Affirmative action (AA) programs consist of organizational goals for increasing the representation of historically excluded groups, timetables for achieving those goals, and organizational practices designed to achieve the goals within the stated time frames. In the United States, AA programs usually target African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Native Americans, and White women. AA is clearly under attack, particularly in the popular business press (e.g., D'Souza, 1997; Munk, 1994). Many in both academia and business continue to defend it (e.g., Reed, 1995; Steinberg, 1995). The conclusions we draw from a review of the research place us squarely in favor of AA policy. Because much of the research does not distinguish among ...
Affirmative Action: History, Effects, and Attitudes
Affirmative action: History, effects, and attitudes