Handbook of New Media: Social Shaping and Consequences of ICTs
Publication Year: 2002
Subject: New Media & Communication Technology
This is the first major review of interactive technologies and their cultural and social context. This is more than a welcome addition to one's library; it is the authoritative overview of international research perspectives on interactive media technologies by leading scholars around the world” – Ellen Wartella, University of Texas at Austin “The Handbook of New Media is a landmark for the study of information and communication technologies within the field of communication. Its international team of editors and authors has brought together insights gained from over two decades of scholarly research. This indispensable reference demonstrates an increased maturity and stature for “new media” research within the field” – William H Dutton, University of Southern California “A truly comprehensive and authoritative volume. This Handbook will ...
- Front Matter
- Subject Index
Part 1: The Changing Social Landscape
- Chapter 1: The Information Society Revisited
- Chapter 2: Creating Community with Media: History, Theories and Scientific Investigations
- Chapter 3: Politics and New Media
- Chapter 4: Interpersonal Life Online
- Chapter 5: The Electronic Generation? Children and New Media
- Chapter 6: New Media and New Literacies: Reconstructing Education for the New Millennium
- Chapter 7: Primary Issues in Internet use: Access, Civic and Community Involvement, and Social Interaction and Expression
Part 2: Technology Design and Development
- Chapter 8: New Media History
- Chapter 9: How to Infrastructure
- Chapter 10: Exploring Models of Interactivity from Multiple Research Traditions: Users, Documents and Systems
- Chapter 11: Determination and Contingency in New Media Development: Diffusion of Innovations and Social Shaping of Technology Perspectives
Part 3: New Media and Organizing
- Chapter 12: Smart Agents and Organizations of the Future
- Chapter 13: New Media and Organizing at the Group Level
- Chapter 14: The Social Construction of Technology in Studies of the Workplace
- Chapter 15: New Media Implementation and Industrial Organization
Part 4: Systems, Industries and Markets
- Chapter 16: The Development and Use of Online Newspapers: What Research Tells us and what we Might want to Know
- Chapter 17: New Media and New Economy Cluster Dynamics
- Chapter 18: Globalization and the Structure of New Media Industries
- Chapter 19: Information Society and Trade and Industry Policy
- Chapter 20: The Economics of Information and Industrial Change
- Chapter 21: The New Economy: Internet, Telecommunications and Electronic Commerce?
- Chapter 22: Universal Access to the New Information Infrastructure
Part 5: Policy and Regulation
- Introduction: The Governance of Media Markets
- Chapter 23: Wired Cities and Transnational Communications: New Forms of Governance for Telecommunications and the New Media
- Chapter 24: New Global Media and Communication Policy: The Role of the State in the Twenty-First Century
- Chapter 25: About Scarcities and Intermediaries: The Regulatory Paradigm Shift of Digital Content Reviewed
- Chapter 26: The Real Digital Divide: Citizens versus Consumers
- Chapter 27: Labour and New Media
Part 6: Culture and New Media
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General Introduction © Leah A. Lieverouw and Sonia Livingstone, 2002
Part One Introduction © Sonia Livingstone, 2002
Chapter 1 © Frank Webster, 2002
Chapter 2 © Nicholas W. Jankowski, 2002
Chapter 3 © Sara Bentivegna, 2002
Chapter 4 © Nancy K. Baym, 2002
Chapter 5 © David Buckingham, 2002
Chapter 6 © Douglas Kellner, 2002
Chapter 7 © Ronald E. Rice, 2002
Part Two Introduction © Leah A. Lieverouw, 2002
Chapter 8 © Patrice Flichy, 2002
Chapter 9 © Susan Leigh Star and Geoffrey C. Bowker, 2002
Chapter 10 © Sally J. McMillan, 2002
Chapter 11 © Leah A. Lieverouw, 2002
Part Three Introduction © Noshir S. Contractor, 2002
Chapter 12 © Kathleen M. Carley, 2002
Chapter 13 © Andrea B. Hollingshead and Noshir S. Contractor, 2002
Chapter 14 © Michèle H. Jackson, Marshall Scott Poole and Tim Kukn, 2002
Chapter 15 © Fançois Bar with Caroline Simard, 2002
Part Four Introduction © John Ure, 2002
Chapter 16 © Pablo J. Boczkowski, 2002
Chapter 17 © Philip Cooke, 2002
Chapter 18 © Terry Flew and Stephen McElhinney, 2002
Chapter 19 © Anders Henten and Eric Skouby, 2002
Chapter 20 © Don Lamberton, 2002
Chapter 21 © Peter Lovelock and John Ure, 2002
Chapter 22 © Heather E. Hudson, 2002
Part Five Introduction © Bella Mooy, Harry Trebing and Laura Stein, 2002
Chapter 23 © Dwayne Winseck, 2002
Chapter 24 © Laura Stein and Nikhil Sinha, 2002
Chapter 25 © Stefaan G. Verhulst, 2002
Chapter 26 © Oscar H. Grandy, Jr., 2002
Chapter 27 © Gwen Urey, 2002
Part Six Introduction © Mark Poster, 2002
Chapter 28 © Jennifer Daryl Slack and J. Macgregor Wise, 2002
Chapter 29 © Michael R. Curry, 2002
Chapter 30 © Timothy W. Luke, 2002
Chapter 31 © Don Slater, 2002
First published 2002
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Inquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 0 7619 6510 6
Library of Congress Control Number available
Typeset by SIVA Math Setters, Chennai, India
Printed in Great Britain by The Cromwell Press Ltd, Trowbridge, Wiltshire
The Editors[Page ix]
Leah A. Lievrouw is Professor, Department of Information Studies, in the Graduate School of Education and Information Studies at the University of California, Los Angeles. She is also affiliated with UCLA's Communication Studies Program. Her research and writing focus on the social and cultural changes associated with information and communication technologies and the relationship between new technologies and knowledge. Her articles have appeared in Communication Research, Critical Studies in Mass Communication, The Information Society, International Journal of Technology Management, Journal of the American Society for Information Science, Knowledge: Creation, Diffusion, Utilization, Knowledge in Society, and Telecommunications Policy, among other journals. Her books include Mediation, Information and Communication: Information and Behavior, vol. 3 (co-edited with Brent Ruben; Transaction, 1990) and Competing Visions, Complex Realities: Social Aspects of the Information Society (co-edited with Jorge Reina Schement; Ablex, 1987). She is also co-editor of the journal New Media & Society (London: Sage). Professor Lievrouw received a Ph.D. in communication theory and research in 1986 from the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Southern California. She was formerly a member of the faculties of the Department of Telecommunication and Film at the University of Alabama and the Department of Communication at Rutgers University.
Sonia Livingstone has published widely in the fields of social psychology, mass communication and new media research, focusing on audiences' interpretative engagement with different media forms and genres and, more recently, the social contexts for the use of new information and communication technologies. She is author of Making Sense of Television (2nd edition, Routledge, 1998), Mass Consumption and Personal Identity (with Peter Lunt; Open University, 1992), Talk on Television (with Peter Lunt; Routledge, 1994), and Young People and New Media (Sage, forthcoming), and co-editor of Children and their Changing Media Environment (with Moira Bovill; Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2001). She has held visiting professor positions at the Universities of Copenhagen, Stockholm, and Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and is on the editorial board of several leading journals in the field, including New Media & Society, The Communication Review, Journal of Communication, Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media and European Journal of Communication. Her current research concerns children's use of the internet at home and school. Professor Livingstone is Head of the Social Psychology Department and a member of media@lse, an interdepartmental graduate programme at the London School of Economics and Political Science.[Page x]
The Contributors[Page xi]
François Bar is Assistant Professor in Stanford University's Department of Communication. He served as Director of Network Research at the Stanford Computer Industry Project (SCIP) and is a member of the Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy (BRIE), at UC Berkeley. He received his Ph.D. from the UC Berkeley (1990) and holds a Diplôme d'Ingénieur from the École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées (ENPC), Paris, France. His research interests include comparative telecommunication policy, as well as economic, strategic and social dimensions of computer networking, new media and the Internet. His research has been published in books of collected studies and in journals including The Information Society, Telecommunication Policy, Infrastructure Economics and Policy, Communications & Strategies, Réseaux, and the International Journal of Technology Management. He serves on the advisory board of Stanford's Science, Technology and Society Program, and has held visiting faculty appointments at the University of Toronto, the University of Paris-XIII, Theseus, and Eurecom.
Nancy K. Baym (PhD Speech Communication, University of Illinois, 1994) is an Assistant Professor of Communication Studies at the University of Kansas, where she teaches communication on the Internet, interpersonal communication, nonverbal communication, and qualitative methods. Her ethnographic research into online community and television fandom appears in the book Tune In, Log On: Soaps, Fandom, and Online Community (Sage) and in several articles in journals and edited collections. More recently, she has been studying how the social life that takes place on the Internet is woven into the full fabric of mediated and unmediated interpersonal communication. As Vice President of the Association of Internet Researchers, Baym coordinated that association's first annual conference, ‘Internet Research 1.0: The State of the Interdiscipline’ in 2000. She serves on the editorial boards of New Media & Society, The Information Society, Critical Studies in Media Communication, and Research on Language and Social Interaction.
Sara Bentivegna is Professor of Theories of Mass Communication at the University of Rome ‘La Sapienza’. Her interests are in the field of political communication, and her recent works are about the relation between politics and the net. Her publications include Talking Politics on the Net (1998), published by The Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy at Harvard University, and La Politica Nella Rete (Rome: Meltemi, 1999).
Pablo J. Boczkowski is Assistant Professor of Organization Studies at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Sloan School of Management. His [Page xii]research looks at technological and organizational innovation in the new media industry. He holds a PhD in Science and Technology Studies from Cornell University, and was previously Mellon Fellow in the Department of Sociology at Columbia University. His work has appeared in publications such as Journal of Communication and New Media & Society, and received awards from the American Sociological Association, the International Communication Association, and the Central States Communication Association.
Geoffrey C. Bowker is Professor in the Department of Communication, University from California, San Diego. His PhD is in History and Philosophy of Science at Melbourne University. He studies social and organizational aspects of the development of very large-scale infrastructures. His first book (Science on the Run, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press) discussed the development of information practices in the oil industry. He has recently completed with Leigh Star a book on the history and sociology of medical classifications (Sorting Things Out: Classification and its Concequences – published by MIT Press in September 1999) and has co-edited a volume on computer support cooperative work (Social Science, Technical Systems and Cooperative Work: Beyond the Great Divide, LEA Press, 1997). He is currently working on an NSF funded project to examine the mobility of knowledge in distributed scientific collaborations using high end collaborative software. He is also writing a book entitled Memory Practices in the Sciences about archival practices in the sciences over the past 200 years. He is on the steering committee of the University of California Digital Cultures project.
David Buckingham is Professor of Education at the Institute of Education, London University, where he has recently established the Centre for the Study of Children, Youth and Media. He has directed several major research projects on media education, and on children's interactions with television and other electronic media. He is the author, co-author or editor of numerous books, including Children Talking Television (Falmer, 1993), Moving Images (Manchester University Press, 1996), The Making of Citizens (Routledge, 2000) and After the Death of Childhood (Polity, 2000). He is currently directing research projects on parents' and children's uses of educational media in the home; young people's interpretations of sexual representations on television; and the uses of digital media by migrant/refugee children across Europe.
Kathleen M. Carley received her PhD from Harvard and is a Professor of Sociology and Organizations at Carnegie Mellon University. Her research spans the areas of computational organization theory, social and organizational adaptation and evolution, social network analysis and evolution, computational text analysis, knowledge management, information security, and the impact of telecommunication technologies on communication, information diffusion, and e-commerce. Her research combines multi-agent models with social networks and cognitive science. She has written over 60 papers and is the co-author of two books using computational models and associated empirical evidence to explore the impact on group and organizational processes of individual learning, interaction, and response to changing conditions such as turnover, mobility, new technology, and discovery. Currently, [Page xiii]she directs the center for Computational Analysis of Social and Organizational Systems at CMU, and with Al Wallace is the founding co-editor of the journal Computational Organization Theory.
Noshir S. Contractor is Associate Professor of Speech Communication and Psychology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. His research interests include applications of systems theories of complexity to communication, the role of emergent networks in organizations, and collaboration technologies in the workplace. He is currently investigating factors that lead to formation, maintenance, and dissolution of dynamically linked knowledge networks in work communities. He is the Principal Investigator on a major three-year grant from the National Science Foundation's Knowledge and Distributed Intelligence Initiative to study the co-evolution of knowledge networks and twenty-first-century organizational forms. Professor Contractor has published or presented over 75 research papers dealing with communication. His papers have received top-paper awards from both the International Communication Association and the National Communication (formerly Speech) Association. In 2000 he was awarded the Outstanding Member Award by the Organizational Communication Division of the International Communication Association. He currently serves on the editorial boards of Management Communication Quarterly, Journal of Applied Communication Research, Human Communication Research and the World Wide Web Electronic Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication.
Philip Cooke is Professor of Regional Development and Director of the Centre for Advanced Studies at the University of Wales, Cardiff. He specializes in research on innovation systems, industry clustering and the role of venture capital in the knowledge economy. He has produced ten books, the most recent being Knowledge Economies (Routledge, 2001), The Governance of Innovation in Europe (with P. Boekholt and F. Toedtling, Pinter, 2000) Regional Innovation Systems (edited with H. Braczyk and M. Heidenreich, UCL Press, 1998) and The Associational Economy (with K. Morgan, Oxford University Press, 1998). In 1999 he was appointed to the UK Minister of Science's Biotechnology Clusters Task Force and in 2000–01 to the UK Department of Trade and Industry's Cluster Policy Steering Group charged with steering investment to new economy clusters such as new media, internet games and biotechnology, and old ones such as ceramics and marine engineering.
Michael R. Curry is a Professor in the Department of Geography at the University of California, Los Angeles. He holds degrees in liberal arts, philosophy, and geography. He is the author of two books, The Work in the World: Geographical Practice and the Written Word (Minnesota Press, 1996) and Digital Places: Living with Geographic Information Technologies (Routledge, 1998), and a number of articles and book chapters on the history of geographic ideas and their relationship to changes in information and other technologies. His work concerns a set of common claims – that because of technology the world is getting smaller, that places are becoming more and more alike, and that human identity is less and less tied to places, but rather to something else, such as ethnicity, religion, or consumer preference. He is currently working on a book on the history of the interrelationship [Page xiv]between the ideas of place and of privacy. In addition, he is working on a number of other projects on the nature of privacy (including a collaborative project on the privacy implications of certain geographical technologies, such as emergency response systems and intelligent transportation systems) and on the history of the ideas of space and place.
Dr Terry Flew is a Senior Lecturer in Media Communication in the Creative Industries Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia. He is the author of New Media Technologies: An Introduction (Oxford, 2002 (forthcoming)).
Patrice Flichy is Professor in the Department of Sociology at the University of Marne la Vallée in France, and editor of , a French journal on communication studies. His research and writing focus on innovation and uses in ICT, in the past and today. His books include (La Découverte, Paris, 2001); (Sage, London, 1995). (La Découverte, Paris, 1995 (co-edited with Paul Beaud and Josiane Jouët, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1991).Professor Flichy received a PhD in sociology in 1971 from the University of Paris-I. He also holds a degree in business management from the Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales. He was formerly head of the Laboratory of Sociology of France Telecom Research Development.
Oscar H. Gandy, Jr holds the Herbert I. Schiller Information and Society Term Chair at the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania. He is author of The Panoptic Sort and Beyond Agenda Setting, two books that explore issues of information and public policy. His most recent book, Communication and Race, explores the structure of media and society, as well as the cognitive structures that reflect and are reproduced through media use. He is a co-editor of Framing Public Life, a volume that explores the status of framing theory and research. A book in progress, If it Weren't for Bad Luck, explores the ways in which probability and its representation affect the lives of different groups in society. He was awarded the Dallas Smythe Award from the Union for Democratic Communication, and the Wayne Danielson Award from the University of Texas at Austin.
Anders Henten is Associate Professor at the Center for Tele-Information (CTI) at the Technical University of Denmark. He is a graduate in communications and international development studies from Roskilde University in Denmark and holds a PhD from the Technical University of Denmark. His main areas of research are socioeconomic implications of information and communication technologies including e-commerce and business models, internationalization of services, and regulations of communications. He teaches courses in ‘e-commerce – markets and business models’, ‘standardization in telecommunications’, and ‘regulation of telecommunications’. Anders Henten has worked professionally in the areas of communications economy and policy for more than a decade. He has published [Page xv]nationally and internationally – more than 100 academic publications in international journals, books, anthologies, and conference proceedings.
Andrea B. Hollingshead is Associate Professor of Speech Communication and Psychology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Her research investigates transactive memory, knowledge management, and information processing in groups and organizations. She also studies the impacts of technology and the Internet on the ways that groups communicate, collaborate, and create community. Professor Hollingshead is co-author of Groups Interacting with Technology with Joseph McGrath. Recent articles have appeared in the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Small Group Research, Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, and Human Communication Research.
Heather E. Hudson is Director of the Telecommunications Management and Policy Program in the School of Business and Management at the University of San Francisco. Dr Hudson has planned and evaluated communication projects in northern Canada, Alaska, and more than 50 developing countries in Africa, Asia and the Pacific, the Middle East, and Latin America. She has also consulted for government agencies, consumer and native organizations, foreign governments, telecommunications companies, and international organizations including the World Bank, the ITU, UNDP, UNESCO, USAID, CIDA, International Development Research Centre (IDRC), and the Commonwealth of Learning.Dr. Hudson received an Honours BA in English from the University of British Columbia, MA and PhD in Communication Research from Stanford University and JD from the University of Texas at Austin. She is the author of several books including , and co-author of and . Dr Hudson has also published more than 100 articles and book chapters, and presented numerous conference papers, as well as providing expert testimony on telecommunications applications and domestic and international policy issues such as universal service, information infrastructure, and telecommunications planning for socioeconomic development.
Michèle H. Jackson (PhD, University of Minnesota), teaches, consults, and conducts research in the area of computer-based technologies and their relationship to small-group communication and to organizations. Her research has appeared in Information, Communication, and Society, the Proceedings of the Academy of Management, Communication Yearbook, and the Journal of Computer Mediated Communication. She is a past Tomash Fellow for the History of Information Processing at the Charles Babbage Institute, and a past research fellow for the Poynter Institute for Media Studies. She has consulted recently for the University of Colorado and the State of Colorado, and until recently served on the faculty of [Page xvi]an engineering-focused interdisciplinary telecommunications program. Dr Jackson currently is assistant professor in the Department of Communication at the University of Colorado at Boulder.
Nicholas W. Jankowski is Associate Professor in the Department of Communication, University of Nijmegen. He has been involved in the investigation of community media and other small-scale communication facilities since the mid-1970s. His publications include: The People's Voice: Local Radio and Television in Europe; The Contours of Multimedia; Community Media in the Information Age; and A Handbook of Qualitative Methodologies for Mass Communication Research. He is preparing a methodology textbook on new media research. One of his current research interests involves the study of initiatives designed to contribute to public discourse through Internet-based discussions. Jankowski is co-editor of the journal New Media & Society and associate editor of Communications: The European Journal of Communication Research.
Douglas Kellner is George Kneller Chair in the Philosophy of Education at the University of California, Los Angeles. He is author of many books on social theory, politics, history and culture, including Camera Politica: The Politics and Ideology of Contemporary Hollywood Film, co-authored with Michael Ryan; Critical Theory, Marxism, and Modernity; Jean Baudrillard: From Marxism to Postmodernism and Beyond; Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations (with Steven Best); Television and the Crisis of Democracy; The Persian Gulf TV War; Media Culture; and The Postmodern Turn (with Steven Best). Forthcoming are a book on the 2000 US presidential election, The Postmodern Adventure (co-authored with Steven Best), and Media Spectacle.
Tim Kuhn (Ph.D., Arizona State University) is an Assistant Professor in the Communication Department at the University of Colorado at Boulder. His scholarly interests are in examining the ways in which communication is both a creator and mediator of organizational knowledge, learning and planned change. This guiding interest has led to the creation of a constructionist model depicting the interaction of individual and collective knowledge, communication networks, and information/ communication technologies that explains the accomplishment of coordinated activities. He is also interested in theorizing and studying organizations as complex discursive systems, and has been involved in developing computer-aided techniques that allow the investigation of large bodies of organizational discourse. His recent work on these topics can be found in Human Communication Research and Communication Quarterly.
Don Lamberton is Visiting Fellow, Graduate Program in Public Policy, Asia Pacific School of Economics and Management, Australian National University, and Adjunct Professor in Communication, University of Canberra. He edits two journals: Information Economics and Policy and Prometheus, and is a member of other editorial boards. His recent books are: The Economics of Communication and Information (1996), The New Frontiers of Communications Policy (1997), Communication and Trade (1998), Managing the Global: Globalization, Employment and Quality of Life[Page xvii](forthcoming), and The Economics of Language (forthcoming). He received his BEc degree from the University of Sydney and his D.Phil. from Oxford University. He has held permanent or visiting appointments at many universities and research centres, including eleven Australian universities and universities in the US and UK. He served as a member of Australian Government committees of inquiry (public libraries, industrial property, and marine industries science and technology) and as a consultant to OECD, UNESCO, ITU, UNCTC, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australia Post, and Prices Surveillance Authority.
Peter Lovelock is the Director of MFC Insight, an IT Research Consultancy headquartered in Beijing. Under Dr Lovelock's tutelage Insight has built the premier IT consulting and research unit on the Chinese mainland, providing strategic guidance to clients such as Ericsson, Vodafone, Xinde and Vivendi. He is also Deputy Director of the Telecommunications Research Project at the University of Hong Kong.Dr Lovelock has worked extensively on Asian IT regulatory assessment, implementation and execution projects, as well as due diligence and market entry strategic guidance over the years as part of teams for finance, legal, and management consulting companies, as well as for the Telecommunications Research Project.During 1997 and 1998 Dr Lovelock worked as a policy analyst at the United Nation's International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in Geneva. During this period he was a contributing author to a range of the ITU's major research publications, including , and (6 volumes).Dr Lovelock has been writing on both the telecommunications and media industries in Asia for over ten years, including chapters in , and the IEC's , along with contributions to and , among others.
Timothy W. Luke is University Distinguished Professor of Political Science and co-director of the Center for Digital Discourse and Culture at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in Blacksburg, Virginia. His research interests are tied to the politics of information societies, international affairs, and ecological criticism. He has just completed a new critical study of ideological politics at a number of major museums in the United States, which is entitled Museum Pieces: Probing the Powerplays at Culture, History, Nature, and Technology Museums (University of Minnesota Press, forthcoming). His most recent books are Capitalism, Democracy, and Ecology: Departing from Marx (University of Illinois Press, 1999), and Ecocritique: Contesting the Politics of Nature, Economy, and Culture (University of Minnesota Press, 1997). He is also the author of Shows of Force: Politics, Power and Ideology in Art Exhibitions (Duke University Press, 1992).
Stephen McElhinney teaches in the postgraduate program of the Centre for International Communication at Macquarie University in Sydney, Australia. He has research and policy interests in globalization, intellectual property and audiovisual industries.
[Page xviii]Sally J. McMillan is an Assistant Professor in the Advertising Department at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville. Her research focuses on definitions and history of new media and the impacts of communication technology on organizations and society. She has a particular interest in the nature and role of interactivity in computer-mediated environments. She has also published several articles related to methodologies for online research. Her research has been published in journals such as Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, the Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, New Media & Society, and the Journal of Advertising Research. Prior to earning her PhD in Communication and Society at the University of Oregon, McMillan worked for 15 years in communication-related roles in book publishing, newspaper reporting, public relations consulting, non-profit management, and executive-level marketing and management for computer technology firms. She teaches graduate and undergraduate courses in interactive advertising, advertising research, and advertising management.
Bella Mody is Professor in the Department of Telecommunication at Michigan State University. She is co-editor of The Handbook on International and Intercultural Communication (Sage, 2001) and Telecommunication Politics: Ownership and Control of the Information Highway in Developing Countries (Lawrence Erlbaum, 1995). She is author of Designing Messages for Development Communication (Sage, 1991) and journal articles on international communication, international development communication, and audience research for development communication campaign design. Her special interests are technology, labour, class, and gender. She has edited/co-edited special issues of the Journal of International Communication, Gazette, and Communication Theory. She is a consultant to international agencies and non-governmental organizations on media applications for development communication. Mody has been Chair of the Intercultural and Development Communication Division of the International Communication Association (1999–2001). She was formerly a social scientist with the Satellite Instructional TV Experiment in the Government of India's space agency and a faculty member at Stanford University and San Francisco State University.
Marshall Scott Poole (PhD, University of Wisconsin) is Professor of Speech Communication at Texas A&M University. He has conducted research and published extensively on the topics of group and organizational communication, computer-mediated communication systems, conflict management, and organizational innovation. He has co-authored or edited seven books including Communication and Group Decision-Making, Research on the Management of Innovation, and Organizational Change and Innovation Processes: Theory and Methods for Research. He has published in a number of journals, including Management Science, MIS Quarterly, Human Communication Research, Academy of Management Journal, and Communication Monographs. He is currently a senior editor of Information Systems Research and Organization Science.
Mark Poster is Director of the Film Studies Program at the University of California, Irvine, and a member of the History Department. He has a courtesy [Page xix]appointment in the Department of Information and Computer Science. He is a member of the Critical Theory Institute. His recent and forthcoming books are: What's the Matter with the Internet?: A Critical Theory of Cyberspace (University of Minnesota Press, 2001); The Information Subject in Critical Voices Series (New York: Gordon and Breach Arts International, 2001); Cultural History and Postmodernity (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997); The Second Media Age (London: Polity and New York: Blackwell, 1995); and The Mode of Information (London: Blackwell and Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990).
Ronald E. Rice (PhD, MA, Stanford University, 1982) is Professor and Chair of the Department of Communication at the School of Communication, Information and Library Studies, Rutgers University. He has co-authored or co-edited Public Communication Campaigns (3rd edn, 2000), The Internet and Health Communication (2000); The New Media: Communication, Research and Technology (1984), Managing Organizational Innovation (1987) and Research Methods and the New Media (1989). He has conducted research and published widely in communication science, public communication campaigns, computer-mediated communication systems, methodology, organizational and management theory, information systems, information science and bibliometrics, and social networks. His publications have won awards as best dissertation from the American Society for Information Science, and as best paper from the International Communication Association and the Academy of Management. Dr Rice has been elected divisional officer in both the ICA and the Academy of Management. He has served as associate editor for MIS Quarterly, and for Human Communication Research. He is on the editorial board of Communication Monographs, Journal of the American Society for Information Science; Journal of Communication; Communication Theory; Management Communication Quarterly; Journal of Business Communication; New Media and Society; Journal of Management Information Systems; and Journal of Business Communication, and is a series editor for Hampton Press.
Caroline Simard (BSc, Université de Montréal, MA, Rutgers University) is a doctoral student at Stanford University's Department of Communication. Her research interests include new media and economic relationships, networks of economic relationships in Silicon Valley, knowledge networks and knowledge management, social network analysis, and the impact of information technology on organizations.
Nikhil Sinha is Executive Vice President, eFunds Corporation. Previously he was Associate Professor in the Department of Radio-Television-Film and Associate Director of the Telecommunications and Information Policy Institute at the University of Texas at Austin. He has also worked in the Information and Broadcasting Ministry of the Government of India and as a consultant to the Informatics and Telecommunications Division for the World Bank, and as an advisor to the Indian Telecommunications Commission and the Indian Planning Commission. He has published numerous articles and book chapters on international regulatory and policy issues on telecommunications and information technology.
[Page xx]Knud Erik Skouby (MSc Economics, University of Copenhagen), has worked as a consultant and university teacher since 1972. His areas of interest include planning technological development and technology assessment, particularly within telecommunications. He is the founding Director of the Center for Tele-Information (CTI) and Deputy Director, COM Center, at the Technical University of Denmark. Knud Erik Skouby has participated as a project manager and partner in a number of international, European and Danish research projects. He has also served as a member of organizing boards and evaluation committees, and as invited speaker to a number of international conferences, published a number of Danish and international articles, books and conference proceedings in the areas of telecommunications regulation, technology assessment (information technology and telecommunications), demand forecasting and political economy.
Jennifer Daryl Slack is Associate Professor of Communication and Cultural Studies at Michigan Technological University Department of Humanities. Her work on culture and technology is based on over 20 years of teaching and study. Notably, she has taught courses on culture and technology since 1981 and tracked the changes in her students' sense of the role and importance of technology. She is author of Communication Technologies and Society (Ablex, 1984), co-editor of The Ideology of the Information Age (Ablex, 1987), and author of numerous articles on culture and technology. Culture and Technology: A Primer, co-authored with J. Macgregor Wise, is forthcoming from Peter Lang.
Don Slater is a Reader in Sociology at the London School of Economics and Political Science. He has written extensively on Internet and new media, from an ethnographic perspective. Most recently he conducted a study of the use of the Internet in Trinidad, with Daniel Miller, published as The Internet: An Ethnographic Approach (Oxford: Berg, 2000). An earlier online ethnography of pornography trading was published in Body and Society 4(4), 1998. He also writes extensively on the relation between culture and economy. His recent work includes Consumer Culture and Modernity (Cambridge: Polity Press, 1997) and (with Fran Tonkiss) Market Society: Markets and Modern Social Thought (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2001).
Susan Leigh Star is Professor of Communication at the University of California, San Diego. She writes about the social and historical aspects of science, information and technology, particularly on the values embedded in information technologies. With Geoffrey Bowker, she is the author of Sorting Things Out: Classification and Its Consequences (MIT Press, 1999), and has edited a number of other volumes, including Ecologies of Knowledge (SUNY, 1995). Her training was in the symbolic interactionist/pragmatist tradition in American sociology, which has grounded her research in the study of work, identity and meaning. She has also written on feminist theory, and is a poet.
Laura Stein is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Communication at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. She researches and writes about communication law and policy, political communication, speech rights, and new [Page xxi]technologies. Her articles have appeared in numerous collections and journals, including Communication Law and Policy, Javnost / The Public, and Peace Review. She has also worked in the management, production, and distribution of public and educational media.
Harry M. Trebing is Professor of Economics Emeritus and Senior Fellow at the Institute of Public Utilities, Michigan State University, and Adjunct Professor (Economics), New Mexico State University. He is founder and director of the Institute of Public Utilities, MSU (1966–91) and former Chief Economist for the US Postal Rate Commission and the US Federal Communications Commission. He has been a member of advisory panels for government agencies and the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment, and has received a two-year National Science Foundation grant to study regulatory reform in energy utilities. Currently he serves as a member of the editorial boards of three professional journals, and as a member of the Michigan Utility Consumer Participation Board (by appointment of the Governor in 1991). He is the recipient of distinguished service awards from the National Association of State Utility Consumer Advocates, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, five universities, and the Government of Guam. He is the author of numerous publications dealing with public utility regulation. He holds BA and MA degrees from the University of Maryland, and a PhD from the University of Wisconsin.
John Ure is a specialist in the economics, policy and regulation of telecommunications and related areas of information technology, new media and electronic commerce. As director of the Telecommunications Research Project (TRP) at the University of Hong Kong his output of papers, articles and conference presentations has been prolific. His book Telecommunications in Asia: Policy, Planning and Development (Hong Kong University Press, 1995, 1997, of which he was editor and principal author) rapidly became a standard reference for the region. He serves on numerous public bodies in Hong Kong, advises the consumer councils in Hong Kong and Macao, is a consultant for both the World Bank and the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) in the Asia–Pacific region. He runs training courses for the telecommunications regulators and for the private sector. He also supervises postgraduate students at doctorate and master levels, and serves on the editorial boards of Info and Telecommunications Policy.
Gwen Urey is an Associate Professor and department chair in Urban and Regional Planning at California State Polytechnic University, Pomona. Her research and teaching interests include planning for and issues surrounding ownership and control over infrastructure of all types in US cities and in developing countries. She is also interested in the use of technology in teaching and learning both in school and community settings.
Stefaan G. Verhulst has been the director of the Programme in Comparative Media Law and Policy at Oxford University since its inception in 1996. Prior to that, he was a lecturer on communications law and policy issues in Belgium before becoming founder and co-director of the International Media and [Page xxii]Information-Communications Policy and Law studies programme at the School of Law, University of Glasgow. He has served in, and is currently a consultant and researcher for, numerous organizations including the Council of Europe, European Commission and UNESCO. In the fall of 2000, he was a Scholar in Residence at the John and Mary R. Markle Foundation. Together with Monroe Price, he shares the UNESCO Chair in Communications. He is the editor of the International Journal of Communications Law and Policy and the Communications Law in Transition Newsletter and is the UK legal correspondent for the European Audiovisual Observatory.
Frank Webster was educated at the University of Durham (BA, MA) and the London School of Economics (PhD) and is currently Professor of Sociology and Head of the Department of Cultural Studies and Sociology at the University of Birmingham, UK. He is the author of many books, including: The New Photography: Responsibility in Visual Communication (1980); Information Technology: A Luddite Analysis (with Kevin Robins) (1986); The Technical Fix: Computers, Industry and Education (with Kevin Robins) (1989); Theories of the Information Society (1995); The Postmodern University? Contested Visions of Higher Education (with A. Smith) (1997); Times of the Technoculture: from the Information Society to the Virtual Life (with Kevin Robins) (1999); Understanding Contemporary Society: Theories of the Present (with G. Browning and A. Halcli) (2000); and Politics and Culture in the Information Age: A New Politics? (2001). He is currently preparing The Virtual University (with Kevin Robins) for Oxford University Press.
Dwayne Winseck is Associate Professor at the School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada. Before arriving in Ottawa in 1998, he lived and taught in Britain, the People's Republic of China, the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and the United States. His research focuses on the political economy of communication, media history, communication policy, theories of democracy and global communication. He has authored and co-edited three books on these topics: Reconvergence: A Political Economy of Telecommunications in Canada (Hampton Press, 1998); Democratizing Communication: Comparative Perspectives on Information and Power (Hampton Press, 1997); and Media in Global Context (Edward Arnold, 1997). He has also published numerous book chapters as well as journal articles in the Canadian Journal of Communication, Gazette, Javnost / the Public, New Media and Society, European Journal of Communication, Media, Culture and Society, and elsewhere.
J. Macgregor Wise (PhD, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) is Assistant Professor of Communication Studies at Arizona State University West. His work is situated at the intersection of cultural studies, media studies, and the sociology and philosophy of technology. He is the author of Exploring Technology and Social Space (Sage, 1997) and co-author with Jennifer Daryl Slack of the forthcoming Culture and Technology: A Primer (Peter Lang).
Putting together a volume of this size draws on the ideas, efforts and enthusiasm of many people, and we would like to thank all those involved for contributing to the final publication of the Handbook. The section editors and the individual chapter authors have worked hard through several rounds of discussion and revisions over the last couple of years, and we are extremely grateful for their care and efforts, which have made the Handbook as good as we could have hoped for.
Our International Advisory Board supported the project strongly from the outset, and we thank them for their advice and continuing interest in the project – especially the months of reviewing and careful commentary that they provided on the chapter proposals and initial drafts. The diversity of their experience, perspectives and expertise was a crucial asset throughout the editorial process.
In particular, we want to acknowledge International Advisory Board member Rohan Samarajiva, who originated the idea for the Handbook, recruited one of the present editors (Lievrouw) to co-edit the volume, and initiated our outstanding relationship with Sage Publications. Rohan had to withdraw from direct oversight of the project when he was appointed Director General of Telecommunications for Sri Lanka; he has since moved to the Delft University of Technology. But without his enormous drive and creativity the Handbook might never have gotten off the ground in the first place.
In addition, the review and revision process could not have been completed without the additional help of a long list of ‘anonymous reviewers’, who themselves comprise a ‘who's who’ of new media researchers. Their wide-ranging interests, and the variety of disciplinary and professional backgrounds they represent, allowed them to provide commentary and suggestions that enlarged the scope and significance of the entire volume. While the list is long we think it is essential that they be recognized here: Phil Agre, Patricia Aufderheide, Sandra Braman, Donald Case, Stephen Coleman, Dianne Cornell, William Drake, Mike Featherstone, Anne Friedberg, Les Gasser, Tim Kelly, Stephen Kline, Martin Lea, Harmeet Sawhney, Sid Shniad, Diane Sonnenwald, Gerald Sussman, Damian Tambini, Janet Wasko, and Rolf Wigand.
We should also mention that some of our contributing authors also served as reviewers for other chapters in the book.
We could not have completed the Handbook without significant institutional support, in terms of both time and resources. We would therefore like to thank our colleagues at both UCLA and LSE, who provided administrative and intellectual support (as well as the occasional airfare).
Our commissioning editor at Sage, Julia Hall, has been the classic tower of strength, encouraging us every step of the way from the first glimmerings in 1996, to the start of ‘real work’ in 1998, through the process of recruiting contributors [Page xxiv]and Board members, to the review process in 1999 and early 2000, and right through shaping up the final manuscript. It was in fact her idea to ask Sonia Livingstone to step in as co-editor when Rohan Samarajiva left the project. Julia has been patient, strict, cheerful, resolute, reasonable, funny, and much else as needed. We owe her a very great debt. We also thank other key members of Sage staff for their help with promotion and production – they have made sure that the Handbook will be an important resource and will find the right audience.
Finally, on a more personal note, we would like to thank our partners, Dan Danzig and Peter Lunt, for putting up with so many hours, months, indeed years spent reading chapters, dealing with authors, working through contracts, traveling to conferences, and even a couple of cross-Atlantic shuttles. It has been exhausting, but also a great deal of fun sustaining so fruitful a collaboration, debating with so many people the shape and future of our field, and learning so much ourselves in the process.
We hope that you, the reader, find this Handbook as useful and inspiring as we have tried to make it.
University of California, Los Angeles
London School of Economics and Political Science