, TRW, Medtronic, Lockheed Martin, United Way, and the U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, and Department of Education. He has served on numerous committees for the Academy of Management and SIOP and as an elected Representative-at-Large for the Organizational Behavior and Research Methods Divisions of the Academy.

    Mary Zellmer-Bruhn is Associate Professor of Organizational Behavior in the Strategic Management and Organization Department at the University of Minnesota. She received her PhD in organizational behavior from the University of Wisconsin, Madison and joined the Carlson School of Management in 1999. Zellmer-Bruhn's research interests surround teamwork, including cross-cultural and global teamwork, the effects of diversity in teams, the formation and effectiveness of entrepreneurial teams, and knowledge management and learning in teams and boards of directors. Among the research honors and awards Zellmer-Bruhn has received are a multiyear grant from the National Science Foundation to study entrepreneurial teams, and her dissertation was a finalist for the INFORMS dissertation proposal competition. Zellmer-Bruhn teaches courses at the Carlson School on the management of teams, organizational behavior, management, and international management. In addition, she has developed and taught courses in cross-cultural organizational behavior for the University of Minnesota Global Seminar program in Berlin, Germany, and for the Carlson School of Management in Vienna, Austria. She has received the Carlson School's Excellence in Teaching and Outstanding Honor's Faculty teaching awards. Zellmer-Bruhn is a member of the Academy of Management, where she has chaired the International Management Division Doctoral Consortium (2007) and the International Management Junior Faculty Consortium (2009). She is a board member of INGRoup, the interdisciplinary network of groups research, a member of the leadership team for the International Organizations Network (ION), a group dedicated to advancing research and teaching about international organizational behavior, where she currently serves as the research chair, and a member of the Academy of International Business, where she recently chaired the 2009 Richard Farmer Dissertation Award competition. Her research is published in Administrative Science Quarterly, Academy of Management Journal, Management Science, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Group and Organization Management, Small Group Research, Entrepreneur ship Theory & Practice, Management International Review, and other journals. She serves on the editorial boards of the Journal of International Business Studies, Organization Science, the Journal of Management, and Management International Review. Zellmer-Bruhn is an elected school board member of the Twin Cities German Immersion School.

    Lily Zhang is Research Associate of the Center for Asian Family Business and Entrepreneurship Studies in HKUST. Before she joined HKUST, she worked with IMD for over 2 years as Research Associate of IMD China Center. She wrote cases on many large, successful Chinese companies such as Alibaba, China Merchants Bank, COSCO, and Vanke, as well as smaller family businesses. She has worked in Dow Jones China for more than 4 years and another 2 years as a journalist for Economist Group.

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