<span class="hi-italic">Handbook of</span> Gender &amp; Work

Handbook of Gender & Work

Handbooks

Edited by: Gray N. Powell

Abstract

The Handbook of Gender and Work provides a comprehensive overview and synthesis of the literature and knowledge about gender and work. It equips the reader with a solid understanding of where we stand on gender and work issues and what the next directions for research and assessment will be. Under the skilled leadership of editor Gary N. Powell, an outstanding group of multidisciplinary and international researchers and scholars deliver their summary and analysis of current research and their views on how gender and work intersect along a variety of societal, economic, interpersonal, and organizational paradigms.

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Gender and other Identities

    Part II: The Economic and Societal Context

    Part III: Organizational, Group, and Interpersonal Processes

    Part IV: Careers and the Quality of Life

    Part V: Organizational Initiatives

    Part VI: Conducting Future Research

  • Dedication

    Dedicated to Tony Butterfield—my great mentor, collaborator, colleague, and friend

    Copyright

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    Acknowledgments

    I wish to express my appreciation and sincere thanks to a number of people for their contributions to the preparation of this book:

    • Marquita Flemming at Sage Publications, for suggesting the book and helping a novice editor to bring it to fruition.
    • Diane Adams and Julie Tamarkin, for an excellent job of editing the various chapters.
    • Tiger the Cat, for her loving, affectionate, playful, and stress-relieving presence in my life.
    • Laura Graves, my wife, favorite colleague, and a chapter author, for encouraging, supporting, and standing by me all the way.
    • The many contributors of individual chapters, who have shared their expertise and commitment to examining the intersection of gender and work on these pages. Without their efforts, this book would not have been possible.

    Introduction: Examining the Intersection of Gender and Work

    Gary N. Powell

    The role of women in the workplace has been expanding steadily in recent years in most countries. For example, in the United States, the labor force participation rate for women (i.e., the proportion of all adult women who were employed or seeking employment) increased from 43% in 1970 to 60% in 1998 (U.S. Department of Labor, 1998a, 1998b). However, during the same period of time, the labor force participation rate for men decreased from 80% to 74%. As a result, the proportion of women in the labor force (i.e., the proportion of all adults employed or seeking employment who were women) increased from 38% in 1970 to 46% in 1998. In addition, the proportion of women executives, administrators, and managers in nonfarm occupations (called simply managers from this point on) almost tripled between 1970 and 1998, increasing from 16% to 44%.

    Similar trends have been exhibited in other countries. As Table I.1 indicates, the proportion of women in the labor force increased between 1985 and 1995 by 2% to 9% in countries as diverse as Australia, Botswana, Brazil, Egypt, France, India, Ireland, Israel, Singapore, and Swaziland (International Labour Office, 1986, 1996). Although the proportion of women in the labor force in the countries listed in Table I.1 varied widely (from 15% to 50% in 1995), the trend in all countries was in the same direction, favoring the increased employment of women.

    TABLE I.1 Proportion of Women in the Labor Force
    Country 1985 (%) 1995 (%)
    Australia 34 43
    Bermuda 46 50
    Botswana 29 36
    Brazil 33 39
    Canada 42 45
    Chile 30 32
    Egypt 17 20
    France 41 44
    India 13 15
    Ireland 31 38
    Israel 38 42
    Italy 33 35
    Mauritius 32 36
    New Zealand 36 44
    Norway 43 46
    Panama 29 32
    Singapore 36 39
    Spain 29 34
    Swaziland 27 30
    United Kingdom 42 46
    Venezuela 28 32
    SOURCE: 1985: International Labour Office (1986, pp. 295–306, Table 3A); 1995: International Labour Office (1996, pp. 73–84, Table 2A).

    Furthermore, between 1985 and 1991, the proportion of women in management positions increased in 39 of 41 countries for which statistics were available (International Labour Office, 1993). The proportion of women in management in these countries varied widely due to national differences in culture and in definitions of the term manager, from 1% in Bangladesh to 41% in Australia in 1991. However, the trend in almost all countries was in the same direction, favoring the increased representation of women in the managerial ranks.

    Despite these trends, the economic status of women in the workplace remains lower than that of men. For example, the average female full-time worker continues to be paid less than the average male full-time worker, and recent evidence suggests that the gender gap in earnings is increasing after a period of decline (see Chapter 6 by Roos and Gatta). This gap is partly due to workers in female-dominated occupations being paid lower average wages than workers in male-dominated occupations. However, it is also due to women being paid less than men in the same occupation.

    The international labor force also remains sharply segregated on the basis of gender. In recent years, women have shown more interest in entering male-dominated occupations than men have shown in entering female-dominated occupations, which is not surprising because workers in male-dominated occupations are the higher paid. However, women continue to be crowded into a narrower and lower-paying set of occupations than men (see Chapter 7 by Jacobs).

    Furthermore, within all countries, the proportion of women decreases at progressively higher levels in managerial hierarchies (Parker & Fagenson, 1994). Although definitions of what constitutes top management vary from company to company, the proportion of women in top management was only 11% in a recent survey of large American corporations (Catalyst, 1998a) and has consistently been reported as less than 5% in other countries (e.g., Adler & Izraeli, 1994; Davidson & Cooper, 1993a).

    Thus, the influence of gender in the global workplace appears to be in flux in some directions and stable in others. The shifting and variable nature of this influence calls for our attention.

    Purpose of the Handbook

    The purpose of Handbook of Gender and Work is to increase our understanding of the intersection of gender and work. It examines how gender, alone and with other factors, influences

    • the conduct of work itself;
    • the encouragement, selection, development, and choices of people to perform some roles in the workplace and not others; and
    • the experiences of employees as they contribute to the conduct of work in organizational settings.

    One way to consider what Handbook of Gender and Work is intended to accomplish is to evaluate how well it fits various definitions of the term handbook. My trusty dictionary (Random House, 1987, p. 866) offers four definitions of the term:

    • A book of instruction or guidance, as for an occupation; manual.” The purpose of this book is less to serve as a “how-to” manual and more to increase awareness of gender-related issues in the workplace. However, it does provide some guidance for dealing with specific situations that arise as a result of the influence of gender on individuals' work experiences.
    • A guidebook for travelers.” The purpose of the book is not to suggest itineraries and maps for exploring the world of work as in a conventional guidebook. This book describes various gender-related phenomena that occur in the workplace and suggests how to navigate through occupational and organizational minefields, past hazards and obstacles, to achieve personal goals.
    • A reference book in a particular field.” This definition describes the primary purpose of the book. It is intended to provide definitive chapters on a comprehensive set of topics related to the intersection of gender and work. It may be used as a reference book by scholars to examine such issues as well as by readers with a general interest in the subject.
    • A scholarly book on a specific subject, often consisting of separate essays or articles.” This definition describes the basic design of the book. If the book is successful at meeting this definition of handbook, it will at least partially meet the first two definitions and fully meet the third definition. That is, it will provide useful guidance and navigational assistance to fellow travelers in the world of work as well as serve as a valuable reference book on the subject.

    To accomplish these goals, Handbook of Gender and Work provides a forum for presentation of reviews of theory and research on a wide range of topics pertaining to the intersection of gender and work. These reviews both summarize the state of knowledge and identify useful directions for future theory and research.

    In their chapters, authors were asked to address two basic questions regarding their topics: (1) What do we know, or think we know? (or, What have we learned so far?) and (2) What else do we need to know? (or, What else would we gain from learning?). They were asked to acknowledge controversies, debates, or disagreements over the state of knowledge on particular issues. They were also told that they need not reference every piece of work that has ever been conducted on their topics, an impossible task given the page constraints of book chapters. However, they were asked to make the reader aware of the most important pieces of work on their topics.

    The authors represent a multidisciplinary and multinational group of scholars who are experts on their chosen topics. Each author was asked to incorporate a global or multicultural perspective on his or her topic. There are no chapters that have been included solely to provide an “international perspective.” Indeed, most of the topics apply to the conduct of work and experiences of workers in many countries, although issues pertaining to gender and work are manifested differently in specific cultural contexts.

    Chapter Topics

    The first two chapters examine the meaning and significance of gender in relation to other influences on the world of work. Karen Korabik discusses the importance of distinguishing between the terms sex and gender and considers how researchers have used (and misused) these terms. Sex refers to a biological property of individuals. Gender, although the term has been used in many different and sometimes confusing ways, refers in general to the psychological and social ramifications of being biologically male or female. Korabik describes the evolution in conceptualizations of sex and gender over the past century. In addition, she examines the effect of such conceptualizations on the conduct of research into gender dynamics in the workplace.

    However, sex is not the only personal characteristic that affects how people interact with the workplace. Bernardo Ferdman discusses the importance of considering other personal characteristics that may influence an individual's sense of identity, especially race, ethnicity, and the culture of the groups with which one identifies. The influence of sex and gender in the workplace is not the same for individuals from different races, ethnic groups, or cultures; similarly, the influence of race, ethnicity, and culture on work experiences is not the same for women and men. Ferdman recommends that researchers interested in gender dynamics in the workplace simultaneously examine dynamics pertaining to race, ethnicity, and culture.

    The next five chapters examine the influence of the economic and societal context on the intersection of gender and work. Cary Cooper and Suzan Lewis describe the evolution in the nature of work over the past half century. They focus on four trends in particular: increased use of flexible or part-time workers, decreased levels of job security, increased expectations for hours spent on the job, and the advent of “virtual organizations” in which the traditional boundary between work and nonwork has become blurred. Cooper and Lewis consider the implications of each of these trends for gender roles in the family and in the workplace of the 21st century.

    There has also been an evolution over time toward a global economy that is based more on the delivery of services than on farming or the manufacture of tangible products. Barbara Gutek, Bennett Cherry, and Markus Groth explore the implications of this shift. More women than men hold service jobs, and women are the primary consumers of services. When the work environment is dominated by members of one sex, as Gutek has noted in earlier work (e.g., Gutek, 1985), it tends to become gendered as gender roles spill over into work roles. As a result, service work often takes on the characteristics that are traditionally associated with being female, with an expectation for behavior that is pleasant (“Have a nice day!”), agreeable, patient, sensitive to the needs of others, and nurturing.

    In contrast, Mark Maier examines the many ways in which traditional societal and industrial (i.e., bureaucratic) norms are embodied in the nature of work organizations. He argues that formal organizations promote a gendered work environment by embodying characteristics that are traditionally associated with being male. Organizations tend to expect employees to exhibit behavior that is rational, autonomous, competitive, action oriented, and hierarchical. Maier describes how such expectations shackle both men and women in organizational settings. He clearly articulates a feminist alternative to the “masculinist” practices and norms that have prevailed in organizations.

    Patricia Roos and Mary Gatta describe how gender is associated with compensation for work. Most countries display a gender gap in earnings, although the size of this gap varies considerably across countries. The gender gap in earnings has been persistent over time with some fluctuations, despite the expanded role of women in the workplace in the global economy. Roos and Gatta examine how the gender gap in earnings varies according to variables such as race, age, and education. They also evaluate the merits and supporting evidence for various theories that purport to explain the gender gap in earnings.

    Gender is also associated with the occupations in which individuals work. Jerry Jacobs examines the sex segregation of occupations, or the unequal distribution of women and men across the different types of jobs and occupations that collectively comprise the workplace. Within the United States, sex segregation was essentially stable during the 1990s and at a much higher level than popularly believed. Jacobs concludes that a system of sex segregation of occupations is maintained in most countries, even those with a small gender gap in earnings, by a combination of social and cultural forces.

    The next eight chapters examine specific organizational, group, and interpersonal processes that influence as well as reflect the intersection of gender and work. The process by which organizations decide which new employees to hire may contribute to the sex segregation of occupations. Laura Graves examines gender effects in the initial employment interview, which is typically the first face-to-face meeting between the job applicant and a representative or representatives of the hiring organization. Because employment interviewers have little information about applicants prior to the interview, biases based on applicant sex or other applicant characteristics may have a considerable influence on how they conduct the interview and evaluate applicants' performance during the interview. Graves systematically addresses the questions of whether gender bias occurs in interviewers' judgments about job applicants, when it occurs, and how it occurs.

    Once individuals join organizations, they are subject to formal or informal performance evaluations for almost everything that they do. As Kathryn Bartol points out, any gender biases in performance evaluations are likely to have indirect effects on subsequent career-related decisions about individuals such as assignments to training and development programs, salary increases, and promotion decisions. Thus, the overall effect of gender on individuals' work experiences through their performance evaluations can be considerable. Bartol reviews research on the influence of rater sex, ratee sex, rater-ratee similarity, individuals' self-ratings, and contextual variables such as the sex type of the task or job (i.e., the sex with which the task or job is most associated) on performance evaluations.

    Gender dynamics may be examined within work and task-oriented groups. Pamela Tolbert, Mary Graham, and Alice Andrews examine the effects of the gender composition of work groups on relations within the group. They consider effects of group gender composition ranging from self-oriented attitudes such as satisfaction with the group and intentions to remain a member to attitudes and behaviors toward same-sex and opposite-sex group members. They review research evidence regarding these effects through five theoretical perspectives: similarity-attraction, social contact, group competition, social identity, and relative deprivation. Based on their review, Tolbert, Graham, and Andrews offer recommendations for future theory and research regarding the effects of the gender composition of work groups.

    Linda Carli and Alice Eagly consider the influence of gender on group relations from a somewhat different perspective. Drawing on social role theory and status characteristics theory, they examine men's and women's influence over others and tendency to emerge as informal leaders in task-oriented groups, which include but are not limited to formal work groups. They review research on determinants of gender differences in social influence and emergent leadership such as perceptions of men's and women's competence, roles played in group interactions, communication styles, and the sex type of the group's task. Carli and Eagly conclude that differences in the status and roles of women and men in society lead to patterns of interactions in mixed-sex task-oriented groups that place women at a disadvantage.

    The linkage between gender and leadership is also exhibited by individuals who occupy formal leader roles. Anthony Butterfield and James Grinnell focus on leadership exhibited below the top level of work organizations. They review research on evaluations of male and female leaders' style, behavior, and effectiveness; the impact of leader sex and style on subordinate satisfaction; and stereotypes of leaders as compared with gender stereotypes. Butter-field and Grinnell conclude that the considerable volume of research evidence regarding gender and leadership has offered mixed results. As do other authors in this book regarding their respective topics, they suggest that the context in which leadership takes place influences the extent to which gender differences in leadership may be observed.

    Nancy Adler offers a unique point of view on the topic of gender and leadership by examining women who have acted as global leaders, as either chief executives of large multinational companies or heads of state. She distinguishes between global leadership and leadership from a more narrow or “domestic” perspective. In addition, she describes the backgrounds, motivation, visions, sources of power, and paths to power of numerous women global leaders. Adler suggests that women global leaders, due to their novelty as well as approaches to leadership, act as powerful symbols for change and unity in their companies and nations.

    Issues pertaining to the expression of sexuality also arise within organizations. Lynn Bowes-Sperry and Jasmine Tata examine the pervasive phenomenon of sexual harassment, or the directing of unwelcome sexual attention by one member in an organizational setting toward another. Sexual harassment is examined from an individual or subjective perspective, a conceptual or behavioral perspective, and a legal perspective. Bowes-Sperry and Tata review the antecedents and consequences of sexual harassment from each perspective, considering the influence of gender and other personal characteristics such as race, ethnicity, and sexual orientation. In addition, they review responses to sexual harassment by individuals (e.g., targets and observers) and organizations, as well as organizational actions to prevent harassment.

    Sharon Foley and I examine the also-pervasive phenomenon of workplace romances, or the sharing of welcome sexual attention by two people in an organizational setting. Unlike other dyadic relationships between organizational members, workplace romances have no organizational purpose and are intended to meet personal needs outside of work roles; thus, organizations prefer to ignore workplace romances. However, workplace romances, particularly those in which one participant directly reports to the other or is motivated primarily by job-related concerns (e.g., the desire for advancement), may disrupt the conduct of work. We review the antecedents, dynamics, and consequences of workplace romances. In addition, we review managerial actions, including policies about workplace romance in general and decisions about whether to intervene in specific relationships.

    The next six chapters consider the influence of gender on careers and the quality of life. Linda Stroh and Anne Reilly present an overview of career issues faced by managers and professionals. They examine differences attributable to sex or gender in key issues such as the development of attitudes toward work and career, the role of education in career choice, and the paths and patterns of careers. They compare career issues that emerge for individuals early, in the middle, and near the end of their careers, thereby identifying differences that lead to conflicts among individuals at different career stages. According to Stroh and Reilly, the increasingly turbulent work environment has led to less linear career patterns and questions the very meaning of career.

    In my chapter, I examine recent trends in statistics regarding the status of women in management, particularly the proportions of women in management overall and in top management (however top management is defined). In most countries, these trends reflect both good and bad news. The overall proportion of women in management has increased considerably. However, the proportion of women in top management is still small, suggesting that the glass ceiling remains firmly in place. I offer explanations for the news, good and bad, and describe the forces most likely to influence the future status of women in management, overall and in the executive ranks.

    Belle Rose Ragins examines the most important developmental relationship that individuals may experience in organizations: mentorship by a senior. Mentored individuals (protégés) experience greater career success in objective terms than those without mentors; they also experience greater satisfaction and commitment to their jobs, careers, and organizations. According to Ragins, although mentoring relationships are important for all organizational members, they are essential for women. Mentors can protect women from discrimination and help them learn what the “old boys' network” teaches men about how to navigate past obstacles to career success. Ragins reviews the effect of protégé gender, mentor gender, and the gender composition of the mentoring relationship on mentoring functions and outcomes.

    When people are frustrated by obstacles to their career success in organizations run by others, or when they simply feel like working for themselves, they are increasingly likely to forsake the corporate world to run their own businesses. Dorothy Moore reports that women-owned businesses represent the fastest-growing segment of small businesses. Similar to research on many other topics, early research on entrepreneurship focused primarily on the characteristics, experiences, and performance of male entrepreneurs. Moore reviews more recent research that has examined women entrepreneurs as a distinct group, examining issues such as personal traits, prior business experiences, motivation for going into business for themselves, support networks, and performance as business owners.

    Most people, whether they work for themselves or others, are not solely concerned with being successful in the workplace; they also want to have rewarding lives outside of work. Jeffrey Greenhaus and Saroj Parasuraman review the influence of gender on the linkages between individuals' work and family lives. Work and family are often seen in conflict because they invoke simultaneous and mutually incompatible role pressures. However, there may also be mutually beneficial effects of work and family roles. Greenhaus and Parasuraman identify three key mechanisms—role experiences, role involvement, and role attitudes—that, in conjunction with gender, explain both positive and negative linkages between work and family roles for women and men.

    While receiving tangible and intangible benefits from their careers, many people also experience high levels of stress. Marilyn Davidson and Sandra Fielden examine sources, coping strategies, and outcomes of stress, focusing on women's experiences in male-dominated work environments. They suggest that women in such environments, especially racial or ethnic minorities, experience unique work stressors not faced by their male counterparts. In addition, working women, especially those with children at home, experience greater stress from their family roles than their male counterparts because they bear greater family responsibilities. Furthermore, men tend to adopt problem-focused coping strategies that address the roots of stress, whereas women prefer emotional-focused coping strategies that address feelings raised by stress, a difference arising from early socialization that reinforces independence in males and dependence in females. As a result, working women exhibit significantly higher stress levels than do working men.

    The next two chapters consider organizational initiatives that influence the intersection of gender and work. Alison Konrad and Frank Linnehan examine affirmative action programs that are intended to increase the numerical representation of historically excluded groups in organizations, including women and racial minorities. In many countries, organizations are required to implement affirmative action programs to comply with equal opportunity laws and policies. Konrad and Linnehan review the history and effects (economic, social, and psychological) of affirmative action programs and individuals' attitudes toward affirmative action. They conclude that affirmative action programs have had positive economic effects for their intended beneficiaries and remain an important societal and organizational tool for promoting equal opportunity.

    Affirmative action programs contribute to quantitative changes in the composition of the workforce in organizations. In contrast, diversity and work-life (also known as work-family) programs contribute to qualitative changes in organizations by enhancing employees' relationships with people of diverse backgrounds and lifestyles while improving their family lives. Sharon Lobel describes a variety of such programs, their objectives, and indicators of program success. However, the success of many diversity and work-life programs is supported only by testimonials from organizational representatives and unsubstantiated by research. Lobel reviews research on the effects of diversity and work-life initiatives on attitudes, individual and team performance, human resource management indicators, and organizational strategic goals.

    Finally, because this book reviews research on a variety of topics regarding the intersection of gender and work, it is useful to consider methodological issues pertaining to the conduct of such research. In the final chapter, Elizabeth Cooper and Susan Bosco discuss issues that are consciously (or unconsciously) faced by researchers in this area. They distinguish between two ideologies or general schools of thought regarding research on gender in organizations: positivism and feminism. Cooper and Bosco examine the influence of research ideology on the choice of research question, setting, sample, design, method of data collection, and analysis. They categorize recent research on gender in organizations according to methodology and discuss the implications of researchers' ideologies and ensuing methodological choices for what they learn (or think they learn) about the intersection of gender and work.

    Overview

    I have grouped the chapters into sections roughly according to the topics they address. The individual chapters of Handbook of Gender and Work, however, are not easily categorized. Gender-related influences on the world of work are interrelated and occur simultaneously at many levels. As the various chapters demonstrate, the influences of gender may be exhibited at the societal, industry, occupational, organizational, work group, interpersonal, family, and individual levels. Gender also interacts with other variables, both personal and situational, to influence workplace phenomena.

    At the societal level, conceptualizations of sex and gender influence beliefs about the roles that women and men should play in society (Korabik). Gender influences are seen in the nature of work (C. Cooper and Lewis), including work in service industries (Gutek, Cherry, and Groth) as well as other types of work, and in the nature of work organizations (Maier). When women serve as elected heads of state and multinational corporations, they are often viewed in different terms than male heads of state or corporate leaders and may take advantage of what women's holding of such positions symbolizes for others (Adler).

    At the occupational level, gender influences how men and women are compensated for their work, even when they work in the same occupation and hold the same type of job (Roos and Gatta). Gender also influences who is interested in entering various occupations and who actually does (Jacobs).

    At the organizational level, gender influences are seen at the entry stage in judgments made about job applicants (Graves). Once individuals join organizations, gender influences how they are evaluated (Bartol) and developed (Ragins). Gender also influences the career tracks and paths that are available for organizational members to follow (Stroh and Reilly), the barriers that they face if they aspire to top management positions (Powell), and the motivations that drive them to quit organizations run by other people and launch their own organizations (Moore). Organizational initiatives such as affirmative action programs (Konrad and Linnehan) and work-life programs and other diversity initiatives (Lobel) represent a response to societal laws and regulations regarding gender as well as to the needs of employees that may differ according to gender. In addition, organizational policies and norms influence the extent to which sexual-related phenomena such as sexual harassment (Bowes-Sperry and Tata) and workplace romances (Powell and Foley) occur in the work environment and what, if anything, happens to the involved parties.

    At the work group level, the roles that group members play and the influence that they exert over each other are affected by the gender composition of the group (Tolbert, Graham, and Andrews) and by the relative status and proscribed roles of women and men in society (Carli and Eagly). In addition, gender influences may be seen in stereotypes of leaders, leadership styles, and subordinates' responses to and expectations of leaders (Butterfield and Grinnell; Adler).

    At the interpersonal level, gender influences many types of relationships between members of work environments, including those between employees and customers (Gutek, Cherry, & Groth), managers and subordinates (Butterfield and Grinnell), mentors and protégés (Ragins), perpetrators of sexual harassment and their victims (Bowes-Sperry and Tata), and participants in workplace romances (Powell and Foley).

    At the family level, life is influenced by the nature of both work (C. Cooper and Lewis; Gutek, Cherry, and Groth) and work organizations (Maier) and by organizational initiatives such as work-life programs (Lobel). These influences are seen in the division of responsibilities among family members, the quality of family relationships, and the presence of harmony or conflict between work and family in men's and women's lives (Greenhaus and Parasuraman).

    At the individual level, gender has many influences. It influences the roles that children are socialized to play in society, the roles that adults aspire to and are selected to play in the workplace, and the success that they experience in these roles (Jacobs; Graves; Stroh and Reilly; Powell). It influences the stress levels of organizational members and the coping strategies that they use to deal with stress (Davidson and Fielden). It influences whether people seek to become self-employed (Moore). Overall, gender simultaneously influences individuals' aspirations, expectations, and experiences as members of society, the labor force, industries, occupations, organizations, work groups, dyadic work relationships, and families.

    In addition, other variables influence the intersection of gender and work. First, sex interacts with other personal characteristics of individuals that have psychological and social ramifications such as their race, ethnicity, and culture in exerting all of the above influences (Ferdman). Second, as several chapters suggest (e.g., Graves; Bartol; Carli and Eagly; Butterfield and Grinnell; Roos and Gatta), contextual factors influence the extent to which gender effects are present or absent in particular situations. Thus, researchers are presented with enormous challenges in designing and conducting studies that investigate the influence of gender in combination with other personal and situational variables on what transpires in the workplace (E. Cooper and Bosco).

    In conclusion, gender, alone and with other factors, influences the conduct of work, the roles that people play in the workplace, and the experiences that people have as they are working and otherwise living their lives. The various chapters identify theories at different levels of analysis that may be used to explain the multifaceted influences of gender on work, including theories drawn from the fields of psychology, sociology, economics, management, history, education, communications, anthropology, and gender studies. In addition, they review many research studies using a wide range of methodologies. The purpose of Handbook of Gender and Work is to increase our understanding of these influences in their full complexity and to suggest useful directions for future theory and research.

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