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Kathryn M. Bartol

In: Handbook of Gender & Work

Chapter 9: Gender Influences on Performance Evaluations

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Gender Influences on Performance Evaluations
Gender influences on performance evaluations
Kathryn M.Bartol

The past three decades have witnessed a major increase in the number of women holding managerial positions. For example, in the United States, the proportion of women managers increased from 16% in 1970 to 44% in 1998 (see Chapter 17 by Powell in this book). Despite these changes, gender structuring of organizations persists (Bartol, 1978; Bartol & Martin, 1986; Jacobs, 1992; Perry, Davis-Blake, & Kulik, 1994; Stroh, Brett, & Reilly, 1992). Women are still greatly underrepresented in the higher levels of management (Powell, Chapter 17, this volume; Ragins & Sundstrom, 1989). Heilman (1995) argues that one cannot point to the pipeline as the problem, because research indicates that women who moved into management in the ...

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