Handbook of Data Analysis


Edited by: Melissa Hardy & Alan Bryman

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    As is the case with any edited text, this book represents the culmination of exchanges with authors past and present. We are fortunate to have persuaded so many well-established data analysts to contribute chapters. Their investment of time and thought is reflected in the quality of the discussions that fill these pages. We are most appreciative of the support and assistance we received from Sage and would like to give special thanks to Chris Rojek, Kay Bridger and Ian Antcliff. We would like to thank Richard Leigh for his meticulous copyediting, which has greatly improved the book. We would also like to thank the members of our Advisory Board and several colleagues who provided us with advice on chapters, Chardie Baird who helped manage the multiple drafts and reviews, and our spouses for their support and encouragement.

    Our intention was to put together a set of resource chapters that described major techniques of data analysis and addressed noteworthy issues involved in their application. The list of techniques included here is not exhaustive, but we did try to cover a wide range of approaches while providing reference to an even broader set of methods. With that in mind, we decided to include techniques appropriate to data of different sorts, including survey data, textual data, transcripts of conversations, and longitudinal information. Regardless of the format of the original data, analysis requires researchers to develop coding schemes, classification protocols, definitional rules, and procedures for ensuring reliability in the application of all of these tools. How researchers organize the information they will use in their analyses should be informed by theoretical concerns. Even so, this process of organization is also one of creation and, as such, it can be accomplished in a variety of ways and analyzed by different approaches.

    Data analysts must concern themselves with the criteria they use to sort between the systematic component of their observations and the stochastic elements, or random influences, that are also reflected in these observations. The randomness of events is something we acknowledge, but we often behave as though we can exert considerable control over the way our lives unfold.

    That point is often driven home in unanticipated ways. During the time we dedicated to the production of this book, we made frequent adjustments to modify a once reasonable schedule that had become impossible to meet. These unanticipated events reflect the fabric of people's lives, and forecasting life's events that would occur a year or two into the future was sometimes tragically inaccurate. Prominent among our initial list of authors were Lee Lillard and Aage S⊘rensen, both greatly respected by the scientific community, admired by their peers, and loved by their friends and families. Both men died unexpectedly while this volume was under way.

    We make note here of the substantial contributions they made to this field of inquiry and to this volume through their published work, their teaching, and their involvement in t too many discussions of these issues to count.

    Melissa Hardy and Alan Bryman

    Notes on Contributors

    Andrew Abbott is the Gustavus F. and Ann M. Swift Distinguished Service Professor in the Department of Sociology and the College at the University of Chicago. Known for his ecological theories of occupations, Abbott has also pioneered algorithmic analysis of social sequence data. His recent books include studies of academic disciplines and publication (Department and Discipline, 1999) and of fractal patterns in social and cultural structures (Chaos of Disciplines, 2001), as well as a collection of theoretical and methodological essays in the Chicago pragmatist and ecological tradition (Time Matters, 2001). He is currently writing on social science heuristics and developing a major research project on the life course. Abbott is also a past Editor of the American Journal of Sociology.

    Paul Allison is Professor of Sociology at the University of Pennsylvania where he teaches graduate methods and statistics. He is the author of Missing Data (2001), Logistic Regression Using the SAS¯ System (1999), Multiple Regression: A Primer (1999), Survival Analysis Using the SAS¯ System (1995), Event History Analysis (1984), and numerous articles on regression analysis, log-linear analysis, logit analysis, latent variable models, missing data, and inequality measures. He is a member of the editorial board of Sociological Methods and Research. A former Guggenheim Fellow, Allison received the 2001 Lazarsfeld Award for distinguished contributions to sociological methodology.

    Douglas L. Anderton is Professor of Sociology at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, Director of the Social and Demographic Research Institute and a Fellow of the American Statistical Association. His research emphasizes quantitative-historical analysis of population and environment interactions. He is the author of over fifty journal articles and has co-authored several books, including: Demography: Study of Human Populations (2001), Population of the United States (1998), Fertility on the Frontier (1993), and an edited series, Readings in Population Research Methodology (1997). He is currently an editor of the ASA Rose Monograph Series in policy studies.

    Paul Atkinson is Research Professor in Sociology at Cardiff University, UK. He is co-director of the ESRC Research Centre on Social and Economic Aspects of Genomics. His main research interests are the sociology of medical knowledge and the development of qualitative research methods. His publications include: Ethnography: Principles in Practice (with Martyn Hammersley), The Clinical Experience, The Ethnographic Imagination, Understanding Ethnographic Texts, Medical Talk and Medical Work, Fighting Familiarity (with Sara Delamont), Making Sense of Qualitative Data (with Amanda Coffey), Sociological Readings and Re-readings, Interactionism (with William Housley) and Key Themes in Qualitative Research (with Sara Delamont and Amanda Coffey). He was one of the editors of the Handbook ofEthnography. Together with Sara Delamont he edits the journal Qualitative Research. His recent ethnographic study of an international opera company will be published in 2004 as Everyday Arias.

    Peter M. Bentler is Professor of Psychology and Statistics at University of California, Los Angeles, and former Chair of the Department of Psychology, and has over 400 publications in methodology, psychometrics, and statistics as well as in applied fields such as personality, attitudes, drug abuse, health, sexuality and related topics. He has been an elected president of the Society of Multivariate Experimental Psychology, the Psychometric Society, and the Division of Evaluation, Measurement, and Statistics of the American Psychological Association (APA). He is also a recipient of the Distinguished Scientific Contributions Award from the APA Division of Evaluation, Measurement, and Statistics.

    Ronald L. Breiger is Professor of Sociology, University of Arizona. With Linton Freeman, he edits the journal Social Networks. His interests include social network analysis, stratification, mathematical models, theory, and measurement issues in cultural and institutional analysis. He has recently written with Philippa Pattison on lattices and dimensional representation of network structures, with David Stark and Szabolcz Kemény on ownership patterns among banks and firms in Hungary, and with John Mohr on the dual aggregation of social categories.

    William Browne is a Lecturer in the School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham. He received his doctorate from the University of Bath in 1998 for his research on Monte Carlo Markov chain methods and multilevel modeling. He was formerly a member of the team at the University of London Institute of Education responsible for the development of the leading multilevel modeling software package MLwiN. He has written several papers in both statistical methodology and statistical applications in areas including education, medicine, demography, and ecology.

    Alan Bryman is Professor of Social Research, Department of Social Sciences, Loughborough University. His main research interests lie in the fields of social research methodology, leadership, theme parks and the theming process more generally, and human-animal relations. He is particularly interested in the integration of quantitative and qualitative research. He has written several books, including Quantity and Quality in Social Research (1988), Disney and His Worlds (1995), and Social Research Methods (2001). He is the editor of the Understanding Social Research series for Open University Press and is co-editor of the forthcoming Sage Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods.

    Eric Cheney is a Ph.D. candidate at the University of Massachusetts Amherst. His research interests include economic sociology, organizations, social networks, statistics, and quantitative methodology. He is currently completing his dissertation on the topic of social structure and economic exchange.

    Simon Cheng is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Sociology at the University of Connecticut. His substantive research is in race and ethnicity, family-school relationships, and political-economic development, where he has recently published articles in Sociology of Education, Social Forces, and other journals. His dissertation, ‘Standing in the middle of interracial relations: The educational experiences of children from multiracial backgrounds’, examines differences between biracial and monoracial families in a variety of family and student outcomes. He is also studying the small-sample behavior of tests of the independence of irrelevant alternatives assumption in the multinomial logit model.

    Steven E. Clayman is Professor of Sociology and is affiliated with the Communication Studies Program at the University of California Los Angeles. His research concerns the intersection of talk, interaction, and mass communication. He has studied broadcast news interviews, presidential press conferences, newspaper editorial conferences, the dynamics of quotability, and collective audience behavior in political speeches and debates. His articles have appeared in American Sociological Review, American Journal of Sociology, Language in Society, Journal of Communication, and Media, Culture, and Society. He is the author (with John Heritage) of The News Interview: Journalists and Public Figures on the Air.

    Duncan Cramer is Reader of Psychological Health, Department of Social Sciences, Loughborough University. He received his doctorate in 1973 from the Institute of Psychiatry in London. His main research interests and publications lie in the fields of close relationships, personality, psychological health, counselling, and psychotherapy. He has authored or co-authored a number of books, including Personality and Psychotherapy (1992), Close Relationships (1998), and Fundamental Statistics for Social Research (1998). From 1995 to 2000 he was Joint Editor of the British Journal of Medical Psychology and is currently again an Associate Editor of the journal, which in 2002 was renamed Psychology and Psychotherapy.

    Barbara Czarniawska holds a Skandia Chair of Management Studies at Gothenburg Research Institute, School of Economics and Commercial Law, Göteborg University, Sweden. Her research focuses on complex organizing processes, most recently big city management. In terms of methodological approach, she combines institutional theory with the narrative approach. She has published in the area of business and public administration in Polish, her native language, as well as in Swedish, Italian and English, her most recent publications being Narrating the Organization: Dramas of Institutional Identity (1997), A Narrative Approach to Organization Studies (1998), Writing Management (1999), and A Tale of Three Cities (2002). She is a member of the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences and the Swedish Royal Engineering Academy.

    Sara Delamont is Reader in Sociology at Cardiff University. She was the first woman to be president of the British Education Research Association, and the first woman Dean of Social Sciences at Cardiff. Her research interests are educational ethnography, Mediterranean anthropology, and gender. Her most famous book is Interaction in the Classroom (1976 and 1983), her favourites Knowledgeable Women (1989) and Appetites and Identities (1995). She is co-editor of the journal Qualitative Research.

    Tonya Dodge is a pre-doctoral student in the Psychology Department at the University of Albany, State University of New York. Her research interests focus on attitudes and decision-making, with a particular interest in attitude ambivalence. She also conducts research on the effects of athletic participation on adolescent risk behavior.

    Nigel G. Fielding is Professor of Sociology and co-director of the Institute of Social Research at the University of Surrey, Guildford. He was editor of the Howard Journal of Criminal Justice from 1985 to 1998 and is co-editor of the Sage series ‘New Technologies for Social Research’. His principal research interests are in policing and in qualitative research methods. He has authored or edited 13 books, 40 journal articles, 40 chapters in edited collections and 141 other publications. Among his books on aspects of method are Linking Data: The Articulation of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Social Research (with J.L. Fielding, 1986); Actions and Structure (ed., 1988); Using Computers in Qualitative Research (ed., with R. Lee, 1991) and Computer Analysis and Qualitative Research (with R. Lee, 1998). He was recently co-editing a special issue of Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung on methodological triangulation.

    Roberto P. Franzosi is currently Professor of Sociology and Head of the Department of Sociology at the University of Reading, having previously taught at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (1983–93) and at the University of Oxford, with a fellowship at Trinity College. Franzosi's long-standing research interest has been in the area of social conflict, with several articles and a book (The Puzzle of Strikes: Class and State Strategies in Postwar Italy, 1995). Since the early 1980s Franzosi has been involved in the development of a new linguistic- and computer-based approach to content analysis applied to the study of historical processes. His new book From Words to Numbers (2004) summarizes his work in the area. Franzosi has served as consulting editor for the American Journal of Sociology and he is currently a managing editor for the Journal of Historical Sociology.

    Vincent Kang Fu is Assistant Professor in the Department of Sociology at the University of Utah. His interests are in race and ethnicity, quantitative methods, demography, marriage, and immigration. He is investigating variation in racial and ethnic intermarriage patterns across regions and among groups in order to understand changes over time in intermarriage. His research has been published in Demography.

    Virginia Teas Gill is an Associate Professor in the Department of Sociology at Illinois State University. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin in 1995. Her major research interest is doctor-patient interaction. Her publications focus on patients’ explanations for illness and their requests for medical interventions in primary care clinic visits, and the labeling process in a clinic for childhood developmental disabilities.

    Guang Guo is Professor of Sociology, Department of Sociology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He has published methodological work in the Journal of the American Statistical Association, Sociological Methodology, Annual Review of Sociology, and Behavior Genetics on event-history analysis, multilevel analysis, and random-effects models for genetically related siblings. He has published substantive work in American Sociological Review, Social Forces, Sociology of Education, Demography, and Population Studies on child and infant mortality, poverty and children's intellectual development, sibsize and intellectual development, and heritability-environment interactions for intellectual development. His current interest lies mainly in the interactions between environment and heritability using both sibling and DNA data.

    Melissa Hardy is Distinguished Professor of Human Development and Sociology and Director of the Gerontology Center at Pennsylvania State University. She received her graduate degree in sociology from Indiana University in 1980. Her current research focuses on pensions and financial security in old age, expectations and achievement, and health policy. She is the author of Regression with Dummy Variables (1993), editor of Studying Aging and Social Change: Conceptual and Methodological Issues (1997), and co-author of Ending a Career in the Auto Industry: 30 and Out (1997).

    Lawrence Hazelrigg is now Emeritus Professor, College of Social Sciences, Florida State University, and is engaged in two research projects — a series of studies of risk perception and its correlates/consequences; and a study of historical-cultural differences of the constitution and practice of selfhood. Recent and representative publications include: Cultures of Nature (1995); ‘Individualism’, in Encyclopedia of Sociology, 2nd edition (2000); ‘Scaling the semantics of satisfaction’ (with M.A. Hardy) in Social Indicators Research (2000); ‘Fueling the politics of age’ (with M.A. Hardy) in American Sociological Review (1999); and ‘Marx and the meter of nature’ in Rethinking Marxism (1993).

    Karen Henwood is a Senior Lecturer in Clinical and Health Psychology, University of East Anglia. A social psychologist by training (Ph.D., University of Bristol), her research addresses the role of culture, difference and life history in the formation of identity and subjectivity. She has undertaken research projects on gender and family relationships, masculinity and the body, and the meanings and non-economic values people attach to their natural environment. With Nick Pidgeon she has explored the role of qualitative methods in psychology and the social sciences. Her published work has appeared in journals such as British Journal of Psychology, Feminism and Psychology, Theory and Psychology, Journal of Environmental Psychology, Social Science and Medicine and British Journal of Social Psychology. She has recently completed an (ESRC-funded) project on ‘masculinities, identities and the transition to fatherhood’.

    John Hipp is a graduate student in Sociology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. His substantive work is concerned with community and urban processes, focusing on how networks and institutions can play a role in helping communities deal with social externalities. He uses both social network and structural equation modeling methodologies to address these questions. He has published in Social Forces and Sociological Methodology, and is currently exploring modeling nonlinear longitudinal processes within a latent variable framework as a member of the Carolina Structural Equation Modeling research group.

    James Jaccard is Distinguished Professor of Psychology at the University at Albany, State University of New York. His primary research interest is in adolescent risk behavior, with an emphasis on understanding adolescent unintended pregnancy and adolescent drunk driving. His work has focused on family-based approaches to dealing with adolescent problem behaviors. He has authored four monographs on the analysis of interaction effects using a wide range of statistical models.

    Mortaza (Mori) Jamshidian is Associate Professor of Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, California State University, Fullerton. His main research area is computational statistics. He has made significant contributions in the area of EM estimation, which has numerous applications in missing-data analysis. In particular his papers in acceleration of EM and EM standard error estimation are important contributions. His general work and contributions have included development of computing algorithms in the fields of psychometrics, biostatistics, and general statistical field.

    Raymond M. Lee is Professor of Social Research Methods in the Department of Social and Political Science, Royal Holloway University of London. With Nigel Fielding, he is Co-Director of the CAQDAS Networking Project and co-edits the Sage series ‘New Technologies for Social Research’. He has written widely on a range of methodological topics, including the problems and issues surrounding research on ‘sensitive’ topics, research in physically dangerous environments, and the impact of new technologies on the research process. He is the author of Doing Research on Sensitive Topics (1993), Dangerous Fieldwork (1995), Computer Analysis and Qualitative Research (with Nigel Fielding, 1998), and Unobtrusive Methods in Social Research (2000).

    J. Scott Long is Chancellor's Professor of Sociology at Indiana University, Bloomington. His research focuses on gender differences in the scientific career, aging and labor force participation, and statistical methods. His recent research on the scientific career was published as From Scarcity to Visibility. He is past Editor of Sociological Methods and Research and the recipient of the American Sociological Association's Paul F. Lazarsfeld Memorial Award for Distinguished Contributions in the Field of Sociological Methodology. He is author of Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Covariance Structure Analysis, Regression Models for Categorical and Limited Dependent Variables, and Regression Models for Categorical and Limited Dependent Variables with Stata (with Jeremy Freese), as well as several edited volumes.

    Heather MacIndoe is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Sociology at the University of Chicago. She received her M.A. degree in sociology from Stanford University and is a former student editor of the American Journal of Sociology. Her research interests include formal organizations, social change, philanthropy, and civil society. Her dissertation, ‘Organizational alliances and philanthropic support: Social change in Chicago 1970–2000’, examines the relationships between philanthropic foundations and the organizations they support across neighborhoods in the city of Chicago.

    Peter K. Manning (Ph.D. Duke, 1966, M.A. Oxon., 1982) holds the Elmer V.H. and Eileen M. Brooks Chair in Policing. He has taught at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Oxford, the University of Michigan, and elsewhere, and was a Fellow of the National Institute of Justice, Balliol and Wolfson Colleges, Oxford, the American Bar Foundation, the Rockefeller Villa (Bellagio), and the Centre for Socio-Legal Studies, Wolfson College, Oxford. Listed in Who's Who in America, he has been awarded many contracts and grants, the Bruce W. Smith and the O.W. Wilson Awards from the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, and the Charles Horton Cooley Award from the Michigan Sociological Association. The author and editor of some 13 books, including (with Brian Forst) Privatization of Policing: Two Views (2000), his research interests include the rationalizing of policing, crime mapping and crime analysis, uses of information technology, and qualitative methods. The second edition of Narcs’ Game (1979) appeared in 2002, and his monograph, Policing Contingencies, in 2003.

    Robert D. Mare is Professor of Sociology at the University of California Los Angeles. His research interests include social mobility and inequality, demography, and quantitative methods. He has done extensive research on intergenerational educational mobility, assortative mating, youth unemployment, and methods for the analysis of categorical data. His recent work focuses on models for residential mobility and residential segregation and on links between educational stratification and marriage markets. His research has appeared in a number of journals, including the American Sociological Review, American Journal of Sociology, and Sociological Methodology. He is a former editor of Demography.

    Mary Maynard is Professor in the Department of Social Policy and Social Work at the University of York, UK, where she was previously Director of the Centre for Women's Studies. She works and writes in the areas of gender, ethnicity, later life, social theory, and social research methodology. She has just completed a project focusing on what empowers older women, from a variety of ethnic groups, in later life.

    Trond Petersen is a Professor at the University of California Berkeley, in the Department of Sociology and Haas School of Business. His research and teaching are in the areas of inequality and social stratification, organizations, human resource management, economic sociology, and quantitative methods. He has also taught at the University of Oslo and previously at Harvard University. Among his recent publications are: ‘Offering a job: Meritocracy and social networks’ in American Journal of Sociology (2000, with Ishak Saporta and Marc-David Seidel); ‘Equal pay for equal work? Evidence from Sweden and a comparison with Norway and the U.S.’ in Scandinavian Journal of Economics (2001, with Eva M. Meyersson Milgrom and Vemund Snartland); and ‘The opportunity structure for discrimination’ (with Ishak Saporta), to appear in American Journal of Sociology.

    Nick Pidgeon is Professor of Psychology and Director of the Centre for Environmental Risk in the School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia. He has research interests in people's perception of risk and its communication, the construction of preferences and risk valuation, the human and organizational causes of major industrial accidents, and risk management. He is co-author of Man-Made Disasters (2nd edition, 1997) and The Social Amplification of Risk (2003).

    Jonathan Potter is Professor of Discourse Analysis at Loughborough University. He has studied scientific argumentation, descriptions of crowd disorder, current affairs television, racism, and relationship counselling, and is currently studying calls to a child protection helpline. His most recent books include Representing Reality (1996), which attempts to provide a systematic overview, integration and critique of constructionist research in social psychology, postmodernism, rhetoric, and ethnomethodology; Talk and Cognition (in press, with Hedwig te Molder), in which a range of different researchers consider the implication of studies of interaction for understanding cognition; and Focus Group Interaction (in press, with Claudia Puchta), which analyses interaction in market research focus groups. He is co-editor of the journal Theory and Psychology.

    Jon Rasbash is a Reader in Statistical Computing at the Institute of Education, University of London. He is the principle author of the MLwiN software package. Jon's interests and publications cover the following areas: development and implementation of algorithms to estimate multilevel models, statistical methodology, the application of multilevel modeling techniques to social science data, and designing user interfaces for statistical modeling software. A publication list is available at http://multilevel.ioe.ac.uk/team/jon.html

    John Reynolds is an Associate Professor of Sociology and an Associate of the Pepper Institute on Aging and Public Policy at Florida State University. His research interests include gender-related trends in higher education, the conditioning effects of social and economic contexts on adults’ physical and mental well-being, and quantitative methods. Recent publications include ‘Rising college expectations among youth in the U.S.’ in Journal of Human Resources; ‘The contingent meaning of neighborhood stability for residents’ psychological well-being’ in American Sociological Review; and ‘Age, depression, and attrition in the National Survey of Families and Households’ in Sociological Methods and Research.

    Dennis Smith is Professor of Sociology in the Department of Social Sciences at Loughborough University. He has written several articles and books, including The Rise of Historical Sociology (1990), Zygmunt Bauman. Prophet of Postmodernity (1999), Norbert Elias and Modern Social Theory (2000), Conflict and Compromise. Class Formation in English Society 1830–1914 (1982), Capitalist Democracy on Trial. The Transatlantic Debate from Tocqueville to the Present (1991), Barrington Moore. Violence, Morality and Political Change (1983), The Chicago School. A Liberal Critique of Capitalism (1988), and has been a contributing editor of Whose Europe? The Turn towards Democracy (1999) and The Civilized Organization. Norbert Elias and the Future of Organization Studies (2002). He is currently completing a book on modernity and humiliation. He is a past vice-president of the European Sociological Association (2001–3), one-time editor of Sociological Review and currently editor of Current Sociology, journal of the International Sociological Association.

    Michael Sobel is a professor at Columbia University. His research interests include causal inference and new applications of the theory of financial decision-making to the social sciences. He is a previous co-editor of Sociological Methodology and a co-editor of the Handbook of Statistical Modeling for the Social and Behavioral Sciences (1995).

    Ross M. Stolzenberg is Professor of Sociology at the University of Chicago. He is editor of the journal, Sociological Methodology, and his current research concerns the connection between family and labor market processes in stratification systems. He has held academic posts in university programs in social relations, sociology, population dynamics, and applied statistics at Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University and the University of Illinois at Urbana. He has held nonacademic posts at the Rand Corporation, the Graduate Management Admission Council, and as a consultant in complex litigation and other matters. He has served on editorial boards or held editorial postions at seven refereed academic journals.

    Nancy Brandon Tuma obtained her Ph.D. in sociology from Michigan State University in 1972, and is currently a Professor of Sociology at Stanford University. She is a leading sociological methodologist, focusing primarily on the study of change. Best known for her pioneering work on event-history analysis and as co-author of Social Dynamics: Models and Methods (1984), she has published studies of life careers and social inequalities in the United States, China, Germany, Poland, the former Soviet Union, and various countries formerly in the Soviet Union. Her current primary research interest is the impact of the transition from socialism on people's life careers. She has served as editor of Sociological Methodology and also as associate editor of the Journal of the American Statistical Association. In 1994 she received the Lazarsfeld award for her contributions to sociological methodology.

    Jodie B. Ullman is an Associate Professor of Psychology at California State University, San Bernardino. She earned her Ph.D. in measurement and psychometrics from the University of California Los Angeles in 1997. Her primary research interests are in applied multivariate statistics with a particular emphasis on structural equation modeling and hierarchical linear modeling. She is particularly interested in applications of complex statistical techniques to substance use questions. Her recent research includes evaluations of the Drug Abuse Resistance Education program, longitudinal examinations of cigarette sales to minors, and reduction of HIV/AIDS risk behaviors in homeless populations.

    Christopher Winship is Professor of Sociology in the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. He did his undergraduate work in sociology and mathematics at Dartmouth College and received his graduate degree from Harvard in 1977. He is currently doing research on the Ten Point Coalition, a group of black ministers who are working with the Boston police to reduce youth violence; statistical models for causal analysis; the effects of education on mental ability; causes of the racial difference in performance on elite colleges and universities; and changes in the racial differential in imprisonment rates over the past sixty years.

    ‘With the appearance of this handbook, data analysts no longer have to consult dozens of disparate publications to carry out their work. The essential tools for an intelligent telling of the data story are offered here, in thirty chapters written by recognized experts. While quantitative methods are treated, from basic statistics through the general linear model and beyond, qualitative methods are by no means neglected. Indeed, a unique feature of this volume is the careful integration of quantitative and qualitative approaches.’ Michael S. Lewis-Beck, F. Wendell Miller Distinguished Professor of Political Science at the University of Iowa.

    This book, which will rapidly be recognized as a social research bible, provides a peerless guide to key issues in data analysis, from fundamental concerns such as the construction of variables, the characterization of distributions and the notions of inference, to the more advanced topics of causality, models of change and network analysis.

    No other book provides a better one-stop account of the field of data analysis. Throughout, the editors encourage readers to develop an appreciation of the range of analytic options available for a wide variety of data structures, so that they can develop a suitable analytic approach to their research questions.

    Scholars and students can turn to it for teaching and applied needs with confidence, while specialists will find the provision of up to date expositions on a wide range of techniques invaluable.

    Melissa Hardy is Distinguished Professor of Human Development and Family Studies, Sociology, and Demography and Director of the Gerontology Center at The Pennsylvania State University; Alan Bryman is Professor of Social Research, University of Loughborough.

    ‘The book provides researchers with guidance in, and examples of, both quantitative and qualitative modes of analysis, written by leading practitioners in the field. The editors give a persuasive account of the commonalities of purpose that exist across both modes, as well as demonstrating a keen awareness of the different things that each offers the practising researcher.’ Clive Seale, Department of Sociology, Goldsmiths College, London.

    ‘This is an excellent guide to current issues in the analysis of social science data. I recommend it to anyone who is looking for authoritative introductions to the state of the art. Each chapter offers a comprehensive review and an extensive bibliography and will be invaluable to researchers wanting to update themselves about modern developments.’

    Professor Nigel Gilbert, Pro Vice-Chancellor and Professor of Sociology, University of Surrey.

  • Appendix: Areas of the Standard Normal Distribution

    The entries in this table are the probabilities that a standard normal random variable is between 0 and Z (the shaded area).

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