Handbook of Counselor Preparation: Constructivist, Developmental, and Experiential Approaches

Handbooks

Edited by: Garrett McAuliffe & Karen Eriksen

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Foundations: Constructivism, Development, Culture, and Teaching

    Part II: A Guide to Individual Courses and Topics in the Counselor Education Curriculum

    Part III: Innovative Program Practices

    Part IV: Conclusions and Implications

  • Copyright

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    Preface

    Garrett J.McAuliffe

    True teachers defend their pupils against the teacher's own influence. Such teachers inspire self-trust. They guide their pupils' eyes from the teacher himself or herself to their own spirit that quickens them. The true teacher will have no disciple.

    Adapted from Bronson Alcott (1840)

    Through dialogue, the teacher-of-the-students and the students-of-the-teacher cease to exist and a new term emerges: teacher-student with students-teachers.

    Paolo Freire (1994, p. 80)

    This is a book for those who would prepare counselors for their work. It is aimed at both graduate students who are training to be counselor educators and those who are already preparers of counselors. This book was inspired by three earlier volumes that we edited. Now, with new writing and up-to-date research, we present a text that brings together most of what can be done to educate future counselors in powerful ways.

    The authors of this book believe that this work is sorely needed, as students mostly know us through our teaching. That is where future counselors are made. What can be more important? However, despite their position in “higher” education, of all educators, college instructors are the least prepared to teach. Preparers of counselors are no exception. Yet their light preparation in how to educate stands in ironic contrast with their weighty responsibility to protect future clients by producing ethical and intelligent counselors.

    The litany of professors' lack of formal teaching training is well known: They study no methods; they are never, or rarely, observed; and their knowledge of educational psychology is minimal or nonexistent. And yet, each year thousands of professors in the counseling field enter classrooms to propound, pronounce, plead, cajole, demonstrate, evoke, stimulate, and generally act in ways that supposedly produce intellectually and emotionally sophisticated counselors and therapists.

    Despite this short shrift given to teacher training, many counselor educators nevertheless struggle mightily to teach in energetic and innovative ways, hoping for felicitous results. Some go so far as to stretch inherited pedagogical boundaries, challenging the cult of expertise that has made professors into high knowledge priests and students into lay supplicants in so much of college teaching. These pedagogical boundary-stretchers attempt to create egalitarian atmospheres, participatory activities, opportunities for reflection, and experiential exercises in order to trigger development in future counselors. It is those efforts that we wish to extend in this volume.

    We should note at this point that much has already been crafted well in counselor education. The curriculum is under constant revision, with more comprehensive and relevant content being added. In some courses, a high art for training has been developed. For example, instruction in basic helping skills has been sequential, layered, and experiential. Similarly, training in group counseling is, at its best, intensely experiential and self-reflective.

    Despite these successes, the expert talking head seems still to be alive and well, as a walk down a college corridor will testify. For whatever reasons, the expert who delivers “finished” knowledge to the audience of students continues to dominate college teaching. Whether behind or in front of the lectern, or sitting on the desk, professors make pronouncements such as “Here is an especially effective counseling approach,” or “Listen to my insightful diagnosis,” or “Here's how to run a community agency.” Perhaps it is easier for teachers to tell than to evoke. Lecturing and pronouncing feels safer to the instructor than does case analysis, demonstration, or discussion. At its worst, this banking deposit model of teaching, to use Freire's (1994) metaphor for instructor-centered teaching, communicates to students that knowledge is the domain of the few, who pass it on to the many. And such teaching replicates itself by communicating to future counselors that clients also can change through passive reception.

    This teacher-as-expert and student-as-receiver model has been increasingly challenged as ineffective, particularly in this field, which aims to produce self-authorizing professionals. Some educators, such as bell hooks (1994) and Henry Giroux (2006), have opened up the conversation about who learns from whom and how power and privilege are used, toward what ends, in the classroom. They invite teachers to “not know,” to deconstruct cherished notions of how knowledge is created, and to encourage tolerance for ambiguity and self-disclosure in the classroom. Such notions are enough to make most college teachers tremble.

    I believe that, among the academic disciplines, counselor education is well poised for this type of conversation. Counselor training has always been touched by an experiential, participatory teaching brush. Counselor educators have traditionally incorporated both head and heart into the learning environment. Equality, genuineness, and respect have been watchwords for the profession. Awareness of people as socially constructed cultural beings is slowly infusing our curricula. This book attempts to build on these practices and to transform others so that an impactful, progressive mental health education can be implemented.

    Thus we join the national conversation about the purposes and methods of higher education. In so doing, we hope, perhaps with hubris, to trigger a broad self-examination by current and future counselor educators—a dialogue on the nature of knowing, the political implications of teaching, and the content of mental health training.

    In addition to being a response to the swirling discussions about higher education, this book is also a product of its authors' personal struggles to teach well. All of the contributors have experienced the palpable tension of entering a classroom filled with expectant and diverse adults. In that setting our consciences prick us—we all know well the time, money, and, yes, the spirit that most students pour into their educations. We ask ourselves, “Are we up to the task of meeting our students' hopes and expectations, aspirations that are so well voiced at orientations and in beginning classes?”

    A final incentive for producing this book is the very pragmatic concern that the authors share about accountability for teaching, which is being increasingly demanded of college faculty. Student evaluations and peer reviews of instruction are becoming more important for the maintenance and progress of educators' careers; the citizenry views their primary job to be teaching. Teaching is the major arena in which educators meet the public, no matter how much writing, research, and professional presentations are part of the broad educational charge.

    We ask you, the reader of this volume, to embrace the challenge of reflexively examining, or deconstructing, your common assumptions and methods in all areas of counselor education. Ask yourself, “What are the intended and unintended educational outcomes of students' experiences in the classroom, the library, the lab, and the advising office?” In that learner-centered, or constructivist vein, we eschew the notion that teachers can ever “provide” knowledge to another or “instill” understanding. Certainly the works of Piaget (1971), Dewey (1963), Freire (1994), and many other so-called progressive educators offer a severe challenge to the common banking deposit model of teaching. Instead, teaching can be considered to be the setting up of conditions for the learner to know, through a cycling and recycling of experience, reflection, and abstract conceptualization.

    Our biases are these: We favor the constructivist and developmental educational theories. These theories ask us to pay attention to the learner's experience and to let the learner make sense for herself by struggling with ambiguities that are just beyond the level she can tolerate. We also favor the notion of the social construction of knowledge, as we might practice it through classroom discourse. We think that a fine metaphor for teaching is Robert Kegan's (1998) notion of over-the-shoulder inquiry, in which students puzzle together over problems that emerge during the many discourses of their education, discourses that are often instigated by the educator. We also favor an inclusive, dialogical program practice, from admissions through portfolio evaluation, in which we as faculty are learners-among-learners.

    We offer this socially constructed project with humility, recognizing the boundedness of our vision by the historical, political, and cultural contexts of our times. It is up to the reader to try out these ideas, to expand them, and possibly to reject them in favor of more effective, complex ones.

    Whom, specifically, is this book for? We expect it to be useful to all those who do, or will, prepare counselors. We hope that it might be a text in counselor education courses and a companion for practicing counselor educators.

    This book is freshly written. Authors have been recruited, vetted, and edited to produce deep and accessible work. The book is divided into three segments, as follows.

    Part I opens the discussion of constructivist and developmental teaching with principles and research, presenting the constructivist and developmental foundations of this work in Chapter 1, the pedagogies of three of the classic thinkers in the field in Chapter 2, explicit guidelines for teaching practice in Chapter 3, an overview of the phases of counselor development in Chapter 4, and a primer on six common teaching strategies in Chapter 5.

    Part II meets the teacher's need for the practical with carefully crafted guides for teaching 17 content areas, or courses, in the counselor education curriculum.

    Part III consists of innovative ideas for counselor education in general, from evaluating the outcomes of counselor education in Chapter 23, to a guide to the expansion of technology in the field in Chapter 24, to the bold proposal for narrative-based counselor education in Chapter 25.

    This effort to trigger an examination of how we know and how we teach in the helping professions offers some ideas that are surprising and “border-crossing,” to use Henry Giroux's (2006) phrase for a postmodern education. But these ideas also build on much that counselor educators already do well. We all stand on the shoulders of the giants who have taught us. But this book takes us a step beyond. It asks educators to empower and involve. It asks them to risk “losing control” over subject matter, to hear student voices, to pose dilemmas, to challenge their own assumptions in the presence of their students. In that regard, many counselor educators are already among the minority of educators who attempt to be “midwife” teachers, to use Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberger, and Tarule's (1986) vivid metaphor; that is, teachers who assist students in giving birth to their own ideas. We believe that this midwife role is one that the practicing counselor can also apply to himself, that of coaching clients to bring forth more adaptive stories in their lives and relationships.

    No preface that purports to promote a constructivist frame for teaching should paradoxically end on so certain a note. Doubt and humility are central themes in constructivist thinking. Thus, these words are offered in the spirit of dialogue. We hope the conversation continues through your writing to us and your joining (or starting) the next teaching discussion at your local or national conference. We hope that this is but one foray in an evolving, ongoing engagement of the construction of the counselor in a postmodern environment. Let this volume be a warning, nevertheless, that we, as educators and as therapists, must live within the ambiguity of emergent understanding, of partial truths that must be rolled around on the tongues of dialogue. And let us be consistently reflective in our practices and on our most cherished notions.

    We hope that more than a few ideas from this book will encourage risk taking and trigger experiments in teaching. Good. That is what we set out to do. Let us now begin.

    References
    Belenky, M. F., Clinchy, B. M., Goldberger, N. R., & Tarule, J. M. (1986). Women's ways of knowing. New York: Basic Books.
    Dewey, J. (1963). Experience and education. New York: Collier. (Original work published 1938)
    Freire, P. (1994). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum.
    Giroux, H. A. (2006). America on the edge: Henry Giroux on politics, culture, and education. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9781403984364
    hooks, b. (1994). Teaching to transgress. New York: Routledge.
    Kegan, R. (1998). In over our heads. Cambridge, MA: Harvard.
    Piaget, J. (1971). Psychology and epistemology. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin.

    Acknowledgments

    The authors and SAGE thank the following reviewers for their helpful comments on earlier drafts of this manuscript.

    • Don Bubenzer, Kent State University
    • Catherine Y. Chang, Georgia State University
    • Stephen E. Craig, Western Michigan University
    • Gerard Lawson, Virginia Tech
    • Larry C. Loesch, University of Florida
    • Sylvia C. Nassar-McMillan, North Carolina State University
    • Terrell Awe Agahe Portman, The University of Iowa
    • John E. Queener, The University of Akron
  • Author Index

    About the Editors

    Garrett J. McAuliffe is University Professor of Counselor Education at Old Dominion University, in Norfolk, Virginia. His work focuses on culture, constructivism, counselor education, and career decision making. He received his doctorate in counseling from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, for which he received the national Outstanding Dissertation Award; his master's degree from the University of Albany; and his bachelor's degree in literature from Queens College in New York City. He has written or cowritten six books and over 75 articles on topics ranging from working with troubled youth to culturally alert counseling. He was co-recipient of the ACES National Publication Award in 2001 and the CSJ Social Justice Award in 2009. He has created models for cultural de-centering and health-oriented client assessment. He spent 13 years as a community college and university counselor. Prior to that, he was a public school teacher in New York.

    Karen P. Eriksen is the founder and CEO of the Eriksen Institute for Ethics, which promotes Conscious and Reflective Leadership—an approach to reflecting and becoming intentional about developing character and grounding one's organization in ethics, building the personal and interpersonal capacities of one's employees or members, and pursuing optimal development. Dr. Eriksen earned a doctorate in education from George Mason University and a master's in psychology from California State University, Fullerton. She spent 15 years as a nationally known presenter, trainer, and counseling profession leader; 25 years training counselors privately and as a university professor, researcher, and author; and 18 years as a marriage and family therapist.

    Dr. Eriksen regularly inspires groups, organizations, universities, and businesses in their character and ethics aspirations, interpersonal relations and communication, conflict resolution, and development. She has authored eight books on related topics.

    The Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES) emphasizes the need for quality education and supervision of counselors in all work settings. Through its accreditation process and professional development activities, ACES strives to continue to improve the education, credentialing, and supervision of counselors. The association strives to encourage publications on current issues, relevant research, proven practices, ethical standards, and conversations on related problems. Persons who are engaged in the professional preparation of counselors will find leadership through ACES. The ultimate purpose of the association is to advance counselor education and supervision in order to improve the provision of counseling services in all settings of society.

    About the Contributors

    Linda L. Black is Professor of Counselor Education and Chair of the Department of Counselor Education at the University of Northern Colorado, in Greeley. Her scholarship is focused on social privilege, mentoring, leadership, and counselor training. She received her doctorate in Counselor Education and Supervision from the University of Northern Colorado. She is the current coeditor of Counselor Education and Supervision and has numerous professional publications and presentations in the field of counselor education and supervision.

    Bill Bruck has been the lead solutions architect for Q2Learning, of which he is a founding partner, since 2001. He designed the eCampus technology and end-to-end methodology that has been used in deploying over a hundred blended learning solutions for Fortune 500 corporations, and as general manager has grown the company by 40% in each of its first three years. Prior to joining Q2, Bill served as chief knowledge officer and professional services team lead at Caucus Systems, where he designed the virtual workplace technologies featured in HR Executive that were adopted by Fortune 500 customers to support distributed project teams and communities of practice. Bill comes from academia, where he was a tenured full professor of psychology and director of institutional research at Marymount University. There he designed a system for assessing institutional effectiveness that was cited as an exemplar during reaccreditation by the Southeastern Association of Schools and Colleges. Bill has written over a dozen books on the effective use of technology, which have been translated into five languages. Microsoft Press published his latest book, Taming the Information Tsunami. He serves as a luminary for media and industry relations and provides keynotes internationally on collaboration technologies and their impact on organizations. Bill earned his bachelor's degree in Human Studies from Brown University, his master's degree in Clinical Psychology from Duquesne University, and his doctorate in Counseling Psychology from the University of Florida.

    Lisa L. Buono is an Instructor and Field Work Coordinator for the Department of Counseling and Guidance at California Lutheran University (CLU), in Thousand Oaks, where she also coordinates field experiences for both school counseling and college student personnel candidates. She is currently a doctoral candidate in the School of Education at CLU. Her scholarship focuses on technology in higher education in general and counselor education in particular.

    Yvonne L. Callaway is a Professor in the Department of Leadership and Counseling at Eastern Michigan University, in Ypsilanti. Her publications have included work in multicultural influences on counseling processes, self-efficacy, positive psychology, and constructivism as an approach to counseling training and development. She received her master's and doctorate in Counseling from Wayne State University, in Detroit, Michigan, and her bachelor's degree from the University of Michigan, in Ann Arbor.

    Jamie S. Carney is a Professor in the Counselor Education Program at Auburn University. Her work has focused on assessment and attitudinal development as it relates to pedagogy in counselor education. She received her doctorate in Counselor Education from Ohio University and her master's in Community Counseling from Youngstown State University. She has published several articles on issues related to assessment and evaluation in counselor education with a focus on portfolios. She is currently working on initiatives in the College of Education at Auburn University to promote leadership and advocacy skills among counselors and educators in training involving at-risk schools. She has been a faculty member in counselor education for almost 20 years.

    Montserrat Casado-Kehoe is an Associate Professor of Counseling Psychology and Internship Coordinator at Palm Beach Atlantic University, in Orlando, Florida. Montse is a Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist and Registered Play Therapist, and currently has a small private practice serving children and families in Clermont, Florida. Her work has focused on marriage and family therapy, play therapy, supervision, and counselor education. She has written or cowritten on topics such as family therapy, couples therapy, clinical cases, multicultural issues related to working with Hispanic families, and use of creative arts in supervision. She received her EdS in School Counseling with an emphasis in marriage and family therapy and her doctorate in Counselor Education from the University of South Carolina.

    Debra C. Cobia is Professor and Doctoral Program Director, Professional Counseling and Supervision, at the University of West Georgia, in Carrollton. She earned a doctorate in Counselor Education and Supervision at the University of Alabama in 1990 and spent 19 years at Auburn University where she is Professor Emeritus. Dr. Cobia's area of specialization is school counseling, and she has coauthored a textbook for the graduate-level preparation of school counselors. She has authored numerous articles related to supervision, assessment, and evaluation in counselor education and school counseling.

    Kathie Crocket is Director of Counsellor Education at the University of Waikato, in Hamilton, New Zealand. This program is distinctive in its emphasis on narrative and social constructionist approaches in counseling, family therapy, supervision, and research at the master's and doctoral levels. Kathie's publications focus on narrative approaches in counseling, supervision, teaching, and research. She received her doctorate in Counseling Supervision from the University of Waikato.

    Claire J. Dandeneau is a Professor and Department Chair in the Department of Counseling at Indiana University of Pennsylvania. She received her doctorate in Counselor Education, her master's in Community Counseling from Purdue University, and her bachelor's degree in Biology and Statistics from Purdue University. Her work interests are quite varied. She has published two school counseling books: one on elementary school counseling and one on working with students with disabilities. Claire is also involved with a federal grant that focuses on correctional education. She has worked collaboratively with Dr. Lorraine Guth to develop a prototype digital counselor training facility. She is a former Therapeutic Wilderness Counselor and Supervisor for the Texas Youth Commission, and she served as Director of Residential Treatment services for the John de la Howe children's home in South Carolina.

    James Devlin is an Assistant Professor of Counselor Education at Seattle Pacific University. He currently serves on the executive board of the International Association of Marriage and Family Counselors. His research interests include research training environments, best practices in family and couples counseling, supervision model development, and counselor education wellness.

    Cher Edwards is an Associate Professor of Counselor Education at Seattle Pacific University (SPU), in Seattle, Washington, where she teaches courses on multicultural counseling, counseling theory and practice, and special education. Cher also supervises school counseling interns. She is the founding president of Washington Counselors for Social Justice and is currently the Vice President of Postsecondary Education for the Washington School Counselor Association.

    Judy Emmett is retired from the Department of Counseling and School Psychology at the University of Wisconsin—River Falls, where she was a Professor from 1991 to 2004. She received her doctorate at Northern Illinois University and focused her graduate teaching and publication in the fields of constructivist career counseling and school counselor preparation.

    Varunee Faii Sangganjanavanich is an Assistant Professor of Counselor Education in the Department of Counseling at the University of Akron, in Akron, Ohio. Her work focuses on multicultural competencies in clinical counseling and supervision, career counseling and development, and counselor education. She received her doctorate in Counselor Education and Supervision from the University of Northern Colorado. She has authored and coauthored a number of publications and presentations in the field of counseling and counselor education.

    Tim Grothaus is an Associate Professor and Coordinator of the school counseling specialty area in the Counseling and Human Services Department at Old Dominion University. He received a doctorate in Counselor Education from the College of William and Mary in 2004, after serving for over 20 years as a school counselor, teacher, therapist, coordinator of a youth leadership development program, and youth minister. He currently serves as the Social Justice/Human Rights Cochair for the Virginia School Counselor Association and is on the American School Counselors Association Positions Statement Committee. His primary research interests include professional development of school counselors, multicultural competence (including advocacy and social justice), and supervision.

    Lorraine J. Guth is a Professor of Counselor Education at Indiana University of Pennsylvania. Her work focuses on diversity, sexuality, group work, and technology in counselor education. She received her doctorate in Counseling Psychology from Indiana University, her master's degree in Counseling from the University of Memphis, and her bachelor's degree in Marketing and Psychology from Pennsylvania State University. She has written or cowritten numerous articles and book chapters and has presented at international, national, and regional professional conferences. She has also worked in a variety of community counseling settings.

    Angela R. Holman is an Assistant Professor of Counseling at the University of North Carolina, Pembroke, and maintains a private practice in Laurinburg, North Carolina. Her academic and clinical work focuses on family counseling, relationships, and sexuality. She has presented and published on topics such as families, feminism, culture, and identity. Her master's degree in Community Counseling and bachelor's degree in Human Services are both from Old Dominion University, in Norfolk, Virginia. She has practiced counseling in a substance abuse-focused community agency, a family counseling clinic, and a college counseling center.

    Michael G. Ignelzi is Associate Professor of Counseling and Development at Slippery Rock University, in Slippery Rock, Pennsylvania. He serves as Program Coordinator for the Student Affairs in Higher Education master's program. His work focuses on professional development and supervision of student affairs staff; professional ethics; and moral/ethical reasoning, development, and education of college students. He received his doctorate in Human Development and Psychology from Harvard University, his master's degree in College Student Personnel from the Ohio State University, and his bachelor's degree in Psychology from the University of California, Riverside.

    James S. Korcuska is an Associate Professor of Counseling at the University of South Dakota, in Vermillion. His teaching and research interests are in counseling research methodology, counselor education, men's studies, and ethical/clinical/critical reasoning-to-action phenomenon. He has published 11 articles in peer-reviewed journals. His doctorate is in counselor education from Kent State University, in Kent, Ohio, and his master's degree is in counseling from Walsh University, in Canton, Ohio. A Licensed Professional Counselor, he directed a university counseling center for eight years. Previously, he was a university director of academic advising, developmental counseling, and tutoring.

    Elmarie Kotzé is Senior Lecturer of Counselor Education at the University of Waikato, in Hamilton, New Zealand. Her publications focus on narrative approaches in counseling, community, teaching, and research. For her doctorate in psychology, Elmarie researched a social constructionist approach to teaching family therapy to educational, counselling, and clinical psychology students in South Africa.

    Victoria E. Kress is a Professor in the counseling program at Youngstown State University. She also serves as Director of the program's Community Counseling Clinic. She is a Licensed Professional Clinical Counselor and has over 17 years of clinical experience working in various settings, such as community mental health centers, hospitals, residential treatment facilities, private practice, and college counseling centers. She cowrote a book on ethics and diagnosis and over 40 other publications, and has given 80 presentations. Her primary areas of interest with regard to research and clinical work are self-injurious behavior, counselors' use of the DSM, sexual assault and child sexual abuse, developmental trauma, and strength-based and creative counseling approaches.

    Aretha Marbley is an Associate Professor and Director of Community Counseling in Counselor Education at Texas Tech University. She received her doctorate in Counselor Education and Supervision from the University of Arkansas. She is a critical social justice womanist activist scholar with a research focus on global multicultural-social justice counseling and education; womanist activism; human, social, and cultural rights; and oppressive social institutions. This includes the stories and counternarratives of silenced voices, specifically those of women, people of color, and communities of color in oppressive social structures (philanthropy, business, education, academia, athletics, mental health, health, criminal justices, and faith-based organizations).

    Charles R. McAdams is a Professor of Counselor Education and Codirector of the New Horizons Family Counseling Center at the College of William and Mary, in Williamsburg, Virginia. For 30 years, his professional service and research have centered on understanding and intervening with aggressive youth and their families. His counseling intervention and counselor training models have been featured in numerous professional journals and book chapters. He received his master's degree and doctorate in Counselor Education from North Carolina State University.

    Brian Mistler is a psychologist at Hobart and William Smith Colleges, in Geneva, New York. He completed five years of advanced training at the Gestalt Center of Gainesville and is an active member of the Association for the Advancement of Gestalt Therapy. He received his doctorate in Counseling Psychology from the University of Florida, his master's degree in Conflict Resolution from the University of Bradford, in the United Kingdom, and was named an Academic Ambassadorial Scholar in 2001 by Rotary International. In addition to providing supervision and psychotherapy, Mistler has been recognized for excellence in teaching and has developed and taught a range of courses in areas such as community psychology, practicum supervision, gestalt therapy, humor, minority experiences, and conflict resolution.

    Rick A. Myer is a Professor in the Department of Counseling, Psychology, and Special Education at Duquesne University, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He earned his doctorate in Counseling Psychology at Memphis State University in 1987. Rick is a Licensed Psychologist in the state of Illinois and the commonwealth of Pennsylvania. He has been working in crisis intervention and management for over 25 years and is in his 24th year of teaching. His primary area of interest and research is crisis intervention.

    Brigid M. Noonan is an Associate Professor and Chair of the Department of Counselor Education at Stetson University. She has over 18 years of clinical experience working with individuals, couples, and families while working for employee assistance programs, working in private practice, and consulting for companies. Her areas of clinical interest include addictive disorders; eating disorders; gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered clients; working with women; chronic illness; and disability. She has over 12 years of experience as a counselor educator. Her areas of counselor education interest include curricular development, advocacy within the counselor education field, career development, multicultural development, and mentoring.

    Seth Olson is an Associate Professor in the Counselor Education Program at the University of South Dakota. His counselor education career has focused on supervision, clinical practice, brief approaches to substance abuse, couples counseling, and counseling theories. He received his doctorate in Counselor Education from Kent State University and his master's degree in Counseling from the University of South Dakota. He has written five articles in the area of counselor education and an article describing how to apply narrative leagues to the school setting. He is currently active in a clinical mental health practice providing primarily Gottman-centered marital and couples counseling.

    Jean Sunde Peterson is Professor and Director of School Counselor preparation at Purdue University. A former longtime secondary-level teacher and counselor, she is currently a Licensed Mental Health Counselor with a small clinical practice. She has authored more than 80 publications, focused largely on the social and emotional development of high-ability adolescents and on the asset-burden paradox of giftedness, often using longitudinal and qualitative methods to explore the subjective experience of various phenomena. The most recent of her seven books are Gifted at Risk: Poetic Profiles; The Essential Guide to Talking with Teens; Models of Counseling Gifted Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults; and Portrait and Model of a School Counselor.

    Sarah E. Peterson is an Associate Professor of Educational Psychology in the Department of Educational Foundations and Leadership at Duquesne University, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Previously, she held faculty positions at Northern Illinois University and Indiana-Purdue University at Ft. Wayne. She received her bachelor's degree in Music Education at the University of Iowa, her master's degree in Counselor Education at the University of Wyoming, and her doctorate in Educational Psychology at Arizona State University. Her research interests are centered around motivation and collaborative learning and teachers' beliefs about motivational teaching practices.

    Sheri Pickover is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Counseling and Addiction Studies at the University of Detroit, Mercy, in Detroit, Michigan. She received her bachelor's degree from the University of Michigan, her master's degree from the University of Pennsylvania, and her doctorate from Oakland University, in Rochester, Michigan. Her research and publications focus on the application of attachment theory to clinical work with children and adults, including the development of a group-based treatment plan to develop empathy skills. Sheri has 18 years of clinical experience working in the child welfare system as a counselor, case manager, clinical supervisor, and trainer.

    Yegan Pillay is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Counseling and Higher Education at Ohio University. Prior to his faculty appointment, he held positions as the Head of Academic Development in the Department of Military Science at Stellenbosch University in South Africa, Clinical Director at a domestic violence shelter in Ohio, and Director of Disability Services at Ohio University. His research interests include racial and cultural identity, psychological health, clinical assessment, counselor education and supervision, and non-Western approaches to psychotherapy. Yegan is from South Africa, where he completed his formative education, culminating in a doctorate in the United States.

    David M. Shannon has a doctorate in Research Methodology and Statistics from the University of Virginia and is currently the Humana-Sherman-Germany Distinguished Professor at Auburn University. He teaches classes in research methods and statistics. His research has focused on teaching and student assessment, evaluation, and methodological issues. He has published two books pertaining to assessment and statistical analysis and over 50 articles in refereed journals. He has served as an evaluation coordinator for projects funded for over $125 million, managing evaluation budgets for these projects totaling approximately $5 million, and the principal investigator for projects funded for approximately $1 million. He is Past-President of the Eastern Educational Research Association, serves on the editorial board for three journals, and is coeditor of an international journal.

    Christopher Sink has been a Professor of Counselor Education at Seattle Pacific University for more than 16 years and has been actively involved with the counseling profession for nearly 30 years. Concurrently, he is a Visiting Professor of Education and Theology at York St. John University, in York, England. Prior to serving as a counselor educator, Chris worked as a secondary and postsecondary counselor. He has published extensively in the areas of school counseling and educational psychology. Chris is an advocate for systemic and strengths-based, school-based counseling. Currently, his research agenda includes the exploration of spirituality as an important feature of adolescent resiliency. He has significant experience as a journal editor.

    Janeé Steele is a Limited Licensed Professional Counselor and a Licensed School Guidance Counselor in the state of Michigan. She is a doctoral candidate in the Counselor Education and Supervision Program at Western Michigan University, in Kalamazoo. Her research interests include counselor education, multi-culturalism, and social justice advocacy. She is the creator of the Liberation Model, a constructivist approach to social justice advocacy training. Janeé received bachelor's degrees in Elementary Education and Psychology and a master's degree in School Counseling from Southern Illinois University, in Carbondale. She currently works as a parent educator and advocate for early childhood education.

    Sue A. Stickel is a Professor in the Department of Leadership and Counseling at Eastern Michigan University, in Ypsilanti. Her publications have included work in school counseling, positive psychology, leadership, and constructivism in counselor training. She received her doctorate in Counselor Education at the University of Wyoming and her bachelor's and master's degrees at Miami University of Ohio.

    Donald A. Strano is an Associate Professor in the Department of Counseling and Development at Slippery Rock University, in Slippery Rock, Pennsylvania. He earned his doctorate and master's degree in Counseling and Educational Psychology from Texas Tech University and his bachelor's degree in Individual and Family Studies at the Pennsylvania State University. His work has focused on the Adlerian construct of inferiority feelings, alcohol and other drug prevention in higher education, and narrative and constructivist approaches to counseling. He has numerous works published on these and other related topics. He spent 11 years as a college counselor at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Washington University in St. Louis, and the University of New Orleans, and four years as the Assistant Dean of Students at Washington University, creating programs for AOD prevention and disability services.

    Toni R. Tollerud is a Presidential Teaching Professor at Northern Illinois University, in DeKalb. Her areas of research interest and service focus on developmental school counseling; career development; lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender issues; social and emotional learning; and supervision. She is a consultant to many school districts on career development and social-emotional learning, sits on several key state boards, and conducts supervision training throughout Illinois. She has spent over 40 years in education, beginning as a public school teacher in grades 6–12. Her teaching spans elementary through doctoral students and includes working as a school counselor and in private practice. She is a graduate of the University of Iowa and loves music, traveling, and Italian food.

    Gail E. Uellendahl is a Professor and Chair of the Counseling and Guidance Department at California Lutheran University, in Thousand Oaks. She received her doctorate in Counseling Psychology from New York University and is a Licensed Psychologist in New York and California. She also holds the California Pupil Personnel Services Credential in School Counseling. She earned her bachelor's degree in Education from Queens College in New York and her master's degree in Special Education from Hofstra University, and she worked for 17 years directing college counseling services for students with disabilities at Queens College. Her current scholarship focuses on counselor education and counseling practice.

    Ann Vernon is Professor Emerita at the University of Northern Iowa, where she served as Professor and Coordinator of Counseling for many years. She is recognized as a leading expert on applications of rational emotive behavior therapy with children and adolescents, and several of the 18 books she has published, in addition to chapters and articles, address this topic. Dr. Vernon is the Vice President of the Albert Ellis Board of Trustees and Visiting Professor at the University of Oradea, in Romania. She conducts training programs throughout the world on effective counseling with children and adolescents.

    Scott A. Wykes is an Assistant Professor for the Counselor Education and Supervision doctoral program at Regent University, in Virginia Beach, Virginia. His work focuses on counselor education and supervision as it relates to individual, group, marriage and family therapy, and substance misuse issues. Teaching in an online doctoral program, he specializes in online and distance teaching formats. He received his doctorate from the University of Northern Colorado and his master's degree from Ashland Theological Seminary.


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