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  • Affirmation is the act of reflecting on core aspects of the self, such as important values, relationships, and personal characteristics like religion, music, or sports. Previous research shows that self-affirmation interventions can reduce psychological and physiological stress and defensiveness, while boosting personal responsibility and performance. Self-affirmation interventions and theory have promising applications in sports and exercise, including facilitating achievement and helping individuals respond adaptively to setbacks.

    Self-Affirmation Theory

    The social psychologist Claude Steele proposed self-affirmation theory in 1988. It holds that individuals are motivated to maintain self-integrity: a sense that one is a person of worth, morally adequate and effective at making changes in one's life. There are many routes to self-integrity, and affirmations of the self in one part of life (e.g., ...

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    • Career Transition
    • Certification, Credentialing, and Roles of Sport and Exercise Psychologists
    • Disability
    • Emotion
    • Exercise Health
    • Group Dynamics
    • History and Foundation
    • Leadership
    • Morality, Aggression, and Ethics in Sport
    • Motivation
    • Motor Control
    • Perception and Cognition in Sport
    • Personality and Psychological Characteristics in Sport
    • Psychobiology
    • Psychological Skills and Interventions
    • Psychosociocultural Considerations
    • Self-Concept, Self-Perceptions, and Identity
    • Youth Sport
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