Green Education: An A-to-Z Guide

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Edited by: Julie Newman

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      About the Editors

      Green Series Editor: Paul Robbins

      Paul Robbins is a professor and the director of the University of Arizona School of Geography and Development. He earned his Ph.D. in Geography in 1996 from Clark University. He is general editor of the Encyclopedia of Environment and Society (2007) and author of several books, including Environment and Society: A Critical Introduction (2010), Lawn People: How Grasses, Weeds, and Chemicals Make Us Who We Are (2007), and Political Ecology: A Critical Introduction (2004).

      Robbins's research centers on the relationships between individuals (homeowners, hunters, professional foresters), environmental actors (lawns, elk, mesquite trees), and the institutions that connect them. He and his students seek to explain human environmental practices and knowledge, the influence nonhumans have on human behavior and organization, and the implications these interactions hold for ecosystem health, local community, and social justice. Past projects have examined chemical use in the suburban United States, elk management in Montana, forest product collection in New England, and wolf conservation in India.

      Green Education General Editor: Julie Newman

      Julie Newman, Ph.D., has worked in the field of sustainable development and campus sustainability since 1993. Her research has focused on the role of decision-making processes and organizational behavior in institutionalizing sustainability into higher education. In 2004, Newman was recruited to be the founding director of the Office of Sustainability for Yale University. At Yale, Newman also holds a lecturer appointment with the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, where she teaches an undergraduate course titled Sustainability: From Innovation to Transformation in Institutions. Prior to her work at Yale, Newman assisted with the establishment of the longest-standing sustainability office in the country at the University of New Hampshire, Office of Sustainability. Newman was a pioneer in the field of campus sustainability beginning in 1995, when she worked for University Leaders for a Sustainable Future (ULSF) while a graduate student at Tufts University. In 2004, Newman cofounded the Northeast Campus Sustainability Consortium to advance education and action for sustainable development on university campuses in the northeast and maritime region. This has led to a 10-year regional commitment and a set of annual meetings for sustainability professionals in the northeast and maritime region. She also co-coordinates a sustainability working group of the International Alliance of Research Universities as well as a Sustainability working group for the Council of Ivy Presidents. In addition, Newman is a member of the editorial board of Sustainability: Journal of Record. Newman lectures and consults for universities both nationally and internationally, participates on a variety of boards and advisory committees, and has contributed to a series of edited books and peer-reviewed journals. She holds a B.S. from the University of Michigan, an M.S. from Tufts University, and a Ph.D. from the University of New Hampshire.

      Introduction

      John Muir in 1911 acknowledged in his writings titled My First Summer in the Sierra, “When we tug at a single thing in nature, we find it attached to the rest of the world.” A century ago, Muir ever so succinctly captured what now lies at the core of the dynamic discipline and inherent challenge of Green Education. Muir's quote is a potent reminder that we live in a world of interdependencies and interconnections. Nevertheless, we seem to find it easier to understand and interact with these complex and dynamic systems in pieces. The underlying challenge with this approach is that by focusing on the parts, we tend to neglect the whole. And by neglecting the whole, we continue to proliferate and stress the limitations on the Earth's systems, which manifest in drought, soil erosion, air, land and water pollution, global warming, loss of biodiversity and habitat, depleted fisheries, and correlated public health concerns. Green Education, a term that is often interchanged with Education for a Sustainable Future, provides an overarching multidisciplinary framework that calls upon the development of a broader and deeper understanding of the inherent connection between people, the environment, and the economy. Evoking Muir's vision, Green Education sets out to ensure that when a single thing in nature is tugged upon, we have an informed understanding as to how this relates to the rest of the world and the consequences of a single tug.

      Why Green Education?

      Every day, people make impactful decisions as consumers with respect to the use and acquisition of material goods or when preparing and eating every meal; as citizens and taxpayers when voting; as homeowners when heating, cooling, and building our homes; when traveling as commuters; and as employees in our workplace. The information that we have access to that informs these decisions and the consequences of many decisions tend to be too large or abstract to comprehend and therefore act upon, particularly at the level of the individual. Moreover, decisions tend to be driven by economic constraints forgoing externalities. Information is often available in pieces, which are easier to digest yet difficult to decipher what the greater impact upon the whole will be either locally or globally. Moreover, sustainability issues frequently represented in current events as captured by the media can be daunting while related scientific data may be inaccessible. We tend to have trouble as individuals comprehending how we can actually have an impact when the issues are global in scale, dynamic in content, and the results may take a decade or more to see and feel. Ultimately, Green Education seeks to find a balance in our ever-growing demand on our natural resource base while providing the tools to grapple with equitable use and distribution of these resources. The complexities that arise in this educational endeavor concern not only the physical attributes of resource use and depletion, but also the normative questions of how responsibility is taken or assigned.

      Building a Foundation for Green Education

      The field of Green Education dates back almost four decades to the 1972 Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment. This was the first international conference to collectively address people and the environment. The conference concluded with a call to broaden the basis of action by seeking engagement at the individual, business, and community level—as well as the local to global scale. The conference explicitly recognized the relationship between education and the emerging framework of what we now refer to as sustainable development. The document called for access to environmental education for all—from childhood through adulthood. The initial call to action was strengthened by the Tbilisi Declaration in 1978 that transpired from the Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education. This international declaration recognized the need for and proposed an interdisciplinary framework for environmental education. At that time, environmental education tended to target K-12 curriculum development exclusively, leaving higher education to focus on related research and teaching. Nine years later, in 1987, the Bruntland Commission created an overarching declaration for policy makers and educators alike defining sustainable development as a challenge to meet our present needs without diminishing the abilities of future generations to do the same.

      In response to the call for action by the Bruntland Commission, yet preceding the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio, colleges and universities more formally became committed participants in the global push for sustainability through a sector-specific international declaration known as the Talloires Declaration. The Talloires Declaration, initiated and endorsed by a global group of leaders in higher education, is a 10-point action plan calling for the incorporation of sustainability principles into teaching, research, operations, and outreach. This call to action and framework set the course for the higher education sector to engage and take a leading role in shaping the breadth of what Green Education has to offer, from formal and informal curricula to applied technology and building design to interdisciplinary research. Since that time, higher education institutions have begun to establish sustainability action plans and committed resources to fulfill their potentials as sustainability leaders. Two decades later, it is common practice for colleges and universities to have designated staff devoted to ensuring sustainable campus practices that manifest in operational systems, student engagement, faculty research, and staff responsibility.

      Campuses engaged in and committed to sustainability range from public and large private research institutions to small liberal arts colleges and community colleges. As the training ground for leaders in business, policy, international affairs, and every other sector links to issues of sustainability, higher education has the power to develop, study, and implement practicable models that can be adopted and shared by others. The inherent role of research and intellectual capital give higher education a respected and far-reaching voice. Now that the nation's ears are perked, colleges and universities can use this voice to drive ambitious transformation for sustainability.

      Measuring Sustainability

      One of the most notable trends that is on the rise in the field of Green Education is the creation of a measurement methodology for organizations to determine how they are performing today and how to establish targets for how they would like to perform in the future. Many colleges and universities and some secondary schools have begun to establish short- and long-term sustainability goals for their institutions. These goals may be quantitative or qualitative in nature, concerning everything from building design and performance to greenhouse gas emissions, landscape standards, water use, and transportation trends to curricular engagement opportunities. In an effort to determine how an organization or university is performing, third-party rating systems have been developed to compare and contrast and in some cases, incentivize others to excel.

      The Green Education Volume

      The entries in the Green Education volume seek to provide a historical perspective on the international and domestic treaties that have shaped the direction of the field today and expose you to current-day trends, examples, and challenges. The state of the field today will be explored in this volume via contemporary case examples from K-12, higher education, and community-based projects. It is not possible to cover every innovative example that has been identified. However, we encourage you as the reader to tug on one example and see how that will lead to additional learning outside of this volume. Green Education today distinguishes itself from other fields as programs and materials span curriculum development, research, operational systems, and outreach alike. In turn, these were adapted as the organizing principles for this volume.

      Innovative Green Education efforts are continuously being defined, new and old knowledge is being integrated, new relationships are being built, and educational organizations are attempting to align sustainability behavior, professional capacity, and organizational systems to achieve the desired learning outcomes called for by Green Education. The National Research Council declared in 2002 that we are in the midst of “a transition to a world in which human populations are more crowded, more consuming, more connected, and in many parts of the world, more diverse, than at any time in history.” Today, the type of change that is needed to reverse this trajectory is no doubt difficult. It's cultural—it's behavioral. It requires new perspectives—new knowledge—new mechanisms—new relationships. There is an inherent fragility in the system that lies in the alignment of desired behavior, citizen responsibility, professional capacity, and organizational systems. We need to reevaluate what we value—find new ways of accomplishing some of the same tasks and teach ourselves how to accomplish new tasks in new ways.

      JulieNewmanYale University

      Reader's Guide

      List of Articles

      List of Contributors

      Agans, Lyndsay J., University of Denver

      Almeida, Sylvia Christine, Monash University

      Bardaglio, Peter W., Second Nature

      Baumgarten, Martha S., Knox College

      Berkson, Emily K., Knox College

      Biggs, Lindy, Auburn University

      Blagg, Lisa R., Knox College

      Boslaugh, Sarah, Washington University in St. Louis

      Brouwer, Frank, University of Sussex/London RCE on ESD

      Chiu, Belinda H. Y., BChiu Consulting

      Coffman, Jennifer, James Madison University

      Colucci-Gray, Laura, University of Aberdeen

      Dahm, Cale T., Knox College

      Davis, Julie, Queensland University of Technology

      DeShasier, Bryan, University of Denver

      Duffy, Lawrence K., American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)

      Ercoskun, Ozge Yalciner, Gazi University

      Evans, Tina, Fort Lewis College

      Ferber, Michael P., The King's University College

      Ferguson, Therese, Independent Scholar

      Ferreira, Jo-Anne, Griffith University

      Finley-Brook, Mary, University of Richmond

      Flair, Levi W., Knox College

      Godfrey, Phoebe C., University of Connecticut

      Gonshorek, Daniel O., Knox College

      Gray, Donald, University of Aberdeen

      Gunter, Jr., Michael M., Rollins College

      Harper, Gavin, Cardiff University

      Helfer, Jason A., Knox College

      Henderson, DeAndre A., Knox College

      Kang, Leslie Y., Knox College

      Katzschner, Tania, Independent Scholar

      Kopnina, Helen, University of Amsterdam

      Kte'pi, Bill, Independent Scholar

      Lanfair, Jordan K., Knox College

      LaRosa, Derek M., Knox College

      Lawrence, Kirk S., University of California, Riverside

      Mahone, Christian D., Knox College

      Marelli, Beatrice, University of Milan

      Meek, David, University of Georgia

      Miller, Justin, Ball State University

      Newman, Julie, Yale University

      O'Keefe, Sean G., Knox College

      O'Rourke, Caroline, University of Richmond

      Panda, Sudhanshu Sekhar, Gainesville State College

      Pietta, Antonella, University of Brescia

      Purdy, Elizabeth Rholetter, Independent Scholar

      Rands, Gordon, Western Illinois University

      Rands, Pamela, Western Illinois University

      Reid, Alan, University of Bath

      Romano, Victoria M., Knox College

      Rosa, Angelina A., Knox College

      Ryan, Elizabeth, University of the Sunshine Coast

      Sanya, Tom, University of Cape Town

      Schmidt, David R., Independent Scholar

      Schroth, Stephen T., Knox College

      Slinger-Friedman, Vanessa, Kennesaw State University

      Smiley Smith, Sara E., Yale University

      Snell, Carolyn, University of York

      Stafford, Daniel T., Knox College

      Steffens, Ron, Green Mountain College

      Swearingen White, Stacey, University of Kansas

      Taylor, Whitney L., Knox College

      Trevino, Marcella Bush, Barry University

      Turrell, Sophie, Independent Scholar

      Ulloa, Sergio, Knox College

      Vaca, Edel, Knox College

      Van Grinsven, Rose M., Knox College

      Vedwan, Neeraj, Montclair State University

      White, H. Courtney, Antioch University New England

      Wilson, Sarah, University of York

      Green Education Chronology

      1848: The American Association for the Advancement of Science is founded. Its main priorities include publishing the journal Science.

      1886: Aquinas College is founded in the Michigan city of Grand Rapids. The college would go on to implement a world-renowned Sustainable Business curriculum.

      1946: The Scottish Centre for Ecology and the Natural Environment (SCENE) is established.

      1960–2005: The percentage of Americans who participate in community recycling programs increases from 6.4 percent to 32 percent, a rise that is largely based on environmental education.

      1962: Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, a book that educated the public about the dangers of the DDT pesticide, is published.

      1965: The Society for College and University Planning (SCUP) is established. Among the responsibilities of the society include publishing the quarterly peer-reviewed journal Planning for Higher Education.

      1967: CBS airs its documentary The Poisoned Air, educating the general public about the harmful effects of air pollution on humans.

      1968: Bowling Green State University's Center for Environmental Programs is established.

      1970: The University of Colorado becomes the first college to establish an Environmental Center.

      1973: Washington University's Institute for Environmental Studies is founded.

      1976: Brown University's Center for Environmental Studies (CES) is established.

      1976: Colorado University establishes one of the first campus recycling programs in U.S. history.

      1977: The First Intergovernmental Conference on Environmental Education is held in Tbilisi, Georgia.

      1978: Dalhousie University adds Master of Environmental Studies to its list of available majors.

      1983: The World Commission on Environment and Development, commonly known as the Brundtland Commission, is held.

      1984: India's Centre of Environmental Education is established.

      1987: The Brundtland Report releases its report after four years of research. The report is titled Our Common Future.

      1990: In an effort to promote environmental education, Brown University establishes its Brown Is Green (BIG) program.

      1991: Griffith University establishes its Master of Environment (Education for Sustainability) program.

      1991: The Conference on University Action for Sustainable Development is held in the Nova Scotia city of Halifax.

      1992: The Foundation of Environmental Education (FEE) establishes its Eco-Schools Program.

      1993: The International Association of Universities signs a formal agreement called the Kyoto Declaration on Sustainable Development.

      1995: New York City's Cloud Institute for Sustainability Education is established.

      1995: Green Mountain College establishes its Environmental Liberal Arts curriculum.

      1995: Penn State (Pennsylvania State University) founds its Center for Sustainability.

      1996: Michigan University's Erb Institute, an organization focusing on sustainability, is established.

      1997: Allegheny College's Center for Economic and Environmental Development is founded.

      1997: Representatives from 83 countries congregate in the Greek city of Thessaloniki for the International Conference on Environment and Society.

      1997: The University of New Hampshire forms its University Office of Sustainability.

      2000: The Lund University Centre for Sustainability Studies is established.

      2000: The University of Oregon establishes its Sustainable Development Plan.

      2000: The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) forms its Green Building Task Force.

      2000: Colby College's Environmental Advisory Group (EAG) is formed.

      2001: The Education for Sustainability Western Network is established.

      2001: The Center for Sustainable Communities and Civic Engagement is formed at Daemen College in the state of New York.

      2001: Emory University elects its first campus environmental officer.

      2002: Stanford University founds its Department of Global Ecology (DGE).

      2003: The United States Partnership for Education for Sustainable Development (USPESD) is founded.

      2004: Unity College in Maine announces it has become fully “green powered.”

      2004: Arizona State University establishes its Global Institute of Sustainability.

      2004: Leeds University establishes its School of Earth and Environment.

      2004: The University of Virginia establishes ecoMOD, a program designed to create environmentally sustainable dwellings for low-income people.

      2004: The Northeast Campus Sustainability Consortium (NECSC) is established.

      2005: The Sustainable Endowments Institute (SEI), a program designed to encourage sustainability on college campuses, is founded.

      2006: The American Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education (AASHE) holds its first conference in Arizona with approximately 600 people attending.

      2006: Carleton College's Sustainability Website is launched.

      2006: The Ohio University creates its Office of Sustainability.

      2006: The University of British Columbia's Clean Energy Research Centre (CERC) is established.

      2007: The College of the Atlantic announces that it will become the first “carbon-neutral” university.

      2007: The University at Buffalo, State University of New York, (SUNY Buffalo) creates its Environmental Stewardship Committee.

      2008: Dalhousie University establishes its College of Sustainability.

      2008: The Green Education Foundation (GEF) is established.

      2008: President George W. Bush signs the Higher Education Sustainability Act (HESA) into law.

      2008: Luther College in the state of Iowa creates its Campus Sustainability Council.

      2009: The American Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education (AASHE) launches the STARS initiative, a program designed to award college campuses that teach and uphold the principles of environmentalism.

      2009: The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act is passed. The legislation includes new opportunities for vocational training for “green jobs.”

      2009: Amherst College begins food composting its cafeteria waste as part of an effort to increase campus environmental standards.

      2009: The University of Maryland's Sustainability Council is formed.

      2009: Northland College adds Sustainable Community Development to its list of available majors.

      2009: Ball State University begins construction on a geothermal energy system that, when completed, will reduce the university's carbon footprint by approximately 50 percent.

      2010: The number of signatories pledging to uphold the principles of the American College and University Presidents Climate Commitment (ACUPCC) reaches 660.

      2010: The College of the Atlantic ranks third out of 286 “green colleges” in Princeton Review's list of the most environmentally friendly colleges.

      2010: Santa Fe Community College's Sustainable Technologies Center (STC) is constructed at a cost of $11.4 million.

    • Green Education Glossary

      A

      AASHE: Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education, an association of colleges and universities founded in 2005 to help coordinate and assist sustainability efforts in higher education.

      Active Solar: As an energy source, energy from the sun collected and stored using mechanical pumps or fans to circulate heat-laden fluids or air between solar collectors and a building (contrasted with passive solar).

      ACUPCC: The American College and University Presidents Climate Commitment, an agreement signed by over 660 presidents and chancellors at U.S. colleges and universities as of 2010, committing them to developing a plan for their institutions to achieve zero net greenhouse gas emissions.

      Alternative Energy: Energy derived from nontraditional sources (e.g., compressed natural gas, solar, hydroelectric, wind).

      B

      Base Period: The period of time for which data used as the base of an index number, or other ratio, have been collected: For instance, reductions in greenhouse gases or energy consumption are generally calculated relative to some base period before the reforms intended to cause the reductions began.

      Behavioral Change: As it affects energy efficiency, behavioral change is a change in energy-consuming activity originated by, and under control of, a person or organization. An example of behavioral change is adjusting a thermostat setting, or changing driving habits.

      Biodiesel: A fuel typically made from soybean, canola, or other vegetable oils; animal fats; and recycled grease that can serve as a substitute for petroleum-derived diesel or distillate fuel.

      Biofuels: Liquid fuels and blending components produced from biomass feedstocks, used primarily for transportation.

      Biomass: Organic nonfossil material of biological origin constituting a renewable energy source.

      C

      Campus Ecology: A program of the National Wildlife Federation to promote sustainability programs at colleges and universities.

      Center for Ecoliteracy: An organization founded in Berkeley, California, in 1995 by Fritjof Capra, Peter Buckley, and Zenobia Barlow to promote environmental education.

      Climate Change: Climate change refers to any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer), resulting from natural factors, such as changes in the sun's intensity or slow changes in the Earth's orbit around the sun; natural processes within the climate system (e.g., changes in ocean circulation) or human activities that change the atmosphere's composition (e.g., through burning fossil fuels) and the land surface (e.g., deforestation, reforestation, urbanization, desertification).

      Climate Neutrality: The state in which an institution such as a university has no net greenhouse gas emissions, achieved by some combination of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and creating or purchasing carbon offsets (e.g., by planting trees) to compensate for those which remain.

      Co-Benefit: The benefits of policies that are implemented for various reasons at the same time—including climate change mitigation—acknowledging that most policies designed to address greenhouse gas mitigation also have other, often at least equally important, rationales (e.g., related to objectives of development, sustainability, and equity).

      Cogenerator: A generating facility that produces electricity and another form of useful thermal energy (such as heat or steam), used for industrial, commercial, heating, or cooling purposes.

      Compact Fluorescent Bulbs: Also known as “screw-in fluorescent replacements for incandescent” or “screw-ins,” compact fluorescent bulbs combine the efficiency of fluorescent lighting with the convenience of a standard incandescent bulb.

      Conference on University Action for Sustainable Development: A conference held in Halifax, Nova Scotia, in December 1991, during which 16 Canadian universities adopted the Halifax Declaration committing them to taking a leadership role in promoting environmental sustainability and restructuring their own policies and practices to become more sustainable.

      Constructivism: A philosophy of education based on the ideas of Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky, John Dewey, and others that argues that individuals learn best when allowed to formulate meaning based on their own experiences rather than by memorizing information provided by an authority figure.

      Conventionally Fueled Vehicle: A vehicle that runs on petroleum-based fuels such as motor gasoline or diesel fuel.

      D

      Daylighting: The practice of designing buildings to take advantage of natural lighting during the daytime through siting and placement of windows (including skylights) to reduce the need for artificial illumination.

      Daylighting Controls: A system of sensors, sometimes referred to as photocells, that assesses the amount of daylight and controls lighting or shading devices to maintain a specified lighting level.

      Dual Fuel Vehicle: A motor vehicle that is capable of operating on an alternative fuel and on gasoline or diesel fuel. This term is meant to represent all such vehicles whether they operate on the alternative fuel and gasoline/diesel simultaneously (e.g., flexible-fuel vehicles) or can be switched to operate on gasoline/diesel or an alternative fuel (e.g., bi-fuel vehicles).

      E

      EETAP: The Environmental Education and Training Partnership, a consortium funded by the Environmental Education Division of the U.S Environmental Protection Agency to promote environmental education at the state and local levels.

      Electric Hybrid Vehicle: An electric vehicle that either (1) operates solely on electricity, but contains an internal combustion motor that generates additional electricity (series hybrid) or (2) contains an electric system and an internal combustion system and is capable of operating on either system (parallel hybrid).

      Emissions: Anthropogenic releases of gases to the atmosphere. In the context of global climate change, they consist of radiatively important greenhouse gases (e.g., the release of carbon dioxide during fuel combustion).

      Environmentally Preferable: A term used to describe products and services that have less negative effect on the environment and/or human health as compared to competing products and services that serve the same purposes.

      Experiential Education: A philosophy of education, drawing on the work of John Dewey and others, which argues that education should not be considered simply a process of accumulating knowledge by a process of growth through reflection on the individual's own experiences.

      Externality: The positive or negative unintentional result of an action that affects someone other than the primary actor and for which the affected parties are not charged or compensated.

      F

      Fairchild Challenge, The: A program of the Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden in Coral Gables, Florida, which offers free environmental education programs to schoolchildren and conducts an annual competition among schools participating in the program.

      Fleet Vehicle: Any motor vehicle a university owns or leases as part of its normal operations, including gasoline/diesel powered vehicles and alternative-fuel vehicles.

      Flexible-Fuel Vehicle: Also known as a variable fuel vehicle, a flexible-fuel vehicle has a single fuel system that can operate on alternative fuels, petroleum-based fuels, or any mixture of an alternative fuel (or fuels) and a petroleum-based fuel.

      Fossil Fuel: Any naturally occurring organic fuel, such as petroleum, coal, and natural gas.

      G

      Geothermal Energy: Hot water or steam extracted from geothermal reservoirs in the Earth's crust that can be used for geothermal heat pumps, water heating, or electricity generation. Global Warming: An average increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns. Global warming can occur from a variety of causes, both natural and human induced.

      Greenhouse Effect: The result of water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other atmospheric gases trapping radiant (infrared) energy, thereby keeping the Earth's surface warmer than it would otherwise be. Greenhouse gases within the lower levels of the atmosphere trap this radiation, which would otherwise escape into space, and subsequent re-radiation of some of this energy back to the Earth maintains higher surface temperatures than would occur if the gases were absent.

      Greenhouse Gases: Those gases, such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride that are transparent to solar (short-wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave (infrared) radiation, thus preventing long-wave radiant energy from leaving Earth's atmosphere. The net effect is a trapping of absorbed radiation and a tendency to warm the planet's surface.

      Green Roof: A building roof that incorporates living plants such as grass in order to provide insulation, reduce rain runoff, reduce the heat island effect, and possibly provide recreational space or wildlife habitat.

      H

      Harvest of Shame: A documentary television program by Edward R. Murrow, broadcast on CBS in 1960, which focused on the lives and working conditions of migrant farm workers in the United States, which was among the first to highlight not only environmental justice but also the disconnect between those producing America's food and those consuming it.

      Heat Pump: Heating and/or cooling equipment that, during the heating season, draws heat into a building from outside, and during the cooling season, ejects heat from the building to the outside. Heat pumps are vapor-compression refrigeration systems whose indoor/outdoor coils are used reversibly as condensers or evaporators, depending on the need for heating or cooling.

      I

      Incandescent Lamp: A glass enclosure in which light is produced when a tungsten filament is electrically heated so that it glows, including the familiar screw-in light bulbs. Much of the energy is converted into heat, making this class of lamp a relatively inefficient source of light.

      Inner City Outings: A community outreach program of the Sierra Club that conducts trips to wilderness areas for low-income young people living in urban areas of the United States.

      International Alliance of Research Universities: Sustainability Partnership: An organization founded in 2006 by 10 leading research universities (located in Asia, Europe, Australia, and the United States) to promote sustainability education and their own campuses and also to cooperate in this endeavor through processes such as student exchange programs, summer courses, and conferences.

      J

      John Muir Youth Award: A program of the Sierra Club, launched in 1996, which encourages students to learn about the environment and become stewards of wild areas.

      L

      LEED: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, a program of the United States Green Building Council that encourages green building practices and provides rating and certification at different levels.

      N

      NAAEE: The North American Association for Environmental Education, a professional association founded in 1971 of professionals, students, and others interested in environmental education.

      NAEP: The National Association of Education Procurement, an association of professionals (primarily in the United States and Canada) in charge of purchasing for institutions of higher education. NAEP held its first sustainability institute in 2007 to assist colleges and universities in making purchasing decisions that are environmentally sustainable.

      National Environmental Education Act: An act passed by the U.S. Congress in 1990 that called for improved environmental education in the face of increasing threats to human health and the environment including global warming, species extinction, and increasing pollution.

      National Network for Environmental Management Studies: A program founded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1986 to create more interest in environmental careers; it awards fellowships annually to graduate and undergraduate students to allow them to complete an environmental project related to their field of study.

      National Project for Excellence in Environmental Education, The: A program of the NAAEE in the late 1990s to develop resources for educators and establish standards for environmental education materials, student learning, professional development, and nonformal programs; these standards have been adopted by other organizations as well, including, for instance, the National Wildlife Federation.

      Net-Zero Energy: Characteristic of a building that produces as much energy as it consumes on an annual basis, usually through incorporation of energy production from renewable sources such as wind or solar.

      Nicodemus Wilderness Project: A nonprofit organization located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, which promotes environmental education and youth leadership in conservation and ecological restoration projects.

      Nonrenewable Fuels: Fuels that cannot be easily made, grown, or otherwise replaced at a rate comparable to their consumption; examples include oil, natural gas, and coal.

      O

      Occupancy Sensors: Also known as “ultrasonic switchers,” these are energy-saving devices that turn lights on when movement is detected and off following a period during which no motion is detected (considered a marker that the room or area is unoccupied).

      Off-Hours Equipment Reduction: A conservation feature where there is a change in the temperature setting or reduction in the use of heating, cooling, domestic hot water heating, lighting, or any other equipment either manually or automatically.

      Organic Food: Food that is produced without using most conventional pesticides, fertilizers made with synthetic ingredients or sewage sludge, bioengineering, or ionizing radiation, and by farmers who emphasize the use of renewable resources and the conservation of soil and water. Organic meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products come from animals that are given no antibiotics or growth hormones.

      Our Vanishing Wilderness: The first environmental television series aired in the United States, it was created by National Educational Television and aired in 1970 with episodes looking at issues such as the effects of pesticides on the food chain, environmental damage from the 1969 offshore oil leak near Santa Barbara, and the destructive effects of development on the Florida Everglades.

      Ozone: A molecule made up of three atoms of oxygen. Occurs naturally in the stratosphere and provides a protective layer shielding the Earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation. In the troposphere, it is a chemical oxidant, a greenhouse gas, and a major component of photochemical smog.

      P

      Passive Solar: Methods for using the energy contained in sunlight (for instance, to heat air or water) without requiring the using of mechanical systems (contrasted with active solar).

      Poisoned Air, The: A 1967 CBS television documentary that helped educate the American public on the dangers posed to human health and the environment by air pollution.

      R

      Recycling: Collecting and reprocessing a resource so it can be used again. An example is collecting aluminum cans, melting them down, and using the aluminum to make new cans or other aluminum products.

      Rio Earth Summit: Formally known as the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, a United Nations conference held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in June 1992, that resulted in several major documents including the Framework Convention on Climate Change (which led to the Kyoto Protocol) and the Convention on Biological Diversity and that led to increased emphasis on the roles played by education, training, and public awareness in fostering sustainable development.

      S

      Solar Energy: The radiant energy of the sun, which can be converted into other forms of energy, such as heat or electricity.

      STARS: Sustainability Tracking, Assessment & Rating System, a voluntary program of the Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education for colleges to rate themselves on sustainability in three categories: Education and Research; Operations; and Planning, Administration, and Engagement.

      Sustainability: A state in which the needs of the current population in a specific location can be met without compromising the ability of other populations (in future times or in other locations) from being able to meet their own needs.

      W

      Waste Heat Recovery: Any conservation system whereby some space heating or water heating is done by actively capturing byproduct heat that would otherwise be ejected into the environment. Sources may include refrigeration/air-conditioner compressors, manufacturing or other processes, data processing centers, lighting fixtures, ventilation exhaust air, and the occupants themselves.

      Wind Energy: Kinetic energy present in wind motion that can be converted to mechanical energy for driving pumps, mills, and electric power generators.

      X

      Xeriscaping: Landscaping technique particularly popular in desert or drought-prone regions that incorporates plants (usually those native to the region) that require little or no water beyond that provided by rainfall.

      SarahBoslaughWashington University in St. Louis
      Sources: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (http://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms), U.S. Energy Information Administration (http://www.eia.doe.gov/tools/glossary)

      Green Education Resource Guide

      Books

      Allen, Thomas B. Guardian of the Wild: The Story of the National Wildlife Federation, 1936–1986. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.

      Barlett, Peggy F. and Geoffrey W. Chase. Sustainability on Campus: Stories and Strategies for Change. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004.

      Boardman, Philip. Patrick Geddes, Maker of the Future. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1944.

      Boud, David, Ruth Cohen, and David Walker. Using Experience for Learning. Buckingham: Open University Press, 1993.

      Carter, Neil. The Politics of the Environment: Ideas, Activism, Policy. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

      Corcoran, P. B., Mirian Vilela and Alide Roerink. Earth Charter in Action: Towards a Sustainable World. Amsterdam: KIT Publishers, 2005.

      Corcoran, Peter Blaze and Arjen E. J. Wals. Higher Education and the Challenge of Sustainability. Problematics, Promise and Practice. Amsterdam: Springer, 2004.

      Davis, Brent. Inventions of Teaching: A Genealogy. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 2003.

      Davis, J. M. Young Children and the Environment: Early Education for Sustainability. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

      Dewey, John. Democracy and Education. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1916.

      Dewey, John. Experience and Education: The 60th Anniversary Edition. Indianapolis: Kappa Delta Pi Editions, 1998.

      DeWitt, Calvin B. and Ghillean T. Prance. Missionary Earthkeeping. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1992.

      Edwards, A. The Sustainability Revolution: Portrait of a Paradigm Shift. Gabriola Island, British Columbia, Canada: New Society Publishers, 2005.

      Filho, Walter Leal. Sustainability and University Life. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1999.

      Gough, Stephen and William Scott. Higher Education and Sustainable Development. New York: Routledge, 2009.

      Gray, D., L. Colucci-Gray and E. Camino. Science, Society and Sustainability: Education and Empowerment for an Uncertain World. New York: Routledge, 2009.

      Hargreaves, Andy and Dean Fink. Sustainable Leadership. Hoboken, NJ: Jossey-Bass, 2005.

      Hewitt, T. W. Understanding and Shaping Curriculum: What We Teach and Why. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2006.

      Louv, Richard. Last Child in the Woods: Saving Our Children From Nature-Deficit Disorder. Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books, 1992.

      McMillan, Victoria and Amy Lyons Higgs. Implementing Sustainability Education: Lessons From Four Innovative Schools. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, 2002.

      M'Gonigle, R. Michael. Planet U: Sustaining the World, Reinventing the University. Gabriola Island, British Columbia, Canada: New Society Publishers, 2006.

      Myers, N. J. and C. Roffensperger. Precautionary Tools for Reshaping Environmental Policy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006.

      National Research Council. Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000.

      Palmer, Joy A. Environmental Education in the 21st Century. Theory, Practice, Progress and Promise. London and New York: Routledge, 1998.

      Pinsoneault, Eric. The Environmental Impact of Green Mountain College: A Study of Resource Use and Waste Creation. Poultney, VT: Green Mountain College, 2003.

      Pramling Samuelsson, I. and Y. Koga. The Contribution of Early Childhood to a Sustainable Society. Paris: UNESCO, 2008.

      Rappaport, Ann and Sarah Hammond Creighton. Degrees That Matter: Climate Change and the University. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007.

      Reid, David. Sustainable Development. An Introductory Guide. London: Earthscan Publications, 1995.

      Rhodes, Edwardo Lao. Environmental Justice in America. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2003.

      Russo, Rosemarie. Jumping From the Ivory Tower: Weaving Environmental Leadership and Sustainable Communities. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2010.

      Sandell, Klas, Johan Ohman and Leif Ostman. Education for Sustainable Development. New York: Studentlitteratur AB, 2005.

      Silka, Linda and Robert Forrant. Inside and Out: Universities and Education for Sustainable Development. Amityville, NY: Baywood Publishing, 2006.

      Sterling, Stephen. Sustainable Education: Re-Visioning Learning and Change. Totnes, UK: Green Books, 2001.

      Ward, Harold. Acting Locally: Concepts and Models for Service-Learning in Environmental Studies. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education, 1999.

      Wiland, Harry and Dale Bell. Going to Green: A Standards-Based Environmental Education Curriculum for Schools, Colleges, and Communities. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing, 2009.

      Wixom, Robert L. Environmental Challenges for Higher Education: Integrating Sustainability Into Academic Programs. Burlington, VT: Friends Committee on Unity with Nature, 1996.

      Journals

      American Educational Research Journal

      Canadian Journal of Environmental Education

      Diverse Issues in Higher Education

      Early Childhood Education Journal

      Educause Review

      Environmental Education Research

      Equity & Excellence in Education

      Higher Education

      History of Education

      International Journal of Education & the Arts

      International Journal of Environmental & Science Education

      International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education

      Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning

      Journal of Geoscience Education

      Journal of Teacher Education

      National Wildlife

      Nature News

      Science & Education

      Studies in the Education of Adults

      Support for Learning

      Sustainability: The Journal of Record

      Websites

      American College and University Presidents Climate Commitment http://www.presidentsclimatecommitment.org

      Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education http://www.aashe.org

      Australian National University Sustainable Learning Community http://slc.anu.edu.au

      Brandeis University Climate Action Plan http://www.brandeis.edu/campussustainability/climate/actionplan.html

      Campaign for Environmental Literacy http://www.fundee.org/campaigns/hesa

      Center for Environmental Education http://www.ceeonline.org

      The Cloud Institute for Sustainability Education http://www.sustainabilityed.org

      The College Sustainability Report Card http://www.greenreportcard.org

      Earth Portal http://www.earthportal.net

      15 Green Colleges and Universities http://www.grist.org/article/colleges1

      GovTrack: Higher Education Sustainability Act of 2007 http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=h110-3637

      Green Awakenings: Students Caring for Creation http://www.renewingcreation.org

      Green Design Institute at Carnegie Mellon University http://gdi.ce.cmu.edu

      Green Education Foundation http://www.greeneducationfoundation.org

      The Greens: A Site for Kids Looking After the Planet http://meetthegreens.pbskids.org

      http://Green.Tulane.Edugreen.tulane.edu

      Guidelines and Recommendations for Reorienting Teacher Education to Address

      Sustainability http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p116506_index.html

      Institute for Global Sustainable Enterprise at the University of Michigan http://www.erb.umich.edu

      Institute of the Environment at Tufts University http://environment.tufts.edu

      National Religious Partnership for the Environment http://www.nrpe.org

      National Wildlife Federation Campus Ecology http://www.nwf.org/campusEcology

      North American Association for Environmental Education http://www.naaee.org

      Northeast Campus Sustainability Consortium http://sustainability.yale.edu/necsc

      Office of Sustainability at Dalhousie University http://office.sustainability.dal.ca

      Office of Sustainability at Tufts University http://sustainability.tufts.edu

      Our Sustainable Future: The Institute for Sustainable Development, California State

      University, Chico http://www.csuchico.edu/sustainablefuture

      Sierra Club Top 20 Environmental Schools http://www.sierraclub.org/sierra/200909/coolschools/top20.aspx

      Sustainable Endowments Institute http://www.endowmentinstitute.org

      Teaching and Learning for a Sustainable Future: A Multimedia Teacher Education

      Programme http://www.unesco.org/education/tlsf

      United States Environmental Protection Agency, “Colleges and Universities.” http://www.epa.gov/sectors/sectors/college.html

      Universidad EARTH http://www.earth.ac.cr/ing/index.php

      University of British Columbia—Center for Interactive Research on Sustainability http://www.cirs.ubc.ca

      University of British Columbia—Design Centre for Sustainability http://www.dcs.sala.ubc.ca

      University of British Columbia—Institute of Resources, Environment & Sustainability http://www.ires.ubc.ca

      Green Education Appendix
      Educational Institutions

      Amherst College is committed to sustainability in operations from building practices to food services to transportation. Several campaigns on campus promote ecological awareness, including the Eco-Rep program, which trains students to educate others about environmental issues; a light bulb exchange program; and a competition among dormitories to lower energy usage. The college has an aggressive recycling program that includes materials such as clothing, furniture, and electronics as well as traditional materials such as paper, cardboard, and glass. Dining services emphasize purchase of locally grown food and have been composting food waste since 2009. The college makes its annual “fuel footprint” and an inventory of greenhouse gas emissions (from 2007) available through its Website. Amherst offers a major in Environmental Studies that includes courses from many different disciplines that examine the interactions of man and nature. (http://www.amherst.edu/campuslife/greenamherst)

      Ball State University has been a leader in sustainable operations for years and included sustainability goals in its Strategic Plan, 2007–2012. Most notable among these goals is the construction of a large-scale geothermal energy system on campus, unique among American universities and the largest such system in the United States. Construction began in 2009 and when completed, the system, which involves 45 campus buildings, will replace four coal boilers and reduce the university's carbon footprint by about half. Ball State is also committed to green construction, and all new campus buildings and renovations to existing buildings must meet LEED certification guidelines. Ball State's Council on the Environment, established in 1991, works to raise awareness of sustainability issues and increase sustainable practices on campus. Ball State offers several majors related to the environment and sustainability, including Environmental Management, Environmental Design, and Environmental Communication/Interpretation—Natural Resources and Environmental Management. The interdisciplinary Center for Energy Research/Education/Service focuses on research and education related to energy and resource uses in the local and state communities as well as on campus. (http://cms.bsu.edu/about/rankings/commitment.aspx)

      Bates College has a number of programs to reduce environmental impact and increase sustainability in operations. In dining services, 30 percent of the food budget is spent on local foods, and 82 percent of food waste is composted, recycled, or donated to a food bank or farmer. Bates has an action plan to become climate neutral, which includes converting its main steam plan to a biomass cogeneration facility and offsetting current emissions. Bates was the first college in Maine to participate in the Zipcar (car-sharing) program and many other initiatives promote conservation among students and staff, including a bicycle co-op, a van-pool program, and environmental-themed houses for students. The Environmental Studies program at Bates includes courses in many disciplines, including science, ethics and economics, and the humanities, to give students a broad-based awareness of the issues in the field. (http://bates.edu/x217211.xml)

      Bowdoin College has an Environmental Mission Statement that states its commitment to increasing sustainability efforts on campus, integrating environmental awareness into students’ daily lives as well as their education, and providing leadership to the larger community on environmental issues. The Environmental Studies Program offers over 25 courses and aims to provide students with the analytical tools necessary to investigate environmental issues; many other departments offer courses related to sustainability as well. Bowdoin offers the only undergraduate program in the United States in Arctic Studies and also has two coastal research stations that engage in environmental research. Bowdoin is committed to becoming carbon neutral by 2020 through initiatives that include increasing fuel efficiency in transportation, improving the power grid, reducing energy consumption, and increasing use of renewable sources of energy. (http://www.bowdoin.edu/sustainability/statements/mission-statement-statement.shtml)

      Bowling Green State University is a center for education and research into sustainability with about $17 million in research funding (including programs in alternative energy, environmental monitoring, and global change) over the past three years. The School of Earth, Environment and Society was formed in 2007 to strengthen multidisciplinary research and to integrate the fields of geology, geography, and environmental studies. The Department of the Environment and Sustainability offers three major fields of study: Environmental Health, Environmental Science, and Environmental Policy and Analysis. The Center for Environmental Programs at Bowling Green, founded in 1968, promotes campus sustainability efforts and environmental education for students and the community. (http://www.bgsu.edu/departments/envp/pages/center_for_environmental_programs.htm)

      California Polytechnic State University recently established the Center for Sustainability in the College of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Sciences to support research and education in food systems, resource management, and sustainable agriculture. Cal Poly also offers minors in Environmental Studies, Sustainable Environments, and Sustainable Agriculture. The Empower Poly Coalition, founded in 2006, is a coalition of student clubs and organizations interested in sustainability, with 27 members as of 2010. The Sustainability Advisory Committee studies resource use on campus and makes recommendations to the university regarding land use, physical projects, and resource utilization. The primary metric used for tracking conservation efforts at Cal Poly is energy use per square foot, and the university has achieved a reduction of over 15 percent in this measure since 2006. (http://www.sustainability.calpoly.edu)

      Chatham University is committed to achieving carbon neutrality in operation by 2025 and conducted its baseline greenhouse gas inventory in 2007. In order to achieve this goal, the university has committed to steps including requiring all new campus buildings to meet the LEED Silver standard, requiring all new appliances purchased to be energy-efficient (Energy Star certified, if possible); providing discounted public transportation passes for students, faculty, and staff; purchasing at least 15 percent of electricity from renewable sources; and participating in a number of recycling and waste reduction programs. The Climate Committee, made up of students, faculty, and staff, meets biweekly to plan initiatives to help Chatham achieve carbon neutrality. Chatham offers undergraduate majors in Environmental Science and Environmental Studies. (http://www.chatham.edu/outreach/sustainability)

      Clarkson University (New York) offers undergraduate degree programs in Environmental Engineering, Environmental Health Science, Environmental Science & Policy, and a professional concentration in Environmental Engineering and graduate programs in Environmental Science and Engineering (M.A. and Ph.D.). Clarkson is also currently developing a cross-disciplinary minor in Sustainable Energy Systems through the School of Engineering and is looking into developing a similar minor that would be available to all Clarkson students. The Clarkson Center for the Environment is home to Clarkson's environmental activities in research (including the Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, the Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, the Clarkson BioMass Group, the Great Rivers Center, and the Rivers and Estuary Observatory Network), education and outreach (including a K-12 learning partnership program and a Hazardous Waste Site Operation and Emergency Response Course). Clarkson has numerous campus programs to reduce environmental impact and increase sustainability: For instance, all new buildings are built to LEED certification standards, all washers and dryers have been replaced with Energy Star equipment, and the campus has an extensive recycling plan including electronic waste, tires, used oil, and antifreeze. (http://www.clarkson.edu/green/index.html)

      Clemson University has an Environmental Committee to formalize its commitment to environmental stewardship and sustainability; coordinate and consolidate efforts on campus toward this end; provide environmental education for students, staff, and faculty; and promote environmental learning and research. Clemson conducted an environmental audit in 2006 that is available from the campus Website, which evaluated the university's current energy use and waste production and proposed options to reduce both. The Solid Green program on campus promotes environmentally conscious behavior such as recycling waste from tailgating parties and football games (which draw 80,000+ fans). Among the environmentally relevant degree programs at Clemson are undergraduate programs in Environmental Science and Policy and in Environmental Engineering, and graduate programs in Plant and Environmental Sciences and in Environmental Toxicology. (http://www.clemson.edu/cuec)

      Colby College coordinates environmental activities through the Environmental Advisory Group (EAG), formed in 2000 to advise the president and college community. The mission of the EAG is to encourage teaching about environmental issues, disseminate environmental information to the community, promote conservation of resources and reduction of waste and pollution, make recommendations about campus and community environmental issues including consideration of social justice, prioritize projects and assess them quantitatively whenever possible, and encourage members of the community to take personal responsibility for their effects on the environment. Colby has many campus programs to increase sustainability and has committed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions 9 percent by 2010 (from a 2005 baseline) and 20 percent by 2020. Colby has an Environmental Studies program that offers majors in Environmental Studies: Interdisciplinary Computation, Environmental Studies: Policy, and Environmental Studies: Science, while the chemistry and biology departments also offer degrees focusing on Environmental Science. (http://www.colby.edu/wag/index.shtml)

      The College of William & Mary has been recognized by the Princeton Review as among the top green colleges in the United States. William & Mary's Committee on Sustainability, created in 2008, coordinates campus efforts to achieve greater sustainability as part of a campus-wide initiative begun that same year to improve environmental sustainability. Students elected to charge a “green fee” whose funds would go to improve campus facilities (it raises more than $200,000 annually) and many on-campus initiatives help to reduce resource use and waste, including creation of a solar cell testing station that will ultimately result in a solar power facility on a campus building; recycling programs for many items, including batteries, chemicals, and fluorescent light bulbs; use of only Fair Trade organic coffee on campus; composting of organic waste from the dining halls; and recycling of cooking oil for biofuel. (http://www.wm.edu/sites/sustainability)

      Colorado College included sustainability as one of seven core values in its Vision 2010 road map document, created in 2003. The Office of Sustainability coordinates campus efforts to increase sustainability, and many campus programs are already in place. The Russell T. Tutt Science Center, completed in 2005, is the first LEED-certified science center in the United States and the first LEED-certified building in southern Colorado. The Cornerstone Arts Center, opened in 2008, received LEED Gold certification. Campus landscaping uses regionally appropriate plants and avoids the use of pesticides, and uses environmentally friendly compounds for snow removal. Campus dining services use local and organic produce wherever possible, compost food waste, and use trayless dining, which reduces food and water waste. Colby offers an interdisciplinary Environmental Program, which includes tracks in Environmental Science, Environmental Physics, Environmental Chemistry and Environmental Policy. (http://sustainability.coloradocollege.edu)

      The Center for Sustainable Communities and Civic Engagement at Daemen College (New York), founded in 2001 with a grant from the John R. Oishei Foundation, has as its primary purpose to establish long-term collaborations with several communities in Buffalo (Seneca Babcock, the West Side, and the Fruit Belt) to support community-driven projects and provide education about economic and sustainability issues. Daemen is a member of the Consortium for North American Sustainability, an exchange program among six North American universities that allows students academic and experiential opportunities to learn about Civil Society and Sustainable Communities. Daemen offers an undergraduate major in Environmental Studies through either the Natural Sciences or Interdisciplinary Studies division. (http://www.daemen.edu/academics/centersinitiatives/cscce/pages/default.aspx)

      Duke University created an Environmental Policy in 2005 that commits the university to becoming a leader in environmental research and education, environmentally responsible operations, and environmental stewardship in the community. Duke publishes several journals related to sustainability, including the Duke Environmental Law & Policy Forum (established in 1991), the International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, Sustainability: The Journal of Record (founded 2008), and the open access e-journal Sustainability: Science, Practice & Policy. Duke offers undergraduate majors in Environmental Science and Policy, Environmental Sciences, Earth and Ocean Sciences, and Civil and Environmental Engineering; an undergraduate minor in Environmental Science & Policy; and a Master of Environmental Management. Sustainable activities on campus include use of locally grown food in campus dining facilities, retrofitting campus steam plants to improve efficiency, exchanging incandescent light bulbs for energy-saving compact fluorescents, recycling of 17 different items, and using compressed natural gas facilities for a high percentage of the university's fleet. (http://sustainability.duke.edu)

      The Ad Hoc Committee on Environmental Stewardship at Emory University, formed in 1999, supports sustainability efforts on campus. The committee drafted a Campus Environmental Mission Statement that states the university's commitment to conservation, sustainability, and biodiversity. Particular emphasis is placed on preserving the ecosystems of the natural areas on campus (including Lullwater, Hahn Woods, and Baker Woodlands) and in restoring the balance of building and environment envisioned by Henry Hornbostel, first architect of Emory. In 2001, Emory appointed its first campus environmental officer, and in 2002, Emory began its first Energy Conservation Project. As of 2004, Emory has sought LEED certification for each new building or building renovation, has proposed a storm water management and forest management plan, and has prioritized bicycle and pedestrian access to campus. (http://www.environment.emory.edu)

      The David E. Shi Center for Sustainability at Furman University, founded in 2008 with support from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, coordinates Furman's efforts to support sustainability through academic study, research, leadership, and community service. Since 2002, all new buildings and renovations at Furman have met at least the LEED Silver standard, and in 2005, the Sustainability Planning Group was created to champion sustainability on campus. Furman includes several sustainability Living/Learning Laboratories on campus, which facilitate teaching and research related to sustainability, including Cliffs Cottage (which houses the Shi Center), the Furman Farm, and the Charles H. Townes Science Center. Furman offers majors in Earth and Environmental Sciences and a concentration in Environmental Studies. (http://www.furman.edu/sustain)

      George Washington University (GWU) President Steven Knapp created the Presidential Task Force on Sustainability in 2007 and signed the American College and University Presidents Climate Commitment in 2008. GWU sustainability activities, including creating an inventory of greenhouse gas emissions and a plan to reduce them, are guided by the Office of Sustainability. GWU is currently converting its oil-burning equipment to natural gas, requiring all new buildings to receive at least 16 LEED points, requiring all new appliances and electronic equipment to be Energy Star products if possible, and recycling about 30 percent of its waste, including cooking oil, which is processed into biofuel, and food scraps, which are composted. GWU participates in the Zipcar program, provides discounted parking for carpools, and encourages public transportation use by employees through the Metrocheck program. GWU has highly ranked programs in Environmental Law and offers an Environmental Focus in the School of Business. The Institute for the Analysis of Solar Energy is a multidisciplinary program that conducts research into economic, technical, and public policy issues surrounding solar power while the Sustainable Landscape Design Program teaches the principles of landscape conservation and sustainability. (http://sustainability.gwu.edu)

      Hampshire College has a Sustainable Campus Plan that states its commitment to using the campus and surrounding community as a laboratory for demonstration of sustainable development. The college is committed to global environmental issues and social justice both in terms of campus operations and in preparing its students to take leadership roles on these issues. The college has an active recycling program, a green purchasing plan (for instance, white copy paper purchased for campus use must be 100 percent recycled content and chlorine free), and new buildings are constructed to LEED certification standards. Hampshire's Environmental Studies and Sustainability Program is an interdisciplinary program including environmental science, ecology, sustainable agriculture, conservation, technology and design, and sustainable communities. (http://www.hampshire.edu/offices/5230.htm)

      Harvard University has made four major commitments to increasing sustainability: a 30 percent reduction in greenhouse gases by 2016 (from a FY 2006 baseline), a commitment to fostering research and education into environmental issues, a campus-wide energy policy that sets temperature guidelines to reduce energy costs and greenhouse gas emission, and a policy of establishing green building guidelines that include a minimum of LEED Silver certification and use of the Integrated Design approach and Life Cycle Costing. The Office for Sustainability was established in 2008 to coordinate sustainability efforts across the university. Many academic areas at Harvard are involved with teaching and research related to the environment (including the fields of ecology/biodiversity, public health, climate, and economics and policy), and in 2009, the Graduate Consortium on Energy and Environment was formed to facilitate the exchange of ideas across disciplinary boundaries. (http://green.harvard.edu)

      Illinois State University (ISU) was named a “green college” by the Princeton Review in recognition of its Green Team sustainability committee, active recycling and energy efficiency programs, provision of transportation alternatives, and for having a full-time sustainability coordinator. ISU's Center for Renewable Energy, which combines college faculty with business partners, fosters applied research, provides public education, and strengthens the interdisciplinary Renewable Energy major at ISU (the first such program in the United States). ISU also offers an undergraduate major in Environmental Health, undergraduate minors in Environmental Health and Environmental Studies, and master's programs in Conservation Biology and Applied Community and Economic Development. (http://sustainability.illinoisstate.edu)

      Indiana University (IU) at Bloomington has a Sustainability Office to promote and coordinate sustainability efforts on campus. A Campus Sustainability Advisory Board is working to address issues identified in IU's 2008 Campus Sustainability Report and has seven working groups: Academic Initiatives, Energy & Built Environment, Environmental Quality & Land Use, Food, Resource Use & Recycling, Sustainable Computing, and Transportation. The campus has a number of Green Teams that promote environmentally friendly practices in their offices, departments, and living areas. The Student Sustainability Council is composed of a number of campus organizations that are working to increase sustainability and promote communication and cooperation among them. IU held its third annual Energy Challenge in March–April 2010, in which campus dorms, Greek houses, and academic buildings competed to reduce energy use as much as possible (from the previous year's baseline) for one month. The IU Department of Environment Science offers undergraduate and graduate study drawing on courses from the College of Arts and Sciences and the School of Public and Environmental Affairs. (http://www.indiana.edu/~sustain)

      Ithaca College established a Comprehensive Environmental Policy in 2001 and has two staff members working to coordinate sustainability efforts on campus. The college is committed to carbon neutrality by 2050 and has reduced emissions by 5 percent from 2007 levels. The campus has a 50 percent waste diversion rate and composts food waste. New buildings are expected to be at least LEED Silver certified, and the Park Center for Business and Sustainable Enterprise has LEED Platinum certification. The college has a car-sharing program and subsidizes public transportation for students, faculty, and staff. Ithaca has a Department of Environmental Studies and Science that offers undergraduate degrees in Environmental Science and Environmental Studies.

      Johns Hopkins University (JHU) launched its Sustainability Initiative in 2006 as an outgrowth of several programs already in place, including sustainable dining efforts and a recycling program. The Sustainability Committee was formed at the same time to facilitate reducing the university's environmental impact. JHU has had a recycling program for more than 10 years but has updated it over the years to include not only traditional recyclables (paper, cans) but also items such as computers and other electronic equipment. In March 2010, the university completed the Implementation Plan for Advancing Sustainability and Climate Stewardship, which commits it to reducing carbon dioxide emissions by half over the next 10 years. JHU offers undergraduate studies in Global Environmental Change & Sustainability, Environmental Engineering, and Geography & Environmental Engineering while the Energy, Resources and Environment major offers an interdisciplinary curriculum integrating economics, political science, law, and other disciplines. (http://www.sustainability.jhu.edu)

      The Lewis & Clark College Sustainability Council was formed in the late 1990s to promote environmental stewardship on campus and is made up of interested students, faculty, and staff members. The college established a major in Environmental Studies in 1995, which aims to address environmental issues comprehensively through interdisciplinary studies drawing on science, ethics, economics, law, and other fields. The college has been tracking its greenhouse gas emissions since 2000 and became compliant with the Kyoto Protocol in 2003 through purchase of carbon offsets. The Sustainability Council offers the Evan T. Williams Sustainability Prize for campus projects that promote or increase sustainability. The college offers an interdisciplinary undergraduate major and minor in Environmental Studies, and the Law School offers a summer program in Environmental and Natural Resources Law. (http://legacy.lclark.edu/dept/lcsc)

      Luther College (Iowa) employs two full-time staff members working on issues of sustainability and created a Campus Sustainability Council in 2008 that works on issues including energy and water use, waste, land use, and education. Luther is committed to reducing greenhouse gases by half by 2013 (using 2003 to 2004 as a baseline) and has already achieved a 15.5 percent reduction, primarily through upgrades to lighting and HVAC systems and use of geothermal heating and cooling in two campus buildings. Dining services purchase produce and meat from local farms and serve Fair Trade coffee, and the college composts landscaping and food waste. New buildings must meet LEED Silver standards, and the college fleet includes hybrid, electric, and compressed natural gas vehicles. Luther offers a major in Environmental Studies and is participating in an initiative to integrate sustainability into the undergraduate curriculum. (http://www.luther.edu/sustainability) Sustainability efforts at Macalester College are coordinated through the Sustainability Advisory Committee, whose primary mission is to oversee implementation of the Talloires Declaration and the American College and University Presidents Climate Commitment. The college has made public an inventory of its greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 to 2006. Macalester offers an interdisciplinary Environmental Studies program that integrates knowledge from the humanities, natural sciences, and social sciences and looks at global studies on the local, national, and global level. The Three Rivers Center at Macalester was established in 2007 with support from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation to develop a curriculum that takes advantage of the confluence of the Mississippi, Minnesota, and St. Croix Rivers to create student–faculty research collaborations, and to upgrade instructional research and instruction facilities. The EcoHouse on the Macalester campus gives students a chance to test the effectiveness of green technologies and practice environmentally sustainable lifestyles. (http://www.macalester.edu/environmentalstudies/ceic/envissues.htm)

      The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has a number of environmental initiatives to manage resource consumption and reduce environmental impact. The Green Building Task Force at MIT was formed in 2000 to identify long-term goals for environmental sustainability and to develop green performance specifications for buildings. The Environmental Programs Task Force is composed of faculty, staff, and students who seek concrete ways to make the campus more environmentally friendly. The task force's accomplishments include expansion of the campus recycling program and increasing from 5 percent to 30 percent the amount of waste recycled, starting programs to compost food and yard waste, and increasing the use of recycled copy paper from less than 1 percent to 100 percent. The Environment, Health and Safety Management System is concerned with protecting the health and safety of the MIT community as well as overseeing the management and disposal of hazardous materials. Many departments at MIT are involved in environmental research and teaching, including the Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences; the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering; the Department of Urban Studies and Planning; and interdisciplinary labs and centers such as the Earth System Initiative, the Laboratory for Energy and the Environment, and the Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change. (http://web.mit.edu/environment/commitment/e_initiatives.html)

      The Environmental Action Coalition (EAC) at Mt. Holyoke College has the goal of educating the campus community in ecological responsibility and encouraging members of this community to adopt sustainable approaches to their activities. The EAC has implemented a number of energy-saving initiatives, including using biodiesel to power groundskeeping equipment, promoting the use of LEED certification for new buildings, and joining the Million Monitor drive, which encourages students to use the power save mode on their computers to put the hard drive to sleep during long periods of inactivity. The EAC sponsors a Kill-a-Watt competition among campus dormitories, offering a prize each month to the dorm that reduces energy use the most from the previous year. (http://www.mtholyoke.edu/org/ccc/website/homepage.htm)

      New York University (NYU) has a comprehensive Climate Action Plan that details its current greenhouse gas emissions and strategies to reduce them by 30 percent by 2017. Currently, NYU recycles more than 30 percent of its waste stream and is the largest university purchaser of wind energy in the United States. NYU is also upgrading its Cogeneration Plant (which provides both thermal energy and electricity) to improve output and efficiency: When complete, the improved plan will emit 75 percent fewer regulated pollutants. The dining program is committed to including more locally grown, organic, and Fair Trade products and sustainable seafood in dining halls and retail outlets, and to increasing the use of biodegradable containers for takeout meals. Many NYU academic programs focus on the environment, including the undergraduate major in Environmental Studies, the Environmental Health Clinic, the graduate Certificate in Sustainable Design, Construction, and Development (through the SCPS Schack Institute of Real Estate), the Bioethics program, the Center on Environmental and Land Use Law (through the School of Law), the Wallerstein Collaborative for Urban Environmental Education (through the Steinhardt School of Culture, Education and Human Development), the Environmental Conservation Education program (through the Steinhardt School), and the Master of Urban Planning degree (through the Wagner Graduate School of Public Service). (http://www.nyu.edu.sustainability)

      The Office of Sustainability at North Carolina State University (NCSU) is the clearinghouse for campus efforts to balance environmental, social, and economic sustainability. In 2001, NCSU created an Office of Waste Reduction and Recycling to further develop existing programs, and in 2003, created the Office of Energy Management to support conservation efforts. Since 2008, all new NCSU buildings have been built to the LEED Silver standards, and NCSU has been an Energy Star partner since 2008. University dining halls have been trayless since 2008, reducing water use and food waste, donate used cooking oil to a company that converts it to biodiesel fuel, and regularly feature organic, locally grown, and Fair Trade products in their meals. Ten of the colleges within NCSU offer environmental degrees, and the university is developing an interdisciplinary curriculum in Environmental Science Research. (http://www.ncsu.edu/sustainability)

      Northern Arizona University was selected by the Princeton Review as a “green college” and has the goal of becoming carbon neutral by 2020. The university's Strategic Plan includes the goal of increasing sustainability and environmental stewardship through scholarship, campus practices, and practical engagement. Many campus operations have already adopted green practices: For instance, food services composts food waste and buys local produce and milk, used cooking oil is converted to biodiesel to power campus vehicles, and the university has a free campus bike program for students, faculty, and staff. The College of Earth Sciences and Environmental Sustainability offers undergraduate degree programs with an interdisciplinary focus (including natural sciences, social sciences, and the humanities) in Environmental Sciences and Environmental Studies, and graduate degree programs in Environmental Sciences and Policy and Quaternary Sciences. The Institute for Tribal Environmental Professionals, established in 1992, brings together tribal governments, university personnel, government agencies, and the private sector to help safeguard natural resources on Native American lands. The Western Regional Center of the National Institute for Climate Change Research, covering 13 states, is centered at Northern Arizona University. (http://green.nau.edu)

      Occidental College created the Sustainable Oxy/Eco-LA program in 1999 to enhance sustainable practices on campus and to link the college with community partners to further urban greening programs. Occidental is a signatory to the Talloires Declaration, and in 2000 created the Council for a Livable Campus to increase recycling and other environmentally friendly practices on campus. Occidental offers a major in Urban & Environmental Policy that combines academic studies with practical experience in civic action and governmental affairs. The Urban & Environmental Policy Institute at Occidental College is an academic and research center linked with the Urban & Environmental Policy program but that also acts as a community development organization. (http://departments.oxy.edu/uepi)

      Ohio University created an Office of Sustainability in 2006 (then called the Office of Resource Conservation) that coordinates campus efforts to reduce consumption, waste, and environmental impact on campus. Environmental stewardship and sustainability are among the goals listed in Vision Ohio, the university's statement of goals first formalized in 2004. Ohio University has numerous programs to reduce environmental impact, including alternative energy sources, conversion of waste cooking oil to biodiesel, holding a Residence Challenge for dormitories to reduce their energy use, composting food waste, and conducting a biodegradable service war in dining halls. Ohio University offers many academic programs with an environmental focus, including (at the undergraduate level) Environmental Biology; Marine, Freshwater, and Environmental Biology; Environmental Chemistry; Environmental Geography; Environmental Geology; and (at the graduate level) Conservation Biology, Environmental and Plant Biology, Environmental Studies, and Environmental Sustainability. (http://www.ohio.edu/sustainability)

      Pacific Lutheran University signed the Talloires Declaration in 2004, and in 2007, President Loren Anderson joined the leadership of the American College and University Presidents Climate Commitment. Pacific Lutheran has numerous campus efforts to reduce environmental impact and increase sustainability, which are overseen by the Sustainability Committee. The university uses geothermal heating and cooling, purchases Energy Star appliances when available and computers with a Gold EPEAT rating, and requires that new construction and renovations achieve at least the LEED Silver standard. Pacific Lutheran subsidizes transit passes for faculty, staff, and commuter students; offers bicycles for rent; and uses alternative-fuel vehicles for one-fourth of the university fleet. Pacific Lutheran offers an interdisciplinary program in Environmental Studies that prepares students for many careers, including laboratory science, consulting, corporate and government environmental regulation offices, and nonprofit organizations focused on environmental concerns. (http://www.plu.edu/sustainability)

      Penn State (Pennsylvania State University) has a Center for Sustainability, founded in 1995, which promotes environmental stewardship and sustainability at the university, and promotes education, research, and outreach, which advance sustainability. The Green Destiny Council produced the Penn State Indicators Report in 2000, which calculated resource use at Penn State, and the Ecological Mission for Penn State in 2001, which suggested ways Penn State could reduce its environmental impact in eight areas: energy, water, materials, food, land, building, transport, and community. Penn State is a leader in developing affordable and sustainable housing: Demonstration projects include the Maple Point development in Philadelphia, which uses 80 percent less energy than comparable traditionally built homes; Hundredfold Farm in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, which includes multiple sustainable technologies, including passive solar design; and the MorningStar Solar Home on the Penn State campus, which acts as a teaching and research facility. Penn State offers a number of environmentally focused academic programs, including Community, Environment, and Development; Environmental and Renewable Resource Economics; Environmental Resource Management; Environmental Soil Science; Environmental Studies; and Energy and Sustainability Policy. (http://www.cfs.psu.edu)

      Pomona College has a full-time sustainability coordinator and is committed to reducing its emissions through a sustainability audit and measures such as the use of solar power, sleep settings for all computers and occupancy sensors to reduce power use in unoccupied space, and replacement of incandescent bulbs with fluorescents. Currently, three academic buildings have LEED Gold or Silver certification. The purchasing department is committed to buying from environmentally responsible vendors, and dining services uses biodegradable utensils and purchases some locally grown, Fair Trade, and organic products. Food and landscaping waste is composted and used as mulch for an on-campus organic farm. Pomona subsidizes public transportation and rideshare programs and has a bicycle-renting program for students. Pomona has an interdisciplinary Environmental Analysis program with courses in four broad areas: Experiential Relation to the Environment, Natural Science Analysis of the Environment, Social Science Approaches to the Environment, and Environmental Design and Architecture. (http://www.pomona.edu/administration/sustainability/index.aspx)

      Ecological awareness, concern for social justice, and experiential learning and field studies are integrated into all degree programs at Prescott College but the college also offers undergraduate studies in Environmental Studies with a choice of nine emphasis areas (including agroecology, conservation biology, environmental education, and marine studies); a master's degree program in Environmental Education with concentrations in Environmental Education, Conservation Ecology and Planning, Sustainability Science and Practice and Social Ecology; and a Ph.D. in Education with a concentration in Sustainability Education that emphasizes global citizenship and environmental responsibility. Research centers and institutes at Prescott, which emphasize ecological awareness, include the Global Change and Sustainability Institute, the Ecological Research Institute, the Green Recreation Institute, and the Center for Children and Nature. Prescott publishes the Journal of Sustainability Education; the first issue appeared in May 2010. (http://www.prescott.edu/seed)

      Sustainability activities at Princeton University are organized through the Office of Sustainability, and the university committed in 2008 to a Sustainability Plan that includes goals for research, education, and outreach; conservation of resources (including reduction of water use by 25 percent of 2007 levels by 2020); and reduction of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by 2020. University efforts to attain these goals include a purchasing plan that favors recycled products and uses 100 percent recycled paper for all regular printing and copying, programs to reduce electricity use, including lighting retrofits, and requirements that all new building projects and major renovations meet at least LEED Silver standards. Several green building programs are under way, including a chemistry building that uses rainwater collection and a residential college with green roofs. The university has a bike repair and lending program, offers incentives to use public transportation and carpooling, and owns several electric and hybrid vehicles. Dining services uses biodegradable cups and 100 percent recycled paper plates, offers organic and locally grown food and Fair Trade coffee, and has set a goal of reducing waste by 50 percent through composting and recycling. (http://www.princeton.edu/sustainability)

      Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute has several well-established research centers that do research related to sustainability, including the Center for Future Energy Systems (founded in 2005), the Lighting Research Center (founded in 1998), and the Darrin Freshwater Institute (founded in 1970). In addition, the Center for Architecture Science and Ecology, recently founded by Anna Dyson, does research to improve solar generation of electricity. Rensselaer offers majors in several disciplines that include work relevant to sustainability, including Environment and Society, Environmental Economics, Science of the Environment, Environmental Impact Analysis, and Introduction to Environmental Studies. Efforts to increase sustainable practices in university operations began with the Greening of Rensselaer Institute program in 1995. It was most recently renewed when Rensselaer held its first Sustainability Charrette in 2009, in which a team of students, faculty, and staff generated ideas for ways to increase sustainability at Rensselaer. Current activities to reduce environmental impact include plans to construct a facility to convert cooking oil to fuel and a second initiative to use food waste to create methane gas, encouraging trayless dining, instituting single-stream recycling, and building a green roof on the student union. (http://www.rpi.edu/about/sustainability)

      Several programs within the Biotechnology Center for Agriculture and the Environment at Rutgers University focus on environmental and sustainability concerns. The Renewable and Sustainable Fuel Solutions for the 21st Century is a research and educational program funded by the National Science Foundation. Over 40 faculty members are involved in this program, which has four main research areas: development and optimization of biofuels, innovative catalysts and engineering systems for synthetic fuels; land use; sustainability and environmental impact; and fuels deployment logistics, economics, and policy. Other research and training projects within the Biotech Center include studies in environmental and health genomics, environmental bioremediation, and the Botanical Research Center. The Rutgers Center for Green Building, located within the Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Social Policy, focuses on research, education, and training related to green building and forming partnerships with industry, government, and not-for-profit agencies. Rutgers offers an undergraduate program in Environmental Sciences and graduate programs in Environmental Sciences and Ecology and Evolution. Rutgers has had a green purchasing program since 1988 and has numerous policies in place to cut waste, encourage recycling, and increase sustainable practices in university operations. (http://biotech.rutgers.edu)

      The Office of Environmental Sustainability at Smith College is the central organizing body to promote sustainable practices on the Smith campus. It helps develop campus policy in conjunction with the Committee on Sustainability, oversees the Earth Rep program, coordinates the Green Team, coordinates with other campus organizations including Facilities Management, and works with the Environmental Science and Policy program and the Center for the Environment, Ecological Design and Sustainability to connect student learning about sustainability with campus operations. Smith has reduced electricity consumption by 7 percent between 2004 and 2009 through a number of initiatives, including replacing incandescent light bulbs with compact fluorescent bulbs and encouraging faculty, students, and staff to implement energy-saving procedures on their computers. Smith installed a cogeneration power plant that is expected to reduce carbon emissions by 238 metric tons over the next 20 years. Several different curricular pathways at Smith are available to study the environment, including the department of Environmental Science and Policy. The Center for the Environment forms a framework for integrating environmentally relevant studies from various departments, including the natural sciences, engineering, design, landscape studies and architecture, the social sciences, and philosophy. (http://www.smith.edu/green)

      The State University of New York (SUNY) at Binghamton incorporates environmentally sound principles in its vision statement and has been twice named one of the top 15 universities in the United States for its environmental friendly practices. President Lois B. DeFleur was a charter signatory in 2007 to the American College and University Presidents Climate Commitment, and SUNY has a number of sustainability efforts on campus, including the first LEED-certified buildings in the SUNY system, an organic gardening and composting program for the dining halls, a solar hot water program, and use of water-saving faucets and toilets. Binghamton offers about 40 courses related to sustainability or the environment in a given year as well as majors including Environmental and Resource Management and Environmental Studies. The E.W. Heier Teaching & Research Greenhouse is a living laboratory for ecology- and plant-related courses, with over 6,000 exotic plants maintained in the greenhouse, and the University Nature Preserve provides students with opportunities to study over 200 species of birds as well as diverse mammal, amphibian, and reptilian populations. Several other research initiatives at Binghamton relate to sustainability, including the Small Scale Systems Integration and Packaging Center, the Center for Advanced Sensors and Environmental Systems, the Center for Integrated Watershed Studies, and the Institute for Material Research. (http://www2.binghamton.edu/think/our-vision)

      The State University of New York (SUNY) at Buffalo includes Environmental Stewardship in its UB2020 Strategic Plan. In 2007, Buffalo created an Environmental Stewardship Committee to support the American College and University Presidents Climate Commitment that commits the university to creating a plan to become carbon neutral. The university has a number of programs already in place to promote this goal, including a nationally recognized energy conservation program (credited with saving the university more than $9 million annually), a recycling program that currently recycles over 30 percent of the university's solid waste (with a goal of increasing this to at least 50 percent), use of recycled paper for printing and copying (about 50 percent of which is 100 percent postconsumer recycled paper and processed without chlorine), and use of alternate fuel vehicles (including electric, hybrid, and compressed natural gas) in the campus fleet. Most university diesel vehicles use B-20 fuel, which is 20 percent biodiesel. Buffalo offers a major in Environmental Geosciences, and undergraduate and graduate degrees in Civil, Structural, and Environmental Engineering, as well as graduate study in the Division of Environmental Health Sciences within the School of Public Health and Health Professions. (http://www.ubgreenoffice.com)

      The State University of New York's College of Environmental Science and Forestry (ESF) is devoted to education and research related to natural resources and the natural and designed environments. Academic departments include Environmental and Forest Biology, Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering, Environmental Science, Environmental Studies, Forest and Natural Resources Management, and Landscape Architecture. ESF is a signatory to the American College and University Presidents Climate Commitment and a member of the Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education; ESF has committed to becoming carbon neutral by 2015. The SUNY Center for Sustainable and Renewable Energy, located on the ESF campus, is a research and development clearinghouse for information about energy efficiency and sustainability. The Adirondack Ecological Center, established in 1971, is engaged in ongoing research monitoring trends and changes in the Adirondack ecosystem. The Center for the Urban Environment is dedicated to finding ways to mitigate urban environmental problems and working with communities, business, and governmental and nongovernmental organizations to produce a more sustainable program. ESF began a biodiesel program in 2006 and currently uses a BioPro 190 reactor to produce 50 gallons per week of biodiesel (from waste cooking oil) to power student transport and maintenance vehicles on campus. (http://www.esf.edu/sustainability)

      The Sustainability Commission at St. Bonaventure University ties ecological and sustainability issues to the university's mission as a Franciscan institution, helps the university form a correct relationship with the environment that is consistent with that mission and creates opportunities for education, discussion, and dialogue, which can contribute toward this mission. In October 2008, St. Bonaventure held its first Sustainable Bona's Day in which staff, students, and faculty attempted for one day to reduce carbon dioxide emissions through means such as lowering thermostats, reducing motor vehicle use, serving local foods in the dining halls, and recycling soy containers and paper products. Electricity use dropped 24 percent on the first Sustainable Bona's Day as opposed to the same day one year earlier, and natural gas use was reduced by 50 percent. In 2009, St. Bonaventure initiated a trayless dining program, which reduces food waste and reduces the amount of heated water and detergent used by dining services. (http://www.sbu.edu/About_SBU.aspx?id=21450&terms=environment)

      Stetson University has committed to incorporating principles of sustainability on its campus. In 1998, Stetson created the Environmental Responsibility Council to promote sustainability practices in the university's curriculum, policies, operations, and external ties. The university is committed to environmental education, environmentally responsible purchasing, efficient use of resources, minimization of solid waste production and hazardous materials use, and planning and campus design that is environmentally responsible and centered on the use of Florida native plants. Stetson had the first LEED-certified green building in Florida, and the Rinker Environmental Learning Center boasts several ecological features, including a rainwater collection system, a geothermal heating system, and recycled metal roofing. The Stetson University Native Plant Initiative commits the university to using only Florida native plants on its main campus, both in order to preserve the natural ecosystem and also because such plants require less water, fertilizer, and pesticides than nonnative plants. Stetson has a broad recycling program and placed fifth nationally in the 2010 RecycleMania competition. Stetson offers a major and minor in Environmental Science as an interdisciplinary program through the geography department. (http://www.stetson.edu/other/erc)

      The Sustainability Task Force at St. Olaf College has created a report that identifies the values of the college with regard to the environment, identifies the current state of sustainability at the college, and sets goals for the future. Current initiatives to reduce St. Olaf's environmental impact include purchasing a composter that turns food waste, paper, and cardboard into mulch, using recycled paper for copying and printing, planting trees on farmland, restoring wetlands on campus, restoring an area of prairie, and considering adding “green screens” to lessen the environmental impact of investment opportunities for the college endowment funds. St. Olaf's began offering an interdisciplinary concentration in Environmental Studies in 1987–1988 and an Environmental Studies major beginning in 1999–2000. The major offers three tracks: Environmental Science, Social Sciences, and Arts and Humanities. (http://www.stolaf.edu/green/report/principles)

      The University of California, Berkeley (UCB), along with the rest of the University of California system, adopted a Green Building Policy and Clean Energy Standard, since renamed the Policy on Sustainable Practices. The Berkeley campus formed the Chancellor's Advisory Committee on Sustainability to assess the current state of sustainability on campus and promote measures to protect human and environmental health. In 2007, Berkeley committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2014 through a series of energy efficiency projects, increased use of renewable energy, and reductions in fuel usage by the campus fleet and commuters. Berkeley has reduced water usage by over 10 percent since 1990, currently diverts 57 percent of its solid waste, uses recycled paper for 74 percent of copying, and 24 percent of all food and beverage products bought on campus in 2008–2009 were sustainable. Berkeley produces not only traditional annual campus sustainability reports (including measures like recycling and energy and water use) but also a report focusing on social and economic measures of sustainability. Berkeley offers many undergraduate and graduate programs that include a focus on sustainability, including Agricultural and Environmental Chemistry, Bioengineering, City and Regional Planning, Ecosystem Science, Environmental and Science Journalism, Environmental Health Sciences, Environmental Law, Environmental Science, Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning, Molecular and Environmental Biology, Society and Environment, and Transportation Engineering. (http://sustainability.berkeley.edu)

      The University of California, San Diego (UCSD) has implemented a number of measures to reduce environmental impact. Students serve as “Econauts” to provide peer-to-peer education with the goal of achieving zero waste and a 20 percent reduction in water use by 2012. Dining services have replaced Styrofoam with compostable plastic containers and permanent dishware that students may borrow. A variety of local and organic produce and Fair Trade coffee, tea, and sugar is used in the campus dining services. Landscaping has been adapted to use native plants and minimize the need for additional water. Solar panels have been installed on the roofs of two parking garages; each generates more than 17,000 hours of energy per year. Green Campus is a student program at UCSD funded by the Facilities Management Department and the Alliance to Save Energy, which works to build campus awareness about environmental issues, include sustainability concerns in course content, and implement projects targeting energy use. USCD offers a number of courses relevant to the environment as well as a major in Environmental Systems and a minor in Environmental Studies. (http://greencampus.ucsd.edu)

      The University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) approved a campus sustainability plan in February 2008 that commits the university to achieving 2000 emissions levels by 2014, 1990 emissions levels by 2020, and carbon neutrality by 2050. This document also commits UCSB to environmental leadership in academics and research and to a sustainable program of building, operating, and retrofitting campus buildings. All buildings programmed after 2004 must meet at least LEED Silver standards, and UCSB has a number of environmentally friendly programs in place, including use of reclaimed water for irrigation and to flush toilets, various transportation alternatives to traveling by automobile, an Environmentally Preferable Purchasing policy that requires purchasers to consider sustainability issues, and composting of food waste and gardening waste. USCB gets 16 percent of its electricity from renewable sources, and several buildings use solar panels to create energy and/or to heat water. Several departments at UCBS offer coursework relevant to sustainability, including Geography, Environmental Studies, Global Studies and the Bren School; and the Academic Senate Sustainability Work Group is currently developing a Ph.D. program in Environment and Sustainability and creating an environment and sustainability general education requirement. The Green Campus Program is a student-run effort to save energy by building awareness, collaborating with university administration, implementing projects that will reduce energy use, and incorporating energy conservation into course curricula. (http://sustainability.ucsb.edu/gcp)

      The University of Colorado (UC) was the first university in the United States to have an Environmental Center: The CU Center, then called the Eco-Center, was founded in 1970 as part of the inaugural Earth Day celebrations. The center provides leadership and education in environmental issues and has helped implement many sustainable operations on campus, including establishing the first campus recycling program in the United States (in 1976) and establishing the first prepaid bus pass program for students. The CU Environmental Justice Project was founded to address the fact that poor and nonwhite communities are often unduly burdened with pollution and environmental degradation; principal activities include education, outreach, and dissemination of information regarding environmental justice. Earth Education is a volunteer and intern program that provides environmental education to schools in the greater Boulder community. CU offers an interdisciplinary Environmental Studies program that awards B.A., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees. The Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences is home to five research centers, including the National Center for Atmospheric Research, the National Institute for Standards and Technology, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, providing many opportunities for collaboration in the environmental sciences. (http://ecenter.colorado.edu/energy)

      The University of Connecticut adopted an Environmental Policy in April 2004 that commits the university to using the best available environmental practices and continually monitoring and improving its environmental performance, designing and constructing buildings and grounds in a sustainable manner, conducting outreach and embracing environmental initiatives in surrounding communities, and advancing environmental understanding through its academic programs. In 2007, the university established an additional Sustainable Design and Construction Policy relating to design, construction, renovation, and maintenance of sustainable and efficient building. The Office of Environmental Policy was created in 2002 to focus on sustainability and environmental performance on campus. Connecticut offers majors in Environmental Science, Environmental Health and Safety, and Environmental Engineering; and the Center for Environmental Sciences and Engineering promotes multidisciplinary research in engineering and sustainability. (http://www.ecohusky.uconn.edu)

      The University of Georgia (UGA) has a Sustainability Task Force to promote energy efficient practices on campus and provides free bus passes to students, faculty, and staff, using a bus fleet powered by biodiesel. The GoGreen program at UGA encourages environmentally sustainable practices within the university's physical operations: Measures include composing plant waste (100 percent of leaf and limb debris has been composed since 1983); recycling about 1,000 tons of paper, cardboard, bottles, and cans annually; composing animal bedding from the Veterinary School and research facilities; and using green cleaning procedures to reduce exposure to harmful chemicals. The Odum School of Ecology fosters interdisciplinary studies in the relationships among organisms and their environment and provides undergraduate and graduate education in Ecology and Conservation Ecology and Sustainable Development. The Georgia Plant Conservation Alliance was formed in 1995 to coordinate efforts to protect natural habitats and preserve Georgia's endangered fauna. The Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health studies forest health, natural research, and agricultural management and invasive species from the state to international levels. (http://gogreen.uga.edu)

      The University of La Verne Sustainable Campus Consortium, founded in 2002, promotes environmentally responsible practices on campus. The Sustainable Campus Task Force does an environmental audit, with results available on the campus Website, including seven categories: energy efficiency, water efficiency, landscaping, transportation, recycling and waste reduction, reducing toxins, and environmental lessons. In 2003, LaVerne was awarded a Waste Reduction Awards Program (WRAP) award from the California Integrated Waste Management Board for its recycling program—it was one of only five schools in California to receive this award. (http://www.laverne.edu/resources-services/facilities-management/sustainability)

      The University of Maryland (UMD) Office of Sustainability facilitates sustainability on campus by promoting education in sustainability, developing sustainability programs, coordinating efforts among departments and with external resources, and measuring and reporting on campus sustainability efforts. In 2008, UMD adopted a 10-year strategic plan that included becoming a national model for a Green University by reducing energy use and the university's carbon footprint, retrofitting buildings to strict environmental standards, expanding green spaces, and promoting teaching and research in energy science, policy, and related fields. UMD is committed to achieving carbon neutrality by 2050 and has taken a number of measures in this direction. Polystyrene foam has been replaced by biodegradable products in dining services, food waste is composted, a $20 million energy project was implemented in 2009 that should reduce CO2 emission by over 4,200 tons per year, and all new construction and major renovations must meet at least the LEED Silver standard. The rate of recycling on campus is currently 54 percent, up from 17 percent in 2003. Water use has been reduced through installation of low-flow toilets, showers, and faucets; improved dishwashing machines; and use of a 10,000 gallon rainwater cistern and computer controlled drip irrigation system to water the campus's native landscaping. Several campus centers conduct environmental research, including the Center for Environmental Energy Engineering, the Center for Integrative Environmental Research, the Center for Social Value Creation, the Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, the Environmental Finance Center, the Joint Global Change Research Institute, the Maryland Institute for Applied Environmental Health, the National Center for Smart Growth Research and Education, and the University of Maryland Energy Research Center. (http://www.sustainability.umd.edu)

      Sustainability programs at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC) are coordinated through the Vice Chancellor's Sustainability Advisory Committee. UNC is committed to reducing carbon dioxide emissions by 60 percent over the next 45 years through means such as constructing a state-of-the-art cogeneration facility and constructing energy-efficient buildings. The Center for Sustainable Enterprise at UNC, located in the Kenan-Flagler Business School, teaches business and industry leaders how to achieve a positive “triple bottom line” of financial profitability, ecological integrity, and social equity. The Center for Sustainable Energy, Environment and Economic Development within the Institute for the Environment coordinates campus activities related to energy and the environment, including the areas of energy sciences, environment and health, policy, planning and economic development, and efforts to green the UNC campus. The Institute for the Environment is currently developing a minor in Sustainability to be offered at UNC. (http://www.ie.unc.edu/cseeed/greening_the_campus)

      The Mascaro Center for Sustainable Innovation within the Swanson School of Engineering at the University of Pittsburgh (Pitt) focuses on designing sustainable neighborhoods that have a positive effect on residents’ quality of life as well as the environment. Current programs include research and development in green building design and construction, infrastructure technology and networks, and green materials. The Center for Sustainable Landscapes, designed to exceed the LEED Platinum standard, will generate all its own energy with renewable resources and capture all water used on site. Pitt has offered an interdisciplinary undergraduate program in Environmental Studies since 1995 and offers several relevant graduate programs, including the Environmental Law, Science and Policy Certificate Program, and several programs in environmental health through the School of Public Health. (http://www.pitt.edu/~esweb)

      The University of Puget Sound Sustainability Advisory Committee was formed in 2005 after President Ron Thomas signed the Talloires Declaration on behalf of the university. The committee works to reduce environmental impact and increase sustainable practices on campus, working in four key areas: transportation, waste reduction, energy, and water conservation. The university guidelines for green building and design include using native plants, using natural ventilation and daylighting, maximizing renewable energy use, reducing waste, and using local materials. The university offers an undergraduate major in Environmental Policy and Decision Making, and faculty are working to integrate sustainability into the curriculum and are working with the Washington Center at Evergreen State College to develop goals and approaches to promote environmental literacy. (http://www.pugetsound.edu/about/sustainability-at-puget-sound)

      The Sustainable Communities Initiative at the University of Rhode Island (URI) developed as a response to the need to address issues of sustainability in human activity and to take advantage of several existing URI programs that were related to this issue, including the Coastal Institute, the Community Planning and Landscape Architecture Department, and programs associated with the Sea Grant, Land Grant, and Urban Grant programs. Currently, URI is developing a Sustainability minor, and all freshmen in the College of the Environment and Life Science are required to participate in a community service learning project related to sustainability. Sustainable campus practices currently in use at URI include installation of low-energy lighting, a green purchasing program, a demonstration project using solar shingles on a campus building, and a community bike program. (http://www.uri.edu/sustainability/curriculum.html)

      The University of South Carolina (USC) has instituted a number of programs to reduce the environmental impact of university activities. The West Quad Residence Hall, a.k.a. the Green Quad, which earned a LEED Silver rating, was the largest green residence hall in the world when it opened in 2004. Most university shuttle buses use biodiesel, and an experimental hydrogen-powered bus is also included in the campus fleet. A biomass facility uses wood chips to provide electricity for the campus, and dining facilities have replaced Styrofoam containers with biodegradable takeout boxes. Water usage was reduced by over 40 percent by installing low-flow faucets, showers, toilets, and urinals. USC has an innovative Green Learning Community of 25 to 30 students who live on the same floor of the Green Quad and design projects and community activities that will lead to a more ecofriendly society. (http://www.sc.edu/green)

      The “Make Orange Green” program at the University of Tennessee at Knoxville is a campus-wide program to reduce environmental impact and build a culture of sustainability on campus. The program offers a light bulb exchange for residence halls and holds an annual POWER challenge in which the residence halls compete to reduce water and energy use and increase recycling. The university is one of the largest purchasers of green power in the Southeast, purchasing 5,000 blocks (750,000 kWh) per month. Buildings constructed since 2007 must meet minimum LEED standards. (http://environment.tennessee.edu)

      The Center for Integrated Agricultural Systems at the University of Wisconsin–Madison conducts research and offers education relating to sustainable agricultural practices. The Business, Environment & Social Responsibility Program, housed within the Wisconsin School of Business, offers education for business leaders and students interested in sustainable enterprise. The IGERT China program, funded by the National Science Foundation, trains students to address problems in biodiversity, conservation, and sustainable development. The Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies consists of four research centers—the Center for Climatic Research; the Center for Culture, History and Environment; the Center for Sustainability; and the Global Environment and the Land Tenure Center—that conduct research, offer nine degree and certificate programs, and conduct community programs and public events. In 2006, Wisconsin committed to an aggressive program to reduce environmental impact, including achieving a reduction of 20 percent in overall energy consumption and the campus environmental footprint by 2010. (http://www.conserve.wisc.edu)

      The Global Environmental Management (GEM) program at the University of Wisconsin–Stevens Point, established in 2000 and affiliated with the College of Natural Resources, is a center for education and outreach in natural resources and environmental management. Programs at GEM include Sustainable Agriculture and Forestry, Permaculture Design, Sustainable Communities & Campuses, Sustainable Energy Systems, Land Use Planning and Rural Leadership, and Community Development. The Wisconsin Center for Environmental Education, created in 1990, develops environmental educational programs for K-12 teachers and students. The National Environmental Education Advancement Project promotes the creation and expansion of environmental education programs across the nation. (http://www.uwsp.edu/cnr/gem)

      Sustainability is a central value at Warren Wilson College (WWC): Environmental stewardship is included in the campus mission statement, and students are expected to make sustainable choices and advocate best practices in their work and community service as well as learning about issues in the classroom. WWC began offering environmental studies courses in 1977, and in 1979, established an Environmental Studies major; it is currently the largest major at the college. The Orr Cottage at WWC, completed in 2005, was the first LEED Gold standard building in North Carolina. In 2006, WWC became the first college in the Southeast to offset 100 percent of its energy use with renewable energy credits. WWC includes biodiesel, hybrid, and solar-powered vehicles in its fleet and promotes carpooling, bicycling, and public transportation use. (http://www.warren-wilson.edu/~elc/sustainability)

      Washington University in St. Louis has a Sustainability Office to coordinate campus efforts to reduce environmental impact. In 2008, the university created a Sustainability Plan with the primary goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Major achievements include switching from coal to natural gas for steam generation, reducing energy usage per square foot by 31.3 percent (Danforth Campus) and 51.0 percent (Medical Campus), conducting a greenhouse gas emissions inventory from 1990 to 2009, and constructing the Living Learning Center at Tyson Research Center, a building that provides its energy and water needs on site and has a zero carbon construction footprint. Twelve campus buildings have or are awaiting LEED certification, and the university provides free public transportation passes and is a partner in the WeCar car-sharing program. (http://www.wustl.edu/sustain)

      Williams College set a goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 10 percent from 1990 levels by 2020 by measures such as installing solar hot water systems, using a cogeneration plant for 20 percent of campus electricity, upgrading light, installing steam and electrical meters, and retrocommissioning HVAC systems. More than 10 percent of the dining hall food budget is spent on local and organic foods, and food waste is composted. Two campus buildings have LEED Gold certification, most dining halls are trayless, most buildings have daylight sensors, and residence halls and locker rooms have low-flow plumbing fixtures. Williams has a car-sharing program, and the college fleet includes electric and hybrid vehicles. (http://www.williams.edu/resources/sustainability/index.php)

      General References

      American College and University Presidents Climate Commitment. http://www.presidentsclimatecommitment.org (Accessed June 10, 2010). Association of University Leaders for a Sustainable Future. “University and College

      Sustainability Websites.” http://www.ulsf.org/resources_campus_sites.htm (Accessed June 10, 2010). National Wildlife Federation. “Campus Environment 2008: A National Report Card.” http://www.nwf.org/campusEcology/docs/CampusReportFinal.pdf (Accessed June 10, 2010).

      Princeton Review. “College Sustainability Report Card.” http://www.greenreportcard.org/report-card-2010/awards (Accessed June 10, 2010).

      Sierra Club. “Cool Schools: The Third Annual List.” http://www.sierraclub.org/sierra/200909/coolschools/allrankings.aspx (Accessed May 24, 2010).

      SarahBoslaughWashington University in St. Louis
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