Green Cities: An A-to-Z Guide

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Edited by: Nevin Cohen & Paul Robbins

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      About the Editors

      Green Series Editor: Paul Robbins

      Paul Robbins is a professor and the director of the University of Arizona School of Geography and Development. He earned his Ph.D. in Geography in 1996 from Clark University. He is General Editor of the Encyclopedia of Environment and Society (2007) and author of several books, including Environment and Society: A Critical Introduction (2010), Lawn People: How Grasses, Weeds, and Chemicals Make Us Who We Are (2007), and Political Ecology: A Critical Introduction (2004).

      Robbins's research centers on the relationships between individuals (homeowners, hunters, professional foresters), environmental actors (lawns, elk, mesquite trees), and the institutions that connect them. He and his students seek to explain human environmental practices and knowledge, the influence nonhumans have on human behavior and organization, and the implications these interactions hold for ecosystem health, local community, and social justice. Past projects have examined chemical use in the suburban United States, elk management in Montana, forest product collection in New England, and wolf conservation in India.

      Green Cities General Editor: Nevin Cohen

      Nevin Cohen is an assistant professor of Environmental Studies at The New School, in New York City, where he teaches courses in urban planning and sustainable food systems. He serves as co-chair of the Tishman Environment and Design Center, The New School's interdisciplinary environmental research and education center, and home to the university's innovative bachelor program in Environmental Studies, which emphasizes urban ecosystems, sustainable design, and public policy. He has a Ph.D. in Urban Planning from Rutgers University, a Masters in City and Regional Planning from the University of California, Berkeley, and a B.A. from Cornell University.

      For the past two decades, Dr. Cohen has worked with Fortune 500 companies on corporate sustainability initiatives. Prior to joining the faculty of The New School, he served as managing principal for GreenOrder, Inc., a consulting firm specializing in sustainable business practices, and held senior research positions at Rutgers University's Center for Environmental Communication, Environmental Defense, the World Resources Institute, Tellus Institute, and INFORM, Inc. As a policy analyst and planner in New York City, Dr. Cohen advised local planning boards and real estate developers on green development strategies. He was also responsible for developing landmark municipal recycling, water conservation, and clean fuel laws in New York City as a policy analyst for the City Council and Manhattan borough president.

      Introduction

      In 2008 humans shifted from a mostly rural to a mostly urban habitat. Cities worldwide are expected to take in all of the growing population over the next several decades, plus additional rural migrants, so that by 2050, according to the United Nations, the number of people living in urban areas is expected to reach 6.4 billion, out of a total population of 9.2 billion. Most of this urban growth will occur in developing regions of Asia, Africa, and Latin America.

      As an increasingly urban planet, our major ecological challenges, from water conservation to biodiversity loss to climate change, are now urban problems, making the quest for green cities essential for human survival. Because global financial, telecommunications, and transportation systems link us inextricably together, the decisions made about cities will affect human and nonhuman species everywhere. As more and more people live in cities, the activities and behavior that cities encourage will determine whether we make the planet less or more habitable. How we plan, design, build, and retrofit our cities will affect the world's natural resource consumption and the health and quality of life for an increasing portion of the world's people. This is a particular burden for developing countries, which face the challenges of rapid urban growth and limited economic resources.

      The quest for greener, efficient, and more equitable cities is not a new endeavor. As 19th century industrialization created highly polluted, unsanitary, crowded cities teeming with rural migrants who faced brutal living conditions; urban reformers developed schemes to address these problems, including social housing, public parks, and regulatory innovations like zoning. As the relationship between pathogens and diseases became clear, cities embarked on enormous public works programs to provide clean water from distant sources, and sewage systems to remove waste from cities. Nevertheless, despite these sanitary reforms, the dominant thinking through the 20th century was that the scale and density of cities were problems, and that cities needed to be transformed. Utopian schemes like Ebenezer Howard's networks of garden cities, and Le Corbusier's designs to rationalize the space and social structure in cities, captured the imagination of planners looking for an alternative to existing urban forms.

      We now recognize that dense cities are significantly more resource-efficient than disbursed settlements, particularly with respect to the energy consumed by transportation and heating and cooling buildings. Cities also offer opportunities for green social and technological innovations, from urban agriculture to distributed energy generation that, if diffused widely, can address global ecological and social problems. However, our cities have substantial existing infrastructure, built when environmental issues were not well understood or incorporated into the design and development process, so most cities will continue to consume resources unsustainably if not redesigned. Moreover, because cities are centers of consumption in a global economy, their ecological footprints extend far beyond their geographic boundaries. The day-to-day activities of city dwellers not only affect the proximate environment, but as producers and consumers urbanites also affect the communities that supply them with goods and services and serve as sinks for their wastes.

      Green cities include new communities conceived as sustainable from the ground up, as well as old industrial communities undergoing the process of greening. The former includes new cities like Dongtan, China, where planners and architects have used technologies to generate renewable energy and minimize energy consumption, and urban designs that enable large numbers of people to live densely with a high quality of life. Most existing cities suffer from a legacy of industrial uses, and contain brownfields (contaminated sites), inadequate transit systems, aging water and sewer infrastructure, and vulnerabilities to threats like sea level rise. Understanding how these communities, from New York City to Bogota, have rebuilt outmoded infrastructure, restored urban ecosystems, and instituted innovative environmental policies can serve as blueprints for the greening of other cities.

      Cities that are green enable the people who live and work in them to carry out their daily lives in an environmentally sound manner. Many of the negative impacts of urban living occur through everyday activities, such as how residents move about, what they eat, and how they make their homes and workplaces comfortable. These decisions are influenced by urban design and public policies, so green cities attempt to change the landscape so that the activities of residents are more sustainable as they commute (bicycling), feed their families (urban agriculture), or discard their residuals (composting and recycling). Because cities are part of larger bioregions, green cities contribute to sustainability outside of their boundaries through efforts such as green procurement and purchasing policies, watershed protection, and regional open space preservation.

      Green cities are also resilient in the face of large-scale risks. Recognizing that it is impossible to predict threats that may arise from natural phenomena (such as sea level rise) and technological failures (such as blackouts), green cities are designed with increased capacity to weather these occurrences without inexorable damage. Increasing resilience requires understanding a city's carrying capacity and building on the ecosystem services provided by wetlands, green roofs, and other forms of natural capital to provide multiple forms of protection against disturbances. It also depends on citizen participation in environmental planning and a commitment to addressing socio-ecological issues such as environmental justice.

      This volume, Green Cities, in The SAGE Reference Series on Green Society: Toward a Sustainable Future, provides an overview of the key concepts that urban planners, policy makers, architects, engineers, and developers use to understand the sustainability dimensions of the urban environment. It identifies the cities that have taken steps to become greener, and discusses the strategies they have used. It reviews the broad concepts associated with green cities. It discusses technologies, infrastructures, and programs that contribute to the greening of cities.

      Cities face enormous environmental challenges, and the entries in this volume, from case studies of greener cities to discussions of green urban design, infrastructure, and processes, can help us transform our cities into healthier, sustainable communities where a growing urban population can thrive. As engines of creativity and economic development, green cities can help develop the breakthrough technologies that can reduce our emissions of greenhouse gases and avert the worst consequences of climate change. Cities can both be greener and serve as a force for global greening. We hope that readers will come away from these articles with a greater understanding of the issues facing cities, and the opportunities for our cities to become a force for sustainability.

      NevinCohen, General Editor

      Reader's Guide

      List of Articles

      List of Contributors

      • Alexis, Gwendolyn Yvonne, Monmouth University
      • Anderson, Christopher, Auburn University
      • Aylett, Alexander, University of British Columbia
      • Ballamingie, Patricia, Carleton University
      • Baptista, Sandra, The Earth Institute at Columbia University
      • Bassett, Deborah R., University of Washington
      • Bates, Felicia, University of Houston–Downtown
      • Tom Bauler, Free University of Brussels
      • Beder, Sharon, University of Wollongong
      • Birge-Liberman, Phil, Syracuse University
      • Boslaugh, Sarah, Washington University in St. Louis
      • Bridgeman, Bruce, University of California, Santa Cruz
      • Bryson, Jeremy, Syracuse University
      • Buehler, Ralph, Virginia Tech University
      • Busà, Alessandro, Center for Metropolitan Studies, Berlin
      • Byrne, Jason, Griffith University
      • Can, Liu Li, International Center for Communication Development
      • Carr, Constance, Humboldt University, Berlin
      • Carroll, Walter F., Bridgewater State College
      • Carswell, Andrew T., University of Georgia
      • Chattopadhyay, Aparajita, International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS), Mumbai
      • Chiaviello, Anthony R. S., University of Houston–Downtown
      • Cidell, Julie, University of Illinois
      • Corfield, Justin, Geelong Grammar School, Australia
      • Crot, Laurence, University of Neuchâtel
      • Dixon, Megan, College of Idaho
      • Dooley, Michael D., Knox College
      • Doshi, Ameet D., Georgia Perimeter College
      • Dudley, Michael Quinn, University of Winnipeg
      • Faass, Josephine S., Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
      • Fenner, Charles R., Jr., State University of New York, Canton
      • Gachechiladze, Maia, Central European University
      • Gasper, Rebecca R., University of Maryland
      • Golub, Aaron, Arizona State University
      • Goodier, Chris, Loughborough University
      • Grover, Velma I., United Nations University–Institute for Water, Environment and Health (UNU–IWEH)
      • Guha, Mohua, International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS), Mumbai
      • Hagerman, Chris, Portland State University
      • Harper, Gavin D. J., Cardiff University
      • Harrington, Jonathan, Troy University
      • Helfer, Jason A., Knox College
      • Hurley, Patrick T., Ursinus College
      • Johnson, Sherrill, Independent Scholar
      • Kasper, Debbie V. S., Sweet Briar College
      • Keane, Timothy P., Saint Louis University
      • Kelley, Ingrid, Energy Center of Wisconsin
      • Kofoworola, Oyeshola Femi, University of Toronto
      • Krayenhoff, E. Scott, University of British Columbia
      • Lanfair, Jordan K., Knox College
      • Lang, Steven, LaGuardia Community College
      • Law, Caroline Man Yee, University of Hong Kong
      • Lee, Megan, University of Georgia
      • LeVasseur, Todd J., University of Florida
      • Lwasa, Shuaib, Makerere University
      • Lyons, Donald, University of North Texas
      • Maassen, Anne, University of Durham
      • Machler, Leonard, Arizona State University
      • Martins, Rafael D'Almeida, University of Campinas
      • May, Shannon, University of California, Berkeley
      • McKendry, Corina, University of California, Santa Cruz
      • Miller, Caroline Lomax, Massey University
      • Moos, Markus, University of British Columbia
      • Mullaney, Emma Gaalaas, Pennsylvania State University
      • Newell, Josh, University of Southern California
      • Nieuwenhuis, Paul, Cardiff University
      • Nuñez, Maura Troester, University of Colorado, Boulder
      • Ohayon, Jennifer Liss, University of California, Santa Cruz
      • Opdyke, Matthew R., Point Park University
      • Otto, Judith, Framingham State College
      • Panda, Sudhanshu Sekhar, Gainesville State College
      • Paolini, Federico, University of Siena
      • Parker, Jonathan, University of North Texas
      • Qun, Zeng Li, Beihai College, Beihang University
      • Ren, Guoqiang, University of Washington
      • Ren, Zhiqiang, Independent Scholar
      • Schroth, Stephen T., Knox College
      • Schuppert, Fabian, Queen's University Belfast
      • Scott, Austin Elizabeth, University of Florida
      • Silva, Carlos Nunes, University of Lisbon
      • Smith, Julie, Countryside and Community Research Institute
      • Smith, Stephen, Gainesville State College
      • Snell, Carolyn, University of York
      • Spraker, Deanna, Virginia Polytechnic Institute
      • Staddon, Chad, University of the West of England, Bristol
      • Stead, Dominic, Delft University of Technology
      • Stewart, Iain D., University of British Columbia
      • Susilo, Yusak Octavius, University of the West of England
      • Syed, Jawad, University of Kent
      • Tyman, Shannon, University of Oregon
      • van Vliet, Bas, Wageningen University
      • Weaver, Susan H., Independent Scholar
      • Weissman, Evan, Syracuse University
      • White, Kenneth S., San Jose State University
      • Wickstrom, Stefanie, Independent Scholar
      • Woodworth, A. Vernon, Boston Architectural College
      • Xiujuan, Li, Beihai College, Beihang University
      • Zimmermann, Petra A., Ball State University

      Green Cities Chronology

      c. 1700 b.c.e.: King Minos of Crete has running water for bathing and sewage disposal in his palace at Knossos.

      c. 500 b.c.e.: Athens, Greece, establishes what may have been the first city dump in the Western world, accompanied by a ban against throwing garbage into the streets.

      1388: In an early attempt to control municipal pollution, the English Parliament prohibits dumping wastes in the public waterways.

      1580: Queen Elizabeth creates a green belt around London by prohibiting construction of new buildings within three miles of the city wall.

      1657: The Common Council of New Amsterdam (now New York City) establishes public dumps, prohibits dumping refuse in the street, and requires residents to keep the streets in front of their homes clean.

      1833: English chemist and meteorologist Luke Howard describes the “urban heat island” effect in The Climate of London, noting that the city “partakes much of an artificial warmth, induced by its structure, by a crowded population, and the consumption of great quantities of fuel.”

      1842: Edwin Chadwick issues a report on the sanitary conditions among England's laboring classes, which argues that environment and disease are intimately linked, and that governments should be concerned with matters such as establishing municipal water supplies and sewage systems to improve public health.

      1848: Great Britain's Public Health Act establishes the General Board of Health, which lays the groundwork for modern public health.

      1849: The Croton Aqueduct Department forms in New York City to build a comprehensive sewer system for the city. Seventy miles are constructed by 1855, and by the 1890s New York City has 464 miles of sewers, more than any other American or European city except Chicago. Part of the motivation is recurrent cholera epidemics, including one in 1849 that causes 5,071 deaths (cholera is transmitted through fecal matter, hence keeping sewage out of the drinking water supply is crucial). The new sewer system proves effective as the last cholera epidemic in the city is in 1892 and causes fewer than 120 deaths.

      1854: John Snow uses geographic analysis to trace the source of a cholera outbreak in London to a particular water pump, bolstering his theory that cholera is transmitted through water (long before the specific organism that causes cholera had been identified) and bolstering support for making the provision of clean drinking water a civic responsibility.

      1863: The world's first subway opens in London, England.

      1892: The Sierra Club, one of the most influential environmental organizations in the United States, is founded in San Francisco.

      1894: New York City approves a referendum for a subway system to be constructed at public expense to reduce traffic congestion in the city streets. The first segment opens in 1902, and the entire system is in operation by 1908 (although it will be greatly expanded in years to come). It is the first in the world to have a four-track system (local and express lanes in both directions).

      1894: Detroit's Potato Patches program establishes the first organized community garden program in the United States, promoting self-sufficiency, and providing food for the impoverished during an economic crisis.

      1900: The Sanitary District of Chicago reverses the flow of the Chicago River, sending sewage and other pollutants into the Sanitary and Ship Canal, significantly improving the water quality in Lake Michigan.

      1928: Large-scale use of geothermal power is initiated when a borehole is sunk in Reykjavik, Iceland. This system now provides hot water for 80 percent of the households in Reykjavik, as well as domestic heating.

      1930: A thermal inversion in the Meuse Valley of Belgium traps pollutants from nearby industrial plants in the local atmosphere, causing about 60 deaths and many illnesses.

      1931: Charleston, South Carolina, passes the nation's first zoning ordinance establishing historic districts in order to preserve older neighborhoods and the city's unique sense of place.

      1941–1945: Gas rationing in the United States due to World War II encourages carpooling as a patriotic activity.

      1952: London, England, experiences a thermal inversion in December that, combined with air pollution from automobiles, factories, and coal-burning furnaces, blankets the city in smog that is believed to have caused about 3,000 excess deaths.

      1954: The U.S. Supreme Court rules in Berman v. Parker that city governments may use the principle of eminent domain to seize properties in areas considered to be blighted and redevelop them as part of an urban renewal campaign.

      1955: The Air Pollution Control Act of 1955 becomes the first federal legislation in the United States concerned with air pollution, although its scope is limited to providing funds for air pollution research.

      1961: Jane Jacobs's The Death and Life of Great American Cities criticizes urban renewal policies (in particular those championed by Robert Moses in New York City) that destroy neighborhoods, favor automobiles over people, and ignore the benefits of the human-scale, pedestrian-friendly environments provided by many of the world's great historical cities.

      1962: Community activists and historical preservationists succeed in preventing the destruction of Ghirardelli Square in San Francisco. This former chocolate factory becomes the first example of successful adaptive reuse, repurposing a historic structure.

      1963: The Clean Air Act establishes a federal program within the U.S. Public Health Services and authorizes research into monitoring and controlling air pollution, making it the first federal legislation in the United States to deal with the control of air pollution.

      1969: Scottish landscape architect Ian McHarg publishes Design With Nature, a landmark work on ecological planning.

      1970: The Clean Air Act authorizes the development of U.S. state and federal regulations to limit emissions from both stationary (such as industrial) and mobile sources (such as automobiles).

      1970: The New York City Traffic Department coins the term “gridlock” to describe traffic congestion, in particular when an intersection is blocked because cars moving in one direction cannot clear the intersection before the light turns red, blocking traffic attempting to move in the cross direction.

      1970s: The term brownfield is coined to refer to abandoned industrial and commercial facilities (initially steel plants in the United States) that may be contaminated by hazardous waste such as chemical pollutants.

      1971: A fire in the basement of an office building in Binghampton, New York, highlights the dangers of using PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) in construction when contaminated soot spreads throughout the building through the air conditioning ducts.

      1972: The U.S. Congress passes the Coastal Zone Management Act, initiating a process of sustainable development of coastal zones.

      1974: Curitiba, Brazil, develops the first bus rapid transit (BRT) system that uses buses on roads to provide services more typical of rail systems. Innovations for this type of bus system include providing a dedicated travel lane, permanent stations and stops, more efficient methods of boarding and fare collection, and relatively fewer stops placed further apart.

      1976: The Tax Reform Act encourages adaptive reuse in the United States by allowing faster tax write-offs for projects that recycle or restore historic properties.

      1978: U.S. President Jimmy Carter declares Love Canal, a toxic waste dump in Niagara Falls, New York, a national emergency due to chemical pollution. Over 1,000 families are evacuated at public expense.

      1978: New York City begins Operation Green Thumb to encourage community gardening. The city allows residents to use vacant lots for gardens for the nominal fee of $1 per year. By 1991 the city reports that there are over 500 community gardens in the city.

      1980s: Staten Island (New York City) establishes the first successful Bluebelt, a system of local septic tanks, rather than an island-wide conventional storm water system.

      1981: Seaside, Florida, often cited as the first New Urbanist development, is built on the model of traditional southern towns with narrow streets and alleys, and houses with porches and pitched roofs.

      1981: A task force of experts from Colorado State University and the Associated Landscape Contractors of Colorado coin the term “xeriscape,” meaning landscaping that is water-efficient and bioregionally appropriate.

      1983: The Environmental Protection Agency recommends that the residents of Times Beach, a small town in Eastern Missouri, evacuate due to dioxin contamination. The chemical was a contaminant in oil spread on the roads to control dust in the 1970s.

      1984: Los Angeles reduces vehicle traffic by 50 percent in preparation for the Olympics through ride-sharing schemes and other measures, although the plan to reserve specific freeway lanes for cars carrying three or more passengers was abandoned.

      1986: Chernobyl, Ukraine (formerly of the Soviet Union), is the site of the worst nuclear disaster in history. The amount of radiation released is estimated to be 100 times that of the atomic bombs dropped in 1945 on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

      1987: The United Church of Christ Commission for Racial Justice issues a study demonstrating that the location of toxic waste sites is more closely related to the race of neighborhood residents than to either income or social class.

      1987: The infamous New York City “garbage barge” cruises the Atlantic and Gulf coasts looking for a dump that will accept the over 3,000 tons of commercial refuse it carries. Eventually the barge returns to New York where its cargo is incinerated, but the incident raises awareness of the growing problem of garbage disposal in America's cities.

      1989: New York City enacts a broad recycling law (Local Law 19), in large part to reduce air pollution caused by the incineration of garbage. By 1996 the city claims that 41 percent of its refuse is diverted to recycling.

      1989–1993: Water metering trials of 53,000 British households estimate that compulsory metering could reduce domestic water use by 11 percent. However, the trial also demonstrates that conservation effects may not last because consumers quickly become used to the presence of the water meter.

      1991: Germany adopts stringent measures to reduce the quantity of garbage by requiring that manufacturers, distributors, and retailers collect and recycle all packaging waste from their products.

      1992: The Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro results in the document “Agenda 21,” which calls for national governments to adapt strategies for sustainable development and to cooperate with nongovernmental organizations and other countries in implementing them.

      1992: Mayor Richard M. Daley establishes a Department of the Environment for the city of Chicago, which undertakes the Brownfields Initiative to redevelop abandoned industrial areas, as well as projects such as tree planting to improve the aesthetic qualities of city streets.

      1993: William Kunstler's The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of America's Man-Made Landscape argues that urban sprawl has created a suburban environment that is ecologically destructive as well as counterproductive to normal human living.

      1993: The International Coalition for Local Environmental Initiatives creates the Cities for Climate Protection network to support urban measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It had more than 750 members in 2010.

      1995: The Global Ecovillage Network is founded, providing an administrative home for those interested in creating intentional communities that are sustainable, support human development, and minimize human ecological impact.

      1996: William Rees and Mathis Wakernagel develop the concept of the “ecological footprint,” which signifies all the resources used by a particular population or species in their book Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact on the Earth.

      1999: The Ecuadorian capital city of Bahía de Caráquez embarks on a campaign of rebuilding on principles of ecological sustainability following repeated damage from flooding and mudslides.

      1999: The Congress for the New Urbanism estimates that seven percent of regional and superregional malls are grayfields (abandoned or underused commercial properties) with an additional 12 percent of U.S. malls likely to enter greyfield status by 2004.

      2000: New York City introduces Green Building Tax Credits, which offer tax breaks to developers whose buildings meet energy efficiency standards.

      2001: Bangkok begins enforcing a series of regulations intended to lessen the city's environmental impact and improve the health and welfare of its citizens. These measures include monitoring vehicle emissions, enforcing the use of covering sheets on trucks and construction sites, and providing free vehicle inspections and tune-ups.

      2001: The U.S. Green Building Council founds the Green Building Certification Institute to certify Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) professionals who are qualified to evaluate the sustainability of buildings.

      2003: Great Britain institutes traffic congestion pricing, charging a daily rate for drivers to enter the central zone of London. The program is successful: Studies indicate that traffic in the affected area fell by 21 percent 2002–2006.

      2003: Zipcars, the world's largest car sharing program, introduces hybrids to its Seattle fleet.

      2003: A massive blackout in Ontario, Canada, and the eastern and midwestern United States affects an estimated 55 million people, and points out the vulnerability of the electrical power grid.

      2003: Kansas City, Missouri, adopts a walkability plan intended to reduce automobile use and encourage walking. It includes plans to ensure safe routes for local children to walk to school, reversing decades of suburban development that assumed that any trip beyond the immediate neighborhood would be made by automobile.

      2004: A study by SMARTRAQ, a land use research project conducted by Georgia Tech University, finds that residents who live in parts of Atlanta, Georgia, characterized by urban sprawl drive 40 percent more on weekends and 30 percent more during the week than people who live in areas of the city more conducive to walking.

      2005: The E.U. Emission Trading Scheme, a carbon-trading scheme involving 25 of the then-27 European Countries, officially begins.

      2005: The Brookings Institute issues a report stating that the average partial carbon footprint of people living in metropolitan areas was 14 percent lower than that of the U.S. population at large. The reasons cited include less automobile use, compact housing, and mixed-development neighborhoods.

      2005: The U.S. Conference of Mayors endorses the U.S. Mayors Climate Protection Agreement, which commits mayors to working to reduce greenhouse emissions in their cities. As of 2009, 969 mayors representing nearly 85 million people signed the agreement.

      2007: Barcelona begins a bike-sharing program in which members pay an annual fee plus a small charge for each half-hour of bicycle use. The program begins with 30,000 subscribers and 400 bicycles, and has grown to 186,000 subscribers and 6,000 bicycles.

      2007: New York City passes Local Law 86, more commonly known as the Green Buildings Act, which requires that new municipal buildings and renovations and additions to existing buildings meet LEED sustainability standards.

      2007: San Francisco, California, bans polystyrene foam (Styrofoam) containers for takeout food, requiring that containers used for that purpose be compostable or recyclable.

      2008: Gasoline prices go over $4 per gallon in the United States, encouraging the use of public transportation, as well as alternatives such as biking and walking.

      2008: SustainLane chooses Portland, Oregon, for the second year in a row as the greenest of the green cities. Fifty U.S. cities were evaluated on 16 criteria related to urban sustainability.

      2009: San Francisco, California, passes the most stringent recycling and composting ordinance in the United States. Several other cities have mandatory recycling, but San Francisco is the first to require composting as well.

      2009: Sydney, Australia, holds a one-hour citywide blackout in March to raise awareness of global warning and encourage conservation.

      2009: The European Commission names Stockholm, Sweden, first European Green Capital.

      SarahBoslaugh, Washington University in St. Louis
    • Green Cities Glossary

      A
      • Abatement: Reducing the degree or intensity of, or eliminating, pollution.
      • Accident Site: The location of an unexpected occurrence, failure, or loss, either at a plant or along a transportation route, resulting in a release of hazardous materials.
      • Activated Sludge: Product that results when primary effluent is mixed with bacteria-laden sludge and then agitated and aerated to promote biological treatment, speeding the breakdown of organic matter in raw sewage undergoing secondary waste treatment.
      • Activity Plans: Written procedures in a school's asbestos-management plan that detail the steps a Local Education Agency (LEA) will follow in performing the initial and additional cleaning, operation, and maintenance-program tasks; periodic surveillance; and reinspection required by the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA).
      • Affected Landfill: Under the Clean Air Act, landfills that meet criteria for capacity, age, and emissions rates set by the EPA. They are required to collect and combust their gas emissions.
      • Affected Public: 1. The people who live and/or work near a hazardous waste site. 2. The human population adversely impacted following exposure to a toxic pollutant in food, water, air, or soil.
      • Air Quality Standards: The level of pollutants prescribed by regulations that are not to be exceeded during a given time in a defined area.
      B
      • Backflow/Back Siphonage: A reverse flow condition created by a difference in water pressures that causes water to flow back into the distribution pipes of a drinking water supply from any source other than the intended one.
      • Back Pressure: A pressure that can cause water to backflow into the water supply when a user's wastewater system is at a higher pressure than the public system.
      • Biological Integrity: The ability to support and maintain balanced, integrated, functionality in the natural habitat of a given region. Concept is applied primarily in drinking water management.
      • Biome: Entire community of living organisms in a single major ecological area.
      • Broadcast Application: The spreading of pesticides over an entire area.
      C
      • Chemical Treatment: Any one of a variety of technologies that use chemicals or a variety of chemical processes to treat waste.
      • Chlorination: The application of chlorine to drinking water, sewage, or industrial waste to disinfect or to oxidize undesirable compounds.
      • Clean Coal Technology: Any technology not in widespread use prior to the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. This act achieved significant reductions in pollutants associated with the burning of coal.
      • Climate Change: The term climate change is sometimes used to refer to all forms of climatic inconsistency, but because the Earth's climate is never static, the term is more properly used to imply a significant change from one climatic condition to another. In some cases, climate change has been used synonymously with the term global warming; scientists, however, tend to use the term in the wider sense to also include natural changes in climate.
      • Closure: The procedure a landfill operator must follow when a landfill reaches its legal capacity for solid waste, ceasing acceptance of solid waste, and placing a cap on the landfill site.
      • Coal Cleaning Technology: A precombustion process by which coal is physically or chemically treated to remove some of its sulfur so as to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions.
      • Collector: A public or private hauler that collects nonhazardous waste and recyclable materials from residential, commercial, institutional, and industrial sources.
      • Combined Sewer Overflows: Discharge of a mixture of storm water and domestic waste when the flow capacity of a sewer system is exceeded during rainstorms.
      • Community Water System: A public water system that serves at least 15 service connections used by year-round residents, or regularly serves at least 25 year-round residents.
      • Complete Treatment: A method of treating water that consists of the addition of coagulant chemicals, flash mixing, coagulation-flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration. Also called conventional filtration.
      • Contingency Plan: A document setting out an organized, planned, and coordinated course of action to be followed in case of a fire, explosion, or other accident that releases toxic chemicals, hazardous waste, or radioactive materials that threaten human health or the environment.
      • Curbside Collection: Method of collecting recyclable materials at homes, community districts, or businesses.
      D
      • Dead End: The end of a water main that is not connected to other parts of the distribution system.
      • Decontamination: Removal of harmful substances such as noxious chemicals, harmful bacteria or other organisms, or radioactive material from exposed individuals, rooms, furnishings in buildings, or the exterior environment.
      • Drinking Water State Revolving Fund: The fund provides capitalization grants to states to develop drinking water revolving loan funds to help finance system infrastructure improvements, assure source-water protection, enhance operation and management of drinking-water systems, and otherwise promote local water-system compliance and protection of public health.
      • Dump: A site used to dispose of solid waste without environmental controls.
      E
      • Ecosystem: The interacting system of a biological community and its nonliving environmental surroundings.
      • Endangered Species: Animals, birds, fish, plants, or other living organisms threatened with extinction by anthropogenic (human-caused) or other natural changes in their environment. Requirements for declaring a species endangered are contained in the Endangered Species Act.
      • Environment: The sum of all external conditions affecting the life, development, and survival of an organism.
      • Environmental Medium: A major environmental category that surrounds or contacts humans, animals, plants, and other organisms (such as surface water, ground water, soil, or air) and through which chemicals or pollutants move.
      • Episode (Pollution): An air pollution incident in a given area caused by a concentration of atmospheric pollutants under meteorological conditions that may result in a significant increase in illnesses or deaths. May also describe water pollution events or hazardous material spills.
      • Erosion: The wearing away of land surface by wind or water, intensified by land-clearing practices related to farming, residential or industrial development, road building, or logging.
      F
      • Federal Implementation Plan: Under current law, a federally implemented plan to achieve attainment of air quality standards, used when a state is unable to develop an adequate plan.
      • Finished Water: Water is “finished” when it has passed through all the processes in a water treatment plant and is ready to be delivered to consumers.
      • Fluoridation: The addition of a chemical to increase the concentration of fluoride ions in drinking water to reduce the incidence of tooth decay.
      • Food Waste: Uneaten food and food preparation wastes from residences and commercial establishments such as grocery stores, restaurants, produce stands, institutional cafeterias and kitchens, and industrial sources like employee lunchrooms.
      • Fuel Economy Standard: The Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standard (CAFE) effective in 1978. It enhanced the national fuel conservation effort imposing a miles-per-gallon floor for motor vehicles.
      G
      • Game Fish: Species like trout, salmon, or bass caught for sport. Many of them show more sensitivity to environmental change than “rough” fish.
      • Gasohol: Mixture of gasoline and ethanol derived from fermented agricultural products containing at least 9 percent ethanol. Gasohol emissions contain less carbon monoxide than those from gasoline.
      • Global Warming: An increase in the near surface temperature of the Earth. Global warming has occurred in the distant past as the result of natural influences, but the term is most often used to refer to the warming predicted to occur as a result of increased emissions of greenhouse gases. Scientists generally agree that the Earth's surface has warmed by about one degree Fahrenheit in the past 140 years. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) recently concluded that increased concentrations of greenhouse gases are causing an increase in the Earth's surface temperature, and that increased concentrations of sulfate aerosols have led to relative cooling in some regions, generally over and downwind of heavily industrialized areas.
      • Greenhouse Gas: A gas, such as carbon dioxide or methane, which contributes to potential climate change.
      • Ground-Water Disinfection Rule: A 1996 amendment of the Safe Drinking Water Act requiring the EPA to promulgate national primary drinking water regulations requiring disinfection for all public water systems, including surface waters and ground water systems.
      H
      • Hazardous Waste Landfill: An excavated or engineered site where hazardous waste is deposited and covered.
      • Heavy Metals: Metallic elements with high atomic weights, such as mercury, chromium, cadmium, arsenic, and lead, which can damage living things at low concentrations and tend to accumulate in the food chain.
      • High-Level Nuclear Waste Facility: Plant designed to handle disposal of used nuclear fuel, high-level radioactive waste, and plutonium waste.
      • High-Line Jumpers: Pipes or hoses connected to fire hydrants and laid on top of the ground to provide emergency water service for an isolated portion of a distribution system.
      • High-Risk Community: A community located within the vicinity of numerous sites of facilities or other potential sources of environmental exposure/health hazards that may result in high levels of exposure to contaminants or pollutants.
      I
      • Incident Command Post: A facility located at a safe distance from an emergency site, where the incident commander, key staff, and technical representatives can make decisions and deploy emergency manpower and equipment.
      • Indirect Discharge: Introduction of pollutants from a nondomestic source into a publicly owned waste-treatment system. Indirect dischargers can be commercial or industrial facilities that discharge wastes into local sewers.
      • Infiltration Gallery: A sub-surface groundwater collection system, typically shallow in depth, constructed with open-jointed or perforated pipes that discharge collected water into a watertight chamber from which the water is pumped to treatment facilities and into the distribution system. Usually located close to streams or ponds.
      J
      • Joint and Several Liability: Under CERCLA, this legal concept relates to the liability for Superfund site cleanup and other costs on the part of more than one potentially responsible party. If there were several owners or users of a site that became contaminated over the years, they could all be considered potentially liable for cleaning up the site.
      L
      • Landfills: 1. Sanitary landfills are disposal sites for nonhazardous solid wastes spread in layers, compacted to the smallest practical volume, and covered by material applied at the end of each operating day. 2. Secure chemical landfills are disposal sites for hazardous waste, selected and designed to minimize the chance of release of hazardous substances into the environment.
      • Large Water System: A water system that services more than 50,000 customers.
      • Litter: The highly visible portion of solid waste carelessly discarded outside the regular garbage and trash collection and disposal system.
      M
      • Majors: Larger publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) with flows equal to at least one million gallons per day, or servicing a population equivalent to 10,000 persons; certain other POTWs having significant water quality impacts.
      • Materials Recovery Facility (MRF): A facility that processes residentially collected mixed recyclables into new products available for market.
      • Measure of Exposure: A measurable characteristic of a stressor (such as the specific amount of mercury in a body of water) used to help quantify the exposure of an ecological entity or individual organism.
      • Medium-Size Water System: A water system that serves 3,300 to 50,000 customers.
      • Methoxychlor: Pesticide that causes adverse health effects in domestic water supplies and is toxic to freshwater and marine aquatic life.
      • Minors: Publicly owned treatment works with flows less than one million gallons per day.
      N
      • National Municipal Plan: A policy created in 1984 by the EPA and the states in 1984 to bring all publicly owned treatment works into compliance with Clean Water Act requirements.
      • National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations: Commonly referred to as NSDWRs.
      • Noncommunity Water System: A public water system that is not a community water system, such as the water supply at a campsite or national park.
      • Nuclear Reactors and Support Facilities: Uranium mills, commercial power reactors, fuel reprocessing plants, and uranium enrichment facilities.
      O
      • Oil Spill: An accidental or intentional discharge of oil that reaches bodies of water. Can be controlled by chemical dispersion, combustion, mechanical containment, and/or adsorption. Spills from tanks and pipelines can also occur away from water bodies, contaminating the soil, getting into sewer systems, and threatening underground water sources.
      • Ozone Depletion: Destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer that shields the Earth from ultraviolet radiation harmful to life. This destruction of ozone is caused by the breakdown of certain chlorine and/or bromine containing compounds (chlorofluorocarbons or halons), which break down when they reach the stratosphere and then catalytically destroy ozone molecules.
      • Ozone Hole: A thinning break in the stratospheric ozone layer. There is an “ozone hole” when the detected amount of depletion exceeds 50 percent. Seasonal ozone holes have been observed over the Antarctic and Arctic regions, part of Canada, and the extreme northeastern United States.
      • Ozone Layer: The protective layer in the atmosphere, about 15 miles above the ground, that absorbs some of the sun's ultraviolet rays, thereby reducing the amount of potentially harmful radiation that reaches the Earth's surface.
      P
      • Pandemic: A widespread epidemic throughout an area, nation, or the world.
      • Performance Bond: Cash or securities deposited before a landfill operating permit is issued, which are held to ensure that all requirements for operating and subsequently closing the landfill are faithfully performed. The money is returned to the owner after proper closure of the landfill is completed. If contamination or other problems appear at any time during operation, or upon closure, and are not addressed, the owner must forfeit all or part of the bond, which is then used to cover clean-up costs.
      • Permit: An authorization, license, or equivalent control document issued by EPA or an approved state agency to implement the requirements of an environmental regulation; such as a permit to operate a wastewater treatment plant, or to operate a facility that may generate harmful emissions.
      • Pollutant: Generally, any substance introduced into the environment that adversely affects the usefulness of a resource or the health of humans, animals, or ecosystems.
      • Pollution: Generally, the presence of a substance in the environment that because of its chemical composition or quantity prevents the functioning of natural processes and produces undesirable environmental and health effects. Under the Clean Water Act, for example, the term has been defined as the man-made or man-induced alteration of the physical, biological, chemical, and radiological integrity of water and other media.
      • Potable Water: Water that is safe for drinking and cooking.
      • Pretreatment: Processes used to reduce, eliminate, or alter the nature of wastewater pollutants from nondomestic sources before they are discharged into publicly owned treatment works.
      • Primary Drinking Water Regulation: Applies to public water systems and specifies a contaminant level, which, in the judgment of the EPA Administrator, will not adversely affect human health.
      • Proposed Plan: A plan for a site cleanup that is available to the public for comment.
      • Public Health Context: The incidence, prevalence, and severity of diseases in communities or populations and the factors that account for them, including infections, exposure to pollutants, and other exposures or activities.
      • Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs): A waste-treatment works owned by a state, unit of local government, or Indian tribe, usually designed to treat domestic wastewaters.
      • Public Water System: A system that provides piped water for human consumption to at least 15 service connections, or regularly serves 25 individuals.
      R
      • Raw Sewage: Untreated wastewater and its contents.
      • Recycle/Reuse: Minimizing waste generation by recovering and reprocessing usable products that might otherwise become waste (like the recycling of aluminum cans, paper, and bottles).
      • Refuse Reclamation: Conversion of solid waste into useful products; such as composting organic wastes to make soil conditioners, or separating aluminum and other metals for recycling.
      • Reserve Capacity: Extra treatment capacity built into solid waste and wastewater treatment plants and interceptor sewers to accommodate flow increases due to future population growth.
      • Reservoir: Any natural or artificial holding area used to store, regulate, or control water.
      • Reverse Osmosis: A treatment process used in water systems by adding pressure to force water through a semi-permeable membrane. Reverse osmosis removes most drinking water contaminants. Also used in wastewater treatment. Large-scale reverse osmosis plants are being developed.
      S
      • Safe Water: Water that does not contain harmful bacteria, toxic materials, or chemicals, and is considered safe for drinking even if it may have taste, odor, color, and certain mineral problems.
      • Salinity: The percentage of salt in water.
      • Secondary Drinking Water Regulations: Non-enforceable regulations applying to public water systems and specifying the maximum contamination levels that, in the judgment of EPA, are required to protect the public welfare. These regulations apply to any contaminants that may adversely affect the odor or appearance of such water and consequently may cause people served by the system to discontinue its use.
      • Secondary Treatment: The second step in most publicly owned waste treatment systems in which bacteria consume the organic parts of the waste. It is accomplished by bringing together waste, bacteria, and oxygen in trickling filters or in the activated sludge process. This treatment removes floating and settleable solids, and about 90 percent of the oxygen-demanding substances and suspended solids. Disinfection is the final stage of secondary treatment.
      • Sewer: A channel or conduit that carries wastewater and storm-water runoff from the source to a treatment plant or receiving stream. Sanitary sewers carry household, industrial, and commercial waste. Storm sewers carry runoff from rain or snow. Combined sewers handle both.
      • Significant Municipal Facilities: Those publicly owned sewage treatment plants that discharge a million gallons per day or more and are therefore considered by states to have the potential to substantially affect the quality of receiving waters.
      • Sole-Source Aquifer: An aquifer that supplies 50 percent or more of the drinking water of an area.
      • Storm Sewer: A system of pipes (separate from sanitary sewers) that carries water runoff from buildings and land surfaces.
      • Superfund: The program operated under the legislative authority of CERCLA and SARA that funds and carries out EPA solid waste emergency and long-term removal and remedial activities. These activities include establishing the National Priorities List, investigating sites for inclusion on the list, determining their priority, and conducting and/or supervising cleanup and other remedial actions.
      • Susceptibility Analysis: An analysis to determine whether a public water supply is subject to significant pollution from known potential sources.
      T
      • Teratogen: A substance capable of causing birth defects.
      • Tertiary Treatment: Advanced cleaning of wastewater that goes beyond the secondary or biological stage, removing nutrients such as phosphorus, nitrogen, and most biological oxygen demand and suspended solids.
      • Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL): A calculation of the highest amount of a pollutant that a water body can receive and safely meet water quality standards set by the state, territory, or authorized tribe.
      • Toxaphene: Chemical that causes adverse health effects in domestic water supplies and is toxic to fresh water and marine aquatic life.
      • Transporter: Hauling firm that picks up properly packaged and labeled hazardous waste from generators and transports it to designated facilities for treatment, storage, or disposal. Transporters are subject to EPA and DOT hazardous waste regulations.
      U
      • Ultra Clean Coal (UCC): Coal that is washed, ground into fine particles, then chemically treated to remove sulfur, ash, silicone, and other substances; usually briquetted and coated with a sealant made from coal.
      • Underground Sources of Drinking Water: Aquifers currently being used as a source of drinking water, or those capable of supplying a public water system. They have a total dissolved solids content of 10,000 milligrams per liter or less, and are not “exempted aquifers.”
      • Urban Runoff: Storm water from city streets and adjacent domestic or commercial properties that carries pollutants of various kinds into the sewer systems and receiving waters.
      W
      • Waste: 1. Unwanted materials left over from a manufacturing process. 2. Refuse from places of human or animal habitation.
      • Waste Treatment Stream: The continuous movement of waste from generator to treater and disposer.
      • Wastewater: The spent or used water from a home, community, farm, or industry that contains dissolved or suspended matter.
      • Water Pollution: The presence in water of enough harmful or objectionable material to damage the water's quality.
      • Water Supplier: One who owns or operates a public water system.
      • Water Well: An excavation where the intended use is for location, acquisition, development, or artificial recharge of ground water.
      Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (http://www.epa.gov/OCEPAterms)

      Green Cities Resource Guide

      Books
      • Abbott, Carl. Greater Portland: Urban Life and Landscape in the Pacific Northwest. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001.
      • Allen, Patricia. Together at the Table: Sustainability and Sustenance in the American Agrifood System. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2004.
      • Appleyard, Donald. Livable Streets. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981.
      • Barlow, M. Blue Covenant: The Global Water Crisis and the Coming Battle for the Right to Water. New York: The New Press, 2008.
      • Barty-King H. Water: An Illustrated History of Water Supply and Wastewater in the United Kingdom. Shrewsbury, UK: Quiller Press, 1992.
      • Bell, Simon and Stephen Morse. Measuring Sustainability. Learning From Doing. London: Earthscan, 2003.
      • Berelowitz, Lance. Dream City: Vancouver and the Global Imagination. Vancouver, Canada: Douglas & McIntyre, 2005.
      • Blomley, Nick. Unsettling the City: Urban Land and the Politics of Property. New York:
      • Routledge, 2004.
      • Brooks, K. N., P. F. Ffolliott, H. M. Gregersen and L. F. DeBano. Hydrology and the Management of Watersheds. Ames, IA: Blackwell Publishing, 2003.
      • Calthorpe, Peter. The Next Urban Metropolis. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Architectural Press, 1995.
      • Dash, M. C. Ecology, Chemistry and Management of Environmental Pollution. New York:
      • Macmillan, 2004.
      • Dittmar, Hank and Gloria Ohland, eds. The New Transit Town: Best Practices in Transit-Oriented Development. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2004.
      • Energy Information Administration (EIA). International Energy Outlook 2008. Washington, DC: EIA Publications, 2008.
      • Ewing, Reid. Traffic Calming: State of the Practice. Washington, DC: Institute of Transportation Engineers/Federal Highway Administration, 1999.
      • Foster, K., A. Stelmack and D. Hindman. Sustainable Residential Interiors. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2007.
      • Gleick, P. The World's Water: The Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1999.
      • Global Wind Energy Council. Global Wind 2008 Report. Brussels, Belgium: Global Wind Energy Council, 2008.
      • Grant, Jill. Planning the Good Community: New Urbanism in Theory and Practice. London: Routledge, 2006.
      • Grava, Sigurd. Urban Transportation Systems: Choices for Communities. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.
      • Gray, N. F. Drinking Water Quality: Problems and Solutions. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
      • Hardoy, Jorge E., Diana Miltin and David Satterthwaite. Environmental Problems in an Urbanizing World. London: Earthscan, 2004.
      • Hatch, Alex. Cracks in the Asphalt: Community Gardens of San Francisco. San Francisco, CA: Pasha Press, 2008.
      • Hellmund, Paul Cawood and Daniel Smith. Designing Greenways: Sustainable Landscapes for Nature and People. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2006.
      • Hills, Richard L. Power From Wind: A History of Windmill Technology. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
      • Ighacimuthu, S. Environmental Awareness and Protection. New Delhi, India: Phoenix
      • Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., 1998.
      • International Energy Agency (IEA). World Energy Outlook 2008. Paris: IEA Publications, 2008.
      • Kellogg, Scott and Stacy Pettigrew. Toolbox for Sustainable City Living. Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 2008.
      • Kidd, J. S. and Renee A. Kidd. Air Pollution Problems and Solutions. New York: Chelsea House, 2006.
      • Klingle, Matthew. Emerald City: An Environmental History of Seattle. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2007.
      • Kopec, D. Health, Sustainability and the Built Environment. New York: Fairchild Books, Inc.,
      • 2009.
      • Lansing, Jewel. Portland: People, Politics, and Power, 1851–2001. Corvallis: Oregon State University Press, 2003.
      • Lawn, Philippe. Sustainable Development Indicators In Ecological Economics. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2006.
      • Lawson, Laura. City Bountiful: A Century of Community Gardening in America. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2005.
      • Leeds, Rob, et al. Non-Point Source Pollution: Water Primer. Columbus: Ohio State University Extension, 1996.
      • Lowi, M. Water and Power: The Politics of a Scarce Resource in the Jordan River Basin. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
      • Lundkvist, Lennart J. The Hare and the Tortoise: Clean Air Policies in the United States and Sweden. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1980.
      • MacColl, E. Kimbark. The Growth of a City: Power and Politics in Portland, Oregon 1915 to 1950. Portland, OR: Georgian Press, 1979.
      • MacColl, E. Kimbark. The Shaping of a City: Business and Politics in Portland, Oregon 1885 to 1915. Portland, OR: Georgian Press, 1976.
      • Mallon, Karl. Renewable Energy Policy and Politics: A Handbook for Decision-Making. London: Earthscan, 2006.
      • Miller, Robert W. Urban Forestry: Planning and Managing Urban Greenspaces. Upper Sadlle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997.
      • Moll, Gary and Sara Ebenreck. Shading Our Cities: A Resource Guide for Urban and Community Forests. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1989.
      • Morris, D. Self-Reliant Cities: Energy and Transformation in Urban America. San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club Books, 1982.
      • Mougeot, Luc J. A. Growing Better Cities: Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Development. Ottawa, Canada: International Development Research Centre, 2006.
      • National Research Council. Compensating for Wetland Losses Under the Clean Water Act. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2001.
      • Newman, Peter and Jeffrey Kenworthy. Sustainability and Cities: Overcoming Automobile Dependence. Washington, DC: Island Press, 2009.
      • Ohlsson, L. Hydropolitics: Conflicts Over Water as a Development Constraint. London: Zed Books, 1995.
      • Palahniuk, Chuck. Fugitives and Refugees: A Walk in Portland, Oregon. New York: Crown, 2003.
      • Perlin, John. From Space to Earth: The Story of Solar Electricity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002.
      • Reisner, M. Cadillac Desert: the American West and Its Disappearing Water. New York: Penguin Books, 1993.
      • Roseland, M. Toward Sustainable Communities; Resources for Citizens and Their Governments. Gabriola Island, British Columbia, Canada: New Society Publishers, 1998.
      • Rosillo-Calle, Frank, Sarah Hemstock, Peter de Groot, and Jeremy Woods. The Biomass Assessment Handbook: Bioenergy for a Sustainable Environment. London: Earthscan, 2008.
      • Sharma, B. K. Environmental Chemistry. Meerut, IN: Goel Publishing House, 2005.
      • Staddon, C. Managing Europe's Water Resources: 21st Century Challenges. Surrey, UK: Ashgate Books, 2009.
      • Talen, Emily. New Urbanism and American Planning: The Conflict of Cultures. London: Routledge, 2005.
      • Tchobanoglous, G., H. Theisen and S. A. Vigil. Integrated Solid Waste Management. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993.
      • Tolley, Rodney. Sustainable Transport: Planning for Walking and Cycling in Urban Environments. Cambridge, UK: Woodhead Publishing, 2003.
      • Weinberg, Adam S., David N. Pellow and Allan Schnaiberg. Urban Recycling and the Search for Sustainable Community Development. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000.
      • Westra, L. Environmental Justice and the Rights of Ecological Refugees. London: Earthscan Press, 2009.
      • World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED). Our Common Future. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
      Journals
      • American Journal of Public Health (American Public Health Association)
      • American School & University (Penton Media)
      • Cities (Elsevier)
      • Conservation Biology (John Wiley & Sons)
      • Ecological Applications (Ecological Society of America)
      • Energy & Buildings (Elsevier)
      • Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development (MetaPress)
      • Environment and Urbanization (SAGE Publications)
      • Geoforum (Elsevier)
      • Global Environmental Change (Elsevier)
      • Global Environmental Politics (MIT Press)
      • Journal of Engineering, Design & Technology (Emerald)
      • Journal of Planning Literature (SAGE Publications)
      • Landscape Journal (University of Wisconsin Press)
      • Physics and Chemistry of the Earth (Elsevier)
      • Planning (American Planning Association)
      • Planning Practice & Research (Taylor & Francis Group)
      • Renewable Resources Journal (Renewable Natural Resources Foundation)
      • The Science of the Total Environment (Elsevier)
      • Urban Design International (Palgrave Macmillan)
      • Urban Studies (SAGE Publications)
      • Water, Science and Technology (IWA Publishing)
      • Water and Environment Journal (John Wiley & Sons)
      Websites

      Green Cities Appendix

      American Community Garden Association

      http://www.communitygarden.org/about-acga

      The American Community Gardening Association (ACGA) is a nonprofit membership organization of individuals in the United States and Canada interested in promoting community gardening through means such as encouraging research, conducting educational programs, developing resources about community gardening, and supporting state and regional community gardening networks. The website explains what community gardens are, and reasons for supporting their formation (which include improving nutrition, saving money, preserving green space, stimulating social interaction, and conserving the environment). It provides information about starting a community garden, and a searchable interface to find a community garden by geographic area or name. The website also includes resources for children and young people, information about the ACGA annual conference and other training opportunities, downloadable draft documents, how-to manuals and startup guides, and information about political activism related to community gardens.

      Built Environment/Healthy Community Design

      http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/ehs/Topics/BuiltEnvironment.htm

      This website, created by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of the U.S. government, brings together a number of resources about the relationship between the built environment and human health. Topics covered include methods to deal with blighted properties in small towns, information about improving the air quality in buildings, community design and the built environment, health impact assessments of construction projects and developments, and land use and planning. Most of the documents come from within agencies of the U.S. government, but the Rollins School of Public Health at Emory University (in Atlanta, Georgia) provides several documents. There are also extensive links to other relevant agencies within federal and state governments, as well as universities and private associations. Topics include watershed protection, sustainable buildings and cityscapes, reduction of environmental hazards in schools and childcare settings, promotion of walking and bicycling for transportation, accessibility and universal design, and urban sprawl.

      5 Amazing Green Cities

      http://science.howstuffworks.com/five-amazing-green-cities.htm

      This website, part of the HowStuffWorks site run by Discovery Communications, provides a history and overview of the concept of green cities before looking at five specific cities, each notable for at least one aspect of protecting the environment. Malmö, Sweden, is featured for its use of renewable resources, including generation and use of green electricity, and for transforming many of its neighborhoods into ecologically friendly enclaves favoring bicycle and pedestrian traffic. Copenhagen, Denmark, is noted for its clean harbors, use of windmills to generate electricity, and wide use of bikes and the metro system for transportation. Portland, Oregon, is noted for preserving green space within urban boundaries, being the first U.S. city to enact a plan to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and for its plan to supply 100% of its energy in 2010 from renewable sources. Vancouver, Canada, is noted for leading the world in the use of hydroelectricity, having a 100-year plan for green living, and for the use of solar-powered trash compactors. Reykjavik, Iceland, is noted for its plan to eliminate use of fossil fuels by 2050, and for its use of hydropower and geothermal resources. Each article is sourced and includes links to relevant topics within the HowStuffWorks site (such as hydroelectric energy and urban heat island), as well to exterior sites.

      Global Ecovillage Network

      http://www.ecovillage.org

      Global Ecovillage Network is a confederation of people and communities that promotes the development and use of technologies for sustainable living, including the creation of ecovillages, which may incorporate elements such as permaculture, green building and production, alternative energy sources, ecological design, and social and community building. The Global Ecovillage Network website includes information about ecovillages and many other topics related to sustainable living, as well as tools such as the Community Sustainability Assessment to allow a community to evaluate its current condition on dimensions such as sense of place, consumption, waste and pollution management, health care, education, and cultural sustainability. It also includes a searchable database of ecovillages and events, resources, and news relating to ecovillage concerns.

      ICLEI–Local Governments for Sustainability

      http://www.iclei.org

      This is the website of the ICLEI–Local Governments for Sustainability, with a membership including over 1,000 cities, towns, and counties, as well as national and regional government organizations interested in promoting sustainable development. A brochure explaining the organization's activities (specific initiatives include creating local action plans to reduce greenhouse gases, standards for the measurement and reduction of municipal carbon emissions, and coordination of the representation of local governments in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change) is downloadable from the website in several languages. Information is also available on the organization, its history, members, supporters, and programs. The website has links to resources (including publications and case studies) about local sustainable development, training opportunities, conferences, news about sustainable development, prizes and awards, links to ICLEI–Local Governments for Sustainability research, and information about technical and consulting services available for sustainable development projects.

      Traffic Calming

      http://www.trafficcalming.org/index.html

      This website, created by the transportation consultant firm Fehr & Peers, collects a number of resources related to traffic calming. Traffic calming includes procedures intended to reduce vehicle speeds, increase pedestrian safety, and improve quality of life. Examples of such procedures include changing street alignment and traffic routes, installing devices such as speed bumps and raised crosswalks, and increasing police enforcement of existing traffic laws. The website provides a history of traffic calming (beginning in Europe in the 1960s and in the United States in the 1970s) and provides discussion of the advantages and disadvantages, including estimated costs for many different means of traffic calming. Different means of traffic calming are evaluated in terms of speed reduction, volume of traffic reduction, and reduction in collisions. Links are provided to the websites of many traffic-calming programs in the United States and Canada. The website also includes an extensive bibliography of literature on traffic calming.

      World Alliance for Decentralized Energy

      http://www.localpower.org

      World Alliance for Decentralized Energy (WADE), founded in 1997 during the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, is an international organization that promotes the development and use of cogeneration, on-site power, and decentralized energy (DE) systems as a means to increase efficiency, decrease costs, and reduce harm to the environment. The website includes basic information about DE technologies, case studies of successful DE projects in Europe and China, benefits of DE (including improving access to energy in developing countries, greater efficiency, reduced harm to human health and the environment, reliability, and energy security), barriers to DE, and policies affecting DE. It also includes a searchable database of news items and press releases, calendar of upcoming events, list of chapters, multimedia files, and many downloadable publications from WADE and other organizations. The website also has an interface to look for resources and information by geographic region.

      SarahBoslaughWashington University in St. Louis
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