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Traffic calming reduces the speed and volume of motorized traffic by means of physical alterations to the street layout, street closures, speed limits, and enforcement of traffic laws. Reductions in traffic speed and volume diminish the negative effects of motor vehicles on neighborhoods and the environment. This can improve neighborhood quality of life, promote neighborhood social activity, and enhance mobility options for vulnerable groups. Moreover, having slower and fewer motor vehicles increases traffic safety—especially for pedestrians and cyclists. In addition, less traffic accidents and more walking and cycling can increase public health. Some studies also show increases in the value of adjacent property and a reduction in the need for police enforcement. Common traffic calming measures are street closures or semiclosures, speed humps, speed ...

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