Green Ethics and Philosophy: An A-to-Z Guide


Edited by: Julie Newman

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      About the Editors

      Green Series Editor: Paul Robbins

      Paul Robbins is professor and director of the University of Arizona School of Geography and Development. He earned his Ph.D. in Geography in 1996 from Clark University. He is General Editor of the Encyclopedia of Environment and Society (2007) and author of several books including Environment and Society: A Critical Introduction (2010), Lawn People: How Grasses, Weeds, and Chemicals Make Us Who We Are (2007), and Political Ecology: A Critical Introduction (2004).

      Robbins's research focuses on the relationships between individuals (homeowners, hunters, professional foresters), environmental actors (lawns, elk, mesquite trees), and the institutions that connect them. He and his students seek to explain human environmental practices and knowledge, the influence nonhumans have on human behavior and organization, and the implications these interactions hold for ecosystem health, the local community, and social justice. Past projects have examined chemical use in the suburban United States, elk management in Montana, forest product collection in New England, and wolf conservation in India.

      Green Ethics and Philosophy General Editor: Julie Newman

      Julie Newman, Ph.D., has worked in the field of sustainable development and campus sustainability since 1993. Her research has focused on the role of decision-making processes and organizational behavior in institutionalizing sustainability into higher education. In 2004, Newman was recruited to be the founding Director of the Office of Sustainability for Yale University. At Yale, Newman also holds a lecturer appointment with the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, where she teaches an undergraduate course titled Sustainability: From Innovation to Transformation in Institutions. Prior to her work at Yale, Newman assisted in the establishment of the longest-standing sustainability office in the United States—the University of New Hampshire Office of Sustainability. Newman is a pioneer in the field of campus sustainability, beginning in 1995 when she worked for University Leaders for a Sustainable Future (ULSF) while a graduate student at Tufts University. In 2004, Newman cofounded the Northeast Campus Sustainability Consortium to advance education and action for sustainable development on university campuses in the northeast and maritime region. This has led to a 10-year regional commitment and a set of annual meetings for sustainability professionals in the northeast and maritime region. She also co-coordinates a sustainability working group for the International Alliance of Research Universities and a sustainability working group for the Council of Ivy Presidents. In addition, Newman is a member of the editorial board of Sustainability: Journal of Record. Newman lectures at and consults for universities both nationally and internationally, participates on a variety of boards and advisory committees, and has contributed to a series of edited books and peer-reviewed journals. She holds a B.S. from the University of Michigan, an M.S. from Tufts University, and a Ph.D. from the University of New Hampshire.


      The discussion about the consequences of human impacts on the environment is as old as civilization. Obtaining clean water and keeping water sources clean for continued supply is a human concern as old and fundamental as obtaining food and shelter. Ancient cultures had to deal with the effect of the weather on their irrigation systems and aqueducts and the effects of those engineering projects on the water cycle and ecosystem. They had waste to dispose of, from human and animal waste to food waste to the by-products of early industries like tanning, mining, and soap making. By the Middle Ages, legal and scientific writers were dealing with the problems of air pollution, contaminated water, waste management, and the effects of soil contamination on agriculture and famine. As civilization and technology became more sophisticated, standards of cleanliness and responsibility became higher and more complicated: just as technology made visible the bacteria and harmful chemicals that might lie in otherwise clean-seeming water, our increased understanding of the world made visible the long-term consequences of our impacts on it, raising concerns about erosion and other local environment change, wildfire vulnerability, biodiversity, nonrenewable resources, carcinogenicity and genetic damage, and of course pollution in its myriad expressions.

      Humanity's discussions of environmental concerns have for thousands of years debated the allocation of responsibility, the need for preventative measures, the role of the human species in the biosphere, and various issues of fairness and justice as they pertain to what economists call externalities. Externalities are the costs or benefits produced by a transaction but not accounted for in its prices, incurred by parties outside the transaction; pollution, for instance, results from the business of a factory but affects everyone regardless of their dealings with that factory. This becomes even more ethically complicated when the transactors can shield themselves from the externality, as when a company operates a factory that pollutes the soil and water of a region in which the soil and water resources don't matter to them (though they may matter very much to the factory's workers).

      But until recently, the world's major schools of philosophical and ethical thought have primarily not been directly concerned with what we now call green issues. Rather, these matters came up in frameworks concerned with other ends. Utilitarianism, for instance, provides a framework in which green issues can be addressed, but is not specifically formulated as a green school of thought and is as often used to justify polluting behavior. Christian and Jewish schools of thought may make much of mankind's role as steward of the Earth but can come to a number of different conclusions about the behavior that role should or can involve.

      Modern ecological thought begins perhaps with the scientific forest management pioneered in Europe in the 17th century and developed more fully in the 19th century by foresters in the United States and India. These early conservation efforts were aimed at “keeping nature's household,” encouraging tree growth while protecting the forest from fires. The rise of progressivism in the United States at the end of the 19th century led to discussions about the proper relationships between government, business, and the natural world. While the pure capitalists held that property owners could do whatever they liked with that property, their opponents were divided between the environmentalists and the conservationists. Environmentalists, whose position was argued most prominently by Sierra Club founder John Muir (1838–1914), held nature as sacred unto itself and opposed development, treating it as a necessary evil at best and one to be avoided in public lands. Environmentalists particularly opposed the use of public lands (such as national parks) for logging and timber cutting and the building of dams, which destroy ecosystems. Both of these, on the other hand, were supported by the conservationists, whose strongest voice was that of President Theodore Roosevelt, who despite his disagreement with the environmentalists was perhaps the greatest advocate of green thinking in the history of the presidency. While he supported exploiting natural resources, he was one of the only presidents to make a high national priority the responsible use of those resources and established the first American national forests, the United States Forest Service, the first American bird reserve, and five new national parks. But equally as important, historically, as his actions were the attention he brought to the debate.

      Of course, during this time, the nature of mankind's relationship with the environment changed. Wood, peat, and dung were replaced by fossil and fissile fuels, which may someday be replaced by solar, wind, or ocean power. The world's population expanded considerably, no longer fettered by rampant infant mortality or the diseases that in the past had killed so many children and young adults. Frontier zones filled up with cities, and previously unspoiled areas of wilderness were razed, developed, strip-mined, or turned into tourist attractions. There was no organized agenda to convert the raw material of the wilderness into the processed product of civilization, and had there been, there would have been more opportunity for a discussion of methods and means. The process was as natural as locusts stripping greenery from a landscape and moving on in search of more, except that Man is the reasoning locust, able to internalize, model, and debate the consequences of his appetites.

      In the 1930s, the effects of mankind's exploitation of nature were made clear by the Dust Bowl, which resulted in one of the greatest population migrations in American history. Great Plains farms settled during a particularly wet period dried up and were abandoned when drought struck during the Great Depression. Agriculture having killed off the native prairie grasses, there was nothing to prevent soil loss once those farms’ crops died off, and the winds of dust storms scooped up a foot or more of loose, light, dried-out topsoil, creating storm systems that blew across the middle of the country and churned enough particulate matter into the atmosphere that months later, the snow in the northeast was a dirty rusty brown. But it wasn't until the 1960s and 1970s that green concerns took center stage again, as concerns about pesticides and other chemicals, climate change, over-logging, acid rain, smog, carcinogens, and other effects of pollution and anthropogenic climate impact became part of the national conversation. In the political sphere, this led to the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency and various forms of environmentalist legislation, as well as debates about the relationship between the private and public sectors and their impact on the natural world.

      Much of this discussion centered in its early moments around the 1962 publication of Silent Spring by marine biologist Rachel Carson, who soon became a household name, referenced everywhere from Peanuts to Johnny Carson's monologues. Already an established popular writer of natural history, with Silent Spring Carson became a critic and advocate, documenting the effects of pesticides on the environment and especially on birds. She challenged the chemicals industry head-on and found an audience in all political walks of life. Though she met with opposition—green issues had not yet been as highly politicized as they are today—within the first couple of years after publication, her views had been mainstreamed, drawing comparisons to Upton Sinclair's The Jungle.

      Similar works followed from other authors, founding the body of modern environmental literature and green philosophy. A lecture by history professor Lynn White, Jr., “The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis,” delivered in 1966 and published in Science the following year, popularized the idea of the environmental crisis as an inevitable outcome of medieval Western Christianity, which provided a philosophical framework that redefined the relationship between mankind and the natural world. In White's view, Judeo-Christian theology, especially as it was formulated in the Middle Ages, supported anthropocentrism and the elevation of Man—God's favorite creation, gifted with a soul and reason—over the rest of creation, which serves at his pleasure. While many early Christian and Jewish movements emphasized harmony with one's natural surroundings, this medieval view led to an indifference to nature, one so deep that even many environmentalist arguments were phrased in terms of avoiding ill effects on mankind rather than considering the health of the natural world as a good unto itself. White's work did not have the public impact of Carson's, concerned as it was with general principles, trends, and intellectual history rather than specific contemporary issues. But the impact it had on green philosophy, environmental thought, and religious thought continues to be felt more than 40 years later. The perceived accusation that Christianity is complicit in the destruction of the environment strengthened the resolve of Christian environmentalists both in the political sphere (former vice president and senator Al Gore) and the academic/theological sphere, where “ecotheology” has become a school of religious thought both in Christianity and in Judaism. Ecotheology is an exploration of the relationship between religious principles and mankind's relationship with (and generally, stewardship of) nature, and religious groups with a strong ecotheological focus have founded a number of outreach programs in the developing world in which humanitarian aid is strongly informed by an environmental sensitivity and aims toward sustainability. There is in some cases an overlap between ecotheology and the Gaia theory, but it's important to note that ecotheology need not challenge mainstream Christian or Jewish beliefs, but rather explores what constitutes a responsible attitude toward the Earth, from a religious perspective. Various groups invested in ecotheology come down on different sides of the evolution/creation debate, which sometimes impacts the articulation of their ideas.

      White's work also influenced the formulation of “Deep Ecology,” a phrase coined in 1973 by Norwegian philosopher Arne Naess. Though metaphysical, deep ecology is not inherently theological or supernatural but is a response to the perceived need for “ecological wisdom” in guiding mankind's relationship with the natural world. Naess particularly rejected the use of the existence of a human soul and human reason to justify the elevation of the human species above other animals and argued that all forms of life have a right to live, a right that cannot be quantified and weighted in relative terms any more than citizens’ rights can be expressed fractionally. Deep ecology has provided a philosophical basis for some environmental activists and ecologists, particularly advocating the ideas that ecosystems can only tolerate limited, gradual change, and that human activity is complicit in mass extinctions. For many, there is a spiritual element to deep ecology and a rejection of the Judeo-Christian notion of “stewardship” as, in Naess's words, “arrogance.”

      The journal Environmental Ethics (EE) was founded in 1979 by philosophy professor Eugene C. Hargrove, and for a long time, the name of the journal doubled as the name of the field this volume is devoted to. Published by the University of North Texas's Center for Environmental Philosophy and now made available online through the Philosophy Documentation Center, EE's recent articles demonstrate the breadth of the field: Cecilia Wee on “Mencius and the Natural Environment,” Aaron Simmons on “Do Animals Have an Interest in Continued Life?”, Piers H. G. Stephens on “Towards a Jamesian Environmental Philosophy,” Stephen Quilley on “The Land Ethic as an Ecological Civilizing Process,” Matthew Hall on “Plant Autonomy and Human-Plant Ethics,” Rita Turner on “The Discursive Construction of Anthropocentrism,” and Ben A. Minteer on “Biocentric Farming.”

      When the Deepwater Horizon oil spill of 2010 began, the most remarkable thing about it, illustrated by the highly politicized discussions that followed, was how little could be done, how few immediate solutions suggested themselves. The seemingly simple act of plugging a man-made hole lay beyond the everyday reach of our technology, again raising the question of whether our ability to damage the world had outstripped our ability to repair it, as it had during the Dust Bowl—never mind our interest or desire in doing so, but simply our ability. It is the continued occurrence of events like this that provide a focus to the ongoing discussions of green ethics, the proving ground for principles of green philosophy, as covered in the material that follows.

      The Editors

      Green Ethics and Philosophy Reader's Guide

      List of Entries

      Green Ethics and Philosophy List of Contributors

      Ackom, Emmanuel Kofi, University of British Columbia

      Ahteensuu, Marko, University of Turku

      Ard, Kerry, University of Michigan

      Arney, Jo, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse

      Barry, John, Queen's University Belfast

      Booth, Kelvin J., Thompson Rivers University

      Boslaugh, Sarah, Washington University School of Medicine

      Boudes, Philippe, Paris 7 University and LADYSS-CNRS

      Branch, Matthew, Pennsylvania State University

      Bustos, Keith, University of St Andrews

      Byrne, Jason, Griffith University

      Certomà, Chiara, Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies

      Collier, William M., Independent Scholar

      Collins, Timothy, Western Illinois University

      Cooley, Amanda Harmon, North Carolina A&T State University

      Cruger, Katherine M., University of Colorado at Boulder

      Danielson, Stentor, Slippery Rock University

      Davis, Edward F., Knox College

      de Souza, Lester, Independent Scholar

      Dedekorkut, Aysin, Griffith University

      Edelglass, William, Marlboro College

      Erhard, Nancie, Saint Mary's University, Halifax

      Fiskio, Janet, Oberlin College

      Fletcher, Jonathan R., Knox College

      Forbes, William, Stephen F. Austin State University

      Groves, Chris, Cardiff University

      Gunn, Alastair S., University of Waikato

      Hayden, Anders, Dalhousie University

      Helfer, Jason A., Knox College

      Heller, Matthew E., University of Colorado at Boulder

      Hicks, Stephen, Western Illinois University

      Howes, Michael, Griffith University

      Islam, Md Saidul, Nanyang Technological University

      Jarvie, Michelle E., Independent Scholar

      Joldersma, Clarence W., Calvin College

      Kassiola, Joel Jay, San Francisco State University

      Kte'pi, Bill, Independent Scholar

      Lamb, Vanessa, York University

      Lankowski, Carl, U.S. Department of State

      Lautensach, Alexander K., University of Northern British Columbia

      Leonard, Liam, Institute of Technology, Sligo

      LeVasseur, Todd, University of Florida

      Lewis, James G., Forest History Society

      May, Shannon, University of California, Berkeley

      Minor, John Jesse, University of Arizona

      Myers, Justin, The Graduate Center, City University of New York

      Nascimento, Susana, ISCTE-IUL / Lisbon University Institute

      O'Sullivan, John, Gainesville State College

      Palmer, Daniel E., Kent State University, Trumbull Campus

      Parker, Jonathan, University of North Texas

      Plutynski, Anya, University of Utah

      Roser, Dominic, University of Zurich

      Roth-Johnson, Danielle, University of Nevada, Las Vegas

      Rowley, Brandon B., University of Idaho

      Salsedo, Carl A., University of Connecticut

      Schroth, Stephen T., Knox College

      Scott, Austin Elizabeth, University of Florida

      Shahar, Dan C., University of Arizona

      Shear, Boone, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

      Shooter, Wynn, Monash University

      Silva, Carlos Nunes, University of Lisbon

      Thornton, Fanny, Australian National University

      Tomozeiu, Daniel, University of Westminster

      Turrell, Sophie, Independent Scholar

      Uebel, Michael, University of Texas at Austin

      van Bueren, Ellen, Delft University of Technology

      Vanderheiden, Steve, University of Colorado at Boulder

      Vaz, Sofia Azevedo Guedes, New University of Lisbon

      Weiland, Sabine, Catholic University of Louvain

      Witt, Joseph, University of Florida

      Woods, Mark, University of San Diego

      Yuhas, Stephanie, University of Denver

      Green Ethics and Philosophy Chronology

      1635: A law is passed in Ireland prohibiting the pulling of wool off live sheep and the attaching of a plow to a horse's tail.

      1641: Massachusetts’ “Body of Liberties” is passed, containing legislation that forbids “Tirranny or Crueltie” against domestic animals.

      1864: George Perkins Marsh publishes Man and Nature, a book that argues that many civilizations have fallen because of environmental degradation.

      1872: President Ulysses Grant signs into law a bill designating the area of Yellowstone as the world's first national park.

      1873: The first federal law against animal cruelty is passed in the United States. Called the “Twenty-Eight Hour Law,” it requires that “livestock transported across country be provided with water and rest at least once every 28 hours.”

      1892: Social reformer Henry Salt publishes Animals’ Rights: Considered in Relation to Social Progress.

      1892: The Sierra Club is founded in the city of San Francisco by preservationist John Muir.

      1896: The National Forestry Commission is established.

      1903: President Theodore Roosevelt signs an executive order selecting Pelican Island in Florida as the United States’ first national wildlife refuge.

      1905: The United States Forest Service is established.

      1911: Congress passes the Weeks Act, authorizing the Secretary of Agriculture to “examine, locate and recommend for purchase…such lands within the watersheds of navigable streams as…may be necessary to the regulation of flow of navigable streams.”

      1916: The National Park Organic Act is signed into law, establishing the National Park Service.

      1935: The Wilderness Society is founded. Over time, the organization's membership grows to more than 300,000 people.

      1946: The Bureau of Land Management is formed when the Grazing Service and the General Land Office are merged.

      1949: Aldo Leopold publishes The Sand County Almanac in which he states that humanity should adopt an “ethic dealing with man's relation to land and to the animals and plants which grow upon it.”

      1962: Rachel Carson's Silent Spring is released and is subsequently credited with spurring the creation of the modern environmental movement.

      1962: Murray Bookchin's Our Synthetic Environment is published.

      1964: The Wilderness Act is signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson. The act sets aside 9 million acres for environmental protection.

      1967: Roderick Nash's Wilderness and the American Mind, a book espousing the theory of environmental preservation, is published.

      1968: The Club of Rome is founded with the intent of convincing industrialists that unlimited economic growth and preserving the environment are two incompatible ideas.

      1970: Norman Borlaug, known as “the father of the Green Revolution,” is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his work in developing high-yielding strains of wheat, which leads to a significant worldwide reduction in food scarcity.

      1970: The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is passed, requiring all federal agencies to compile and submit an Environmental Impact Statement.

      April 22, 1970: The world's first Earth Day is celebrated.

      1973: Philosopher Arne Naess coins the term deep ecology to describe an environmental movement that focuses not only on reducing pollution but also on recognizing that nature has significant intrinsic value.

      1973: Congress passes the Endangered Species Act.

      1974: French feminist Françoise d'Eaubonne coins the term ecofeminism to describe a set of beliefs that lay blame for environmental problems on the worldwide inequality between men and women.

      1974: Australian philosopher John Passmore publishes Man's Responsibility for Nature.

      1976: Bioethics professor Peter Singer publishes Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for Our Treatment of Animals.

      1976: The United Nations Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques (ENMOD) is held.

      1977: Wendell Berry publishes The Unsettling of America, a critique on the mechanization of agriculture.

      1978: Dr. Eugene C. Hargrove founds Environmental Ethics, the first journal to focus entirely on environmental concerns.

      1978: A tiny neighborhood in Niagara Falls, New York, named Love Canal makes national news when it is revealed that tons of toxic waste have inundated the neighborhood's landscape. Later, U.S. President Jimmy Carter declares the site a federal disaster area.

      1979: James Lovelock introduces the Gaia hypothesis, a controversial theory stating that the Earth is a constantly evolving organism that must maintain a “preferred homeostasis.”

      1983: Philosophy professor Robin Attfield publishes The Ethics of Environmental Concern, exploring the history of human-centered thinking and its effects on the environment.

      1986: American philosopher Paul Taylor publishes Respect for Nature: A Theory of Environmental Ethics.

      1986: Environmentalist Jay Westerveld coins the term greenwashing to describe how companies often use deceptive marketing to make it seem as though their products are more environmentally friendly than they actually are. Examples include British Petroleum rebranding itself as “Beyond Petroleum.”

      1987: The World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) convenes and releases its report titled Our Common Future.

      1989: Dr. Eugene C. Hargrove publishes Foundations of Environmental Ethics.

      1990: The International Society for Environmental Ethics (ISEE) is founded.

      1991: Freya Mathews publishes The Ecological Self, a book arguing that modern environmental philosophy is not adequate enough to solve most environmental problems.

      1992: Representatives from 172 governments around the world gather in Rio de Janeiro for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED).

      1992: Professor William Rees coins the term ecological footprint, meaning the effect humans have on the Earth's ecosystems.

      1992: California genetic engineering company Calgene develops the Flavr Savr tomato, the first genetically engineered food to be introduced to the world market.

      1993: The Environmental Law and Policy Center (ELPC) is founded.

      1994: U.S. President Bill Clinton signs Executive Order 12898, requiring federal agencies to determine the impact that environmental degradation has on low-income communities.

      1994: The Science and Environmental Health Network, a consortium of environmental organizations, is founded.

      1996: Researchers at the Roslin Institute in Scotland successfully clone the first mammal in history, a sheep named Dolly.

      1997: The Kyoto Protocol, an international document whose signatories pledge to reduce greenhouse gases, is officially adopted.

      1997: The International Association of Environmental Philosophers (IAEP) is founded by professors Bruce Foltz and Robert Freedman.

      2000: Edward Freeman, Jessica Pierce, and Richard Dodd publish Environmentalism and the New Logic of Business: How Firms Can Be Profitable and Leave Our Children a Living Planet.

      2000: The Earth Charter, a 2,400-word document that outlines global environmental sustainability efforts, is unveiled to the public.

      2000: The United Nations Millennium Summit is held and eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are adopted by various countries.

      2002: The World Summit on Sustainable Development is held in Johannesburg, South Africa.

      2002: The United Nations designates 2002 as the International Year of Ecotourism.

      2003: Journalist Alex Steffen coins the term bright green environmentalism to describe a new wing of environmentalism that espouses the effectiveness of technological innovation.

      2006: The United Nations releases a study showing that the U.S. meat industry has the largest impact on global warming than any other industry.

      2006: The documentary film An Inconvenient Truth, featuring a slide-show-like presentation about the environment by former vice president Al Gore, is released. The film goes on to gross approximately $25 million in the United States.

      2006: Studies are released showing that only 0.65 percent of the total agricultural lands worldwide are “organic” farms.

      2009: The Barack Obama administration announces it will increase corporate average fuel economy standards.

      2010: The Obama administration proposes to open certain offshore areas for oil and natural gas drilling.

    • Green Ethics and Philosophy Glossary

      Adaptation: An evolutionary process by which organisms become better suited to their habitat over many generations, through gradual change. The process by which heritable traits that benefit the organism become more common throughout the population over many generations is called adaptive selection or natural selection.

      Agriculture: The production of goods, including food, through the cultivation of crops and the herding of livestock, often also encompassing the breeding and hybridization of plants and the selective breeding of animals; one of the fundamental human enterprises. The combination of agriculture and cooking (which maximized the nutrients available to humans) enabled the creation of the earliest human civilizations, as food surpluses made possible the dense populations and non-nomadic lifestyles of ancient cities.

      Alternative fuels: Various possible substitutes for the fossil-fuel-based gasoline and diesel used to power most motor vehicles; includes biofuels (see below), alcohol-based fuels, and mixtures of fossil fuels with other fuels.

      Anthropocentric: Literally, “human centered.” Anthropocentrism is the belief, taken for granted in most cultures through most of human history and argued more explicitly by some schools of philosophy today, that humans are the figurative “center of the universe” and that ethical systems should thus be principally concerned with human benefit.

      Anthropogenic: Man-made; used especially to underscore the human origins of a substance or phenomenon, as in “anthropogenic climate change” or “anthropogenic toxic compounds.”

      Biodiversity: The total variety of life on Earth. Modern science considers biodiversity to be an inherently good thing for the ecosystem and the loss of species and of species diversity to be an alarming consequence of environmental damage. From an evolutionary standpoint, genetic diversity— the diversity of genes within a species—is also especially important.

      Bioethics: The philosophical study of ethical issues arising in the medical field and the biological sciences. Bioethics, concerned with issues that arise as a result of scientific advances, is sometimes contrasted with medical ethics, the questions of which may be centuries old or older. Other usages may emphasize medical ethics as applied ethics for a particular profession, while bioethics can encompass more abstract questions. The distinction is more a matter of the speaker's preference than a formal one. Both studies include the political and legal dimensions of their issues.

      Biofuel: Fuel derived from biological material (biomass), including alcohol, hydrogen gas, excreta, and plant materials (which are usually processed into some sort of burnable fuel).

      By-Product: Any material other than the product that is generated as a consequence of a process or as a breakdown product.

      Carbon offsets: Financial instruments, expressed in metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent, which represent the reduction of carbon dioxide or an equivalent greenhouse gas. Carbon offsets allow corporations and other entities to comply with caps on their emissions by purchasing offsets to bring their totals down to acceptable levels. The smaller voluntary market for carbon offsets exists for individuals and companies that purchase offsets in order to mitigate their emissions by choice. There is a great deal of controversy over the efficacy and truthfulness of the offsets market, which is new enough that, in a best-case scenario, the kinks have not yet been worked out, while in the worst, it will turn out to be a dead end in the history of environmental reform.

      Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): A family of inert nontoxic chemicals used in a variety of applications including refrigeration and air conditioning, solvents, and aerosol propellants. Because CFCs are not destroyed in the lower atmosphere, they drift into the upper atmosphere, where their chlorine components destroy ozone. Also see fluorocarbons, of which CFCs are a subtype.

      Climate change: Increasingly, a term preferred over “global warming,” which refers to only one phenomenon. Climate change refers to all changes in the properties of the climate system over a long period of time (an unseasonably warm summer or an El Niño period do not constitute climate change) and may be used in reference to a smaller area than the whole Earth.

      Consequentialism: An ethical framework in which the consequences of an action determine its moral value: things are right or wrong according to the effects they have. Utilitarianism is the best-known articulation of consequentialism, but altruism is essentially a consequentialist position, and not all consequentialisms need to follow utilitarianism's goal of maximized pleasure and minimized pain. Naturally, consequentialism's greatest weakness is that it is not always easy, or possible, to predict the consequences of an action—but note that this weakness cannot invalidate consequentialism's moral stance; it simply implies a morally difficult universe.

      Conservation: The protection and management of a thing; in green contexts, refers usually to the conservation movement, which predates the environmentalist movement and is concerned chiefly with the sustainable use of natural resources by humans rather than the protection of the ecosystem for its own sake.

      Cornucopian: The position that environmental crises—including climate change, finite nonrenewable resources, water/air/soil pollution, and problems caused by population growth or finite carrying capacity—either do not exist or will be solved by the combination of technological advances and free market forces.

      Cost-Benefit analysis: A process that weighs the expected costs of an action against the expected benefits in order to determine the best possible action.

      Deep Ecology: The belief, first formulated by Norwegian philosopher Arne Naess, that human identity should be conceived of within a larger framework called the ecological self; deep ecology was conceived as an ecological ideology that would emphasize the common ground among people of different cultural and spiritual backgrounds and has led to a social movement of the same name.

      Distributive justice: An allocation of goods and resources within a society that is socially just; distributive justice is often, but not always, an explicit goal of consequentialist approaches and is a concept under much consideration (if not always named) in any discussion of globalization.

      Ecocentrism: Any nature-centered belief system; contrast with anthropocentrism. Ecocentrism emphasizes the agency of the human species in the damage to its environment and holds sustainability and the health of the ecosystem as goods unto themselves.

      Ecofeminism: A sociopolitical philosophy that argues that ecological destruction and global inequality are the inevitable outcomes of the unequal power distribution between the global north and global south (see north–south), between humans and nature, and between men and women.

      Egalitarianism: The belief that all people should be treated as equals, or that all economic inequalities should be remedied. Egalitarianism can be articulated in many different ways, as the other political beliefs of the speaker impact his views on the cause and nature of these inequalities.

      Emission: The discharge into the atmosphere from exhausts, vents, smokestacks, chimneys, surface areas, and so forth, typically used when such discharge constitutes pollution.

      Environmental justice: The equitable distribution of the impact of environmental activity among the populations of the Earth. Proponents of environmental justice point to the frequency with which the owners of wealthy corporations guilty of environmental damage live far from the places where that damage occurs, or can afford the remedies to that damage, thus insulating themselves from the consequences of their actions.

      Ethics: The study of moral questions. Ethics can refer to specific types of ethics (such as applied ethics or medical ethics) or to specific systems of ethics (such as Catholic ethics or Marxist ethics). Though the religions of the world always include an ethical dimension to their belief systems, ethics and religion are not coequal, and the term secular ethics is sometimes used to describe systems of ethics that derive their conclusions from logic or moral intuition rather than from religious teachings or revealed truths. Secular ethics and religious ethics can and often do reach the same conclusions and may do so by the same means; there are both secular and religious articulations of utilitarianism, for instance. Major types of ethics include descriptive ethics (which describes the values people live by in practice), moral psychology (the study of how moral thinking develops in the human species), and applied ethics (which addresses the ethical concerns of specific real-life situations and putting ethics into practice).

      Etiquette: The rules of proper social behavior, either received (as “unwritten rules”) or prescribed by popular authorities such as Miss Manners and other guides to polite behavior. While ethics govern moral behavior, etiquette is simply the avoidance of appearing rude, crude, or offensive; while this may seem trivial in comparison to weighty moral issues, matters of etiquette govern a great deal of day-to-day behavior and often have greater implications. For instance, American etiquette encourages the shaking of hands and other casual physical contact between acquaintances but is uncomfortable with the idea of wearing face-masks (which conceal the expression); the combination of these points of etiquette has a significant impact on the spread of contagion in the United States.

      Fallibilism: The doctrine that all claims of knowledge could be wrong (that is, fallible), that things we believe we know could be proved wrong by later evidence, and in its most robust articulations, that even truths are impossible to prove with absolute certainty.

      Fluorocarbons (FCs): Organic compounds analogous to hydrocarbons in which one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by fluorine. Primarily used in coolants and industrial processes.

      Footprint: A figurative term for the impact of an activity or entity: The ecological footprint of a thing is its total environmental impact, while the carbon footprint is the total carbon emissions released by its activity.

      Free market fundamentalism: The belief that free market forces are the best remedy to economic and social problems. Though the “fundamentalism” of the term is usually figurative, in the wake of the global financial crisis of the early 21st century, religious free market fundamentalists who combine strict laissez-faire economics with strict literalist interpretations of Christian scripture have become more prominent, interpreting Adam Smith's invisible hand (a metaphor for the market's self-regulation) rather more literally.

      Gaia hypothesis: A view of the Earth in its entirety as a single living superorganism.

      Moral absolutism: In contrast with consequentialism or robust expressions of moral relativism (which see), holds that an action can be inherently good or bad and that neither context nor consequence affects this.

      Moral nihilism: The view that nothing is either moral or immoral. Though some schools of thought are legitimately nihilist, it is very often used as an exaggerated criticism: for instance, moral absolutists may accuse of nihilism a philosopher who says that an action is not inherently right or wrong but must be considered in terms of its consequences and context.

      Moral relativism: The acknowledgment that different cultures have different moral standards. There are various levels of moral relativism, from the weak descriptivist articulation that simply acknowledges and describes those differences to the normative position that says that there is no universal moral standard, only culturally derived morals. Moderate positions often propose that there are certain key moral standards that form a universal ethical core such as taboos on murder, incest, or parental neglect. The question of which moral standards are universal becomes important when cultures deal with one another and when international bodies mediate between them. Most differences are not about matters as obvious or seemingly clear-cut as murder but may instead bear on matters of justice or on the distribution of responsibility: the questions of who has the responsibility to do something about climate change or of the ethical importance of avoiding polluting behaviors vary widely around the world. The opposite of relativism is universalism.

      Moral skepticism: A framework of belief that claims that no one has moral knowledge—that no one confidently knows right from wrong, in some ways the most robust case of normative moral relativism. The strongest articulations of moral skepticism say that not only does no one possess moral knowledge but such knowledge is impossible.

      Moral syncretism: The attempt to reconcile differing moral beliefs. Though moral syncretism descends in some sense from the efforts of early Christian missionaries to emphasize the similarities among the cultures they encountered and to find the ways that Christianity would suit those cultures, it is predicated on the certainty that religion cannot be the sole arbiter of moral truths.

      Normative: Describes how a thing ought to be. A normative statement describes what should be done, regardless of what is done. Normative ethics are concerned with how people ought to behave and what actions they ought to take. “Alcohol intake impairs judgment” is a descriptive statement; “drunk driving is wrong” is a normative statement.

      North–south: A model of the world that contrasts the industrialized, developed, wealthy countries of the global north with the developing, poorer countries of the global south. Geography here is partially figurative, with Australia and New Zealand included in the global north, and a number of African, Middle Eastern, and Asian nations in the Northern Hemisphere included in the global south. The term became popular in the wake of the Cold War, when a new way of distinguishing between the developed (First and Second Worlds) and developing (Third World) was desired. However, while there are many political and cultural ties between the nations of the global north, the global south—much like the Third World—is varied enough to invite criticism of the model's accuracy and usefulness.

      Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): A group of toxic chemicals used in electrical transformers and capacitors as insulators and in gas pipeline systems as lubricants. Because of their toxicity, the sale and new use of PCBs is banned by law in the United States and many other countries.

      Sick building syndrome: Various ailments associated with a workplace or residence, usually due to poor air quality as a result of allergenic or toxic molds, flaws in HVAC systems, insufficient fresh air (and too much recirculation of the same air throughout the building), and chemicals used in workplace activities and their resulting emissions.

      Spandrel: In biology, an observable characteristic that is a by-product of the evolution of a different characteristic, not a product of adaptive selection. The term was coined by Stephen Jay Gould and Richard Lewontin in their landmark paper “The Spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian Paradigm: A Critique of the Adaptationist Programme,” which faulted adaptationists in evolutionary biology for attributing seemingly every feature of any organism to adaptive selection, when many such features must have resulted indirectly. In recent years, both religion and the faculty for language have been suggested as possible spandrels in the human species: characteristics of the organism that resulted as a by-product of some other needed characteristic's development.

      Strip mining: A machine process that scrapes soil and rock away from mineral deposits just beneath the surface of the Earth, most commonly used to mine tar sand or coal. Similar surface mining methods include open-pit mining, dredging, and mountaintop removal. All such methods are criticized for their impact on the environment, on water resources, on the health of mine workers, and on aesthetics.

      Sustainability: The capacity to continue; for instance, the capacity for a process to continue without using up the resources it consumes or for a species or an ecosystem to endure.

      Utilitarianism: A form of consequentialism (which see) according to which the moral value of an action is determined by the total pleasure (or happiness) that results from it. The term utilitarian, meaning a pragmatic approach focused on “the bottom line,” does not necessarily connote a stance of utilitarianism, which is defined by its very specific goal of “greatest happiness” and its denial of moral absolutism.

      Waste: Unwanted materials left over from a process; see also by-products.

      BillKte'pi, Independent Scholar

      Green Ethics and Philosophy Resource Guide

      Allen, Adriana and NicholasYou.Sustainable Urbanisation: Bridging the Green and Brown Agendas. London: University College, Development Planning Unit, 2002.
      Allen, Catherine and GeorgeHenry Stankey, eds. Adaptive Environmental Management: A Practitioner's Guide. New York: Springer, 2009.
      Allin, Craig W. The Politics of Wilderness Preservation. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982.
      Attfield, Robin. Environmental Philosophy: Principles and Prospects. Aldershot, UK: Avebury, 1994.
      Attfield, Robin. The Ethics of Environmental Concern. New York: Columbia University Press, 1983.
      Beatley, Timothy. Green Urbanism: Learning From European Cities. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2000.
      Berry, Wendell. The Unsettling of America: Culture and Agriculture. New York: Avon, 1977.
      Brinkley, Douglas. The Wilderness Warrior: Theodore Roosevelt and the Crusade for America. New York: HarperCollins, 2009.
      Buell, Lawrence. The Environmental Imagination: Thoreau, Nature Writing, and the Formation of American Culture. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1995.
      Callicott, J. Baird and MichaelP. Nelson, eds. The Great New Wilderness Debate. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1998.
      Carson, R. Silent Spring. Greenwich, CT: Fawcett, 1962.
      Chappell, T. D. J. The Philosophy of the Environment. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press, 1997.
      Clayton, Susan and GeneMyers. Conservation Psychology: Understanding and Promoting Human Care for Nature. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.
      Cohen, M. P. and ClubS.. The History of the Sierra Club, 1892–1970. New York: Random House, 1988.
      Crocker, David A. and TobyLinden, eds. Ethics of Consumption: The Good Life, Justice, and Global Stewardship. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1997.
      Croly, Herbert. The Promise of American Life. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1965.
      Daily, Gretchen C. and KatherineEllison. The New Economy of Nature: The Quest to Make Conservation Profitable. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2002.
      De-Shalit, Avner. Why Posterity Matters. London: Routledge, 1995.
      Devall, Bill. Simple in Means, Rich in Ends: Practicing Deep Ecology. Layton, UT: Gibbs Smith, 1988.
      Evans, L. T. Feeding the Ten Billion: Plants and Population Growth. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
      Ferriss, Susan and RicardoSandoval. The Fight in the Fields: Cesar Chavez and the Farmworkers Movement. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1997.
      Freeman, R. Edward, JessicaPierce, and RichardH. Dodd. Environmentalism and the New Logic of Business: How Firms Can Be Profitable and Leave Our Children a Living Planet. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
      Freeman, R. Edward, JessicaPierce, and RichardH. Dodd. Shades of Green: Business Ethics and the Environment. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
      Galbraith, John Kenneth. The Affluent Society. Cambridge, MA: Riverside Press, 1958.
      Gaston, Kevin J. and JohnI. Spicer. Biodiversity: An Introduction,
      2nd ed.
      Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2004.
      Graham, F. Since Silent Spring. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1970.
      Guha, Ramachandra. How Much Should a Person Consume? Environmentalism in India and the United States. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006.
      Gunningham, Neil A., RobertAllen Kagan, and DorothyThornton. Shades of Green: Business, Regulation, and Environment. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 2003.
      Hawken, Paul, AmoryLovins, and LovinsL. H.. Natural Capitalism: Creating the Next Industrial Revolution. Boston: Little Brown, 1999.
      Hayward, Tim. Ecological Thought. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 1995.
      Hill, David, MatthewFasham, GrahamTucker, MichaelShewry, and PhilipShaw, eds. Handbook of Biodiversity Methods: Survey, Evaluation and Monitoring. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
      Holling, C. S., ed. Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management. Toronto, Canada: Wiley Interscience, 1978.
      Janick, Jules. Classic Papers in Horticultural Science. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989.
      Jefferson, Thomas. Notes of the State of Virginia. New York: Penguin, 1999.
      Jennings, Francis. The Ambiguous Iroquois Empire: The Covenant Chain Confederation of Indian Tribes With English Colonies. New York: W. W. Norton, 1984.
      Levin, Simon A., ed. Encyclopedia of Biodiversity. 5 vols.,
      2nd ed.
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      Levine, E. Rachel Carson: A Twentieth-Century Life. New York: Viking, 2007.
      Long, B. L. International Environmental Issues and the OECD 1950–2000: An Historical Perspective. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), 2000.
      Makower, Joel. Strategies for the Green Economy: Opportunities and Challenges in the New World of Business. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2009.
      McKibben, Bill. Deep Economy: The Wealth of Communities and a Durable Future. New York: Times Books, 2007.
      McManis, Charles, ed. Biodiversity and the Law: Intellectual Property, Biotechnology, and Traditional Knowledge. London: Earthscan, 2007.
      Meffe, Gary K., et al., eds. Ecosystem Management: Adaptive, Community-Based Conservation. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2002.
      Miller, Dan, ed. Acknowledging Consumption: A Review of New Studies. New York: Routledge, 1995.
      Mumford, Lewis. The City in History: Its Origins, Its Transformations, and Its Prospects. New York: MFJ Books, 1961.
      Nash, Roderick Frazier. Wilderness and the American Mind,
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      Nelson, Michael P. and CallicottJ. Baird, eds. The Wilderness Debate Rages On: Continuing the Great New Wilderness Debate. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2008.
      Nichols, Alex and CharlotteOpal. Fair Trade: Market-Driven Ethical Consumption. London: Sage, 2005.
      Oelschlaeger, M. The Idea of Wilderness. Binghamton, NY: Vail-Ballou, 1991.
      Orr, D. W. Earth in Mind: On Education, Environment, and the Human Prospect. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2004.
      Pybus, C. and FlanaganR.. The Rest of the World Is Watching: Tasmania and the Greens. Sydney: Pan Macmillan, 1990.
      Rainbow, Stephen. Green Politics. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1993.
      Regan, Tom. The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.
      Rensenbrink, John. Against All Odds: The Green Transformation of American Politics. Raymond, ME: Leopolog Press, 1999.
      Roe, Dilys and JoannaElliott, eds. The Earthscan Reader in Poverty and Biodiversity Conservation. London: Earthscan, 2010.
      Rolston, H.. Environmental Ethics: Duties to and Values in the Natural World. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1988.
      Roosevelt, Theodore. Theodore Roosevelt: An Autobiography. New York: Macmillan, 1913.
      Schweitzer, Albert. Civilization and Ethics. London: Adam and Charles Black, 1946.
      Scott, James. Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1998.
      Shiva, Vandana. Biopiracy: The Plunder of Nature and Knowledge. Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1997.
      Singer, Peter. Animal Liberation: A New Ethics for Our Treatment of Animals. New York: New York Review of Books, 1976.
      Spretnak, Charlene and FritjofCapra. Green Politics. Santa Fe, NM: Bear and Co., 1986.
      Taylor, Paul W. Normative Discourse. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1961.
      Taylor, Paul W. Principles of Ethics: An Introduction. Encino, CA: Dickenson, 1975.
      Taylor, Paul W. Respect for Nature: A Theory of Environmental Ethics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986.
      Ten Have, Henk A. M. J. Environmental Ethics and International Policy. Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Publishing, 2006.
      Wackernagel, M. and ReesW. E.. Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact on the Earth. Gabriola Island, Canada: New Society, 1996.
      Walters, Carl J. Adaptive Management of Renewable Resources. New York: Macmillan, 1986.
      Westra, Laura and PatriciaH. Werhane, eds. The Business of Consumption: Environmental Ethics and the Global Economy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1998.
      Williams, Byron K., et al.Adaptive Management: The U.S. Department of the Interior Technical Guide. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, 2007.
      Wilson, Edward O., ed. Biodiversity. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1988.
      World Commission on Environment and Development. Our Common Future. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
      Zimmerman, M. E. Environmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1993.
      Forest Products Journal
      Journal for Nature Conservation
      Journal of Applied Philosophy
      Journal of Forestry
      Journal of Heritage Tourism
      Journal of International Wildlife Law and Policy
      Journal of Materials Processing Technology
      Journal of Solar Energy Engineering
      Journal of the History of Ideas
      Journal of the Institute of Conservation
      Journal of Transdisciplinary Environmental Studies
      Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management
      South African Journal of Philosophy
      Center for Environmental Philosophy
      Environmental Movement Timeline: A History of the American Environmental Movement
      Environmental Protection Agency
      Green Part of the United States
      International Association for Environmental Philosophy
      International Society for Environmental Ethics
      Leave No Trace
      Pew Center on Global Climate Change
      Slow Food Movement
      United Nations Environment Programme
      The Wilderness Society

      Green Ethics and Philosophy Appendix

      Caring for God's Creation

      This is the Website of the Environmental Justice Program (EJP) of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. The program, founded in 1993 and located within the Department of Social Development and World Peace, aims to “educate and motivate Catholics to deeper reverence and respect for God's creation, and to engage parishes and dioceses in activities aimed at dealing with environmental problems, particularly as they affect the poor.” The EJP also acts as a resource for Catholic dioceses and conferences and maintains close ties with the National Religious Partnership for the Environment. The EJP focuses its activities on four main areas: scholarship, leadership development, public policy and advocacy, and special projects. Resources available from the Website include an overview of EJP policies and positions and the ethical reasoning that ties their values and activities to Catholicism, public policy, an archive of relevant documents, current campaigns, news about the EJP and about domestic and international issues, and key articles including “An Ecological Spirituality” by the Reverend Joseph A. Tetlow, S.J., and “The Good Life From a Catholic Perspective: The Problem of Consumption” by Monsignor Charles Murphy.

      The Center for Environmental Philosophy

      This Website, maintained by the University of North Texas, is an excellent source of basic information about environmental philosophy and ethics (including the history of the subject as an academic field) and provides many links to other sources of information. It includes a cumulative index to the journal Environmental Ethics and other information including instructions to authors and ordering information. The Website also includes an annotated bibliography of books relevant to environmental philosophy, photo and video presentations, links to relevant graduate programs and associations, funding opportunities, a searchable, annotated database of books and articles relevant to environmental ethics (also available as a PDF file), a collection of syllabi for courses in environmental philosophy and related subjects (viewable by course title, instructor, region, school, and textbook), and links to other sources of information available on the Internet.

      Coalition on the Environment and Jewish Life: Protecting Creation, Generation to Generation

      This is the official Website of the Coalition on the Environment and Jewish Life (COEJL), founded in 1993 to catalyze “a distinctively Jewish programmatic and policy response to the environmental crisis.” The COEJL's mission includes partnering with Jewish organizations to integrate environmental stewardship into Jewish life, bringing environmental education and opportunities for environmental action to Jewish people, bringing a Jewish vision and voice to issues of sustainability and environmental justice, and participating in civic coalitions and interreligious efforts to protect the environment. The Website includes information about the COEJL programs including the Jewish Environmental Leadership Institute, the COEJL Environmental Policy Platform, the Green Synagogues program, the COEJL Global Climate Change and Energy Campaigns, the Jewish Global Environmental Network, and links to other Jewish organizations working on environmental issues. The Website also includes resources for those who are interested in starting a Jewish environmental organization or who are interested in the topic as well as information about ordering COEJL publications.

      Greenpeace International

      This is the Web page of the global nongovernmental organization, founded in 1971, which focuses on research, lobbying, and direct action to further its goal to “ensure the ability of the earth to nurture life in all its diversity.” The Website includes information about Greenpeace's many activities organized by chief area of concern including global warming, energy, oceans, forests, nuclear, toxics, and sustainable agriculture and genetic engineering. The Website also contains a media center including official Greenpeace statements on various issues; downloadable reports, factsheets, toolkits, and other information relevant to Greenpeace campaigns; a catalog of images and videos; information for those who wish to become involved with GreenPeace; links to national GreenPeace Websites; and a link to a downloadable copy of the Green Peace Code of Ethics ( The Website also offers access to several Greenpeace blogs (focused on campaign, grassroots, and community actions) and the opportunity to sign up for e-mail alerts of Greenpeace news and action alerts.

      Environmental Justice

      This Web page, part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), defines environmental justice as “the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations and policies.” The Web page includes an FAQ page, documents, and publications about environmental justice; a searchable bibliography about environmental justice; a database that can be searched by geographic location for facilities that have been inspected for air, water, and hazardous waste compliance; an interface to search for information specific to different regions of the United States; and the Environmental Justice Geographic Assessment Tool that allows users to identify geographic areas that may suffer increased exposure to environmental harm. The Website also offers information about the National Environmental Justice Advisory Council, the Federal Interagency Working Group on Environmental Justice, grants and programs of the EPA related to environmental justice, the National Achievements in Environmental Justice Awards Program, and links to multimedia resources including podcasts, photos, and video.

      Peter Singer

      This is the official Princeton University Web page of Peter Singer, Ira W. DeCamp Professor of Bioethics at Princeton and professor laureate at the Centre for Applied Philosophy and Public Ethics at the University of Melbourne. Singer is perhaps the best known of modern philosophers and is recognized for taking controversial (but well-reasoned and defended) positions on many questions related to bioethics. Singer laid the foundations of the animal liberation movement with his 1975 book Animal Liberation, which introduced the term speciesism to refer to the common practice of valuing humans more than other animals. In his 2009 book The Life You Can Save: Acting Now to End World Poverty, Singer argues that there is a moral imperative for people living comfortably in affluent nations to donate some of their income to help raise people in less fortunate countries out of poverty. Singer has also taken well-known positions on other controversial subjects such as abortion, euthanasia, bestiality, and vegetarianism. The Princeton Website includes an FAQ page on his philosophical positions, his curricula vitae (CV), descriptions of current research, his speaking schedule, and links to resources including many articles written by Singer that are available online at the official Websites of organizations that he belongs to or supports.

      Sarah E.BoslaughWashington University School of Medicine
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