Handbook of Applied Developmental Science: Promoting Positive Child, Adolescent, and Family Development Through Research, Policies, and Programs

Handbooks

Edited by: Richard M. Lerner, Francine Jacobs & Donald Wertlieb

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Dimensions of Individual Diversity

    Part II: Features of Family Diversity

    Part III: Emerging Models for the Promotion of Positive Youth and Family Development

    Part I: Dangers on the Way: Risks to Achieving Positive Outcomes for Children

    Part II: Promoting Positive Youth Development: Practice and Evidence

    Part III: Public Child- and Family-Serving Systems: Does Healthy Development Result?

    Part IV: Effecting Policy: Solidifying a Child and Family Agenda

    Part I: National and International Perspectives

    Part II: Perspectives from the Philanthropic Community

    Part III: Perspectives from the Faith Community

    Part I: The Engaged University

    Part II: Academic Outreach

    Part III: Professional Outreach

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    Foreword to Volume 1

    EdwardZigler, Yale University

    About 30 years ago, Harold Stevenson substituted his presidential address to the Society for Research in Child Development, an organization dedicated to pure basic research, with a symposium in which federal officials and leading developmentalists could interact. This was a pivotal event in the rise to prominence of applied developmental science. At that point in time, if someone had told me that early in the millennium, there would be a professional discipline devoted to applied developmental science, I would have been more than a little skeptical. If they foresaw that there would be not just a handbook but a four-volume handbook, I wouldn't have believed it. Even in my dreams, I could not have let go of reality enough to imagine that applied work would earn enough respect to garner enough followers to produce enough of value to fill four volumes (or convince a mainstream publisher to print them). I am amazed that so much has been accomplished in such a short period of time to make developmental science a positive force in people's lives.

    Let me go back to that time when applied developmental science was an unimaginable dream to give readers, particularly the younger ones, a baseline from which to appreciate our progress. Although developmental psychology began as an applied discipline in the days of G. Stanley Hall, by the mid-1900s psychology was (or was trying to be) a purely scientific endeavor. Respected researchers toiled in laboratories and shared their findings with one another in professional journals. No one questioned the ecological validity of the results (until Urie Bronfenbrenner wondered what we could possibly learn by putting children in “strange situations with strange adults”). Those who dared venture outside of academe to study an issue or attempt to solve a problem in the real world risked their status and reputations. Basic research was king; application was perceived as a lesser task for less-qualified workers.

    I know this because I was a basic researcher, devising and testing hypotheses in an ivy-covered tower for the purpose of expanding theory and knowledge about child development. Then one day I was called by the famous pediatrician Dr. Robert Cooke to join a committee to design a preschool program for children who lived in poverty. At the time our nation was fighting a war—the War on Poverty—and I could not say no to service to my country. That is also why I later agreed to serve as the federal official responsible for administering our program, named Head Start, in the Nixon Administration.

    The response of my colleagues was harsh. For example, a respected senior scholar who had come to a meeting at Yale saw me in the hall and told me point blank that “you have all the makings of a first-rank developmentalist if only you would give up this policy nonsense.” In other words, the quality of my basic research could make me first rank; applying the findings of my studies to policy made me less than first rank. I relate this story to convey how much attitudes have had to change to make this handbook possible.

    The course of and catalysts for change are alluded to in the first chapter of this first volume. These involved acceptance of new theories, particularly Urie Bronfenbrenner's view that all levels of the ecology in which the child is reared have a critical influence on all facets of development. The bioecological approach demands that attention be focused not only on the family's and community's impact on the child but also on all the systems within the child that in totality comprise human development. Thus, students of child development had to take into account physical, cognitive, socio-emotional, and other domains as well as their interactions. This broadened focus brought the need for insights from many disciplines. The bioecological model also beckoned professionals into the policy arena: One level of the ecology comprises the social policies that shape the physical and social environments in which development unfolds. This expansion of the concept and study of development is evident in the shifts in terminology. Child development, not that long ago a field within psychology, is now considered by the editors of this handbook to be part of applied developmental science, an “umbrella” for “specialties in the biological, psychological, social, and behavioral sciences and the helping professions” (see Preface).

    This is not to say that basic research has become less important or esteemed. Indeed, applied workers would have little to apply if not for the accumulation of knowledge built—and continuing to build—from sound basic research. That is, basic researchers provide the data and theoretical insights that applied researchers need in their efforts to address social problems (e.g., the knowledge base on attachment behavior has supported efforts to improve child care programs and policies). In turn, applied workers have alerted basic researchers to issues that appear important in practical situations and thus merit further study (e.g., child care must be examined as an important environment in the determination of the child's growth trajectory). The value that each type of work has for the other was thoughtfully captured by Bronfenbrenner, who once told students that they cannot truly understand any phenomenon until they try to change it. I certainly found that to be true. When I worked to mount programs to optimize the development of poor preschoolers, I definitely gained a better grasp of the dynamics of human development and became a much better scientist. So, while there are still those who champion one approach or the other, today I believe that the majority of scientists recognize that both basic and applied interests are reciprocal and synergistic. That the consensus is not yet unanimous was recently discussed by John Darley, president of the American Psychological Society, who felt it necessary to remind members that basic and applied researchers are coequals.

    This recognition had to be made first by senior developmentalists because they are the ones who forced, embraced, and fueled the basic applied dichotomy. They changed as individual pioneers and gradually, through their professional societies. The constitution of the American Psychological Association, whose first president was G. Stanley Hall, lists one purpose of the organization as serving the public interest. Although this group became basic oriented for a time, its leaders have long reminded members (to quote from the 1969 presidential address by George Miller) “to give psychology away.” Later, APA presidents Bill Bevan and Frank Farley also used their addresses to tell members that many benefits would accrue to American psychology if they would do more to use their knowledge derived from research to help society solve pressing problems. The Society for Research in Child Development, the bastion for theory-driven basic research, eventually took steps to give a voice to applied-minded workers, such as launching Social Policy Reports, a monograph devoted to policy issues in child development. It was not until the late 1990s, however, that the organization welcomed into its major journal, Child Development, articles spanning basic research, program evaluation, and policy studies. The gradual acceptance of applied work also took place in other professions traditionally associated with “hard” science. Indeed, the list of contributors to this handbook contains many names prominent in basic research circles who are currently working to build the field of applied developmental science.

    For the field to flourish, older workers must of course be replaced eventually by younger ones who are prepared to strengthen and shape the discipline as it matures. This brings me to the topic of training and back to one of those unimaginable dreams. If that same person I imagined had told me about a four-volume handbook in applied developmental science had also mentioned that one entire volume would be devoted to the role of universities and professionals in advancing this new field, I would have laughed out loud. Thirty years ago when I made my first efforts to institute such training, success was slow and suffered many setbacks.

    First, I must briefly explain why I felt that training in both science and its application was necessary. When I worked in Washington in the early 1970s, I immediately realized how little I knew about the policymaking process. At the same time, I became aware of how little policymakers knew about the empirically identified needs of children and families. I felt strongly that policy construction could be enriched by developmental science. I joined with prominent developmentalists Bronfenbrenner, Julius Richmond, and Sheldon White to devise a plan to train scholars who wanted to work in both research and social policy. We presented our idea to the Archibald Granville Bush Foundation, which agreed to fund four Bush Centers in Child Development and Social Policy.

    Although the centers were widely acclaimed and very popular among students, they were allowed to fizzle out once the seed money from the foundation ended. UCLA and the University of Michigan did provide some money to keep their centers open for a few more years. The North Carolina Bush Center became the Carolina Center, the remnants of which folded into the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center, all at one time directed by James Gallagher. The Yale Bush Center has remained operative through private grants and a small amount of university support. Apparently, academia was not quite ready for applied science, service learning, or endeavors that cut across traditional departmental boundaries. The fact that this handbook devotes an entire volume to such work underlies how attitudes have changed within academic settings. To underscore this point, springing from the Bush model, around 40 centers now engage in interdisciplinary child- and family-applied and policy studies at universities throughout the nation.

    Many factors spurred the acceptance of applied developmental science. Among them were strong leadership among brave developmentalists, the demands of funders, the ambitions and desires of young students to make a difference, community needs for information, and attitudes within the professions. Another critical factor can be discerned within the covers of this handbook. Applied developmental scientists have proven themselves by what they have accomplished. This handbook collates the breadth of cutting-edge science, theory, and programmatic endeavors created by some of the best thinkers in their respective areas. Students of applied developmental science now have textbooks, academic centers devoted to their training, several professional journals and groups, and now a handbook. We are a bona fide science dedicated to conducting the best research and using our results to better society. Our dream is to promote the positive development of humanity, and the efforts contained in this handbook encourage me to believe that this dream too can come true.

    Foreword to Volume 2

    The Honorable Elijah E.Cummings, (D–Baltimore, MD)

    In April of 2000, I was asked to speak during an international symposium sponsored by the Eliot-Pearson Department of Child Development at Tufts University. Dr. Richard M. Lerner had just been named to the Bergstrom Chair in Applied Developmental Science.

    Since Tufts had elegantly entitled my remarks Policy Perspectives on Our Nation's Youth, I felt obliged to offer this disclaimer: We have yet to achieve a sustained national policy that fully supports the healthy development of young people in this country.

    That is why the collaboration of Drs. Richard M. Lerner, Francine Jacobs, Donald Wertlieb, and their colleagues in producing the Handbook of Applied Developmental Science (and, especially, this volume on Enhancing the Life Chances of Youth and Families: Contributions of Programs, Policies, and Service Systems) is both timely and important.

    It is not that policymakers and parents are unconcerned about the future of this nation's children. We are deeply disturbed by social trends that threaten the young people of today.

    Despite our superpower status and our national wealth, America's children are living in a dangerous world. Their development into healthy adults is threatened by appalling rates of infant mortality, health disparities among poor and minority children, unrealized educational goals, unacceptable levels of drug and alcohol abuse, delinquency, and of course, the shocking incidence of gun violence in our nation's schools.

    In response, we are dedicating billions of dollars in public funding each year to child-oriented programs.

    No one believes that the results we are achieving by these public investments are sufficient. Both policymakers and the public remain divided, however, as to the substance and scope of the reforms that are required.

    It is reasonable to ask why a nation with the wealth and intellectual sophistication to send human beings to the moon and map the genetic blueprint of life cannot seem to agree upon how best to be supportive toward its own children and families.

    As the chapters in this volume illustrate, part of the answer to that question can be found in American cultural traditions that are ambivalent (at best) about the appropriate role that government should play in influencing childhood development.

    At the dawn of this new century, moreover, we Americans are experiencing demographic and technological changes surpassing anything human beings have confronted since the early years of the Industrial Revolution. We do not yet fully understand whether, on balance, these changes in the way that we live are good for children.

    In the Congress where I serve, as well as in state capitals and across the family dinner tables of America, the debates about how best to empower children to live safer, more productive, and more fulfilled lives are all-too-often driven by ideology or personal experience.

    Even the traditional language of policy debates about children and their welfare seems inadequate to the challenges that we face. We no longer agree, for example, about which families we are prepared to support. We agree even less often about how best to help those families flourish.

    The thoughtful, research-based analyses of applied developmental science can inform and help to unify our efforts to protect and uplift the young people of this country.

    Precisely because we are a diverse nation with widely differing perspectives about how and when children should receive public help, we need hard scientific evidence, presented in a workable, policy-driven context, that can serve to mediate the ideological tensions inherent in our culture.

    We must begin to distinguish what we know from what we merely believe to be true. Children's lives are at stake.

    Applied developmental science (ADS) offers us many of the tools we need in order to construct that more universal, reality-based frame of reference toward child development. By helping to bridge our ideological divisions, ADS has the power to create and sustain family-oriented policies that are effective, efficient, and consistent with the fundamental values of our society.

    This is not to suggest that applied developmental science is “value free.” A major contribution of ADS to the national policy debate about how best to further child welfare is the discipline's fundamentally positive orientation toward young people and their capabilities.

    It is not enough to develop policies that define children in terms of the problems they face or the challenges that they often present to the larger society. We must better understand and build upon their strengths and capabilities.

    The chapters in this volume describe impressive efforts to do just that, even as they also document the challenges that remain.

    In “Youth Gangs and Community Violence,” for example, Dr. Carl S. Taylor reports upon research confirming that a significant percentage of gang members possess at least some of the attributes of healthy, well-functioning young people. These “assets,” Dr. Taylor argues, offer a solid basis on which to ground intervention.

    Carl Taylor's work illustrates that, from a public policy viewpoint, the premises implicit in applied developmental science may be as important as any interventions the research may suggest.

    I share, for example, the discipline's moral premise that all children—including gang members—have value. Otherwise, why study them? Why not just lock them up and throw away the keys?

    I also agree with the implicit factual premise that all children can learn and contribute, if given the opportunity to do so.

    America's children are our promise, not our problem. As revealed by the research and orientation of the chapters included within this volume, applied developmental science is helping us to assure that their promise is fulfilled.

    Foreword to Volume 3

    DavidBell, Chair, Board of Directors International Youth Foundation

    As a young transplant from London, I found myself substitute teaching at an inner-city school in Philadelphia while attending the University of Pennsylvania as a graduate student. It was a sobering but inspiring experience that sparked in me what has become a lifelong interest in the lives of young people, particularly those who are struggling to succeed, despite the challenges they face. Over the years, my wife, who is a family court judge in London, has told me countless stories of young people's remarkable resilience in tough situations. I've also had the opportunity to speak to youth around the world, in places such as Ireland, South Africa, and the Middle East, about their hopes and concerns and what kind of world they want to help build. Such experiences have reinforced for me the critical connections between young people's prospects; the families, schools, and communities that support them; and the importance of not only addressing young people's needs, but also their aspirations for the future.

    Today, as a business leader and the head of a global company, I have become increasingly engaged in trying to make a difference in the lives of young people in every corner of the globe. And although I now come to the issue from a private-sector perspective, I am more convinced than ever of the need to ensure that today's youth are equipped with the necessary skills, education, values, and opportunities for them to succeed.

    Today, we are facing one of the most critical challenges in the history of our planet. For the first time, almost half the world's population is under 20 years of age—and one fifth are between 10 and 19 years of age. A billion people will be born over the next decade, and the vast majority will be growing up in poor and developing countries in which young people already face limited access to health care, education, employment opportunities, or hope and in which resources are already stretched to the breaking point.

    These stark facts reflect the enormity of the needs that must be addressed. Every year, for example, 10 million children die from malnutrition and preventable diseases. It's estimated that 125 million children are not in school, and that about 60% of those who don't have access to education are girls. About 250 million young people under the age of 15 are child laborers—often working in unsafe and unhealthy conditions, with many living on the streets. And more than half a billion children today—one in four—live in dangerous or unstable situations, including wars, regional conflicts, and natural disasters.

    Given this bleak landscape for so many of the world's children and youth, it's not difficult to imagine what life will be like for them as they grow up into adulthood. In fact, we can project with painful certainty the life chances of the next generation by measuring the opportunities either offered or denied to children today.

    There is no doubt that an increasingly global economy and advances in science and technology have helped lift countless families and children out of poverty. Most young people have more opportunities today than ever before to enhance their prospects and shape their futures. But with more than half the world's population still struggling to survive on less than $2 a day and with the gaps between those with the skills and support to succeed and those being left far behind still widening, it is clear that serious and sustained efforts, on both a local and global scale, must be taken to break the cycle of poverty and inequity that pervades so many young lives. The international community cannot afford to ignore the needs of its children and youth any more than individual nations, families, and communities can. These young people will shape our world as well as theirs and leave a lasting legacy for future generations. It's up to all of us to ensure that these young people are a positive part of society, not outside it.

    There's a well-known saying that I once saw engraved on a stone in Tanzania. It read, “It is better to light a candle than to rail against the darkness.” In the following pages, you will be reading about individuals as well as programs that are surely lighting candles in the darkness—by promoting the well-being of children and young people in the United States and around the world and by strengthening the civil and other institutions that support them as they grow into successful adults. You will learn, as well, about the many different kinds of alliances and partnerships—among foundations, civil society organizations, companies, multilateral institutions, governments, and faith-based organizations—that are leveraging resources, knowledge, and solutions in this critical area of youth development.

    As chairman of the Board of the International Youth Foundation, one of the world's largest public foundations aimed at improving young people's lives, I have seen some of these efforts firsthand. I've seen how important it is to invest in long-term programming and strategies for children and youth. I've seen how critical it is to identify effective programs that are making a real impact on young lives and then take them to scale, so that they can reach more young people. And I've seen how using resources strategically, through leveraging funding and incentives, can “expand the pie” for youth development programs and initiatives, even in some of the most isolated communities around the world.

    Over the years, I've visited some of the programs supported by the International Youth Foundation (IYF) and its global network of partners in more than 60 countries, from Ireland to Tanzania to a meeting of young Palestinians on the West Bank. I wish everyone could see the impact of these programs on individual lives—how a job training program in South Africa has bolstered a young man's self-confidence, how acquiring the skills of reconciliation and valuing differences has helped youth in the Balkans and in Ireland find new ways to live together peacefully, and how young people worldwide are tapping into the power of the Internet—in their classrooms, cyber cafes, and community centers—to expand their imaginations and sharpen their skills.

    Civil society institutions and nongovernmental organizations continue to play a critical role in improving conditions in young people's lives and expanding opportunities for progress. Yet it's almost impossible to overstate the private sector's stake in ensuring that young people have the skills, knowledge, and values they need to lead independent and fulfilled lives. I've been particularly heartened over the past few years by the growing number of global companies that are making a serious commitment to invest in young people. It's part of an emerging movement in which socially responsible companies are committed to upholding the “triple” bottom line that embraces responsible labor and environmental policies, as well as investments in people and communities. Corporate social responsibility is surely an acknowledgment that healthy, educated, and well-adjusted stakeholders are in everyone's best interest.

    Over the years, it's become clear that it's not enough to prepare the next generation for the demands of the workplace—as important as that is. Young people need other “life” skills—such as learning how to mediate conflicts peacefully and work as a team; how to lead healthy lives and make healthy decisions; and how to plan for the future. Perhaps most important in today's world, young people need opportunities to become leaders in their communities, to be engaged in finding solutions, and to give back.

    We know from experience that when young people have the chance to participate in a community's affairs, they gain self-esteem, confidence, and essential life skills such as decision making, conflict management, and the ability to work in diverse environments. As they build these competencies, youth begin to think of themselves as partners and stakeholders in society. They also acquire a sense of responsibility for the common good and a positive attitude toward active citizenship. I can't underscore enough the importance of ensuring that young people feel part of something larger than themselves and believe that they have something to contribute to their family, school, and society. Particularly in a time when regional and ethnic violence continues to divide communities worldwide and when young people are turning their anger and frustration into acts of violence and even terrorism, it is critical that we nurture a spirit of citizenship and democracy in this younger generation and provide greater opportunities for them to be positively engaged in their communities.

    The articles in this volume offer much practical advice and valuable experience from a wide range of experts in the fields of human development, civil society, and partnership building. But more important, they tell the larger story of what remarkable progress can be achieved when every sector of society works collaboratively to improve the conditions and prospects of today's young people. In doing so, this work contributes to a more peaceful and just world. It is, I believe, the most important story we can tell in these challenging and precarious times. And more people need to hear it.

    Foreword to Volume 4

    Graham B.Spanier, President, The Pennsylvania State University

    Every day across the United States, universities are transforming our communities in the most remarkable ways, particularly when it comes to improving the lives of children, youth, and families. From boosting science and technology education in our elementary schools to attacking poverty through early-intervention programs, the efforts of higher education are profound.

    Creative partnerships among institutions of higher education and their communities are on the upswing. In a recent report issued by the Kellogg Commission on the Future of State and Land-Grant Universities, public institutions of higher education were urged to renew their promise and bring their vast resources and expertise to bear on community, state, national, and international problems. This approach, termed engagement, is a concept that has rapidly gained enormous support in academe. Active engagement involves encouraging more interdisciplinary scholarship, applying discoveries to society's problems, and advancing the common good. It also means cultivating relationships that are mutually beneficial.

    This book is the fourth volume of the Handbook of Applied Developmental Science: Promoting Positive Child, Adolescent, and Family Development Through Research, Policies, and Programs, which outlines the breadth and depth of the important emerging field of applied developmental science. Professionals who identify themselves with this field have captured the very essence of engagement by conducting research of value to people and communities and putting that knowledge to work in those communities. Their interdisciplinary approach to some of society's most pressing problems is a major tenet of engagement, as well as the best strategy for effectively addressing the broad spectrum of issues affecting children, youth, and families. As a field of study, applied developmental science provides a blueprint for integration and relevance that other disciplines in higher education would do well to follow.

    The synthesis of perspectives in this Handbook from a wide variety of disciplines underscores the scope and complexity of the challenges that we face as we attempt to address society's complex needs. The collective knowledge found here provides a vital expansion of our understanding of human development across the life span and raises questions that merit our serious attention.

    In this volume, Adding Value to Youth and Family Development: The Engaged University and Professional Academic Outreach, the authors point to the need for more partnerships and focus on the concept of engagement, particularly with universities, as an effective tool for fostering positive human development. Higher education has a significant role to play in helping vulnerable populations overcome the obstacles that hinder their progress. If the fundamental purpose of our universities is to use our educational resources to inform and improve life experiences, then this Handbook provides an excellent collection of examples that clearly demonstrate for scholars, institutions, communities, policymakers, and others how successful engagement can make a positive difference in the world in which we live.

    As president of a large public research university, I believe institutions of higher education have an obligation to marshal their resources to address the many unmet needs of children and families. Collaborative approaches that blend practical and theoretical ideas, such as those described in the following pages, provide compelling evidence of effective university engagement through research and outreach, as well as feedback from communities and policymakers about the outcomes being experienced in the field because of these partnerships. This bidirectional relationship is a cornerstone of university engagement, providing a valuable link between science and application.

    Those who have contributed to this publication clearly understand the imperative faced by higher education: Universities must be key players in dealing with the contemporary issues affecting the lives of individuals, families, and communities. The programs and projects highlighted in this volume are the kind of scholarly work and application that define the university of tomorrow—an actively engaged institution committed to making a difference.

    Preface to Volume 1

    In the last decades of the 20th century and the first years of the present one, the nations of the world experienced myriad social problems, some old, some new, but all affecting the lives of vulnerable children, adolescents, adults, families, and communities. Many scholars and practitioners have sought to address these issues through preventing their occurrence. Others—a growing proportion—have sought to supplement, if not supplant, prevention with promotion and with attempts to enhance human development by focusing on the strengths of people and the assets of their communities.

    With either prevention or promotion approaches to improving the life chances of children, families, and communities, but especially in regard to promotion, scholars have combined dynamic developmental systems theories of human development with a range of quantitative and qualitative methodologies to address, through research and policy and program applications, the continuing and contemporary issues affecting the lives of individuals, families, and communities. Together, these issues speak to the need to establish, maintain, and enhance civil society.

    This work reflected and furthered growing interest in applied developmental science (ADS). Indeed, over the last two decades, increasing numbers of developmental scientists from diverse disciplines have come to identify themselves professionally as applied developmental scientists, as partners in building civil society. Joining under this umbrella are colleagues from allied disciplines and specialties in the biological, psychological, social, and behavioral sciences and the helping professions; they all share the goals and the vision found in ADS, that is, in the use of scientific knowledge about human development to improve the life chances of the diverse infants, children, adolescents, adults, families, and communities of the world.

    The purpose of this Handbook of Applied Developmental Science: Promoting Positive Child, Adolescent, and Family Development Through Research, Policies, and Programs is to document the state of these arts and sciences and to further the burgeoning vision within scholarship, programs, and policy applications pertinent to the potential for positive development among children, their families, and their communities. This vision is predicated on a belief that infants, children, adolescents, and families have significant strengths and capacities for healthy lives and that all people possess individual and ecological assets that can be actualized to create their well-being. Such well-being involves having a healthy start in life, living in a safe environment, receiving an education that results in marketable skills, having the opportunity to participate in community life, and living free from prejudice and discrimination. Well-being is marked by individuals who manifest caring and compassion, competence, confidence, positive connections to others, and character. Such individuals, and the families and communities that support them, may be said to be thriving.

    The positive psychology movement engaging many contemporary scholars is one instance of this perspective, for example, as evidenced in the January 2000 issue of the American Psychologist, edited by Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi. For too long, traditions in the behavioral sciences and the helping professions have focused on the negative aspects of human behavior and development, for example, risk, disorders, and pathology and people's problems, deficits, or weaknesses. Positive psychology, as well as the independent but conceptually consonant ideas that have arisen under the labels of positive youth development, child well-being, community youth development, developmental assets, and thriving, replaces these deficit-oriented approaches by articulating the power of salubrious and strength-based approaches.

    Accordingly, the contributions of colleagues involved in the area of positive psychology are consistent with the more than decade-long commitment of organizations such as the National 4-H Council and the International Youth Foundation to the promotion of community youth development or to positive infant, child, and adolescent development. This latter work represents commitments of the practitioner and philanthropic communities to the growing stress on enhancing the positive features and well-being of the world's young people. Similarly, this emphasis is reflected in the work of Search Institute, which seeks to facilitate the alignment of the individual and ecological assets of communities to promote thriving among infants, children, and adolescents. The accomplishments of these groups, as well as scores of other contributors to applied developmental science, are represented in this Handbook.

    The growing interest in the promotion of positive development offers scholars, practitioners, and policymakers a new and exciting range of theoretical ideas, data sets, programming strategies, evaluation methods, and policy options. No scholarly publication has organized, integrated, and extended both the prevention and promotion orientations to programs and policies for children, adolescents, and families. This Handbook is a comprehensive resource aimed at making this contribution, providing both a statement of the current state of research and programs and some predictions about where they will be headed during the first decades of the 21st century.

    We see the publication of this Handbook as a particularly timely event, given the character of the challenges facing infants, children, adolescents, and families at the dawn of this new millennium. Each year, as the world's repository of natural resources declines, its population of children increases by 100 million. How in the year 2010 will these 1 billion additional children be fed, clothed, and housed? How will their energy needs will be met? How will the world's economies grow the hundreds of millions of jobs required so that these young people are able to contribute effectively and productively to their own well-being and that of their families and communities? Finally, how will we manage to reduce the marginalization of young people that still occurs—in the United States and around the globe—so that all young people thrive as engaged citizens of a single, interconnected civil society? The contributors to this Handbook offer analyses and proposals for addressing these concerns and for building our global civil society.

    If we aspire to not only prevent problems of behavior and development in the world's infants, children, and adolescents but also to promote positive life outcomes and to further social justice and civil society, the scope and complexity of the science that informs application must be greatly enhanced. The challenge for policy and programs is enormous, but no less of a challenge exists for science. This challenge is especially true in relation to the now predominant theoretical and empirical approaches to understanding human life, that is, the perspectives framed by developmental systems models. These approaches conceptualize and study human behavior and development as a process involving integrated and changing relations among the biological, psychological, spiritual, social, cultural, physical, ecological, and historical variables comprising human life. The agenda for the application of developmental science framed by such models is to conduct scholarly activities in a manner and with timeliness that provide the highest-quality scholarship with a content and an ethical sensibility that efficiently and effectively meet diverse and complex community needs.

    As illustrated by the contributions across the four volumes of the Handbook, key items in this agenda include the following:

    • Developing change- and context-sensitive measures of child well-being or thriving and of the individual and community assets that promote positive development among diverse infants, children, and adolescents
    • Designing and implementing program evaluations that (a) identify program effects when they occur, (b) improve the day-to-day quality of a program, and (c) empower program participants and other stakeholders to bring to scale and sustain effective programs
    • Serving the community through the use of tools of outreach scholarship, such as needs assessment, asset mapping, issues identification, technical assistance, consultation, continuing education and training, demonstration research, and participatory action research
    • Leveraging the resources of higher-education institutions to engage proactively in partnerships with community institutions, involving, for instance, (a) community-collaborative research, program design, implementation, and evaluation; (b) joint economic development, business/industry partnerships, and neighborhood revitalization; and (c) undergraduate service learning and graduate/professional training within the context of collaborations between the not-for-profit/nongovernmental organization (NGO) sectors and governmental sectors of the community
    • Engaging policymakers and funders through dissemination of information about (a) the effectiveness of community programs promoting child well-being, (b) the impact of current policies on child well-being and positive development, and (c) the potential of possible policy innovations on child well-being and positive development

    In short, there is a vast and interrelated set of research, program, and policy actions being undertaken by individuals and institutions involved in the process of fostering generations of healthy children. In civil society, all citizens are part of this collaborative network. Existing institutional, professional, and youth-serving organizational groups are developing innovative ideas and bold action agendas to address the challenges faced by today's and tomorrow's children. In addition, new concepts are being articulated, and new and promising individual and collective efforts are being created and honed to address these challenges.

    This Handbook is the first of its type to present the breadth and depth of these efforts. Volume 1, Applying Developmental Science for Youth and Families: Historical and Theoretical Foundations, is framed by an opening section that presents the historical development and current theoretical, methodological, and substantive architecture of the scientific and professional efforts to develop policies and programs promoting positive child, adolescent, and family development. This section serves as a rationale for the organization of the entire Handbook. The next section of this volume contains chapters about the innovative theoretical and conceptual issues pertinent to applying developmental science in promoting positive infant, child, adolescent, and family development. This section underscores a central theme in current scholarship and application: the need to develop policies and programs that appropriately treat the bidirectional (or in other terms, reciprocal, dynamic, or systemic) relations among diverse individuals and their diverse contexts.

    In addition, this section underscores another level of relation that is central in understanding the distinct developmental trajectories involved in diverse person-context relations. This level is the bidirectional linkage that exists between theory and application. Throughout this section, contributors explain how a developmental systems view of human development is both a product and a producer of an integrated understanding of the theory ← → application relation involved in the promotion of positive infant, child, and adolescent development.

    Accordingly, the second volume of the Handbook, Enhancing the Life Chances of Youth and Families: Contributions of Programs, Policies, and Service Systems, focuses on issues pertinent to capitalizing on the human developmental system that address (a) the risks to healthy development that exist across the first two decades in the lives of infants, children, and adolescents and in turn (b) the opportunities that exist to use the assets of infants, children, and adolescents and their communities to promote positive development. These opportunities are discussed in regard to promoting positive infant, child, adolescent, and family development through professional practice; the role of public child- and family-serving systems in fostering healthy development; and the ways in which public policies may be engaged to create, bring to scale, and sustain an effective child and family agenda. As such, the sections of this volume of the Handbook focus on the contemporary areas of challenge and opportunity within which infant, child, and adolescent and family policy are engaged or analyzed and programs are designed and implemented.

    Of course, the design, implementation, and evaluation of infant-, child-, adolescent-, and family-serving programs and policies occur in many settings and involve the actions of numerous agents and institutions of civil society. The third volume of the Handbook, Promoting Positive Youth and Family Development: Community Systems, Citizenship, and Civil Society, presents information pertinent to the contributions of these tiers or sectors to promoting positive infant, child, and adolescent development. This volume includes chapters that present the contributions of the United States and the international NGO communities; the philanthropic sector; the infant-, child-, adolescent- and health-serving professions; and the faith communities. In short, Volume 3 of the Handbook is devoted to explaining the current and future contributions of each of these types of institutions, organizations, or communities.

    Finally, the fourth volume of the Handbook, Adding Value to Youth and Family Development: The Engaged University and Professional and Academic Outreach, is devoted to understanding how universities and communities may collaborate in the service of promoting positive infant, child, adolescent, and family development. The initial section of this volume discusses the concept of and the several models reflecting the engaged university (a term we use to include the range of postsecondary educational institutions that exist in communities). The remaining two sections of this volume discuss the forms of outreach pursued by applied developmental scientists with different disciplinary and professional training, respectively. In addition, Volume 4 discusses the ethics of community-collaborative scholarship pertinent to the promotion of positive infant, child, adolescent, and family development.

    There are numerous people to thank in regard to the preparation of this Handbook. First and foremost, we are indebted to the contributors. Their scholarship and dedication to excellence and social relevance in developmental science and its application enabled this work to be produced and to serve as a model of how scholarship may contribute both to knowledge and the positive development of people across their life spans. We are also in great debt to the superb scholars who served on the editorial board of the Handbook: Peter L. Benson, Joan M. Bergstrom, Dale A. Blyth, Jacquelynne S. Eccles, Celia B. Fisher, Donald T. Floyd Jr., Karen Hein, Donald J. Hernandez, Paul Jellinek, Rick R. Little, Peter Pecora, Michael C. Roberts, Catherine J. Ross, T. R. Saraswathi, Jack P. Shonkoff, Graham B. Spanier, Ruby Takanishi, Carl S. Taylor, Linda S. Thompson, and Richard A. Weinberg. The guidance and wisdom of these colleagues are deeply appreciated and gratefully acknowledged. We are also especially indebted to Edward Zigler, the Honorable Elijah E. Cummings, David Bell, and Graham B. Spanier for their generous and insightful forewords to Volumes 1 through 4 of the Handbook, respectively.

    Our colleagues and students at Tufts University and at the Eliot-Pearson Department of Child Development were great resources to us in the development of this volume. We thank Karyn Lu, Managing Editor of the Applied Developmental Science Institute's Publications Program in Eliot-Pearson, for her expert editorial support and guidance. Jim Brace-Thompson, our editor at Sage Publications, was a constant source of excellent advice, encouragement, and collegial support, and we are pleased to acknowledge our gratitude to him. We thank Sanford Robinson, senior production editor at Sage, for his meticulous work in overseeing the production of the Handbook.

    Finally, we deeply appreciate the love and support given to us by our families during our work on this Handbook. They remain our most cherished developmental assets, and we gratefully dedicate this book to them.

    R. M.L.
    F.J.
    D.W.

    Preface to Volume 2

    In the last decades of the 20th century and the first years of the present one, the nations of the world experienced myriad social problems, some old, some new, but all affecting the lives of vulnerable children, adolescents, adults, families, and communities. Many scholars and practitioners have sought to address these issues through preventing their occurrence. Others—a growing proportion—have sought to supplement, if not supplant, prevention with promotion and with attempts to enhance human development by focusing on the strengths of people and the assets of their communities.

    With either prevention or promotion approaches to improving the life chances of children, families, and communities, but especially in regard to promotion, scholars have combined dynamic developmental systems theories of human development with a range of quantitative and qualitative methodologies to address, through research and policy and program applications, the continuing and contemporary issues affecting the lives of individuals, families, and communities. Together, these issues speak to the need to establish, maintain, and enhance civil society.

    This work reflected and furthered growing interest in applied developmental science (ADS). Indeed, over the last two decades, increasing numbers of developmental scientists from diverse disciplines have come to identify themselves professionally as applied developmental scientists, as partners in building civil society. Joining under this umbrella are colleagues from allied disciplines and specialties in the biological, psychological, social, and behavioral sciences and the helping professions; they all share the goals and the vision found in ADS, that is, in the use of scientific knowledge about human development to improve the life chances of the diverse infants, children, adolescents, adults, families, and communities of the world.

    The purpose of this Handbook of Applied Developmental Science: Promoting Positive Child, Adolescent, and Family Development Through Research, Policies, and Programs is to document the state of these arts and sciences and to further the burgeoning vision within scholarship, programs, and policy applications pertinent to the potential for positive development among children, their families, and their communities. This vision is predicated on a belief that infants, children, adolescents, and families have significant strengths and capacities for healthy lives and that all people possess individual and ecological assets that can be actualized to create their well-being. Such well-being involves having a healthy start in life, living in a safe environment, receiving an education that results in marketable skills, having the opportunity to participate in community life, and living free from prejudice and discrimination. Well-being is marked by individuals who manifest caring and compassion, competence, confidence, positive connections to others, and character. Such individuals, and the families and communities that support them, may be said to be thriving.

    The positive psychology movement engaging many contemporary scholars is one instance of this perspective, for example, as evidenced in the January 2000 issue of the American Psychologist, edited by Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi. For too long, traditions in the behavioral sciences and the helping professions have focused on the negative aspects of human behavior and development, for example, risk, disorders, and pathology and people's problems, deficits, or weaknesses. Positive psychology, as well as the independent but conceptually consonant ideas that have arisen under the labels of positive youth development, child well-being, community youth development, developmental assets, and thriving, replaces these deficit-oriented approaches by articulating the power of salubrious and strength-based approaches.

    Accordingly, the contributions of colleagues involved in the area of positive psychology are consistent with the more than decade-long commitment of organizations such as the National 4-H Council and the International Youth Foundation to the promotion of community youth development or to positive infant, child, and adolescent development. This latter work represents commitments of the practitioner and philanthropic communities to the growing stress on enhancing the positive features and well-being of the world's young people. Similarly, this emphasis is reflected in the work of Search Institute, which seeks to facilitate the alignment of the individual and ecological assets of communities to promote thriving among infants, children, and adolescents. The accomplishments of these groups, as well as scores of other contributors to applied developmental science, are represented in this Handbook.

    The growing interest in the promotion of positive development offers scholars, practitioners, and policymakers a new and exciting range of theoretical ideas, data sets, programming strategies, evaluation methods, and policy options. No scholarly publication has organized, integrated, and extended both the prevention and promotion orientations to programs and policies for children, adolescents, and families. This Handbook is a comprehensive resource aimed at making this contribution, providing both a statement of the current state of research and programs and some predictions about where they will be headed during the first decades of the 21st century.

    We see the publication of this Handbook as a particularly timely event, given the character of the challenges facing infants, children, adolescents, and families at the dawn of this new millennium. Each year, as the world's repository of natural resources declines, its population of children increases by 100 million. How in the year 2010 will these 1 billion additional children be fed, clothed, and housed? How will their energy needs will be met? How will the world's economies grow the hundreds of millions of jobs required so that these young people are able to contribute effectively and productively to their own well-being and that of their families and communities? Finally, how will we manage to reduce the marginalization of young people that still occurs—in the United States and around the globe—so that all young people thrive as engaged citizens of a single, interconnected civil society? The contributors to this Handbook offer analyses and proposals for addressing these concerns and for building our global civil society.

    If we aspire to not only prevent problems of behavior and development in the world's infants, children, and adolescents but also to promote positive life outcomes and to further social justice and civil society, the scope and complexity of the science that informs application must be greatly enhanced. The challenge for policy and programs is enormous, but no less of a challenge exists for science. This challenge is especially true in relation to the now predominant theoretical and empirical approaches to understanding human life, that is, the perspectives framed by developmental systems models. These approaches conceptualize and study human behavior and development as a process involving integrated and changing relations among the biological, psychological, spiritual, social, cultural, physical, ecological, and historical variables comprising human life. The agenda for the application of developmental science framed by such models is to conduct scholarly activities in a manner and with timeliness that provide the highest-quality scholarship with a content and an ethical sensibility that efficiently and effectively meet diverse and complex community needs.

    As illustrated by the contributions across the four volumes of the Handbook, key items in this agenda include the following:

    • Developing change- and context-sensitive measures of child well-being or thriving and of the individual and community assets that promote positive development among diverse infants, children, and adolescents
    • Designing and implementing program evaluations that (a) identify program effects when they occur, (b) improve the day-to-day quality of a program, and (c) empower program participants and other stakeholders to bring to scale and sustain effective programs
    • Serving the community through the use of tools of outreach scholarship, such as needs assessment, asset mapping, issues identification, technical assistance, consultation, continuing education and training, demonstration research, and participatory action research
    • Leveraging the resources of higher-education institutions to engage proactively in partnerships with community institutions, involving, for instance, (a) community-collaborative research, program design, implementation, and evaluation; (b) joint economic development, business/industry partnerships, and neighborhood revitalization; and (c) undergraduate service learning and graduate/professional training within the context of collaborations between the not-for-profit/nongovernmental organization (NGO) sectors and governmental sectors of the community
    • Engaging policymakers and funders through dissemination of information about (a) the effectiveness of community programs promoting child well-being, (b) the impact of current policies on child well-being and positive development, and (c) the potential of possible policy innovations on child well-being and positive development

    In short, there is a vast and interrelated set of research, program, and policy actions being undertaken by individuals and institutions involved in the process of fostering generations of healthy children. In civil society, all citizens are part of this collaborative network. Existing institutional, professional, and youth-serving organizational groups are developing innovative ideas and bold action agendas to address the challenges faced by today's and tomorrow's children. In addition, new concepts are being articulated, and new and promising individual and collective efforts are being created and honed to address these challenges.

    This Handbook is the first of its type to present the breadth and depth of these efforts. Volume 1, Applying Developmental Science for Youth and Families: Historical and Theoretical Foundations, is framed by an opening section that presents the historical development and current theoretical, methodological, and substantive architecture of the scientific and professional efforts to develop policies and programs promoting positive child, adolescent, and family development. This section serves as a rationale for the organization of the entire Handbook. The next section of this volume contains chapters about the innovative theoretical and conceptual issues pertinent to applying developmental science in promoting positive infant, child, adolescent, and family development. This section underscores a central theme in current scholarship and application: the need to develop policies and programs that appropriately treat the bidirectional (or in other terms, reciprocal, dynamic, or systemic) relations among diverse individuals and their diverse contexts.

    In addition, this section underscores another level of relation that is central in understanding the distinct developmental trajectories involved in diverse person-context relations. This level is the bidirectional linkage that exists between theory and application. Throughout this section, contributors explain how a developmental systems view of human development is both a product and a producer of an integrated understanding of the theory ← → application relation involved in the promotion of positive infant, child, and adolescent development.

    Accordingly, the second volume of the Handbook, Enhancing the Life Chances of Youth and Families: Contributions of Programs, Policies, and Service Systems, focuses on issues pertinent to capitalizing on the human developmental system that address (a) the risks to healthy development that exist across the first two decades in the lives of infants, children, and adolescents and in turn (b) the opportunities that exist to use the assets of infants, children, and adolescents and their communities to promote positive development. These opportunities are discussed in regard to promoting positive infant, child, adolescent, and family development through professional practice; the role of public child- and family-serving systems in fostering healthy development; and the ways in which public policies may be engaged to create, bring to scale, and sustain an effective child and family agenda. As such, the sections of this volume of the Handbook focus on the contemporary areas of challenge and opportunity within which infant, child, and adolescent and family policy are engaged or analyzed and programs are designed and implemented.

    Of course, the design, implementation, and evaluation of infant-, child-, adolescent-, and family-serving programs and policies occur in many settings and involve the actions of numerous agents and institutions of civil society. The third volume of the Handbook, Promoting Positive Youth and Family Development: Community Systems, Citizenship, and Civil Society, presents information pertinent to the contributions of these tiers or sectors to promoting positive infant, child, and adolescent development. This volume includes chapters that present the contributions of the United States and the international NGO communities; the philanthropic sector; the infant-, child-, adolescent- and health-serving professions; and the faith communities. In short, Volume 3 of the Handbook is devoted to explaining the current and future contributions of each of these types of institutions, organizations, or communities.

    Finally, the fourth volume of the Handbook, Adding Value to Youth and Family Development: The Engaged University and Professional and Academic Outreach, is devoted to understanding how universities and communities may collaborate in the service of promoting positive infant, child, adolescent, and family development. The initial section of this volume discusses the concept of and the several models reflecting the engaged university (a term we use to include the range of postsecondary educational institutions that exist in communities). The remaining two sections of this volume discuss the forms of outreach pursued by applied developmental scientists with different disciplinary and professional training, respectively. In addition, Volume 4 discusses the ethics of community-collaborative scholarship pertinent to the promotion of positive infant, child, adolescent, and family development.

    There are numerous people to thank in regard to the preparation of this Handbook. First and foremost, we are indebted to the contributors. Their scholarship and dedication to excellence and social relevance in developmental science and its application enabled this work to be produced and to serve as a model of how scholarship may contribute both to knowledge and the positive development of people across their life spans. We are also in great debt to the superb scholars who served on the editorial board of the Handbook: Peter L. Benson, Joan M. Bergstrom, Dale A. Blyth, Jacquelynne S. Eccles, Celia B. Fisher, Donald T. Floyd Jr., Karen Hein, Donald J. Hernandez, Paul Jellinek, Rick R. Little, Peter Pecora, Michael C. Roberts, Catherine J. Ross, T. R. Saraswathi, Jack P. Shonkoff, Graham B. Spanier, Ruby Takanishi, Carl S. Taylor, Linda S. Thompson, and Richard A. Weinberg. The guidance and wisdom of these colleagues are deeply appreciated and gratefully acknowledged. We are also especially indebted to Edward Zigler, the Honorable Elijah E. Cummings, David Bell, and Graham B. Spanier for their generous and insightful forewords to Volumes 1 through 4 of the Handbook, respectively.

    Our colleagues and students at Tufts University and at the Eliot-Pearson Department of Child Development were great resources to us in the development of this volume. We thank Karyn Lu, Managing Editor of the Applied Developmental Science Institute's Publications Program in Eliot-Pearson, for her expert editorial support and guidance. Jim Brace-Thompson, our editor at Sage Publications, was a constant source of excellent advice, encouragement, and collegial support, and we are pleased to acknowledge our gratitude to him. We thank Sanford Robinson, senior production editor at Sage, for his meticulous work in overseeing the production of the Handbook.

    Finally, we deeply appreciate the love and support given to us by our families during our work on this Handbook. They remain our most cherished developmental assets, and we gratefully dedicate this book to them.

    F.J.
    D.W.
    R. M.L.

    Preface to Volume 3

    In the last decades of the 20th century and the first years of the present one, the nations of the world experienced myriad social problems, some old, some new, but all affecting the lives of vulnerable children, adolescents, adults, families, and communities. Many scholars and practitioners have sought to address these issues through preventing their occurrence. Others—a growing proportion—have sought to supplement, if not supplant, prevention with promotion and with attempts to enhance human development by focusing on the strengths of people and the assets of their communities.

    With either prevention or promotion approaches to improving the life chances of children, families, and communities, but especially in regard to promotion, scholars have combined dynamic developmental systems theories of human development with a range of quantitative and qualitative methodologies to address, through research and policy and program applications, the continuing and contemporary issues affecting the lives of individuals, families, and communities. Together, these issues speak to the need to establish, maintain, and enhance civil society.

    This work reflected and furthered growing interest in applied developmental science (ADS). Indeed, over the last two decades, increasing numbers of developmental scientists from diverse disciplines have come to identify themselves professionally as applied developmental scientists, as partners in building civil society. Joining under this umbrella are colleagues from allied disciplines and specialties in the biological, psychological, social, and behavioral sciences and the helping professions; they all share the goals and the vision found in ADS, that is, in the use of scientific knowledge about human development to improve the life chances of the diverse infants, children, adolescents, adults, families, and communities of the world.

    The purpose of this Handbook of Applied Developmental Science: Promoting Positive Child, Adolescent, and Family Development Through Research, Policies, and Programs is to document the state of these arts and sciences and to further the burgeoning vision within scholarship, programs, and policy applications pertinent to the potential for positive development among children, their families, and their communities. This vision is predicated on a belief that infants, children, adolescents, and families have significant strengths and capacities for healthy lives and that all people possess individual and ecological assets that can be actualized to create their well-being. Such well-being involves having a healthy start in life, living in a safe environment, receiving an education that results in marketable skills, having the opportunity to participate in community life, and living free from prejudice and discrimination. Well-being is marked by individuals who manifest caring and compassion, competence, confidence, positive connections to others, and character. Such individuals, and the families and communities that support them, may be said to be thriving.

    The positive psychology movement engaging many contemporary scholars is one instance of this perspective, for example, as evidenced in the January 2000 issue of the American Psychologist, edited by Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi. For too long, traditions in the behavioral sciences and the helping professions have focused on the negative aspects of human behavior and development, for example, risk, disorders, and pathology and people's problems, deficits, or weaknesses. Positive psychology, as well as the independent but conceptually consonant ideas that have arisen under the labels of positive youth development, child well-being, community youth development, developmental assets, and thriving, replaces these deficit-oriented approaches by articulating the power of salubrious and strength-based approaches.

    Accordingly, the contributions of colleagues involved in the area of positive psychology are consistent with the more than decade-long commitment of organizations such as the National 4-H Council and the International Youth Foundation to the promotion of community youth development or to positive infant, child, and adolescent development. This latter work represents commitments of the practitioner and philanthropic communities to the growing stress on enhancing the positive features and well-being of the world's young people. Similarly, this emphasis is reflected in the work of Search Institute, which seeks to facilitate the alignment of the individual and ecological assets of communities to promote thriving among infants, children, and adolescents. The accomplishments of these groups, as well as scores of other contributors to applied developmental science, are represented in this Handbook.

    The growing interest in the promotion of positive development offers scholars, practitioners, and policymakers a new and exciting range of theoretical ideas, data sets, programming strategies, evaluation methods, and policy options. No scholarly publication has organized, integrated, and extended both the prevention and promotion orientations to programs and policies for children, adolescents, and families. This Handbook is a comprehensive resource aimed at making this contribution, providing both a statement of the current state of research and programs and some predictions about where they will be headed during the first decades of the 21st century.

    We see the publication of this Handbook as a particularly timely event, given the character of the challenges facing infants, children, adolescents, and families at the dawn of this new millennium. Each year, as the world's repository of natural resources declines, its population of children increases by 100 million. How in the year 2010 will these 1 billion additional children be fed, clothed, and housed? How will their energy needs will be met? How will the world's economies grow the hundreds of millions of jobs required so that these young people are able to contribute effectively and productively to their own well-being and that of their families and communities? Finally, how will we manage to reduce the marginalization of young people that still occurs—in the United States and around the globe—so that all young people thrive as engaged citizens of a single, interconnected civil society? The contributors to this Handbook offer analyses and proposals for addressing these concerns and for building our global civil society.

    If we aspire to not only prevent problems of behavior and development in the world's infants, children, and adolescents but also to promote positive life outcomes and to further social justice and civil society, the scope and complexity of the science that informs application must be greatly enhanced. The challenge for policy and programs is enormous, but no less of a challenge exists for science. This challenge is especially true in relation to the now predominant theoretical and empirical approaches to understanding human life, that is, the perspectives framed by developmental systems models. These approaches conceptualize and study human behavior and development as a process involving integrated and changing relations among the biological, psychological, spiritual, social, cultural, physical, ecological, and historical variables comprising human life. The agenda for the application of developmental science framed by such models is to conduct scholarly activities in a manner and with timeliness that provide the highest-quality scholarship with a content and an ethical sensibility that efficiently and effectively meet diverse and complex community needs.

    As illustrated by the contributions across the four volumes of the Handbook, key items in this agenda include the following:

    • Developing change- and context-sensitive measures of child well-being or thriving and of the individual and community assets that promote positive development among diverse infants, children, and adolescents
    • Designing and implementing program evaluations that (a) identify program effects when they occur, (b) improve the day-to-day quality of a program, and (c) empower program participants and other stakeholders to bring to scale and sustain effective programs
    • Serving the community through the use of tools of outreach scholarship, such as needs assessment, asset mapping, issues identification, technical assistance, consultation, continuing education and training, demonstration research, and participatory action research
    • Leveraging the resources of higher-education institutions to engage proactively in partnerships with community institutions, involving, for instance, (a) community-collaborative research, program design, implementation, and evaluation; (b) joint economic development, business/industry partnerships, and neighborhood revitalization; and (c) undergraduate service learning and graduate/professional training within the context of collaborations between the not-for-profit/nongovernmental organization (NGO) sectors and governmental sectors of the community
    • Engaging policymakers and funders through dissemination of information about (a) the effectiveness of community programs promoting child well-being, (b) the impact of current policies on child well-being and positive development, and (c) the potential of possible policy innovations on child well-being and positive development

    In short, there is a vast and interrelated set of research, program, and policy actions being undertaken by individuals and institutions involved in the process of fostering generations of healthy children. In civil society, all citizens are part of this collaborative network. Existing institutional, professional, and youth-serving organizational groups are developing innovative ideas and bold action agendas to address the challenges faced by today's and tomorrow's children. In addition, new concepts are being articulated, and new and promising individual and collective efforts are being created and honed to address these challenges.

    This Handbook is the first of its type to present the breadth and depth of these efforts. Volume 1, Applying Developmental Science for Youth and Families: Historical and Theoretical Foundations, is framed by an opening section that presents the historical development and current theoretical, methodological, and substantive architecture of the scientific and professional efforts to develop policies and programs promoting positive child, adolescent, and family development. This section serves as a rationale for the organization of the entire Handbook. The next section of this volume contains chapters about the innovative theoretical and conceptual issues pertinent to applying developmental science in promoting positive infant, child, adolescent, and family development. This section underscores a central theme in current scholarship and application: the need to develop policies and programs that appropriately treat the bidirectional (or in other terms, reciprocal, dynamic, or systemic) relations among diverse individuals and their diverse contexts.

    In addition, this section underscores another level of relation that is central in understanding the distinct developmental trajectories involved in diverse person-context relations. This level is the bidirectional linkage that exists between theory and application. Throughout this section, contributors explain how a developmental systems view of human development is both a product and a producer of an integrated understanding of the theory ← → application relation involved in the promotion of positive infant, child, and adolescent development.

    Accordingly, the second volume of the Handbook, Enhancing the Life Chances of Youth and Families: Contributions of Programs, Policies, and Service Systems, focuses on issues pertinent to capitalizing on the human developmental system that address (a) the risks to healthy development that exist across the first two decades in the lives of infants, children, and adolescents and in turn (b) the opportunities that exist to use the assets of infants, children, and adolescents and their communities to promote positive development. These opportunities are discussed in regard to promoting positive infant, child, adolescent, and family development through professional practice; the role of public child- and family-serving systems in fostering healthy development; and the ways in which public policies may be engaged to create, bring to scale, and sustain an effective child and family agenda. As such, the sections of this volume of the Handbook focus on the contemporary areas of challenge and opportunity within which infant, child, and adolescent and family policy are engaged or analyzed and programs are designed and implemented.

    Of course, the design, implementation, and evaluation of infant-, child-, adolescent-, and family-serving programs and policies occur in many settings and involve the actions of numerous agents and institutions of civil society. The third volume of the Handbook, Promoting Positive Youth and Family Development: Community Systems, Citizenship, and Civil Society, presents information pertinent to the contributions of these tiers or sectors to promoting positive infant, child, and adolescent development. This volume includes chapters that present the contributions of the United States and the international NGO communities; the philanthropic sector; the infant-, child-, adolescent- and health-serving professions; and the faith communities. In short, Volume 3 of the Handbook is devoted to explaining the current and future contributions of each of these types of institutions, organizations, or communities.

    Finally, the fourth volume of the Handbook, Adding Value to Youth and Family Development: The Engaged University and Professional and Academic Outreach, is devoted to understanding how universities and communities may collaborate in the service of promoting positive infant, child, adolescent, and family development. The initial section of this volume discusses the concept of and the several models reflecting the engaged university (a term we use to include the range of postsecondary educational institutions that exist in communities). The remaining two sections of this volume discuss the forms of outreach pursued by applied developmental scientists with different disciplinary and professional training, respectively. In addition, Volume 4 discusses the ethics of community-collaborative scholarship pertinent to the promotion of positive infant, child, adolescent, and family development.

    There are numerous people to thank in regard to the preparation of this Handbook. First and foremost, we are indebted to the contributors. Their scholarship and dedication to excellence and social relevance in developmental science and its application enabled this work to be produced and to serve as a model of how scholarship may contribute both to knowledge and the positive development of people across their life spans. We are also in great debt to the superb scholars who served on the editorial board of the Handbook: Peter L. Benson, Joan M. Bergstrom, Dale A. Blyth, Jacquelynne S. Eccles, Celia B. Fisher, Donald T. Floyd Jr., Karen Hein, Donald J. Hernandez, Paul Jellinek, Rick R. Little, Peter Pecora, Michael C. Roberts, Catherine J. Ross, T. R. Saraswathi, Jack P. Shonkoff, Graham B. Spanier, Ruby Takanishi, Carl S. Taylor, Linda S. Thompson, and Richard A. Weinberg. The guidance and wisdom of these colleagues are deeply appreciated and gratefully acknowledged. We are also especially indebted to Edward Zigler, the Honorable Elijah E. Cummings, David Bell, and Graham B. Spanier for their generous and insightful forewords to Volumes 1 through 4 of the Handbook, respectively.

    Our colleagues and students at Tufts University and at the Eliot-Pearson Department of Child Development were great resources to us in the development of this volume. We thank Karyn Lu, Managing Editor of the Applied Developmental Science Institute's Publications Program in Eliot-Pearson, for her expert editorial support and guidance. Jim Brace-Thompson, our editor at Sage Publications, was a constant source of excellent advice, encouragement, and collegial support, and we are pleased to acknowledge our gratitude to him. We thank Sanford Robinson, senior production editor at Sage, for his meticulous work in overseeing the production of the Handbook.

    Finally, we deeply appreciate the love and support given to us by our families during our work on this Handbook. They remain our most cherished developmental assets, and we gratefully dedicate this book to them.

    D.W.
    F.J.
    R. M.L.

    Preface to Volume 4

    In the last decades of the 20th century and the first years of the present one, the nations of the world experienced myriad social problems, some old, some new, but all affecting the lives of vulnerable children, adolescents, adults, families, and communities. Many scholars and practitioners have sought to address these issues through preventing their occurrence. Others—a growing proportion—have sought to supplement, if not supplant, prevention with promotion and with attempts to enhance human development by focusing on the strengths of people and the assets of their communities.

    With either prevention or promotion approaches to improving the life chances of children, families, and communities, but especially in regard to promotion, scholars have combined dynamic developmental systems theories of human development with a range of quantitative and qualitative methodologies to address, through research and policy and program applications, the continuing and contemporary issues affecting the lives of individuals, families, and communities. Together, these issues speak to the need to establish, maintain, and enhance civil society.

    This work reflected and furthered growing interest in applied developmental science (ADS). Indeed, over the last two decades, increasing numbers of developmental scientists from diverse disciplines have come to identify themselves professionally as applied developmental scientists, as partners in building civil society. Joining under this umbrella are colleagues from allied disciplines and specialties in the biological, psychological, social, and behavioral sciences and the helping professions; they all share the goals and the vision found in ADS, that is, in the use of scientific knowledge about human development to improve the life chances of the diverse infants, children, adolescents, adults, families, and communities of the world.

    The purpose of this Handbook of Applied Developmental Science: Promoting Positive Child, Adolescent, and Family Development Through Research, Policies, and Programs is to document the state of these arts and sciences and to further the burgeoning vision within scholarship, programs, and policy applications pertinent to the potential for positive development among children, their families, and their communities. This vision is predicated on a belief that infants, children, adolescents, and families have significant strengths and capacities for healthy lives and that all people possess individual and ecological assets that can be actualized to create their well-being. Such well-being involves having a healthy start in life, living in a safe environment, receiving an education that results in marketable skills, having the opportunity to participate in community life, and living free from prejudice and discrimination. Well-being is marked by individuals who manifest caring and compassion, competence, confidence, positive connections to others, and character. Such individuals, and the families and communities that support them, may be said to be thriving.

    The positive psychology movement engaging many contemporary scholars is one instance of this perspective, for example, as evidenced in the January 2000 issue of the American Psychologist, edited by Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi. For too long, traditions in the behavioral sciences and the helping professions have focused on the negative aspects of human behavior and development, for example, risk, disorders, and pathology and people's problems, deficits, or weaknesses. Positive psychology, as well as the independent but conceptually consonant ideas that have arisen under the labels of positive youth development, child well-being, community youth development, developmental assets, and thriving, replaces these deficit-oriented approaches by articulating the power of salubrious and strength-based approaches.

    Accordingly, the contributions of colleagues involved in the area of positive psychology are consistent with the more than decade-long commitment of organizations such as the National 4-H Council and the International Youth Foundation to the promotion of community youth development or to positive infant, child, and adolescent development. This latter work represents commitments of the practitioner and philanthropic communities to the growing stress on enhancing the positive features and well-being of the world's young people. Similarly, this emphasis is reflected in the work of Search Institute, which seeks to facilitate the alignment of the individual and ecological assets of communities to promote thriving among infants, children, and adolescents. The accomplishments of these groups, as well as scores of other contributors to applied developmental science, are represented in this Handbook.

    The growing interest in the promotion of positive development offers scholars, practitioners, and policymakers a new and exciting range of theoretical ideas, data sets, programming strategies, evaluation methods, and policy options. No scholarly publication has organized, integrated, and extended both the prevention and promotion orientations to programs and policies for children, adolescents, and families. This Handbook is a comprehensive resource aimed at making this contribution, providing both a statement of the current state of research and programs and some predictions about where they will be headed during the first decades of the 21st century.

    We see the publication of this Handbook as a particularly timely event, given the character of the challenges facing infants, children, adolescents, and families at the dawn of this new millennium. Each year, as the world's repository of natural resources declines, its population of children increases by 100 million. How in the year 2010 will these 1 billion additional children be fed, clothed, and housed? How will their energy needs will be met? How will the world's economies grow the hundreds of millions of jobs required so that these young people are able to contribute effectively and productively to their own well-being and that of their families and communities? Finally, how will we manage to reduce the marginalization of young people that still occurs—in the United States and around the globe—so that all young people thrive as engaged citizens of a single, interconnected civil society? The contributors to this Handbook offer analyses and proposals for addressing these concerns and for building our global civil society.

    If we aspire to not only prevent problems of behavior and development in the world's infants, children, and adolescents but also to promote positive life outcomes and to further social justice and civil society, the scope and complexity of the science that informs application must be greatly enhanced. The challenge for policy and programs is enormous, but no less of a challenge exists for science. This challenge is especially true in relation to the now predominant theoretical and empirical approaches to understanding human life, that is, the perspectives framed by developmental systems models. These approaches conceptualize and study human behavior and development as a process involving integrated and changing relations among the biological, psychological, spiritual, social, cultural, physical, ecological, and historical variables comprising human life. The agenda for the application of developmental science framed by such models is to conduct scholarly activities in a manner and with timeliness that provide the highest-quality scholarship with a content and an ethical sensibility that efficiently and effectively meet diverse and complex community needs.

    As illustrated by the contributions across the four volumes of the Handbook, key items in this agenda include the following:

    • Developing change- and context-sensitive measures of child well-being or thriving and of the individual and community assets that promote positive development among diverse infants, children, and adolescents
    • Designing and implementing program evaluations that (a) identify program effects when they occur, (b) improve the day-to-day quality of a program, and (c) empower program participants and other stakeholders to bring to scale and sustain effective programs
    • Serving the community through the use of tools of outreach scholarship, such as needs assessment, asset mapping, issues identification, technical assistance, consultation, continuing education and training, demonstration research, and participatory action research
    • Leveraging the resources of higher-education institutions to engage proactively in partnerships with community institutions, involving, for instance, (a) community-collaborative research, program design, implementation, and evaluation; (b) joint economic development, business/industry partnerships, and neighborhood revitalization; and (c) undergraduate service learning and graduate/professional training within the context of collaborations between the not-for-profit/nongovernmental organization (NGO) sectors and governmental sectors of the community
    • Engaging policymakers and funders through dissemination of information about (a) the effectiveness of community programs promoting child well-being, (b) the impact of current policies on child well-being and positive development, and (c) the potential of possible policy innovations on child well-being and positive development

    In short, there is a vast and interrelated set of research, program, and policy actions being undertaken by individuals and institutions involved in the process of fostering generations of healthy children. In civil society, all citizens are part of this collaborative network. Existing institutional, professional, and youth-serving organizational groups are developing innovative ideas and bold action agendas to address the challenges faced by today's and tomorrow's children. In addition, new concepts are being articulated, and new and promising individual and collective efforts are being created and honed to address these challenges.

    This Handbook is the first of its type to present the breadth and depth of these efforts. Volume 1, Applying Developmental Science for Youth and Families: Historical and Theoretical Foundations, is framed by an opening section that presents the historical development and current theoretical, methodological, and substantive architecture of the scientific and professional efforts to develop policies and programs promoting positive child, adolescent, and family development. This section serves as a rationale for the organization of the entire Handbook. The next section of this volume contains chapters about the innovative theoretical and conceptual issues pertinent to applying developmental science in promoting positive infant, child, adolescent, and family development. This section underscores a central theme in current scholarship and application: the need to develop policies and programs that appropriately treat the bidirectional (or in other terms, reciprocal, dynamic, or systemic) relations among diverse individuals and their diverse contexts.

    In addition, this section underscores another level of relation that is central in understanding the distinct developmental trajectories involved in diverse person-context relations. This level is the bidirectional linkage that exists between theory and application. Throughout this section, contributors explain how a developmental systems view of human development is both a product and a producer of an integrated understanding of the theory ← → application relation involved in the promotion of positive infant, child, and adolescent development.

    Accordingly, the second volume of the Handbook, Enhancing the Life Chances of Youth and Families: Contributions of Programs, Policies, and Service Systems, focuses on issues pertinent to capitalizing on the human developmental system that address (a) the risks to healthy development that exist across the first two decades in the lives of infants, children, and adolescents and in turn (b) the opportunities that exist to use the assets of infants, children, and adolescents and their communities to promote positive development. These opportunities are discussed in regard to promoting positive infant, child, adolescent, and family development through professional practice; the role of public child- and family-serving systems in fostering healthy development; and the ways in which public policies may be engaged to create, bring to scale, and sustain an effective child and family agenda. As such, the sections of this volume of the Handbook focus on the contemporary areas of challenge and opportunity within which infant, child, and adolescent and family policy are engaged or analyzed and programs are designed and implemented.

    Of course, the design, implementation, and evaluation of infant-, child-, adolescent-, and family-serving programs and policies occur in many settings and involve the actions of numerous agents and institutions of civil society. The third volume of the Handbook, Promoting Positive Youth and Family Development: Community Systems, Citizenship, and Civil Society, presents information pertinent to the contributions of these tiers or sectors to promoting positive infant, child, and adolescent development. This volume includes chapters that present the contributions of the United States and the international NGO communities; the philanthropic sector; the infant-, child-, adolescent- and health-serving professions; and the faith communities. In short, Volume 3 of the Handbook is devoted to explaining the current and future contributions of each of these types of institutions, organizations, or communities.

    Finally, the fourth volume of the Handbook, Adding Value to Youth and Family Development: The Engaged University and Professional and Academic Outreach, is devoted to understanding how universities and communities may collaborate in the service of promoting positive infant, child, adolescent, and family development. The initial section of this volume discusses the concept of and the several models reflecting the engaged university (a term we use to include the range of postsecondary educational institutions that exist in communities). The remaining two sections of this volume discuss the forms of outreach pursued by applied developmental scientists with different disciplinary and professional training, respectively. In addition, Volume 4 discusses the ethics of community-collaborative scholarship pertinent to the promotion of positive infant, child, adolescent, and family development.

    There are numerous people to thank in regard to the preparation of this Handbook. First and foremost, we are indebted to the contributors. Their scholarship and dedication to excellence and social relevance in developmental science and its application enabled this work to be produced and to serve as a model of how scholarship may contribute both to knowledge and the positive development of people across their life spans. We are also in great debt to the superb scholars who served on the editorial board of the Handbook: Peter L. Benson, Joan M. Bergstrom, Dale A. Blyth, Jacquelynne S. Eccles, Celia B. Fisher, Donald T. Floyd Jr., Karen Hein, Donald J. Hernandez, Paul Jellinek, Rick R. Little, Peter Pecora, Michael C. Roberts, Catherine J. Ross, T. R. Saraswathi, Jack P. Shonkoff, Graham B. Spanier, Ruby Takanishi, Carl S. Taylor, Linda S. Thompson, and Richard A. Weinberg. The guidance and wisdom of these colleagues are deeply appreciated and gratefully acknowledged. We are also especially indebted to Edward Zigler, the Honorable Elijah E. Cummings, David Bell, and Graham B. Spanier for their generous and insightful forewords to Volumes 1 through 4 of the Handbook, respectively.

    Our colleagues and students at Tufts University and at the Eliot-Pearson Department of Child Development were great resources to us in the development of this volume. We thank Karyn Lu, Managing Editor of the Applied Developmental Science Institute's Publications Program in Eliot-Pearson, for her expert editorial support and guidance. Jim Brace-Thompson, our editor at Sage Publications, was a constant source of excellent advice, encouragement, and collegial support, and we are pleased to acknowledge our gratitude to him. We thank Sanford Robinson, senior production editor at Sage, for his meticulous work in overseeing the production of the Handbook.

    Finally, we deeply appreciate the love and support given to us by our families during our work on this Handbook. They remain our most cherished developmental assets, and we gratefully dedicate this book to them.

    R. M.L.
    D.W.
    F.J.
  • Author Index