Handbook of Multicultural Competencies in Counseling & Psychology

Handbooks

Edited by: Donald B. Pope-Davis, Hardin L. K. Coleman, William Liu & Rebecca L. Toporek

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Concepts and Theories

    Part II: Assessment

    Part III: Research

    Part IV: Practice

    Part V: Teaching

  • Dedication

    To my students who have motivated me, my colleagues who have challenged me, and my family who have helped me keep things in perspective.

    D.B. Pope-Davis

    To my students, colleagues, and clients from whom I learn so much and gain great inspiration.

    H.L. K. Coleman

    To my wife Rossina, my mother Judy, my grandmother, and David and Joe.

    W. M. Liu

    To Kaiya, Dylan, Phil, all of my family, colleagues, friends, and mentors for their commitment, guidance, and encouragement.

    R. L. Toporek

    Copyright

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    Foreword

    The title of this innovative and comprehensive revised handbook, edited by Professors Pope-Davis, Coleman, Liu, and Toporek, is straightforward and to the point–the focus is entirely devoted to the achievement, maintenance, and application of multicultural competence in a variety of domains in psychology. The title, however, begs for an explanation. Why should anyone affiliated with psychology be interested in and concerned about achieving multicultural competence? The answer to this question is not as straightforward as the handbook's title might suggest. A plausible answer must take into consideration the following observations. First, the historical record suggests that psychology has all but ignored the surface-and deep-level meanings and implications of culture and ethnicity for the past 100 years. Second, the mission statement of the American Psychological Association (APA) maintains that the object of the APA shall be to advance psychology as a science and profession and as a means of promoting health and human welfare. The historical record suggests that the profession has not lived up to this statement. Up until 1970 or so, the APA's mission and that of psychology in general appeared to be limited to one segment of the U.S. population, as references to African Americans, Asian Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Hispanics, Pacific Islanders, and Puerto Ricans were almost completely absent from the psychological literature; in fact, the words culture and ethnic were rarely used in psychological textbooks except in topics dealing with person perception, prejudice and discrimination, and psycholinguistics. Third, the population distribution of the United States has always been portrayed as a “melting pot” consisting of hundreds of uniquely different ethnic and nationalistic groups, with those of Euro-American background constituting the largest demographic concentration. The U.S. Bureau of Census, however, indicates that the variable growth patterns of ethnic minority groups in the United States will stir up and add to the “melting pot” with increasing numbers of different nationalities and ethnic groups for another century or two.

    Before these observations are discussed in more detail, attention must be given to the concept of competence. At a general level, competence is a state of being psychologically and physically adequate and having sufficient knowledge, judgment, skill, or strength. When this definition is expanded to include culture, competence then includes skills reflecting one's understanding and appreciation of cultural differences and similarities. To achieve multicultural competence, one must be consciously willing to learn and explore other cultural groups; without a conscious intent and desire, the achievement and realization of multicultural competence is not likely to occur. These themes are consistently emphasized in all chapters in this volume. With this in mind, let me move on to discuss the relationship between the three observations and the implications of the handbook for achieving multicultural competence.

    In response to the first and second observations, beginning in the 1960s, ethnic minority psychologists began questioning what the APA meant by human and to whom the vast body of psychological knowledge applied. Fueled and inspired by the contentious and volatile civil rights movement, America's ethnic minority psychologists forcefully argued that American psychology was not inclusive of what constitutes the U.S. population–they claimed that psychology's research findings and theories were biased, limited to studies involving college and university students and laboratory animals, and therefore not applicable to all humans. Accusations of imperialism, cultural encapsulation, ethnocentrism, parochialism, and, in some circles of dissent, “scientific racism” run the gamut of criticisms hurled at the field of psychology in the past three decades. Comprehensive literature reviews reinforced their accusations and observations.

    Before 1976, for example, close to 25 articles and chapters were written on the subject of culture and counseling. Now, close to 500 books, chapters, and journal articles have been written expressing a variety of theoretical and research perspectives on the topic. The accelerated rate of interest and concern generated on the topic in the past 25 years or so is extraordinary but not surprising. The argument and justification for the increased interest rest on the contention that conventional counseling and mental health theories and service delivery approaches do not resonate with many of the lifeways and thoughtways of ethnic minority groups. Because all human thoughts and behaviors are culturally based, accurate assessment, meaningful understanding, and culturally appropriate interventions are required for understanding each context for counseling to effectively occur.

    Another response to the question about why anyone affiliated with psychology should be interested in and concerned about achieving multicultural competence concerns the growth of ethnic minority groups in the United States. America never was and likely will not be a melting pot of different nationalities and ethnic groups for another century or two. Consider the population projections offered by the U.S. Bureau of the Census. By 2050, the U.S. population will reach more than 400 million, about 47% larger than in the year 2000. The primary ethnic minority groups–specifically, Hispanics, African Americans, Asian Americans, and American Indians and Alaska Natives–will constitute almost 50% of the population in 2050. About 57% of the population younger than age 18 and 34% older than age 65 will be ethnic minorities. Currently, Hispanics number 35.3 million, about 12.5% of the U.S. population, and comprise a diversity of ethnocultural groups from numerous countries. Projections for the year 2010 suggest that Hispanics will be the largest ethnic group, second only to White Americans, and followed by African Americans.

    The third observation clearly illustrates that the ethnic and cultural demographic landscape in the United States is increasing to a future point where groups that were once in the numerical minority will be the majority. Conventional and timeworn psychological approaches to understanding the human condition will not be appropriate or relevant unless they can accommodate the heterogeneity generated by ethnic and cultural worldviews.

    Cultural and ethnic psychologists increasingly are demonstrating that culture makes a difference in the way people act, perceive, think, and feel so much so that major theories have to be revised to accommodate the new and contradictory results. Although the findings are challenging psychology, the field, in general, is challenging culture in reciprocal ways. Conventional psychologists are pushing us to define what we mean by culture, ethnicity, and the processes and mechanisms that mediate and influence thoughtways and lifeways. Becoming multiculturally competent does not imply that one should discard the contributions of past and present psychologists. The challenge for the reader of this handbook is to recognize that we cannot fully understand the human condition without viewing it from a cross-cultural and ethnic perspective, and to do this effectively and efficiently, we must be multiculturally competent. What was learned about the human condition in the past can be reframed and tested with a new set of approaches and procedures in contexts not considered in the past. Similarly, we may find that specific thoughtways and lifeways of certain ethnocultural groups may have some extraordinary value for psychology as a whole and thus assist in improving our understanding of humans and the settings in which we live.

    An early version of this handbook with a similar title by Professors Pope-Davis and Coleman was a bold, timely publishing venture set within Sage Publications' Multicultural Aspects of Counseling Series. Seventeen well-written and thought-provoking chapters explored topics dealing with assessment, education and training, and supervision. Since its seminal publication in 1997, interest in cultural and ethnic topics in psychology has mushroomed, thus creating the need for the editors to revise the original handbook to include new and fresh perspectives on a broader range of topics. The current volume has been expanded substantially to include 37 chapters covering a vast landscape of topics in the field.

    In the early 1970s, a few ethnic minorities blazed a path through the burgeoning field of psychology by emphasizing the importance of the study of culture and ethnicity. The path is much longer, wider, and unmistakable now. Along the way, several ethnic minority psychologists, through their scholarly publications, left important footprints for others to follow. In 1997, Professors Pope-Davis and Coleman left a small footprint with their first handbook. The publication of this revised and expanded handbook will leave an even more prominent footprint to guide the progressive development of multicultural competence. As readers pore over the chapters, they will come to realize that the attainment of multicultural competence is daunting. The path to attaining multicultural competence is difficult as it is a lifelong journey that involves considerable self-reflection; a critical examination and study of one's cultural and ethnic heritage, including those factors that influence maturation and enculturation; and a willingness to learn about the intricacies and subtleties of other ethnocultural groups with an open mind coupled with an adventuresome spirit.

    As a consequence of the accomplishments of the past three decades, cultural and ethnic perspectives are well established in psychology. They are slowly beginning to make a significant mark in the annals of the field. But there is another side to the growth that bears mention. A scan of the offerings of different psychology departments indicates that cultural and ethnic topics are not being given serious attention. A glance at future U.S. population projections suggests that the curriculum for graduate students who work with people from different ethnocultural groups must change. If that does not occur soon, then millions of people will be excluded from what psychology professes as its mission–to advance psychology as a science and profession and as a means of promoting health and human welfare.

    Incorporating ethnic and cultural issues into the curriculum is not a matter of political correctness. It is a matter of scientific and professional responsibility. We must remember that culture and ethnicity are important to psychology on a number of levels. Most important of these is that the scope of psychology is aimed at understanding affect, behavior and cognition, and research–education is geared to this purpose. By exploring psychological processes across diverse cultural and ethnic populations and contexts, we gain deeper insights into how these processes operate; the venture can contribute to achieving multicultural competence. The revised handbook leads us in that direction and along a clearly marked path in ways that were not available to the field even a decade ago.

    Joseph E.Trimble, Ph.D. Professor of PsychologyWestern Washington University

    Preface

    By all possible measures of scholarly research and productivity, it can be easily said that the number of publications on the topic of multiculturalism and multicultural competencies has increased exponentially year after year. What was once a trickle has become a virtual tsunami of scholarship, both theoretical and empirical, that has made a mark on counseling and psychology research and practice. A casual perusal of the leading counseling journals and national and regional conferences will support the fact that there is a steady and increasing focus on culture in our professional practices. And with the recent endorsement of the Guidelines of Multicultural Competencies by the American Psychological Association, multicultural competency has become even more mainstreamed than before.

    But within the context of the many successes for multicultural competency in psychology and counseling, it is also important to contextualize our current experience as professionals. Because one of the important hallmarks of multiculturalism is context, it is important that we consider how we may fully understand this book and its meaningfulness within our various communities. Of the numerous contextual issues to consider, we will touch upon a few salient ones. For example, more than a year after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, the United States is in an economic decline marked by enormous white-collar crime, and the country has ended another war with Iraq. Muslim Americans are targeted for interrogation and incarceration, poverty is increasing, and gays and lesbians are still being killed in our streets. These contextual issues pull at the very heart of multicultural competency: our social justice orientation and our hope to transform our communities. And it is within this context that multicultural competency has become more important than ever. Because many of our professional roles situate us at the “front lines” of contact with people and these issues, it is imperative that we better understand and integrate multiculturalism into our practices and become multiculturally competent.

    Hence, within this context of multicultur-alism's successes and our current situation as a nation, we present the Handbook of Multicultural Competencies. We are excited that the handbook, a labor of love for us, has been finally produced. Although many of the chapters were written prior to the events of September 11, 2001, the content is timely to address the role that multicultural competencies have in responding to our world. We are delighted that top scholars in the field of multicultural competency have joined us in contributing their time and energy to this product: a handbook that is the first of its kind to focus specifically on the issue of multicultural competency in our various professional roles. Because we felt that professionals needed a resource that could ground their practice and also provide direction for their growth and development, this book was produced with several goals in mind:

    • to provide readers with a foundation in multicultural competency through historicizing the field and exposure to critical theories,
    • to provide readers with a compendium of the latest theories and research related to multicultural competency,
    • to provide readers with a “hands-on” framework from which they can develop their own practices.
    Book Contents

    The book is organized under five major parts: Concepts and Theories, Assessment, Research, Practice, and Teaching. We also provide at the end a Reflections and Future Directions chapter. We created the five parts because they reflected the essential and fundamental practices within which counselors are involved.

    In Part I, Concepts and Theories, the chapters provide the foundation from which we attempt to understand and operationalize multicultural competency. This part historicizes multicultural competency as well as critiques it. The notion of competency versus competencies, major theories and models of feminism and identity development, the philosophy of science, power, school counseling issues, and supervision are among the various issues tackled within this part. Readers are exposed to the difficult dialogues multiculturalists are engaged within as we attempt to develop and reflect on our discipline. The act of Freirian praxis, as readers will understand, is an important endeavor that can only advance the field of multicultural competency.

    In Part II, Assessment, the focus narrows on how we understand multicultural competency through our measures and methodology. The important question that weaves the part together is, “How do we assess for and operationalize multicultural competency?” Readers are provided with a review of major measures of multicultural competency at the individual and environmental levels. In addition, a framework from which to understand demonstrated multicultural competency that shifts away from specific instruments is reviewed. An example of combining both methods of multicultural assessment is used among teachers, showing the importance of multicultural competency at all levels of practice.

    The third part, Research, addresses a fundamental element in multicultural competency. The chapters within the part cover important developing issues within the field. For instance, the popularity of empirically supported treatments is reviewed within the schema of multicultural competency. Similarly, the salience of multicultural competency is examined within the counseling relationship. Finally, the part ends with, first, a discussion on the need for qualitative methods in multicultural competency research and, second, a study on multicultural counseling competencies among counseling practitioners.

    Part IV, Practice, is one of the most unique for any book on multiculturalism. Within multicultural competency research, the practical applications are often overlooked. Hence, the major focus of this part is the application of multicultural competencies to multiple areas of professional practice. The part first addresses multicultural competencies and accreditation. This is followed by an overview of the ethical implications of multicultural competencies. The remainder of the part examines multicultural competencies within practice dimensions such as consulting, managed health care, counseling centers, supervision, career counseling, schools, health psychology, and rehabilitation counseling. Although not fully capturing all the possible professional settings and responsibilities of counselors and psychologists, the intent of the part was to provide a resource from which people could start their own development.

    Part V, Teaching, focuses on teaching multicultural competency. Although there are potentially many resources available to readers, this part aggregates the teaching and pedagogical issues of multicultural competency into one space. The part addresses teaching and multicultural competency within academic achievement, such as in kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12), collegiate undergraduate courses, counseling graduate courses, continuing education, and technology and Internet research. Often overlooked in the multicultural literature or located in discipline-specific journals and books, the intent of this part was to expose readers practicing at various levels to the issues, challenges, and successes that are common among all teachers. Finally, the book ends with a “Reflections and Future Directions” chapter by Drs. Atkinson and Israel.

    This book was intended to provide a framework to understand multicultural competencies and to help individuals and groups apply the principles of multicultural competency to their work. Although the contents cover a vast array of topics, the focus is specific: multicultural competencies in all areas of psychological and counseling practice and research. Our hope is that readers will digest the various resources we have gathered and use them to transform themselves and their communities.

    WilliamMing LiuDonald B.Pope-DavisHardin L.K.ColemanRebecca L.Toporek
  • Author Index

    About the Editors

    Donald B. Pope-Davis, Ph.D., is a Professor of Psychology at the University of Notre Dame. His primary research interests are in the areas of multicultural psychology, counseling, and education. Specifically, he is interested in cultural and racial identity development, cultural competency training, development, and assessment. Other areas of research include multicultural supervision in professional psychology, acculturation, and issues of mental health for persons of color. He received his doctorate from Stanford University.

    Hardin L. K. Coleman, Ph.D., is a Professor of Counseling Psychology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. His research and clinical interest focus on the role that cultural identity development and bicultural competence play in the process of psychological well-being and resilient outcomes. He received his doctorate from Stanford University.

    William Ming Liu, Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor of Counseling Psychology at the University of Iowa. His research areas are men and masculinity, social class and clas-sism, and multicultural competency. He received his doctorate in Counseling Psychology at the University of Maryland in 2000.

    Rebecca L. Toporek, Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Counseling at San Francisco State University. Her research interests include clients' experiences in multicultural counseling, race and poverty attitudes in counseling training, the role of systemic interventions in addressing discrimination, advocacy and social justice, multicultural issues in career counseling, and multicultural counseling supervision. She received her doctorate degree in 2001 from the University of Maryland, College Park.

    About the Contributors

    Elizabeth M. Altmaier, Ph.D., is a Professor in the Division of Psychological and Quantitative Foundations, College of Education, University of Iowa. She has a secondary appointment in the Department of Community and Behavioral Health, College of Public Health, University of Iowa. Her areas of research are in the applications of counseling psychology to problems of physical health, with a particular emphasis on oncology and chronic pain. She is Principal Investigator of the Adult Health Quality of Life Substudy of the T Cell Depletion Trial funded by National Health Lung and Blood Institute. She served on the Committee on Accreditation of the American Psychological Association from 1990 through 1994, chairing the committee in 1993 and 1994.

    Alvin N. Alvarez, Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor and Coordinator of the College Counseling program at San Francisco State University. He was born in the Philippine Islands and raised in Southern California. He holds M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Counseling Psychology from the University of Maryland at College Park. His professional interests are in the area of Asian American racial identity development, anti-Asian racism and ethno-violence, and college student affairs.

    Julie R. Ancis, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor in the Department of Counseling and Psychological Services at Georgia State University. She has published numerous articles and presented nationally and internationally in the area of racial and gender attitudes, multicultural competency training, career and educational development of women and students of color, and distance learning. She has served on the editorial board of the Journal of Counseling and Development and is the Diversity Chair of the APA Guidelines for Counseling/Psychotherapy With Women. She is currently working on a book on culturally based interventions.

    Patricia Arredondo, Ed.D., is an Associate Professor in Counseling Psychology at Arizona State University and President of Empowerment Workshops, Inc. of Boston. She has dedicated her career to promoting organizational change through a focus on multiculturalism and cultural competencies. Her extensive publications focus on organizational diversity initiatives, immigrant and Latino issues in counseling, the development and application of multicultural competencies, and counselor education and professional development. She is president of the National Latino Psychological Association and Chicano Faculty and Staff Association of Arizona State University and past president of the Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development (ACA) and the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues (APA). Her graduate degrees are from Boston College and Boston University, and she is a licensed psychologist.

    Donald R. Atkinson, Ph.D., is a Professor of Education in the combined Counseling, Clinical, and School Psychology program at the University of California, Santa Barbara. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin in 1970. He is a Fellow in the American Psychological Society and Divisions 17 and 45 of the American Psychological Association. He is coauthor of three books: Counseling American Minorities: A Cross-Cultural Perspective (now in its 5th edition); Counseling Non-Ethnic American Minorities, Counseling Diverse Populations (now in its 2nd edition); and Counseling Across the Lifespan. He is also author or coauthor of more than 130 journal articles and book chapters, most of which report the results of research on cultural variables in counseling.

    Thomas Baskin is a doctoral student in Counseling Psychology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. His practical experience includes full-time work as a school counselor with ethnically diverse middle school students. His research interests include investigating the link between the basic psychological need of belongingness and student mental health, school achievement, and need fulfillment across cultures.

    Lonette Belizaire is completing her doctoral degree in Counseling Psychology at Fordham University. She has worked as a mental health educator and is currently a retention counselor, researcher, and career development instructor in the New York City university system. Her research interest includes the impact of acculturative stress on the adjustment of refugees, immigrants, and international students. She earned her master's degree in counseling from the University of Miami.

    Sharon L. Bowman is a Professor and Chair of the Department of Counseling Psychology and Guidance Services at Ball State University in Muncie, Indiana. She received her Ph.D. in counseling psychology from Southern Illinois University-Carbondale in 1989. She is a member of the American Psychological Association (Division 17), the American College Personnel Association, the Association of Black Psychologists, and the American College of Counselors. Her research interests are in multicultural counseling and development, the intersection of feminism and multi-culturalism, and mentoring for ethnic minority students.

    Eric C. Chen, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor in the Division of Psychological and Educational Services in the Graduate School of Education at Fordham University. He was born and raised in Taiwan and received his doctorate in Counseling Psychology from Arizona State University in 1995. His research interests and publications have encompassed topics of clinical supervision, group counseling, multicultural issues and competencies, and career choice and development of immigrant youth. He is a member of the editorial boards for the Group Dynamic: Theory, Research, and Practice; the Journal of Counseling and Development; the Journal of Counseling Psychology; and the Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development.

    Jean Lau Chin is the Systemwide Dean of the California School of Professional Psychology at Alliant International University. She is a licensed psychologist and Associate Professor at Boston University School of Medicine, where she was core faculty for the Center for Multicultural Training in Psychology. She has 30 years of clinical and management experience that includes president of CEO Services, regional director of Massachusetts Behavioral Health Partnership, executive director of South Cove Community Health Center, and codirector of Thom Child Guidance Clinic. She has consulted to and advised national, state, and community organizations on policy, advocacy, and program development related to cultural competence, community health, substance abuse, and mental health for underserved communities. She has done extensive work on ethnic minority, women, and Asian American issues. She is currently president of the Society for the Psychology of Women, Division 35, of the American Psychological Association with a presidential initiative on feminist leadership.

    Devika Dibya Choudhuri, Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Counseling and Leadership at Eastern Michigan University. Originally from India, she received her doctorate in Counselor Education from Syracuse University in 2001. Her specialization is in multicultural counseling, and she has worked clinically with populations of color in community and college settings. Her research interests include the impact of social identities within the counseling relationship and the pedagogical issues inherent in the teaching of counseling.

    Madonna G. Constantine, Ph.D., is a Professor of Psychology and Education in the Department of Counseling and Clinical Psychology at Teachers College, Columbia University. She received her Ph.D. in Counseling Psychology from the University of Memphis and her bachelor's and master's degrees from Xavier University of Louisiana. She has more than 75 publications related to her research interests. She also has held national and local leadership positions in counseling psychology, and she currently serves as Senior Editor of the Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development and Associate Editor of the Journal of Black Psychology. Her research and professional interests include multicultural competence issues in counseling, training, and supervision and career development issues of people of color and psychologists in training.

    Catarina I. Costa, M.S.Ed., is a doctoral student in Counseling Psychology in the Graduate School of Education at Fordham University. She holds an M.S.Ed. degree from Fordham University. She has taught high school psychology and advanced placement psychology through the Americorps program in Brownsville, Texas. She immigrated from the islands of the Azores at the age of 12, and her research interests lie primarily in the area of multicultural issues in individual and group counseling and include issues of adjustment, coping, and resiliency within diverse settings.

    Maureen G. Creagh is completing her Ph.D. degree in Counseling Psychology from Seton Hall University and was a predoctoral intern at the University Counseling Center of the University of Notre Dame. Both programs are APA accredited. She received her M.A. in Education (counselor preparation) from Seton Hall University. Her clinical interests include multicultural issues, career exploration, interpersonal concerns, and developmental issues among the college population.

    Michael D'Andrea, Ed.D., is a Professor in the Department of Counselor Education at the University of Hawaii, Manoa. He is a nationally recognized multicultural advocate who is well known for his efforts in eradicating various forms of institutional racism and cultural oppression that continue to be perpetuated in the fields of counseling and psychology, as well as his work as a social justice advocate in the broader communities of which he is a part. He has more than 100 professional publications, most of which focus on issues related to multicultural diversity and social justice counseling.

    Judy Daniels, Ph.D., is a Professor in the Department of Counselor Education at the University of Hawaii. She is well known for her work in multicultural and social justice counseling. She has authored 2 books and more than 50 publications focusing on diversity issues.

    Edward Delgado-Romero, Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Counseling and Educational Psychology in the School of Education at the University of Indiana-Bloomington. Previously, he was a clinical assistant professor, assistant director, and licensed psychologist at the Counseling Center of the University of Florida. He received his doctorate in Counseling Psychology from the University of Notre Dame. He is the chair of the Section of Ethnic and Racial Diversity (SERD) of Division 17 (Counseling) of the American Psychological Association and the bylaws chair of the Association of Multicultural Counseling and Development (AMCD) of the American Counseling Association. His research interests include the relationship between ethnicity and burnout among faculty of color, Latino/a issues in higher education, Latino identity development, and narrative psychology.

    Enedina Garcfa-Vazquez is an Associate Professor in the Department of Counseling and Educational Psychology at New Mexico State University and training director for the school psychology program. Her research interests are in the areas of acculturation, skin color, academic achievement, and various psychological factors such as self-esteem, self-expressiveness, self-perception, and social support. Other publications have addressed language proficiency, acculturative stress, and reading. She is on the executive council of Division 45's Society for the Psychological Studies of Ethnic Minority Issues and the editorial review board of the Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences and serves as a senior program reviewer for the National Association of School Psychologists. She received her Ph.D. in school psychology from the University of Iowa.

    Gregory Gard, Psy.D, is a recent graduate of Antioch New England Graduate School's Department of Clinical Psychology. As a graduate student, he worked closely with Gargi Roysircar as her research assistant, and he has collaborated with her on several published works and conference presentations. His areas of interest include multicultural process and outcome, psychometrics, and psychotherapy outcomes research particularly related to the development of practice research networks.

    Byron K. Hargrove, Ph.D., is a counseling psychologist specializing in career development and career counseling with adults. He currently works at the 1199 Employment, Training, & Job Security Program in New York City, where he provides career counseling with diverse adult learners returning to school. He has worked at several college and university counseling centers and served as a faculty member at Seton Hall University. He has published a number of articles and chapters on career counseling and has served on the editorial board of the Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development. His research interests include the family systems approach to career development, multicultural issues in career counseling, and help-seeking attitudes. He holds M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in Counseling Psychology from the University of Maryland at College Park.

    Julie M. Hau, M.S., is a graduate student in Counseling Psychology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and is a career intern in the Counseling and Career Services at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Her research interests include college student career development and counselor training issues, with a specific focus on first-generation college students' career development and portfolios as a means of evaluating multicultural competency for counselors.

    Krupa Hegde is a doctoral student in Counseling Psychology at the University of Notre Dame. She holds master's degrees in psychology from Boston University and the University of Notre Dame. Her research interests include multicultural issues in psychology, health-related behaviors, neuropsychology, and methodological concerns in research. She recently completed a 10-year follow-up study of survivorship in women with breast cancer.

    Carrie L. Hill works for the Alzheimer's Association and is Adjunct Instructor of Psychology for Dixie State College of Utah. Her scholarly interests include clinical judgment, multicultural issues, and geropsychol-ogy. She received her Ph.D. in Counseling Psychology from Indiana University.

    Cheryl C. Holcomb-McCoy, Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Counseling and Personnel Services at the University of Maryland at College Park. Her areas of research and scholarly interest include multicultural competence of school counselors, counseling African American female adolescents, and urban school counselor reform. She is the author of numerous articles and chapters on multicultural counseling competence in schools. Her experiences as a counselor educator at Brooklyn College of the City University of New York give her a unique perspective on school counseling issues and the “transformed role” of school counselors in today's urban schools. She is a former public school teacher and school counselor and is currently involved in the implementation of the first professional development school for school counselors in the Washington, D.C. area.

    George S. Howard is the Morahan Director, Core Course and Professor in the Department of Psychology, and he twice served as chairman of Notre Dame's psychology department. He has served as the president of both the Division of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology and the Division of Humanistic Psychology of the American Psychological Association. Author of 9 books and more than 150 professional articles and chapters, his research focuses on philosophical and methodological issues in counseling and clinical, educational, sports, and ecological psychology. He was named the 1998 recipient of the Notre Dame Faculty Award. He received his Ph.D. in Counseling Psychology in 1975 from Southern Illinois University.

    Robert Hubbell is a doctoral student in the Department of Clinical Psychology, Antioch New England Graduate School, Keene, New Hampshire. He earned an M.Ed. in Counseling at the College of Saint Rose, Albany, New York. His research interests include outcome assessment, program evaluation, community-based interventions, and issues of social justice. He has worked primarily with adults around problems of interpersonal difficulty, anxiety, trauma, and depression.

    Tania Israel, Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor in the Counseling, Clinical, and School Psychology Program at the University of California, Santa Barbara. She received her Ph.D. in counseling psychology from Arizona State University in 1998. Her professional interests include diversity training, feminist therapy, multicultural counseling, and sexuality education and counseling. Her current research focuses on the development and assessment of counselor competence with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients.

    Deborah B. Kelly is a fourth-year doctoral student in the Counseling Psychology program in the Department of Professional Psychology and Family Therapy at Seton Hall University. Her interests include multicultural counseling and group counseling.

    Keisa D. King is a doctoral student in Counseling Psychology at Ball State University in Muncie, Indiana. She is a student member of the American Psychological Association, the American College Personnel Association, and the Indiana Association of Black Psychologists. She is a graduate student representative to ACPA's Counseling and Psychological Services Commission (Commission VII). Her research and clinical interests include racial identity scale comparison, ethnic minority women's identity development, and multicultural counseling and development for college students.

    Amy J. Kleiner is a doctoral student in Counseling Psychology at Indiana University-Bloomington. She earned her bachelor's degree from Cornell College and her master's degree from Northeastern University. Her professional interests include change processes, critical pedagogy, and the implications of social justice issues on counseling and teaching practices.

    Paul Leung, Ph.D., is a Professor in the Department of Rehabilitation, Social Work, and Addictions at the University of North Texas in Denton, Texas. He has held previous academic and administrative appointments at Deakin University (Melbourne, Australia), University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and the University of Arizona. His doctoral degree is from Arizona State University. His research interests are related to racial/ethnic populations, disability, and rehabilitation.

    Laurie McCubbin, M.A., is a doctoral candidate at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and is currently a psychology intern at The Ohio State University. Her areas of research interest include resilience, Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders, Native Hawaiians, career development, and racial/ethnic identity development.

    Jaclyn Mendelsohn is completing her doctoral degree in Counseling Psychology at Fordham University. She has worked as a medical counselor and associate manager of a health clinic and has also has worked and externed in the New York City public school system. She is currently training in a college counseling center. Her research interests include multicultural counselor training and women's health/psychological issues.

    Thomas V. Merluzzi, Ph.D., is a Professor of Psychology at the University of Notre Dame, codirector of the doctoral program in counseling psychology, and a Fellow of the Society of Counseling Psychology (Division 17). He conducts research on resilience processes in coping with cancer from the perspective of self-regulation and self-efficacy theories. He has developed the Cancer Behavior Inventory, a widely used measure of self-efficacy for coping with cancer (http://www.nd.edu/~tmerluzz). His current research interest is developing methods for the cultural analysis of coping measures. He received a master's degree in Experimental Psychology (human learning and memory) and a Ph.D. in Counseling Psychology from The Ohio State University.

    Gina E. Miranda, Ph.D., M.S.S.W., is a faculty member in the School of Social Service Administration and an affiliate of the Center for the Study of Race, Politics, and Culture at the University of Chicago. Her most recent study focuses on the adult identity work of mixed race (Black-White) transracial adoptees, interpreting findings in the sociopolitical context of race and multiraciality both within child welfare and society at large. This multi-systemic approach to examining race, culture, and identity is also reflected in her methodological orientation, as she is exploring innovations through her research to better “measure” these constructs in all their contextual complexity. Her work ultimately seeks to reframe theories of race, culture, and identity development in ways that have relevance to policy and practice with populations, including multiracial persons and interracial family systems both biological and adoptive.

    Debra Mollen is a doctoral candidate in Counseling Psychology at Indiana University in Bloomington. She earned her bachelor's degree from Adelphi University and her master's degree from the University of Denver. Her research and practice interests include multiculturalism and feminism. Her dissertation is titled “Voluntarily Childless Women: Choices and Challenges.”

    Marie L. Miville, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor of Psychology and Education in the Department of Counseling and Clinical Psychology at Teachers College, Columbia University. She earned M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Maryland at College Park. Her professional interests are in Latino/a psychology, the integration of multiple collective identities, and universal-diverse orientation.

    Mary Jo Noonan, Ph.D., is a Professor of Special Education at the University of Hawaii, Manoa. She prepares special education preschool and elementary teachers to work with students who have severe and multiple disabilities. Most of her research has focused on the inclusion of children with disabilities in typical preschool classrooms located in multicultural settings. She has also studied coteacher interactions in multicultural preschool settings.

    Romana A. Norton, M.A., is a doctoral candidate in Counseling Psychology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Her research and teaching interests broadly focus on how social constructions of race influence individual and interpersonal functioning. Her research focuses on cultural identity development, particularly the identity development of people of mixed racial heritage, and multicultural supervision processes and outcomes.

    Lideth Ortega-Villalobos is a doctoral student in the Counseling Psychology program in the Department of Psychology at the University of Notre Dame. Her research interests include the assessment of multicultural competence in counseling, supervision and training, and the assessment of cultural identity development.

    Thomas A. Parham, Ph.D., is an Assistant Vice Chancellor for Counseling and Health Services and Director of the Counseling Center, as well as an adjunct faculty member at the University of California, Irvine. He is a past president of the National Association of Black Psychologists and past president of the Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development (a division of ACA). He is currently president of the 100 Black Men of America-Orange County Chapter and architect of their “Passport to the Future” Rites of Passage programs. He is the coauthor of The Psychology of Blacks: An African American Perspective (2nd ed., 1990) and author of Psychological Storms: The African American Struggle for Identity (1993). His most recent book, Counseling African Descent People: Raising the Bar of Practitioner Competence, is now available. He has also coauthored The Psychology of Blacks: An African Centered Perspective, now in its third edition. He has written more than 20 journal articles and/or book chapters and has also produced several videotapes on counseling African Americans.

    Joseph G. Ponterotto, Ph.D., is a Professor of Education and Director of Training in the Counseling Psychology Program at Fordham University in New York City. His primary teaching interests are in multicultural counseling, career development, psychological measurement, and qualitative research methods. He is an associate editor of the Journal of Counseling Psychology and coeditor of the International Forum section of The Counseling Psychologist. He has written extensively in the area of multicultural counseling, and he is the coeditor or coauthor of a number of books on the topic, including the recently released second editions of the Handbook of Multicultural Counseling (2001) and the Handbook of Multicultural Assessment: Clinical, Psychological, and Educational Applications (2001).

    Raechele L. Pope, Ed.D., is an Associate Professor in the Higher Education program in the Department of Educational Leadership and Policy at the University of Buffalo, State University of New York. With more than 20 years of experience in college student affairs, she has written numerous articles and book chapters. She has provided expertise on multicultural interventions, multicultural competence, and multicultural organization development to both higher education and corporate clients.

    Jodi C. Potere is a doctoral student in Counseling Psychology at Fordham University. She earned her M.S. (2002) in Counseling and Personnel Services from Fordham University. She currently works as a counselor on a research project that investigates the effectiveness of a counseling intervention with HIV-positive mothers who are substance users. Her research interests include women's issues, health psychology, the multicultural personality, and social learning theory of career decision making.

    Stephen M. Quintana, Ph.D., is a Professor and Chair in the Department of Counseling Psychology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He is Associate Editor of Child Development and received a Gimbel Child and Family Scholar for promoting ethnic, racial, and religious understanding. He received a Ford Foundation Postdoctoral Fellowship, 1993-1994. He earned his Ph.D. from the Department of Psychology at the University of Notre Dame, with a specialization in Counseling Psychology. His area of research includes development of children's perspective-taking ability for social status (ethnicity, race, nationality, gender, etc.).

    Jeannette Gordon Reinoso is a doctoral student of Counseling Psychology at Arizona State University.

    Amy L. Reynolds is a Senior Psychologist at the Buffalo State College Counseling Center. She received her doctorate in counseling psychology from The Ohio State University. She has been working in higher education as a psychologist and professor for 15 years. Her work as a scholar and teacher focuses on multicultural counseling and training; multicultural competence in counseling and student affairs; and feminist and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender issues. She has published numerous journal articles and book chapters addressing multicultural issues, which include race/ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation, in counseling or student affairs.

    Charles R. Ridley, Ph.D., is a Professor in the Counseling Psychology Program and Associate Dean of Research and the University Graduate School (RUGS) at Indiana University. His primary interests are multicultural counseling, assessment, and training; organizational consultation; integration of psychology and theology; and therapeutic change. He is the author of Overcoming Unintentional Racism in Counseling and Therapy: A Practitioner's Guide to Intentional Intervention (1995). He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and a licensed psychologist. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota.

    Maria P. P. Root, Ph.D ., is a clinical psychologist in Seattle, Washington. She has edited and authored six books, two of which have won awards. She is recognized for her expertise on culturally sensitive assessment issues, race and ethnic identity models, trauma, and women's mental health. She has served as an expert witness for 15 years on lawsuits alleging racial and ethnic origins of harassment and/or sexual harassment in North America.

    Gargi Roysircar, Ph.D., is the Founding Director of the Antioch New England Multicultural Center for Research and Practice (http://www.multiculturalcenter.org) and Professor in the Department of Clinical Psychology (APA accredited), Antioch New England Graduate School, Antioch University. She does research on the interface of acculturation and ethnic identity with the mental health of immigrants and ethnic minorities, worldview differences between and within cultural groups, multicultural competencies and training in professional psychology, and multicultural assessment and instrumentation. She was awarded the 2002 Extended Research Award of the American Counseling Association for having consistently furthered and broadened the counseling profession's understanding of diversity through research in a variety of areas. She is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association (APA), president of the Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development, and editor of APA's Division 17 Counseling Psychology Newsletter. She is on the editorial board of several professional journals. At the Antioch MC Center, she integrates research with clinical services, consultation, and education.

    Shelley Ruelas, Ph.D., is a psychologist in the Department of Counseling and Consultation at Arizona State University. Specializing in diversity issues, her work includes individual and group psychotherapy, counselor training and supervision, and outreach programming and consultation. Her current professional endeavors include conceptualizing and implementing a multicultural counseling training seminar for psychology interns, preparing university students to work with culturally diverse communities via service learning initiatives, and working with women who have survived sexual trauma and abuse. She is also involved in addressing diversity issues in organizational settings and works extensively with university programs oriented toward the recruitment and retention of underrepresented college students.

    Genella M. Taylor is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Counseling Psychology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Her current research and professional focus are on the impact of curriculum and instruction on identity development, self-efficacy, academic attainment and achievement, and risk and protective factors for African American youth living in poverty. She also serves as a member of the research and evaluation team at the Madison center of the Pacific Institute of Research and Evaluation (PIRE).

    Brett D. Thombs, M.A., is a doctoral candidate in Clinical Psychology and Psychometrics at Fordham University and a psychology intern at Cornell University Weill Medical College, Payne Whitney Clinic. He received a master's degree in special education from the University of Arizona in 1995 and, prior to his doctoral studies, taught primary and middle school special and regular education students in Tucson, Arizona and Mexico City, Mexico. His research interests include culturally sensitive research methods and psychotherapy, bilingualism in psychotherapy and assessment, cross-cultural measurement, and child maltreatment.

    Enedina Garcia Vazquez, Ph.D., is Associate Dean of the Graduate School at New Mexico State University. Her research interests are in the areas of acculturation, skin color, academic achievement, and various psychological factors such as self-esteem, self-expressiveness, self-perception and social support. Other publications have addressed language proficiency, acculturative stress and reading. She is on the executive council of APA Division 45's Society for the Psychological Studies of Ethnic Minority Issues. She received her Ph.D. in school psychology from the University of Iowa. Her areas of emphasis included special education and counseling.

    Luis A. Vazquez, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor and the Department Head of the Counseling and Educational Psychology Department at New Mexico State University. His areas of special interest and research include dealing with the three major constructs of worldview, ethnic identity, and acculturation in multicultural competencies and curriculum. His greatest interest is the “empowering” focus versus the “deficit” focus of research on diverse populations. He has published in the areas of acculturation and educational development, as well as on issues of phenotype and privilege, and has developed multicultural training videos used across the country in counseling programs. He received his doctorate in Counseling Psychology from the University of Iowa. He has also served as a consultant to higher education, school districts, and agencies in their multicultural development and policies.

    Bruce E. Wampold, Ph.D., ABPP, is a Professor of Counseling Psychology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association, diplomate of the American Board of Professional Psychology (Counseling Psychology), and past associate editor of the Journal of Counseling Psychology. His area of interest is in modeling the effectiveness of psychotherapy, and he is the author of The Great Psychotherapy Debate: Models, Methods, and Findings.Ernest D. Washington Jr. is a Professor of Education at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Illinois in Educational Psychology. His current interests are in culture, methodology, and the philosophical foundations of education. His current research is focused on the use of aesthetics as the foundation of methodology in education.Lisa Whitten, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor of Psychology at the State University of New York, College at Old Westbury. Active in the Association of Black Psychologists for more than 20 years, she served two terms as president of the New York chapter, was the Eastern Regional representative, and currently serves on the Strategic Planning Committee. An early proponent of bringing race and culture to the center of undergraduate instruction, her 1993 article, “Infusing Black Psychology Into the Introductory Psychology Course,” was the third article on race or culture published in the first 19 years of the journal Teaching of Psychology. She was a member of the APA Textbook Guidelines Initiative Work Group of the Commission on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention and Training Task Force, which developed recommendations for introductory psychology textbook publishers and authors on enhancing coverage of diversity issues. She maintains a private practice in Queens, New York, and is president of Maximixing Excellence, an educational and psychological consulting firm. Her scholarly interests center on the development of African American college and graduate students, parent education, and African American women's attitudes about hair.


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