Handbook for Child Protection Practice

Handbooks

Edited by: Howard Dubowitz & Diane DePanfilis

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Reporting and Screening

    Part II: Engagement

    Part III: Interviewing

    Part IV: Initial Assessment

    Part V: Family Assessment

    Part VI: Service Planning

    Part VII: Intervention

    Part VIII: Evaluation and Closure

    Part IX: Legal and Ethical Issues

    Part X: Child Protection Practice: Special Issues for the Practitioner

  • Dedication

    We dedicate this book to: All the professionals dedicated to enhancing children's safety, health, and well-being and

    by Howard: To my wife, Diana, for being my best friend, and to my children, Nikki and Andy, for all the joys of being a dad

    by Diane: To my husband, Joseph Gene Wechsler, for being my partner, consultant, computer guru, and friend, and to my son, Jacob Hae Wechsler (age 9), for helping remind me to “slow down and take time out”

    Copyright

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    Preface

    Working in the field of child abuse and neglect presents many challenges. On an emotional level, seeing children hurt and families struggling is painful. The resources needed to substantially help families are frequently in short supply. Also, even when we have good resources, changing the complex circumstances contributing to children's maltreatment is an immense challenge. It is the nature of this field that it spans several disciplines, including social work, mental health, medicine, public health, nursing, law enforcement, law, and education. Many professionals in each of these disciplines, however, have not been adequately prepared for their work with abused and neglected children and their families. In addition, professionals working in this field need to know a good deal about the related disciplines—pediatricians need to be knowledgeable of the law, and social workers need to know about medicine—thus presenting another challenge. In this context, important decisions must be made: We say to families, “Your child has been abused or neglected,” “You need help,” “Your child is not safe in your care and we need to place him or her elsewhere,” and “Your child cannot return to your care.”

    We hope that this book will provide valuable and practical guidance to professionals confronting these challenges. We recognized that it is often not easy in the course of busy days to fully examine and learn about the many complex issues that present in practice. This book is a compromise. With the help of leading experts in many areas, we have prioritized the most important information on a wide array of clinical issues and tried to present it in a way that should be easy to access and be useful. We have the busy practitioner in mind, and we have strived to succinctly convey key information. For those seeking additional information, many chapters recommend key books, chapters, and articles as well as other excellent resources.

    How did we determine the contents of this book? We first drafted a long list of topics we thought were important. We sent this list to approximately 30 professionals in our field of child abuse and neglect (Appendix 1), and we asked them to rate the importance of each topic and to recommend topics we had omitted. Their input helped us develop the final contents. It was impossible to cover everything identified; some tough choices had to be made. Inevitably, there will be some disagreement about what is included and what is not. Nevertheless, this book represents a reasonable consensus among a fair number of professionals in the field. We also welcome your feedback. Please let us know your ideas.

    Projects such as this book involve many people, and there are many we wish to thank. First, we are grateful to Terry Hendrix at Sage for his enthusiastic support. He did not need much convincing and quickly agreed that this book should meet an important need. Also, Kassie Gavrilis and Diana Axelsen at Sage have been a pleasure to work with. The contributing authors have done a terrific job. It is surprisingly difficult to distill a great amount of information into a few pages, and we are very appreciative of their fine work. We thank the many professionals who carefully considered this project and provided excellent guidance. On a daily basis, our work in this field is sustained by working with wonderful colleagues at the University of Maryland, many professionals across the disciplines in Baltimore and Maryland, and members of the American Professional Society for the Abuse of Children. Jan Miller provided invaluable clerical support.

    Despite the many challenges, working in this important field is deeply satisfying and a real joy. We have learned much from editing this book. We hope that others will benefit as we have. Most important, by constantly striving to improve our practice, the children and families we serve will benefit.

  • Appendix 1: Advisory Group on Chapter Topics

    We thank the following individuals who helped identify topics for potential chapters or rated the importance of a draft list of chapter topics or both:

    • Veronica D. Abney, LCSW, Santa Monica, California
    • Nadine Bean, PhD, Bryn Mawr College, School of Social Work, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania
    • Steve Berry, Social Services Administration, Department of Human Resources, Baltimore, Maryland
    • Thomas Curran, JD, Defender Association of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
    • Pamela Day, MSW, Child Welfare League of America, Washington, DC
    • Kristina Debye, LCSW-C, Baltimore County Department of Social Services, Towson, Maryland
    • Joy Ernst, PhD, University of Maryland School of Social Work, Baltimore
    • Geoffrey Greif, PhD, University of Maryland School of Social Work, Baltimore
    • Esta Glazer-Semmel, LCSW-C, University of Maryland School of Social Work, Baltimore
    • Donna Harrington, PhD, University of Maryland School of Social Work, Baltimore
    • Clint Holder, MSW, ACTION for Child Protection, Denver, Colorado
    • Brenda Kess, LCSW-C, Baltimore City Department of Social Services, Baltimore, Maryland
    • Robert Lindecamp, Division of Child Protective Services, Wilmington, Delaware
    • John Curtis McMillen, PhD, Washington University, George Warren Brown School of Social Work, St. Louis, Missouri
    • Gisele Feretto Meek, LCSW-C, University of Maryland School of Social Work, Baltimore
    • Richard Norman, LCSW-C, University of Maryland School of Social Work, Baltimore
    • Margarete Parrish, PhD, University of Maryland School of Social Work, Baltimore
    • Peter Pecora, PhD, Casey Family Program, Seattle, Washington
    • Robert Pierce, PhD, Washington University, George Warren Brown School of Social Work, St. Louis, Missouri
    • Diane Pisano, LCSW-C, clinical social worker, Bowie, Maryland
    • Julia Rauch, PhD, University of Maryland School of Social Work, Baltimore
    • Marsha Salus, MSW, child welfare consultant, Boyd, Maryland
    • Stacey Saunders, MA, child welfare consultant, Columbus, Ohio
    • Maria Scannapieco, PhD, University of Texas at Arlington, School of Social Work, Arlington
    • Beverly Williams, LCSW-C, Child and Family Services Agency, Washington, DC
    • Charles Wilson, MSSW, National Children's Advocacy Center, Huntsville, Alabama
    • Dee Wilson, MSW, Department of Children and Family Services, Olympia, Washington
    • Joan Levy Zlotnik, PhD, MSW, Council on Social Work Education, Alexandria, Maryland
    • Ronald Zuskin, LCSW-C, University of Maryland School of Social Work, Baltimore

    Appendix 2: The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST)

    Circle the response “yes” or “no” depending on whether the statement says something true or not true about you. Please answer all questions. The test can be scored to let you know where you lie on a scale from social drinker to addictive drinker.

    0. Do you enjoy a drink now and then?YesNo
    1. Do you feel you are a normal drinker?YesNo
    2. Have you ever awakened the morning after some drinking the night before and found that you could not remember part of the evening?YesNo
    3. Does your wife, husband, a parent, or other near relative ever worry or complain about your drinking?YesNo
    4. Can you stop drinking without a struggle after one or two drinks?YesNo
    5. Do you ever feel guilty about your drinking?YesNo
    6. Do friends or relatives think you are a normal drinker?YesNo
    7. Are you able to stop drinking when you want to?YesNo
    8. Have you ever attended a meeting of Alcoholics Anonymous?YesNo
    9. Have you gotten into physical fights when drinking?YesNo
    10. Has your drinking ever created problems between you and your wife or husband? A parent or other relative?YesNo
    11. Has your wife, husband, or other family members ever gone for help about your drinking?YesNo
    12. Have you ever lost friends because of your drinking?YesNo
    13. Have you ever gotten into trouble at work or school because of your drinking?YesNo
    14. Have you ever lost a job because of your drinking?YesNo
    15. Have you ever neglected your obligations, your family, or your work for two or more days in a row because you were drinking?YesNo
    16. Do you drink before noon fairly often?YesNo
    17. Have you ever been told you have liver trouble? Cirrhosis?YesNo
    18. After heavy drinking have you ever had delirium tremens (DTs) or severe shaking or heard voices or seen things that really were not there?YesNo
    19. Have you ever gone to anyone for help about your drinking?YesNo
    20. Have you ever been in a hospital because of your drinking?YesNo
    21. Have you ever been a patient in a psychiatric hospital or on a psychiatric ward of a general hospital where drinking was part of the problem that resulted in hospitalization?YesNo
    22. Have you ever been seen at a psychiatric or mental health clinic or gone to a doctor, social worker, or clergyman for help with any emotional problem in which drinking played a part?YesNo
    23. Have you ever been arrested for drunk driving, driving while intoxicated, or driving under the influence of alcoholic beverages? (If so, how many times?___)YesNo
    24. Have you ever been arrested or taken into custody, even for a few hours, because of drunk behavior? (If yes, how many times?___)YesNo
    Your score is___.3 or lessNot alcoholic
    4Suggests alcoholism
    5 or moreAlcoholism

    Appendix 3: Likelihood of Sexual Transmission of and Basic Information on Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Robert A.Shapiro
    Table A3.1 The Likelihood of Sexual Transmission of Specific Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
    STDLikelihood of Sexual Transmission
    GonorrheaVery higha
    ChlamydiaVery higha
    SyphilisVery higha
    Condyloma acuminata (venereal warts)Possible
    TrichomonasVery higha
    HerpesPossible
    HIV/AIDSVery higha
    Bacterial vaginosisLow
    MolluscumLow
    Pubic licePossible
    Hepatitis BPossible

    a. The physician should consider other ways of transmission (e.g., birth process and blood transfusion).

    Table A3.2 Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); Basic Information

    Appendix 4: Developmental Milestonesa

    Becky FrinkSherman and E. WayneHolden

    Appendix 5: Schedule of Preventive Health Care

    While the age headings may suggest a preventive visit every two years from age 6–20 years, there may be a local recommendation for yearly preventive visits from age 2–20 years.

    Appendix 6: Limited Genogram of Mrs. R's Family

    Appendix 7: Parenting Resources

    Contributed by SandraAzar

    Table A7.1 How to Do Assessment in a Relationship-Building Way
    Normalize
    • “We do this with all parents as we enter our program.”
    • “I do this with each mom I work with—to help us get started.”
    Personalize
    • “I have a set of questions I [we] find helps us to understand moms better … it is important we get to know what your life is like and what we can do to help.”
    • (If you are doing a selected assessment) “Last time we met, you talked a lot about being sad. I want to ask you more about this. I really get the sense you are suffering. I use these questions to make sure I understand how bad it is for you right now.”
    • (In an initial intake) “This set of questions might be especially important for the kinds of things you've already told me …”
    Believe in what you are doing
    • “This helps me to make sure I don't forget to ask about something important.”
    • “I find this really useful …”
    Disarm
    • “I hate forms myself, so I hope you'll be patient with all these questions …”
    • “If any of the questions I ask are too personal, you let me know.”
    • “Some of these questions may seem silly [or may not apply to you].”
    Practical tips
    • Develop an introduction that feels right.
    • Make sure you make lots of eye contact.
    • Be familiar with the form.
    • Go slow, but be efficient (set a time frame).
    • If you hit a rough spot, say you will come back to this later, you want to hear more, stop briefly, spend a little extra time but move back to the instrument, and then stop.
    • Teaching them how to use rating scales-Repeat instructions periodically-Use anchors and visual cues-Reward between forms—“Wow! We got through that one fast. … You're really getting the hang of this.”
    • Before ending, ask how it felt to be asked questions, ask for their reaction, and ask if there is anything you missed.

    Table A7.2 Sampling of Skill Areas Required to Parent
    Parenting skills
    • Problem-solving abilities
    • A repertoire of child management skills (balance of positive and negative strategies and discipline skills)
    • Medical care and physical care skills (e.g., the ability to identify needs for medical assistance and the capacity to select nutritious foods)
    • Safety and emergency response skills
    • Capacities for warmth and nurturance (e.g., affective recognition and expression skills)
    • Sensitive and discriminant interactional response capacities
    Social cognitive skills
    • Perspective taking
    • Problem-solving capacities
    • Appropriate expectations regarding children's capacities
    • Cognitive reflectivity and complexity
    • Balancing short- and long-term socialization goals
    • Positive attributional style
    • Perceptual and observational skills
    • Self-efficacy
    Self-control skills
    • Impulse control
    • Accurate and adaptive perceptions
    • A positive interpretive bias
    • Self-monitoring skills
    • Assertiveness
    Stress management
    • Self-care skills
    • Relaxation skills
    • Recreational capacities
    • The ability to marshal and maintain a social support network
    • Positive appraisal style
    • A breadth of coping capacities (problem-focused coping, emotion-focused coping, and avoidant coping)
    • Financial planning skills
    Social skills
    • Interpersonal problem-solving skills
    • Empathy
    • Affective recognition and expression skills
    • Assertiveness
    • Social initiation skills
    • Capacity to respond effectively to a breadth of individuals (e.g., family, friends, employers, social workers, and children's teachers)

    Sample Measures Referred to in Chapter 65

    Self-report inventories on parenting

    • Child Abuse Potential Inventory (Milner, 1986)
    • Adult/Adolescent Parenting Inventory (Bavolek, 1984)
    • Parenting Scale (Arnold, O'Leary, Wolff, & Acker, 1993)

    Measures of cognitive distortions

    • Expectations (Parent Opinion Questionnaire; Azar, Robinson, Hekimian, & Twentyman, 1984)
    • Role reversal (Bavolek, 1984)
    • Problem solving (parenting, adult-adult relationships, and other areas) Hanson et al., 1995; Wasik, Bryant, & Fishbein, 1981)
    • Negative intent attributions (child vignettes; Azar, 1990).

    Observational protocols (Mash, 1991)

    • For infants and toddlers
      • Nursing Assessment Satellite Training Instruments (Barnard et al., 1989; Farell et al., 1991)
      • Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment (Caldwell & Bradley, 1984)
      • Behavioral ratings for basic child care skills (Feldman et al., 1992)
    • For preschoolers and school-aged children
      • The Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System (Eyberg, Bessmer, Newcomb, Edward, & Robinson, 1994)
      • Oregon Social Learning Theory Center protocol (Dishion et al., 1984; Reid, 1978)

    Neglect issues

    • Home cleanliness (Rosenfield-Schlichter, Sarber, Bueno, Greene, & Lutzker, 1983; Watson-Perczel, Lutzker, Greene, 6 McGimpsey, 1988)
    • Home safety (Home Accident Prevention Inventory; Tertinger, Greene, & Lutzker, 1984)
    • General family resources (Family Resource Scale; Dunst, 1986)
    • Parent Outcome Interview (Magura & Moses, 1986)
    • Emergency and medical care skills (Delgado & Lutzker, 1985; Tymchuk, 1990)

    Symptom checklists

    • Symptom Checklist-90 (Derogatis, 1983)
    • Anger (Anger Scale; Novaco, 1975)
    • Depression (CESD [Radloff et al., 1977] and Beck Depression Inventory [Beck et al., 1979])
    • Alcoholism (Michigan Alcohol Screening Test; Selzer, Vinokur, & vanRooijen, 1975)
    • Drug abuse (Skinner, 1982)

    Child behavior problems

    • Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1983)
    • Eyberg Child Behavioral Inventory (Eyberg & Ross, 1978)
    • Issues Checklist (Robin, Kent, O'Leary, Foster, & Prinz, 1977)

    Contextual measures

    • Parenting Stress Index (Abidin, 1993; Lloyd & Abidin, 1985)
    • Life Stress Scale (Egeland, Breitenbucher, & Rosenberg, 1980)
    • Perceived Social Support from Family and Friends (Procidano & Heller, 1983)
    • Social Support Inventory (Cyrnic, Greenberg, Ragozin, Robinson, & Basham, 1983)
    References for Measures
    Abidin, R. (1983). Parenting Stress Index—Manual. Charlottesville, VA: Pediatric Psychology Press.
    Achenbach, T., & Edelbrock, C. S. (1983). Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist and Revised Child Behavior Profile. Burlington, VT: University Associates in Psychiatry.
    Arnold, D. S., O'Leary, S. G., Wolff, L. S., & Acker, M. M. (1993). The Parenting Scale: A measure of dysfunctional parenting in discipline situations. Psychological Assessment, 5, 131–136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.5.2.137
    Ayoub, G., Jacewitz, M. M., Gold, R. G., & Milner, J. (1982). Assessment of a program's effectiveness in selecting individuals at risk for problems in parenting. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 39, 334–339. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679%28198305%2939:3%3C334::AID-JCLP2270390306%3E3.0.CO;2-9
    Azar, S. T. (1990). Child vignettes. Unpublished measure, Clark University, Frances L. Hiatt School of Psychology, Worcester, MA.
    Azar, S. T., Robinson, D. R., Hekimian, E., & Twentyman, C. T. (1984). Unrealistic expectations and problem solving ability in maltreating and comparison mothers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 687–691. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.52.4.687
    Barnard, K. E., Hammond, M. A., Booth, C. L., Bee, H. L., Mitchell, S. K., & Spieker, S. J. (1989). Measurement and meaning of parent-child interaction. In F.Morrison, C.Lord, & D.Keating (Eds.), Applied developmental psychology (Vol. 3, pp. 40–75). New York: Academic Press.
    Bavolek, S. J. (1984). Handbook of the Adolescent-Parenting Inventory. Park City, UT: Family Development Resources.
    Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. E., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford.
    Bee, H. L., Disbrow, M. A., Johnson-Crowley, N., & Barnard, K. (1981, April). Parent-child interactions during teaching in abusing and non-abusing families. Paper presented at the biannual convention of the Society for Research in Child Development, Boston.
    Caldwell, B. M., & Bradley, R. H. (1984). Home observations for the measurement of the environment: Administration manual (
    rev. ed.
    ). Little Rock: University of Arkansas.
    Cyrnic, K. A., Greenberg, M. T., Ragozin, S. A., Robinson, N. M., & Basham, C. (1983). Effects of stress and support on mothers and premature and full term infants. Child Development, 54, 209–217. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1129878
    Delgado, A. E., & Lutzker, J. R. (1985, November). Training parents to identify and report their children's illness. Paper presented at the annual convention of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Houston.
    Derogatis, L. R. (1983). SCL-90-R administration, scoring, and procedures manual-II. Townson, MD: Clinical Psychometric Research.
    Dishion, T., Gardner, K., Patterson, G., Reid, J., Spyrou, S., & Thibodeaux, S. (1984). The family process code: A multidimensional system for observing family interactions. Unpublished coding manual, Oregon Social Learning Center, Eugene.
    Dunst, C. H. (1986). Family resources, personal well-being, and early intervention. Unpublished manuscript, Western Carolina Center, Family Infant and Preschool Program, Morganstown, NJ.
    Egeland, B. R., Breitenbucher, M., & Rosenberg, D. (1980). Prospective study of the significance of life stress in the etiology of child abuse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 48, 195–205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.48.2.195
    Eyberg, S., Bessmer, J., Newcomb, K., Edward, D., & Robinson, E. (1994). Dyadic parent-child interaction coding system II: A manual. Unpublished manuscript, University of Florida, Department of Clinical/Health Psychology, Gainesville.
    Eyberg, S. M., & Ross, A. W. (1978). Assessment of child behavior problems: The validation of a new inventory. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 7, 113–116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15374417809532835
    Farell, A. M., Freeman, V A., Keenan, N. L., & Huber, C. J. (1991). Interaction between high-risk infants and their mothers: The NCAST as an assessment tool. Research in Nursing and Health, 14, 109–118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nur.4770140205
    Feldman, M. A., Case, L., Garrick, M., MacIntyre-Grande, W., Camwell, J., & Sparks, B. (1992). Teaching child-care skills to mothers with developmental disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25, 205–215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1992.25-205
    Hanson, D. J., Pallotta, G. M., Christopher, J. S., Conaway, R. L., & Lundquist, L. M. (1995). The parental problem-solving measure: Further evaluation with maltreating and non-maltreating parents. Journal of Family Violence, 10, 319–336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02110996
    Lloyd, B. H., & Abidin, R. R. (1985). Revision of the Parenting Stress Index. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 10, 169–177. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/10.2.169
    Magura, S., & Moses, B. S. (1986). The Parent Outcome Interview. Washington, DC: Child Welfare League.
    Mash, E. H. (1991). Measurement of parent-child interaction in studies of maltreatment. In R.Starr & D. A.Wolfe (Eds.), The effects of child abuse and neglect (pp. 203–255). New York: Guilford.
    Milner, J. S. (1986). The Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Manual (
    2nd ed.
    ). Webster, NC: Psytec.
    Novaco, R. W. (1975). Anger control: The development and evaluation of an experimental treatment. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Procidiano, M., & Heller, K. (1983). Measures of perceived social support from friends and family: Three validation studies. American Journal of Community Psychology, 11, 1–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00898416
    Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D Scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385–401. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/014662167700100306
    Reid, J. B. (1978). A social learning approach to family intervention: II. Observation in the home settings. Eugene, OR: Castalia.
    Robin, A. L., Kent, R., O'Leary, K. D., Foster, S., & Prinz, R. (1977). An approach to teaching parents and adolescents problem-solving communication skills. Behavior Therapy, 8, 639–643. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894%2877%2980193-7
    Rosenfield-Schlichter, M. D., Sarber, R. E., Bueno, G., Greene, B. F., & Lutzker, J. R. (1983). Maintaining accountability for an ecobehavioral treatment of one aspect of child neglect: Personal cleanliness. Education and Treatment of Children, 6, 153–164.
    Selzer, M. L., Vinokur, A., & vanRooijen, L. (1975). A self-administered Short Michigan Screening Test. Journal of Studies of Alcohol, 36, 117–126.
    Skinner, H. A. (1982). The Drug Abuse Screening Test. Addictive Behavior, 7, 363–371. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0306-4603%2882%2990005-3
    Tertinger, D. A., Greene, B. F., & Lutzker, J. R. (1984). Home safety: Development and validation of one component of an ecobehavioral treatment program for abused and neglected children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 17, 150–174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1984.17-159
    Tymchuk, A. J. (1990). Assessing emergency responses of people with mental handicaps. Mental Handicap, 18, 136–142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-3156.1990.tb00598.x
    Wasik, B. H., Bryant, D. M., & Fishbein, J. (1981, November). Assessment of parent problem solving skills. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, Toronto.
    Watson-Perczel, M., Lutzker, J. R., Greene, B. F., & McGimpsey, B. J. (1988). Assessment and modification of home cleanliness among families adjudicated for child neglect. Behavior Modification, 12, 57–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/01454455880121003

    Table A7.3 Examples of Cognitive Problems
    ProblemExample
    Unrealistic expectationsParents expecting children to comfort them when they are having a bad day; expecting a 4-year-old to pick out the correct clothing for the weather
    MisattributionsViewing an infant who cries all night as doing it “on purpose”; believing a 3-year-old's tantrum in the grocery store is intended to embarrass the parent
    Negative biasesA mother perceiving herself as “bad” for not being able to get a child to behave; labeling a child “selfish” or “vicious” for behaving in developmentally appropriate ways
    Failures to discriminateA parent reacting to a child as if he or she were a negative figure in the parent's life (e.g., “He's just like his father!”)

    Table A7.4 Alternative Methods of Discipline
    PreventionIf children fight before dinner, it is possible that they are hungry. Giving a snack might reduce the fighting.
    DistractionIf children are fighting, rather than intervene directly when their voices get louder, the parent could ask one of the children to help him or her with something to distract them.
    Time-outHere, the child is removed from activities that he or she finds rewarding as punishment. He or she is placed in a neutral area of the house in which no rewards are available for a short period of time.
    Logical consequencesHere, the punishment is a consequence of the misbehavior (e.g., cleaning up spilled milk).
    Positive practiceHere, children are asked to repeat more appropriate responses (e.g., for slamming a door too loudly, they are asked to shut it quietly five times).

    Additional Parenting References
    Azar, S. T. (1989). Training parents of abused children. In C. E.Shaefer & J. M.Briesmeister (Eds.), Handbook of parent training (pp. 414–441). New York: John Wiley.
    Azar, S. T. (1997). A cognitive behavioral approach to understanding and treating parents who physically abuse their children. In D.Wolf & R.McMahon (Eds.), Child abuse: New directions in prevention and treatment across the life span (pp. 78–100). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452231938
    Becker, W. C. (1971). Parents are teachers. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Egan, K. (1983). Stress management and child management with abusive parents. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 12, 292–299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15374418309533147
    Fantuzzo, J. W., Wray, L., Hall, R., Goins, C., & Azar, S. T. (1986). Parent and social skills training for mentally retarded mothers identified as child maltreaters. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 91, 135–140.
    Feldman, A., Towns, F., Betel, J., Case, L., Rincover, A., & Rubino, C. (1986). Parent education project II: Increasing stimulating interactions of developmentally handicapped mothers. Journal of Mental Deficiency, 90, 253–258.
    Patterson, G. R. (1971). Families: Application of social learning theory to family life. Champaign, IL: Research Press.
    Sarber, R. E., Halasz, M. M., Messmer, M. C., Bickett, A. D., & Lutzker, J. R. (1983). Teaching menu planning and grocery shopping skills to a mentally retarded mother. Mental Retardation, 21, 101–106.
    Tertinger, D. A., Greene, B. R., & Lutzker, J. R. (1984). Home safety: Development and validation of one component of an ecobehavioral treatment program for abused and neglected children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 17, 150–174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1984.17-159
    Tymchuk, A. J. (1990). Assessing emergency responses of people with mental handicaps. Mental Handicap, 18, 136–142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-3156.1990.tb00598.x
    Tymchuk, A. J. (1992). Predicting adequacy of parenting by people with mental retardation. Child Abuse & Neglect, 16, 165–178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2892%2990025-M
    Tymchuk, A. J., Yokota, A., & Rahbar, B. (1990). Decision-making abilities of mothers with mental retardation. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 11, 97–109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0891-4222%2890%2990007-U
    Watson-Perczel, M., Lutzker, J. R., Greene, B. F., & McGimpsey, B. J. (1988). Assessment and modification of home cleanliness among families adjudicated for child neglect. Behavior Modification, 12, 57–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/01454455880121003
    Wolfe, D. A., Sandler, J., & Kaufman, K. (1981). A competency-based parent training program for abusive parents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 633–640. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.49.5.633
    Wolfe, D. A., St. Lawrence, J., Graves, K., Behony, K., Bradlyn, D., & Kelly, J. (1982). Intensive behavioral parent training for a child abusive mother. Behavior Therapy, 13, 438–451. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894%2882%2980006-3
    Wolfe, D. A., & Wekerle, C. (1993). Treatment strategies for child physical abuse and neglect: A critical progress report. Clinical Psychology Review, 13, 473–500. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0272-7358%2893%2990043-L

    Appendix 8: Assessing and Maximizing Strengths: Family Functioning Style Scale1

    Angela G.Deal, Carol M.Trivette, and Carl J.Dunst

    Respondent_____ Date___ Recorder_____

    1. SOURCE: Dunst, C. J., Trivette, C. M., and Deal, A. G. (1988). Enabling and empowering families: Principles and guidelines for practice. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books. May be reproduced.

    Family Functioning Style Scale: Profile Form

    Table A8.1 Family Functioning Style Scale

    Further Reading (Compiled by Diane DePanfilis, Vanessa Hodges, and Peter Pecora)
    Beavers, W. R., & Hampson, R. B. (1990). Successful families: Assessment and intervention. New York: Norton.
    Berg, I. K., & DeJong, P. (1996). Solution-building conversations: Co-constructing a sense of competence with clients. Families in Society, 77, 376–391.
    Cowger, C. D. (1994). Assessing client strengths: Clinical assessment for client empowerment. Social Work, 39, 262–268.
    Curran, D. (1983). Traits of a healthy family. Minneapolis: Winston.
    De Jong, P., & Miller, S. D. (1995). How to interview for client strengths. Social Work, 40, 729–736.
    De Panfilis, D., & Wilson, C. (1996). Applying the strengths perspective with maltreating families. The APSAC Advisor, 9(3), 15–20.
    Dore, M. M., & Alexander, L. B. (1996). Preserving families at risk of child abuse and neglect: The role of the helping alliance. Child Abuse and Neglect, 20, 349–361. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2896%2900004-X
    Dunst, C. J., Trivette, C. M., & Deal, A. G. (Eds.). (1988). Enabling and empowering families: Principles and guidelines for practice. Cambridge, MA: Brookline.
    Dunst, C. J., Trivette, C. M., & Deal, A. G. (Eds.). (1994). Supporting and strengthening families. Cambridge, MA: Brookline.
    Friedman, S. (1992). Constructing solutions (stories) in brief family therapy. In S.Budman, M.Hoyt, & S.Friedman (Eds.), The first session in brief therapy (pp. 282–305). New York: Guilford.
    Guildner, C. (1983). Growth promoting family therapy. In D. R.Mace (Ed.), Prevention in family services. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Hill, R. B. (1971). The strengths of black families. New York: National Urban League.
    Kaplan, L., & Girard, J. (1994). Strengthening high-risk families: A handbook for practitioners. New York: Lexington Books.
    Kinney, J., Strand, K., Hagerup, M., & Bruner, C. (1994). Beyond the buzzwords: Key principles in effective frontline practice (Working paper). Falls Church, VA: National Center for Service Integration. (Individual copies may be obtained for prepaid postage and handling fee of $4.00 from the National Center for Service Integration Information Clearinghouse, 5111 Leesburg Pike, Suite 702, Falls Church, VA 22041)
    Lewis, J. M., & Looney, J. G. (1983). The long struggle: Well-functioning working class black families. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Lynch, E. W., & Hanson, M. J. (1992). Developing cross-cultural competence: A guide for working with young children and their families. Baltimore, MD: Brooks.
    Maluccio, A. N. (Ed.). (1981). Promoting competence in clients a new/old approach to social work practice. New York: Free Press.
    McCubbin, H., Thompson, A., & McCubbin, M. (1996). Family assessment: Resiliency, coping and adaptation, inventories for research and practice. Madison: University of Wisconsin Systems.
    McCubbin, H. I., & Thompson, A. I. (1987). Family assessment inventories for research and practice. Madison: University of Wisconsin.
    Mindel, C. H., Habenstein, R. W., & Wright, R. (1988). Ethnic families in America: Patterns and variations. New York: Elsevier.
    Olson, D. H., Larsen, A., & McCubbin, H. (1983). Family Strengths Scale. In D. H.Olson, H.McCubbin, H.Barnes, A.Larsen, A.Muxem, & M.Wilson (Eds.), Families: What makes them work. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Otto, H. A. (1963). Criteria for assessing family strengths. Family Process, 2, 329–337. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.1963.00329.x
    Rutter, M. (1985). Resilience in the face of adversity: Protective factors and resistance to psychiatric disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 598–611. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.147.6.598
    Saleeby, D. (1992a). The strengths perspective in social work practice: Extensions and cautions. Social Work, 41, 296–305.
    Saleebey, D. (Ed.). (1992b). The strengths perspective in social work practice. New York: Longman.
    Saleebey, D. (Ed.). (1997). The strengths perspective in social work practice (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Longman.
    Schatz, M. S., & Bane, W. (1991). Empowering the parents of children in substitute care: A training model. Child Welfare, 70(6), 665–678.
    Stinnett, N. (1983). Strong families. In D. R.Mace (Ed.), Prevention in family services. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Stinnett, N., & DeFrain, J. (1985). Secrets of strong families. Boston: Little, Brown.
    Trivette, C. M., Dunst, C. J., Deal, A. G., Hamer, A. W., & Prompst, S. (1990). Assessing family strengths and family functioning style. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 10, 16–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/027112149001000103
    Walsh, F. (1998). Strengthening family resilience. New York: Guilford.
    Weick, A., Rapp, D., Sullivan, W. P., & Kisthardt, W. (1989). A strengths perspective for social work practice. Social Work, 34, 350–354.
    Werner, E. (1989). High-risk children in young adulthood: A longitudinal study from birth to 32 years. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 59, 72–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1989.tb01636.x
    Wilson, M. (1984). Mothers' and grandmothers' perceptions of parental behavior in three-generational black families. Child Development, 55(4), 1333–1339. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1130003

    Appendix 9: Assessing Family Needs, Resources, and Social Support

    Table A9.2 Family Resource Scale

    Table A9.3 Family Support Scale

    Table A9.4 Personal Network Matrix (Version 1)

    Table A9.5 Support Functions Scale

    Appendix 10: Steps in the Court Process and Court-Related Caseworker Activities

    Compiled by LindaSpears
    Steps in the Court ProcessCourt-Related Caseworker Activities
    Adjudicatory hearingsPreparing for and appearing in court
    The adjudicatory hearing, or trial, is used to determine if the allegations of abuse or neglect are true and whether custody or supervisory authority should be removed from the child and placed with court or the CPS agency. Decisions about reasonable efforts, the child's placement, and services are also addressed.Working with legal counsel to prepare
    • Service providers and others who may be called as witnesses to testify before the court
    • The child for the court appearance or testimony or both
    • Their own testimony in support of the petition
    Dispositional hearingsCase planning
    The dispositional hearing focuses on planning for the child's future after a finding of dependency. These hearings consider options for
    • Returning the child home
    • Continuing or making an out-of-home care placement
    • Making a kinship care placement
    • Court orders for services to the child and family
    Preparing reports and a case plan detailing
    • The agency's recommended long-term plan for the child
    • A description of strengths and problems within the family
    • The changes needed to correct the concerns leading to CPS intervention
    • The specific services to assist the parents in making the identified changes
    • The specific tasks to be conducted by the parents to make the identified changes
    Review hearingsReporting on case progress
    Review hearings are usually held at 6-month intervals or less and provide the court with an opportunity to examine the status of the case, including
    • The parents' progress in making changes identified in the case plan
    • The continued need for placement or services or both to the child and family
    • The need for orders to further timely progress toward achieving the case plan goals
    • Reviewing and setting time lines for achieving the case plan goals
    • Updating the case plan to reflect changes in case plan goals, services, and parental activities
    • Reviewing progress with the family and seeking their input on case plan changes
    • Preparing a written report to the court documenting the progress in the case
    • Conferring with the supervisor and the agency attorney on proposed changes in the case plan or the status of the case
    • Conferring with the guardian ad litem or the court-appointed special advocate or both to review progress and changes in the case plan
    Permanency hearingsPermanency planning
    A permanency hearing must be held within 12 months of entry into care. This hearing is used to make a decision about how and when the child's need for a safe and permanent family will be met. Options include
    • Return home on specified date
    • Continuation in foster care with a plan for reunification
    • Adoption or guardianship
    • Permanent foster care
    Conducting a thorough evaluation of the parents' progress toward the stated goal, including their potential to provide a safe and permanent home for the child. The evaluation includes
    • Meeting with the child and family
    • Collecting information from services providers
    • Consulting with the supervisor and legal counsel
    • Determining the viability of the current goal and making needed goal changes
    • Documenting the course of services, the rational for the recommended permanency goal, and a timetable to achieve the goal
    Emergency removalInvestigation and assessment
    When it is necessary to remove a child from the home on an emergency basis, the caseworker must typically rely on the courts or the police to provide authorization to conduct such removals.
    • Assessing the allegations of abuse and neglect, the child's current safety, the risk of future harm, and the interventions needed to achieve safety
    • Documenting the findings of the assessment and the rationale for removal of the child
    • Conferring with the supervisor to finalize the removal decision
    • Securing authorization for the removal from the courts or the police
    Petition filingLegal guidance and petition preparation
    A sworn petition must be filed when court involvement is sought to protect the child. It should contain the facts about the alleged abuse and neglect and provide the basis for court involvement. A petition is needed when
    • There has been an emergency removal
    • A nonvoluntary placement is recommended
    • Court supervision is sought to serve the family while the child remains at home
    • Consulting with the agency's legal counsel to review the facts of the case and determine the legal basis for court involvement
    • Working with legal counsel to prepare a complete and accurate written petition containing
    • Facts relating to the alleged maltreatment
    • Information describing agency efforts to protect the child and strengthen the family
    Initial hearing and pretrial hearingsPreparing for and appearing in court
    At the initial hearing, the court decides whether the allegations contained in the petition are sufficient to support court involvement pending a full hearing.
    • The court will also ensure that
      • The parents have been notified of the proceedings
      • The parents are aware of their rights, including the right to an attorney
      • A guardian ad litem or CASA has been appointed for the child
    • Pretrial hearings may also address
      • Reasonable efforts to prevent placement
      • The availability of kin to provide care
      • Court orders for evaluations or services
      • Arrangements for parent-child visitation
      • Coordination of criminal charges or court orders related to the allegations
      • Orders for child support
    • Preparing the child and family for court, including explaining the basis for the petition and the role of the court in making decisions about interventions and reviewing the purpose of the initial hearing
    • Working with the attorney to prepare for the hearing, including identifying potential witnesses, preparing for their own testimony in support of the petition, and updating the court regarding events subsequent to the filing of the petition
    • Working with law enforcement or prosecuting attorneys when the case involves criminal charges
    • Implementing orders issued in the case, including ensuring that evaluations are conducted, services referrals are made, placement options are pursued, and visitation is arranged

    Appendix 11: Resources on Child Welfare Competencies

    Compiled by Joan LevyZlotnik
    • Downs, S. W., Costin, L. B., & McFadden, E. J. (1996). Child welfare and family services: Policies and practice (5th ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman.
    • Filip, J., McDaniel, N., & Schene, P. (Eds.). (1992). Helping in child protective services: A casework handbook. Englewood, CO: American Humane Association. (http://www.americanhumane.org)
    • Zlotnik, J. L., Rome, S., & DePanfilis, D. (Eds.). (1998). Educating for child welfare practice: A compendium of model syllabi. Alexandria, VA: Council on Social Work Education. (http://www.cswe.org)
    • California Social Work Education Center, University of California at Berkeley, School of Social Welfare has developed a comprehensive set of child welfare competencies focused on incorporating child welfare competencies into the master's in social work curricula.
    • The Child Welfare League of America (440 First Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20001) develops detailed model standards for all aspects of child welfare service delivery. (http://www.cwla.org)
    • National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect has developed a set of user manuals, which are available from the National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information (phone: 1-800-394–3366; website: http://www.calib.com/nccanch).

    University of Wisconsin-Green Bay, Department of Social Work has published a list of child welfare competencies to be acquired by bachelor's of social work students.

    Appendix 12: National Organizations and Resources Concerned with Child Protection

    • ABA Center on Children and the Law, 740 15th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20005; phone: 202-662-1720; fax: 202-662-1755; website: http://www.abanet.org/child
    • ACTION for Child Protection, National headquarters, 2101 Sardis Road North, Suite 204, Charlotte, NC 28227; phone: 704-845-2121 (NC), 303-369-8008 (CO); fax: 704-845-8577 (NC), 303-369-8009 (CO)
    • American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 3615 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, D.C. 20016-3007; phone: 202-966-7300; fax: 202-966-2891; website: http://www.aacap.org
    • American Academy of Pediatrics, Department C-sexual abuse, P.O. Box 927, Elk Grove Village, IL 60009-0927; phone: 847-228-5005; fax: 847-228-5097; website: http://www.aap.org
    • American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy, 1133 15th Street NW, Suite 300, Washington, D.C. 20005-2710; phone: 202-452-0109; fax: 202-223-2329; website: http://www.aamft.org
    • American Association of Pastoral Counselors, 9504-A Lee Highway, Fairfax, VA 22031-2303; phone: 703-385-6967; website: http://www.aapc.org
    • American Humane Association, Childrens Division, 63 Inverness Dr. E., Englewood, CO 80112-5117; phone: 800-227-4645, 303-792-9900; fax: 303-792-5333; website: http://www.americanhumane.org
    • American Indian Institute, College of Continuing Education and Public Service, The University of Oklahoma, 555 Constitution Street, Suite 237, Norman, OK 73072-7820; phone: 405-325-4127; fax: 405-325-7757; website: http://www.occe.ou.edu/aii
    • American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children, 407 South Dearborn, Suite 1300, Chicago, IL 60605; phone: 312-554-0166; fax: 312-554-0919; website: http://www.apsac.org
    • American Psychological Association, 750 First Street NE, Washington, D.C. 20002; phone: 202-336-5500; website: http://www.apa.org
    • American Public Human Services Association, 810 First Street NE, Washington, D.C. 20002-4267; phone: 202-682-0100, 202-289-6555; website: http://www.aphsa.org
    • Annie E. Casey Foundation, 701 St. Paul Street, Baltimore, MD 21202; phone: 410-547-6624; fax: 410-547-6624; website: http://www.aecf.org
    • Behavioral Sciences Institute, Homebuilders Program, 181 S. 333rd Street, Suite 200, Federal Way, WA 98003-6796; phone: 253-874-3630; fax: 253-838-1670
    • Center for Social Services Research, University of California School of Social Welfare, 16 Haviland Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-7400; phone: 510-642-1899; fax: 510-642-1895
    • Chapin Hall Center for Children, 1313 E. 60th Street, Chicago, IL 60637; phone: 773-753-5900; fax: 773-753-5940; website: http://www.chapin.uchicago.edu
    • C. Henry Kempe National Center for the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect, 1825 Marion Street, Denver, CO 80218; phone: 303-864-5320; website: http://www.naccchildlaw.org
    • Child Welfare Institute, 1349 W. Peachtree Street NE, Suite 900, Atlanta, GA 30309-2956; phone: 404-876-1934; fax: 404-876-7949
    • Child Welfare League of America, 440 First Street NW, Suite 310, Washington, D.C. 20001; phone: 202-638-2952; fax: 202-638-4004; website: http://www.cwla.org
    • Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information, 330 C Street SW, Washington, D.C. 20447; phone: 800-FYI-3366, 703-385-7665; fax: 703-385-3206; website: http://www.calib.com/nccanch
    • Cornell University, College of Human Ecology, Family Life Development Center, Van Rensselaer Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-4401; phone: 607-255-7794; fax: 607-255-8562; website: http://fldc.cornell.edu
    • David and Lucile Packard Foundation, 300 Second Street, Suite 200, Los Altos, CA 94022; phone: 650-948-7658; website: http://www.packfound.org
    • Educational Resources Information Center, Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education, 1920 Association Drive, Reston, VA 20191-1589; phone: 800-328-0272; website: http://www.ericec.org
    • Family Resource Coalition, 200 S. Michigan Avenue, 16th Floor, Chicago, IL 60604; phone: 312-341-0900; fax: 312-341-9361; website: http://www.fcra.org
    • International Society for Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect, 401 N. Michigan Avenue, Suite 2200, Chicago, IL 60611; phone: 312-578-1401; fax: 312-321-6869; website: http://ispcan.org
    • National Adoption Information Clearinghouse, 330 C Street SW, Washington, D.C. 20447; phone: 703-246-9085; fax: 703-385-3206
    • National Association of Chiefs of Police, 1000 Connecticut Avenue NW, Suite 9, Washington, D.C. 20036; phone: 202-293-9088; website: http://www.aphf.org/aphf.nsf/htmlmedia/safety.html
    • National Association of Counsel for Children, 1825 Marion Street, Suite 340, Denver, CO 80218; phone: 303-864-5320; fax: 303-864-5351; website: http://www.naccchildlaw.org
    • National Association of Public Child Welfare Administrators, American Public Human Services Association, 810 First Street NE, Washington, D.C. 20002-4267; phone: 202-682-0100, 202-289-6555; website: http://www.aphsa.org
    • National Association of Social Workers, 750 1st Street NE, Washington, D.C. 20002-4241; phone: 800-638-8799; website: http://www.socialworkers.org
    • National Black Child Development Institute, 1023 15th Street NW, Suite 600, Washington, D.C. 20005; phone: 202-387-1281; fax: 202-234-1738; website: http://www.nbcdi.org
    • National Center for Missing & Exploited Children, 2101 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 550, Arlington, VA 22201-3077; phone: 703-235-3900; fax: 703-235-4067; 24-hour hotline: 1–800-THE-LOST (1-800-843–5678); website: http://www.missingkids.org
    • National Center for Prosecution of Child Abuse, American Prosecutors Research Institute, 99 Canal Center Plaza, Suite 510, Alexandria, VA 22314; phone: 703-739-0321
    • National Center for Youth Law, 114 Sansome Street, Suite 900, San Francisco, CA 94104; phone: 415-543-3307; website: http://www.youthlaw.org
    • National Center on Child Fatality Review, 4024 Durfee Avenue, El Monte, CA 91732; phone: 626-455-4585; fax: 626-444-4851
    • National Child Welfare Resource Center for Organizational Improvement, Edmund S. Muskie School of Public Service, One Post Office Square, RO. Box 15010, Portland, ME 04112; phone: 800-435-7543, 207-780-5810; fax: 207-780-5817.
    • National Children's Advocacy Center, 200 Westside Square, Suite 700, Huntsville, AL 35801; phone: 256-533-0531; fax: 256-534-6883. website: http://www.ncac-hsv
    • National Children's Alliance, 1319 F Street NW, Suite 1001, Washington, D.C. 20004; phone: 800-239-9950, 202-639-0597; website: http://www.nccan.org
    • National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information, P.O. Box 2345 Rockville, MD 20847-2345; phone: 800-729-6686, 301-468-2600; fax: 301-468-6433; website: http://www.health.org
    • National Clearinghouse on Families & Youth, P.O. Box 13505, Silver Spring, MD 20911-3505; phone: 301-608-8098; fax: 301-608-8721; website: http://www.ncfy.com
    • National Coalition Against Domestic Violence, 119 Constitution Avenue NE, Washington, D.C. 20002; phone: 202-544-7358; website: http://www.ncadv.org
    • National Conference of State Legislatures, Children Families Program, 1560 Broadway, Suite 700, Denver, CO 80202; phone: 303-830-2200; fax: 303-863-8003; website: http://www.ncsl.org/public/cfh.htm
    • National Council for Adoption, 1930 17th Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20009; phone: 202-328-1200; website: http://www.ncfa-usa.org
    • National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges, P.O. Box 8970, Reno, NV 89507; phone: 702-784-6012; website: http://www.ncjfcj.unr.edu
    • National Court Appointed Special Advocates Association, 100 West Harrison Street, North Tower Suite 500, Seattle, WA98119-4123; phone: 800-628-3233, 206-270-0072; fax: 206-270-0078; website: http://www.nationalcasa.org
    • National Crime Victims Research and Treatment Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, 165 Cannon Street, P.O. Box 250852, Charleston, SC 29425; phone: 843-792-2945; fax: 843-792-3388; website: http://www.musc.edu/cvc
    • National Criminal Justice Reference Service, P.O. Box 6000, Rockville, MD 20849-6000; phone: 800-851-3420, 301-519-5500; website: http://www.ncjrs.org
    • National Directory of Children, Youth & Families Services, P.O. Box 1837, Longmont, CO 80502-1837
    • National Family Preservation Network, P.O. Box 2570, Laurel, MD 20709; phone: 301-498-0103; fax: 301-498-2909
    • National Indian Child Welfare Association, 3611 SW Hood Street, Suite 201, Portland, OR; phone: 503-222-4044; fax: 503-222-4007; website: http://www.mcwa.org
    • National Information Center for Children and Youth With Disabilities, P.O. Box 1492, Washington, D.C. 20013; phone: 800-695-0285; website: http://www.nichcy.org
    • National Maternal and Child Health Clearinghouse, 2070 Chain Bridge Road, Suite 450, Vienna, VA 22182; phone: 703-821-8955; fax: 703-821-2098; website: http://www.nmchc.org
    • National Maternal and Child Health Clearinghouse, 2070 Chain Bridge Road, Suite 450, Vienna, VA 22182; phone: 703-821-8955; fax: 703-821-2098; website: http://www.nmchc.org
    • National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice, University of Iowa, School of Social Work, 100 Oak-dale Campus No. W206 OH, Iowa City, IA 52242-5000; phone: 319-335-4965; fax: 319-335-4964. website: http://www.uiowa.edu\nrfcp
    • National Resource Center on Child Maltreatment, 1349 W. Peachtree Street, NE, Suite 900, Atlanta, GA 30309-2956; phone: 404-881-0707; fax: 404-876-5325
    • National Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Resource Center, 2070 Chain Bridge Road, Suite 450, Vienna, VA 22182; phone: 703-821-8955; fax: 703-821-2098; e-mail: sids@circsol.com
    • Parents Anonymous, 675 W. Foothill Boulevard, Suite 220, Claremont, CA 91711; phone: 909-621-6184; website: http://www.parentsanonymous-natl.org
    • Prevent Child Abuse America, P.O. Box 2866, Chicago, IL 60690; phone: 800-CHILDREN, 312-663-3520; fax: 312-939-8962; website: http://www.childabuse.org
    • Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, Portland State University, P.O. Box 751, Portland, OR 97207-0751; phone: 503-725-4040; fax: 503-725-4180; website: http://www.rtc.pdx.edu
    • YouthInfo; website: http://www.youth.os.dhhs.gov

    About the Editors

    Howard Dubowitz, MD, MS, is Professor of Pediatrics at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, and he also directs the Child Protection Program at the University of Maryland Medical System. He chairs the Maryland Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Child Maltreatment, and he is on the executive committee of the national board of directors of the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children (APSAC). His clinical work has included all forms of child maltreatment, with an emphasis on neglect. His research has focused on child neglect, sexual and physical abuse, kinship care, and physician training in child abuse. He is currently principal investigator on a federally funded grant to study the antecedents and outcomes of child maltreatment. He is also actively involved in child advocacy at the state and national levels, and he chairs the APSAC legislative committee. He has presented at local, regional, national, and international conferences. He recently edited Neglected Children: Research, Practice, and Policy (Sage, 1999).

    Diane DePanfilis, PhD, MSW, is Assistant Professor at the University of Maryland School of Social Work, where she teaches introductory social work practice and child welfare clinical practice and research courses in the MSW program. She has more than 25 years of experience in the child welfare field as a caseworker, supervisor, program manager, national trainer, consultant, and researcher, and she is a frequent consultant to child welfare agencies. She is currently principal investigator of a federally funded demonstration project that is providing early intervention to families at risk for neglect. Recent research and publications relate to the epidemiology of child maltreatment recurrences; child protective services risk assessment, safety evaluation, and decision making; the relationship between child maltreatment and adolescent parenting; the relationship between maltreatment and maternal alcohol or drug problems; the role of social support in preventing neglect; and outcome-based intervention to reduce the risk of neglect. She is particularly interested in ways to bridge the gap between research and practice. She is the past president of the national board of directors of the American Professional Society on the Abuse of Children, an interdisciplinary organization that works to ensure that everyone affected by child maltreatment receives the best possible professional response.

    About the Contributors

    Veronica D. Abney, Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) and Diplomat in Clinical Social Work, Santa Monica, CA.

    Joyce A. Adams, MD, Associate Clinical Professor of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego Medical Center, Division of Adolescent Medicine, San Diego, CA.

    Sandra T. Azar, PhD, Associate Professor of Psychology, Clark University, Worcester, MA.

    Insoo Kim Berg, MSSW, Director, Brief Family Therapy Center, Milwaukee, WI.

    Lucy Berliner, MSW, Research Director, Harborview Center for Sexual Assault and Traumatic Stress; Clinical Associate Professor, University of Washington, School of Social Work and Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Seattle, WA.

    Maureen M. Black, PhD, Professor of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore.

    Barbara W. Boat, PhD, University of Cincinnati, Department of Psychiatry, Cincinnati, OH.

    Richard Bolan, MSW, Supervisor, Baltimore City Department of Social Services, Baltimore, MD.

    Barbara L. Bonner, PhD, Associate Professor and Director, Center on Child Abuse and Neglect, Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City.

    Joaquin Borrego, Jr., MA, graduate student, PhD program in clinical psychology, University of Nevada, Reno.

    Maria R. Brassard, PhD, Associate Professor of Psychology and Education, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York.

    Sheryl Brissett-Chapman, EdD, ACSW, Executive Director, Baptist Home for Children and Families, Bethesda, MD.

    Caroline L. Burry, PhD, MSW, Assistant Professor, University of Maryland School of Social Work, Baltimore.

    Mark Chaffin, PhD, Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Director of Research, Center on Child Abuse and Neglect, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City.

    David Corwin, MD, University of Cincinnati, Children's Trust, Department of Psychiatry, Cincinnati, OH.

    Mark Courtney, PhD, Associate Professor, University of Wisconsin School of Social Work, Madison.

    Lorine L. Cummings, MSW, Supervisor, Baltimore County Department of Social Services, Towson, MD.

    Howard A. Davidson, JD, Executive Director, American Bar Association Center on Children and the Law, Washington, D.C.

    Nancy Davis, PhD, clinical psychologist, Burke, VA.

    Esther Deblinger, PhD, Associate Professor of Psychiatry, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey; Director, Center for Children's Support, Stratford, NJ.

    Brett Drake, PhD, Associate Professor, Washington University, George Warren Brown School of Social Work, St. Louis, MO.

    Mark D. Everson, PhD, Clinical Associate Professor of Psychology, University of North Carolina, Department of Psychiatry, Chapel Hill.

    Monica H. Ferraro, MA, doctoral student, Clark University, School of Psychology, Worcester, MA.

    Eileen Gambrill, PhD, Professor, University of California, Berkeley, School of Social Welfare, Berkeley.

    Esta Glazer-Semmel, LCSW-C, Clinical Instructor, University of Maryland School of Social Work, Baltimore.

    Geoffrey Greif, PhD, Professor and Associate Dean, University of Maryland School of Social Work, Baltimore.

    Norma Harris, PhD, Colorado State University School of Social Work, Fort Collins.

    Stuart Hart, PhD, Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis, School of Education, Indianapolis.

    Vanessa G. Hodges, PhD, Associate Professor, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, School of Social Work, Chapel Hill.

    E. Wayne Holden, PhD, Research Director, MACRO International Inc., Atlanta.

    Wayne Holder, MSW, Executive Director, ACTION for Child Protection, Aurora, CO.

    Dennis Ichikawa, JD, Attorney-at-Law, Tukwila, WA.

    Charles F. Johnson, MD, Professor of Pediatrics, Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus.

    Brenda Jones Harden, PhD, Assistant Professor, University of Maryland Institute for Child Study, College Park.

    David J. Kolko, PhD, Associate Professor of Child Psychiatry and Psychology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA.

    John M. Leventhal, MD, Professor of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.

    Julie A. Lipovsky, PhD, ABPP, Professor of Psychology and Director, Clinical Counseling Masters Program, The Citadel, Charleston, SC.

    John R. Lutzker, PhD, Florence and Louis Ross Professor, University of Judaism, Department of Psychology, Agoura Hills, CA.

    Kee MacFarlane, MSW, Social Work Consultant, Whispering Pines, NC.

    Anthony Maluccio, DSW, Professor, Boston College Graduate School of Social Work, Chesnut Hill, MA.

    Melissa N. McDermott, ACSW, CCSW, Coordinator, Child Protection Team, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore.

    John Curtis McMillen, PhD, Associate Professor, George Warren Brown School of Social Work, Washington University, St. Louis, MO.

    Chandler Scott McMillin, is Clinical Director of the Right Turn residential programs for adults and adolescents in Maryland and North Carolina.

    Lisa Merkel-Holguin, MSW, Policy/Program Analyst, American Humane Association, Englewood, CO.

    Thomas D. Morton, MSW, Executive Director, Child Welfare Institute, Atlanta.

    John E. B. Myers, JD, Professor, McGeorge School of Law, Sacramento, CA.

    Prasanna Nair, MD, Professor of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore.

    Kristine Nelson, DSW, Professor, Portland State University School of Social Work, Portland, OR.

    Richard L. Norman, LCSW-C, Clinical Instructor, University of Maryland School of Social Work, Baltimore.

    Margarete Parrish, PhD, Assistant Professor, University of Maryland School of Social Work, Baltimore.

    Peter Pecora, PhD, Manager of Research, Casey Family Program, Seattle, WA.

    Donna Pence, Special Agent, Tennessee Bureau of Investigation, Taft.

    Barbara A. Pine, PhD, Professor, University of Connecticut School of Social Work, West Hartford.

    Denise Pintello, MSW, doctoral candidate, University of Maryland School of Social Work, Baltimore.

    Julia Rauch, PhD, Professor, University of Maryland School of Social Work, Baltimore.

    Rebecca J. Roe, JD, Attorney-at-Law, Schroeter-Goldmark, Seattle, WA.

    Ronald Rogers, MS, addictions consultant, Owings Mills, MD.

    Ronald H. Rooney, PhD, Professor, University of Minnesota School of Social Work, Minneapolis.

    Joan R. Rycraft, PhD, Assistant Professor, University of Texas at Arlington, School of Social Work.

    Marsha K. Salus, MSW, child welfare consultant, Boyd, MD.

    Maria Scannapieco, PhD, Associate Professor and Director, Center for Child Welfare, University of Texas at Arlington, School of Social Work.

    Lorelei Schaffhausen, MSW, Project Coordinator, Prince Georges County Department of Social Service, Beltsville, MD.

    Robert A. Shapiro, MD, Director of the Child Abuse Team and Attending Physician, Division of Emergency Medicine, Children's Hospital Medical Center, and Associate Professor of Clinical Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati, OH.

    Becky Frink Sherman, former psychology intern, Department of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore.

    Charles I. Shubin, MD, Director, Children's Health Center, Mercy Family Care, Baltimore, MD.

    Champika K. Soysa, MA, doctoral student, Clark University, School of Psychology, Worcester, MA.

    Linda Spears, MSW, Director, Child Protection, Child Welfare League of America, Washington, DC.

    Paul Stern, JD, Senior Deputy Prosecuting Attorney, Snohomish County Prosecutor's Office, Everett, WA.

    Sherri Y. Terao, EdD, Psychologist, Child Protection Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento.

    Ross A. Thompson, PhD, Professor of Psychology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln.

    Anthony J. Urquiza, PhD, Child Clinical Psychologist, Child Protection Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento.

    Robin Warsh, MSW, Lecturer, Boston College Graduate School of Social Work, Chestnut Hill, MA.

    Susan Wells, PhD, Director, Children and Family Research Center, University of Illinois-Urbana Champaign, School of Social Work, Urbana.

    Charles Wilson, MSSW, Executive Director, National Children's Advocacy Center, Huntsville, AL.

    Dee Wilson, MSW, Regional Administrator, Department of Children and Family Services, Olympia, WA.

    Joan Levy Zlotnik, PhD, MSW, Special Assistant to the Executive Director, Council on Social Work Education, Alexandria, VA.

    Ronald Zuskin, LCSW-C, Director of Training, University of Maryland School of Social Work, Baltimore.


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