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Linda L. Carli & Alice H. Eagly

In: Handbook of Gender & Work

Chapter 11: Gender Effects on Social Influence and Emergent Leadership

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Gender Effects on Social Influence and Emergent Leadership
Gender effects on social influence and emergent leadership
Linda L.Carli and Alice H.Eagly

Research on women's status in organizations reveals that even though women possess 50% of bachelor's degrees and 42% of advanced degrees (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1997) and constitute 46% of all workers (U.S. Department of Labor, 1998c), women continue to experience workplace discrimination. Compared with men, women are concentrated in a relatively small number of occupations (Dunn, 1996), are underrepresented in the most powerful positions in business (holding less than 5% of upper-management and executive positions), and earn lower salaries than men (Federal Glass Ceiling Commission, 1995). Even when women attain executive positions, they still experience lower levels of compensation, mobility, and authority (Lyness & ...

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