Encyclopedia of Public Relations
- Publisher: SAGE Publications, Inc. |
- Publication Year: 2013 |
- Online Publication Date: October 30, 2013 |
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452276236 |
- Print ISBN: 9781452240794 |
- Online ISBN: 9781452276236 |
- Print Purchase Options
- Subject: Public Relations, Public Relations
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When initially published in 2005, the two-volume Encyclopedia of Public Relations was the first and most authoritative compilation of the subject. It remains the sole reference source for any library serving patrons in business, communication, and journalism as it explores the evolution of the field with examples describing the events, changing practices, and key figures who developed and expanded the profession. Reader's Guide topics include Crisis Communications & Management, Cyberspace, Ethics, Global Public Relations, Groups, History, Jargon, Management, Media, News, Organizations, Relations, Reports, Research, and Theories & Models. Led by renowned editor Robert Heath, with advisory editors and contributors from around the world, the set was designed to reach a wide array of student readers who would go on to serve as opinion leaders for ...
- Reader's Guide
- Entries A-Z
- Subject Index
- Crisis Communication and Management
- Global Public Relations
- Cutlip, Scott M.
- Marketing Communication and Advertising
- New Media
- [Page xviii]Practitioners
- Research and Analysis
- Risk Communication and Management
- Theories and Models
Copyright © 2013 by SAGE Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Many of the entries in this edition of Encyclopedia of Public Relations have been updated from their original publication in the first edition to reflect recent developments and include additional references. In some instances, the updates were made by someone other than the original author of the entry.
Printed in the United States of America.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Encyclopedia of public relations / edited by Robert L. Heath, University of Houston. — 2nd edition.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4522-4079-4 (cloth)
1. Public relations—Encyclopedias. I. Heath, Robert L. (Robert Lawrence), 1941–
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
13 14 15 16 17 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
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List of Entries[Page vii]
- Accommodation: Contingency Theory
- Account Executive
- Account Manager/Account Management
- Advertising Equivalency
- Africa, Practice of Public Relations in
- Age of Deference, End of the
- Agenda-Setting Theory
- Aggregator News Search
- Alumni Relations
- Annual Reports
- Antecedents of Modern Public Relations
- Anthropology and Public Relations
- AP Style
- Archetypes and Rhetorical Theory
- Association for Women in Communications
- Attribution Theory
- Audience Monitoring
- Australia and New Zealand, Practice of Public Relations in
- Authenticity on Social Media
- Barcelona Principles
- Barnum, P. T.
- Bateman, J. Carroll
- Battle of the Currents
- Bernays, Edward
- Best Practices
- Bill Stuffer
- Black/Dark Website
- Blogs, Vlogs, and Microblogs
- Bourdieu, Pierre, and Public Relations
- Boxed Print
- Brand Equity and Branding
- Brazil, Practice of Public Relations in
- Business Wire
- Canada, Practice of Public Relations in
- Case Study
- Catalytic Model of Issues Management
- CAUSE Model of Risk and Crisis Communication
- Cause-Related Marketing
- Chaos and Complexity Theory
- Chase, W. Howard
- Chase Model of Issue Management
- China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan, Practice of Public Relations in
- Circuit of Culture
- Citizen Journalism/Reporting
- Citizens Advisory Committees/Panels
- Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2010)
- Civil Society
- Client-Agency Relationships
- [Page viii]Clip (News Clip) and Clipping Services
- Coalition Building
- Co-Creation of Meaning Theory
- Codes of Ethics
- Codes of Public Relations Practice
- Collaborative Decision Making
- College and University Public Relations
- Colorado Coal Strike
- Commentary, Radio and Television
- Commercial Speech
- Committee on Public Information
- Commodifying Information
- Communication Audit and Auditing
- Communication Management
- Communication Technologies
- Community and Community Building
- Community Relations
- Community Reports
- Community Resilience. See Resilient Communities
- Conflict Resolution
- Constitutive Theory of Language
- Consumer/Customer Relations
- Content Aggregation
- Content Analysis
- Contingency Theory
- Convergence and Public Relations
- Co-Orientation Theory
- Corporate Branding
- Corporate Moral Conscience
- Corporate Social Responsibility
- Corporate Speech
- Crisis and Crisis Management
- Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication
- Crisis Communication
- Crisis Informatics
- Crisis Renewal Theory. See Discourse of Renewal Theory
- Crisis Theory. See Rhetorical Arena
- Critical Discourse Analysis
- Critical Race Theory
- Critical Theory
- Cultural Flows and Public Relations
- Cultural Intelligence
- Cultural Theory of Risk Communication
- Cultural Topoi
- Cutlip, Scott M.
- Decision Theory
- Defamation (Libel and Slander)
- Deliberative Democracy
- Diffusion of Innovations Theory
- Direct Mail/Direct Email
- Discourse of Renewal Theory
- Discourse Theory and Analysis
- Discrimination in Public Relations
- Discursive Technology
- Diversity: Audiences
- Diversity: Public Relations Profession
- Dramatism and Dramatism Theory
- Eastern Europe, Practice of Public Relations in
- Ecology and Public Relations
- EDGAR Online
- Editor and Publisher
- Emergency Management
- Empire, Public Relations and
- Employee Communication
- Encroachment in Public Relations
- Engagement (Stakeholders)
- Enlightenment and Modernity
- Entertainment Industry Publicity/Promotion
- Environmental Groups
- Environmental Scanning
- Ethics of Public Relations
- Ethnography of Public Relations
- [Page ix]Europe, Practice of Public Relations in
- European Association of Communication Directors
- European Communication Monitor
- European Public Relations Education and Research Association
- European Social Theory and Public Relations
- Evaluative Research
- Event Management
- Evolution of Publicity Agencies
- Excellence Theory
- Executive Management
- Experiment/Experimental Methods
- Extended Parallel Process Model of Risk Communication
- External Organizational Rhetoric
- External Publications
- Fact Sheet
- Federal Trade Commission
- Feminization Theory
- Field Theory
- Fleischman, Doris Elsa
- Focus Group
- Follower/Member Newsletter
- Formative Research
- Forum, Online
- Foucault, Michel, and Public Relations
- Four-Minute Men
- Framing Theory
- Free Market System
- Free Speech
- Freelance Writers
- Front Groups
- Fully Functioning Society Theory
- Functions of Public Relations
- Futurism and Trend Analysis
- Game Theory
- Gaming/Playspace/Social Gaming
- Gantt Chart
- Gender and Public Relations
- Germany, Practice of Public Relations in
- Giving, Donations, and Globalism
- Global Alliance for Public Relations and Communication Management
- Globalization and Public Relations
- Government Public Relations
- Government Relations
- Gross Impressions
- Guerilla Marketing
- Identity Theory
- Ideographs and Rhetorical Theory
- Image Repair Theory
- Impression Management Theory
- India, Practice of Public Relations in
- Industrial Barons (of the 1870s-1920s)
- Information Integration Theory
- Information Retrieval System
- Infrastructural Risk Communication
- Institute for Public Relations
- Institutional Theory. See Neo-Institutional Theory
- Integrated Marketing Communication
- Interactivity (Audience)
- [Page x]Intercultural Communication Theory
- Internal Communication
- International Association of Business Communicators
- International Public Relations Association
- Internet Contagion Theory
- Interpersonal Communication Theory
- Interview as a Communication Tool
- Interview as a Research Tool
- Investigative Journalism
- Investor Relations
- Israel, Practice of Public Relations in
- Issue Management Council
- Issues Management
- Management Theory
- Managerial Bias in Crisis Communication
- Managing the Corporate Public Relations Department
- Market Share
- Marketplace of Ideas
- Material Information
- Matrixing/Matrix Management
- Mean and Median
- Media Calls
- Media Conferences
- Media Culture and Public Relations
- Media Effects
- Media Fragmentation
- Media Mix Strategies
- Media Networks
- Media Relations
- Media Release
- Mental Models Approach to Risk Communication
- Military Public Relations
- Minorities in Public Relations
- Mission and Vision Statements
- Mobile Technology and Public Relations
- Modernity and Late Modernity
- Moral Development
- Moral Philosophy
- Motivation Theory
- Muckrakers (and the Age of Progressivism)
- Mutually Beneficial Relationship
- Narrative Theory
- Nation Branding
- Nation Building
- National Black Public Relations Society
- National Investor Relations Institute
- Neo-Institutional Theory
- Network Theory
- New Business Development
- News Services
- News Story
- Nineteenth-Century Trends in Public Relations
- Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs)
- Nonprofit Organizations
- Page, Arthur W.
- Paradox of the Positive/Negative
- Parent/Student Newsletter
- [Page xi]Perspectivism Theory
- Persuasion Theory
- PERT Chart
- Pitch Letter
- Plank, Betsy
- Podcasts/Audio Sharing
- Political Action Committees
- Political Economy and Public Relations
- Political Public Relations
- Political Speech
- Position and Positioning
- Postcolonialism Theory and Public Relations
- Postmodern Public Relations
- Power, as Functions and Structures
- Power, as Social Construction
- Power, Discursive
- Power, Symbolic
- Power Resource Management Theory
- Power/Knowledge and Public Relations
- Precautionary Principle
- Presidential Press Secretaries
- Press Agentry
- Press Kit
- Privatizing Public Opinion (and “Publictizing” Private Opinion)
- Proactivity and Reactivity
- Process Research
- Professional and Professionalism
- Professional Project of Public Relations
- Professionalism in Public Relations
- Program/Action Plans
- Psychological Processing
- Public Affairs
- Public Diplomacy
- Public Health Campaign
- Public Interest
- Public Opinion and Opinion Leaders
- Public Policy Planning
- Public Relations
- Public Relations Agency
- Public Relations Department
- Public Relations Education, History of
- Public Relations Field Dynamics
- Public Relations Research
- Public Relations Society of America
- Public Relations Student Society of America
- Public Sector
- Public Service Announcements
- Public Sphere (Öffentlichkeit)
- Public Sphere Discourse
- Publicly Held Companies
- Pyramid Style
- Race and Public Relations
- Railroad Industry in the 19th Century
- Really Simple Syndication
- Reflective Management
- Regulated Monopolies
- Reinforcement Theory
- Relationship Management Theory
- Religious Organizations and Public Relations
- Reputation Management
- Research Goals
- Research Objectives
- Resilient Communities
- Resource Dependency Theory
- Return on Investment
- Rhetorical Arena (Crisis Theory)
- Rhetorical Theory
- Right to Know
- Risk Communication
- Risk Perception
- Risk Society
- Rules Theory
- Search Engine
- Search Engine Optimization
- Securities and Exchange Commission
- Segmentation of Publics
- [Page xii]Short Message Service
- Situation Analysis
- Situation Ethics
- Situational Crisis Communication Theory
- Situational Theory of Problem Solving
- Situational Theory of Publics
- Social Amplification of Risk
- Social Capital
- Social Construction of Reality Theory
- Social Exchange Theory
- Social Learning Theory
- Social Marketing
- Social Media
- Social Media Press Release
- Social Network Analysis
- Social Networking
- Social Networks/Niche Networks
- Socialization Theory
- Socioculture and Public Relations
- Sound Bite
- South Africa, Practice of Public Relations in
- Spain, Practice of Public Relations in
- Speakers Bureaus
- Spiral of Silence Theory
- Sports Public Relations
- Stakeholder Theory
- Statistical Analysis
- Stewardship of Large Organizations
- Straight News
- Strategic Business Planning
- Strategic Partnerships
- Strategic Silence
- The Subaltern and Public Relations
- Subjective Expected Utilities Theory
- Sustainability as a Global Challenge
- Sweden, Practice of Public Relations in
- Symbolic Interactionism Theory
- Systems Theory
- Tallents, Sir Stephen
- Terrorism and Public Relations
- Theory of Reasoned Action
- Theory-Based Practice
- Third Culture Public Relations Practitioner
- Third-Party Endorsement
- Trade Associations
- Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change
- Travel and Tourism Public Relations
- Twentieth-Century Trends and Innovations in Public Relations
- Two-Step Flow Theory
Reader's Guide[Page xiii]
The Reader's Guide is provided to assist readers in locating articles on related topics. It classifies articles into 19 general topical categories: Crisis Communication and Management; Cyberspace; Ethics; Global Public Relations; Groups; History; Jargon; Law; Management; Marketing Communication and Advertising; Media; New Media; News; Organizations; Practitioners; Relations; Research and Analysis; Risk Communication and Management; Theories and Models.
- Crisis Communication and Management
- Global Public Relations
- Cutlip, Scott M.
- Marketing Communication and Advertising
- New Media
- [Page xviii]Practitioners
- Research and Analysis
- Risk Communication and Management
- Theories and Models
About the Editor[Page xxi]
Robert L. Heath, professor emeritus of communication at the University of Houston, is an internationally recognized authority on public relations, crisis communication, issues management, risk communication, and business-to-business communication. He has published many award winning books including The SAGE Handbook of Public Relations (2010), Handbook of Risk and Crisis Communication (2009), Strategic Issues Management (2nd ed., 2009), Rhetorical and Critical Approaches to Public Relations II (2009), and Terrorism: Communication and Rhetorical Perspectives (2008).
Heath has 3 decades of experience in corporate communication and positioning research. He has conducted research on risks related to various hazards, including those associated with chemical manufacturing and community right to know—key themes in community relations.
In addition, he has published more than 100 chapters and articles and serves on the editorial and reviewer panels of several premier academic journals. He has received many honors from public relations professionals and academic associations and has lectured nationally and internationally on a wide array of topics.
Rebecca G. Aguilar
Hill & Knowlton, New York
Sadaf R. Ali
Eastern Michigan University
Elizabeth Johnson Avery
University of Tennessee
Southern Illinois University, Carbondale
William L. Benoit
University of Leipzig
Joshua M. Bentley
University of Oklahoma
Bruce K. Berger
University of Alabama
University of Gdansk, Poland, and SISSA, Italy
Pamela G. Bourland-Davis
Georgia Southern University
Goldsmiths, University of London
Shannon A. Bowen
University of South Carolina
Peggy Simcic Brønn
Norwegian Business School
Glen M. Broom
San Diego State University
Katelyn E. Brownlee
University of Tennessee
Ann R. Carden
University of Oklahoma
Craig E. Carroll
New York University
Nicole B. Cásarez
University of St. Thomas
Cindy T. Christen
Colorado State University
Ioana A. Coman
University of Tennessee
W. Timothy Coombs
University of Central Florida
Terry M. Cunconan
University of Central Missouri
University of Tennessee[Page xxiii]
Emma L. Daugherty
California State University, Long Beach
Tiffany Derville Gallicano
University of Oregon
Barbara J. DeSanto
University of North Carolina, Charlotte
Melissa D. Dodd
University of Miami
University of Leeds
European Association of Communication Directors
Nancy Engelhardt Furlow
Lisa T. Fall
University of Tennessee
Denise P. Ferguson
Maria Aparecida Ferrari
University of São Paulo
John P. Ferré
University of Louisville
Emilee V. Fontenot
Fontenot Public Relations, Houston, Texas
University of Louisville
University of Gothenburg
T. Kenn Gaither
Kelly M. George
Halliburton, Houston, Texas
Dawn R. Gilpin
Arizona State University
Southeast Missouri State University
Karla K. Gower
University of Alabama
Melissa W. Graham
University of Tennessee
Leeds Metropolitan University-Leeds Business School
Mark A. Gring
Texas Tech University
James E. Grunig
University of Maryland, College Park
Colorado State University
Tricia L. Hansen-Horn
University of Central Missouri
Buena Vista University
Rachel Martin Harlow
University of Texas of the Permian Basin
William Forrest Harlow
University of Texas of the Permian Basin
Buena Vista University
Joy L. Hart
University of Louisville
Keith M. Hearit
Western Michigan University
Lauren Berkshire Hearit
Robert L. Heath
University of Houston[Page xxiv]
Ray Eldon Hiebert
Colson's Point, Maryland
Catherine L. Hinrichsen
Project on Family Homelessness at Seattle University
Tatjana M. Hocke
James Madison University
Caroline E. M. Hodges
Sherry J. Holladay
University of Central Florida
Thomas W. Hoog
Hill & Knowlton/USA, Washington, D.C.
Adam E. Horn
University of Missouri, Warrensburg
Buena Vista University
Yi-Hui Christine Huang
Chinese University of Hong Kong
University of Oslo
Institute for Public Relations
Garth S. Jowett
University of Houston
California State University, Fullerton
Kathleen S. Kelly
University of Florida
Eastern Kentucky University
Michael L. Kent
University of Oklahoma
Kern Foxworth International, Houston, Texas
University of Florida
Katherine N. Kinnick
Kennesaw State University
University of Oregon
Bonnie J. Knutson
Michigan State University
University of North Carolina, Charlotte
University of Oklahoma
Margot Opdycke Lamme
University of Alabama
Ruthann Weaver Lariscy
University of Georgia
Phyllis Vance Larsen
University of Nebraska, Lincoln
Alexander V. Laskin
John A. Ledingham
University of Houston[Page xxv]
Kathy A. Leeper
Concordia College (Minnesota)
Roy V. Leeper
Concordia College (Minnesota)
University of Louisville
Swinburne University of Technology
María E. Len-Ríos
University of Missouri
Queen Margaret University
Kansas State University
Kennesaw State University
Buena Vista University (retired)
Summit, New Jersey Retired Executive Vice President of Public Relations AT&T Corporation
Diana Knott Martinelli
West Virginia University
Katherine A. McComas
Becky A. McDonald
Ball State University
University of Waikato
David B. McKinney
University of Houston
University of Tennessee
Lisa K. Merkl
University of Houston
Maribeth S. Metzler
University of Cincinnati
Daniel A. Moss
University of Chester
University of New South Wales
University of Waikato
University of Houston
Bonita Dostal Neff
University of Houston
North Dakota State University
Westerly, Rhode Island
Michael J. Palenchar
University of Tennessee
Andrea M. Pampaloni
La Salle University
Kristine A. Parkes
Krisp Communications, Eagleville, Pennsylvania
Laura E. Pechta
Wayne State University
Queen Margaret University
Betsy Plank Public Relations, Chicago, Illinois (deceased)
Kenneth D. Plowman
Brigham Young University
Rebeca A. Pop
University of Oklahoma[Page xxvi]
St. Ambrose University
Robert S. Pritchard
Captain, U.S. Navy (retired) Ball State University (retired)
University of Tennessee
Brad L. Rawlins
Brigham Young University
Bryan H. Reber
University of Georgia
DeNel Rehberg Sedo
Mount Saint Vincent University
University of Pretoria
Bonnie Parnell Riechert
University of Waikato
Katherine E. Rowan
George Mason University
Betteke van Ruler
University of Amsterdam (retired)
Karen Miller Russell
University of Georgia
University of Houston (retired)
Adam J. Saffer
University of Oklahoma
United States Military Academy
Lynne M. Sallot
University of Georgia
Charles T. Salmon
Michigan State University
Matthew W. Seeger
Wayne State University
Timothy L. Sellnow
University of Kentucky
Melvin L. Sharpe
Ball State University (retired)
University of Southern Mississippi
University of Florida
Swedish Public Relations Association
J. Chris Skinner
Durban University of Technology, East and Southern African Management Institute
Hill & Knowlton, Chicago, Illinois
Brian G. Smith
Michael F. Smith
La Salle University
University of Ulster
Erich J. Sommerfeldt
University of Maryland, College Park
Brian C. Sowa
Eastern Illinois University
Jeffrey K. Springston
University of Georgia
Don W. Stacks
University of Miami (Florida)
Texas Tech University
Ashli Quesinberry Stokes
University of North Carolina, Charlotte
Leeds Metropolitan University[Page xxvii]
University of Oklahoma
Leeds Metropolitan University
Natalie T. J. Tindall
Georgia State University
University of Waikato
Jorge Hidalgo Toledo
Universidad Anáhuac México Norte
Elizabeth L. Toth
University of Maryland, College Park
Centre for Public Affairs Study
University of Oklahoma
Robert R. Ulmer
University of Arkansas at Little Rock
University of Houston
Shari R. Veil
University of Kentucky
University of Ljubjana
Kathleen G. Vidoloff
Oregon Health Authority, Public Health Division
Texas A&M University
Michigan State University
Paris Lodron University of Salzburg
Emma K. Wertz
Kennesaw State University
University of Tennessee
Brenda J. Wrigley
Syracuse University/Newhouse School of Public Communications
Universitat Pompeu Fabra
Teresa Yancey Crane
Issue Management Council, Leesburg, Virginia
University of Dayton
Missouri School of Journalism
Leeds Metropolitan University
Phillip Michael Young
University of Lund
University of Leipzig
As I drafted the introduction for the second edition of the Encyclopedia of Public Relations (EPR2), I revisited the preface published in the first edition (EPR1). I did not appreciate when we produced the first edition how much of a footprint it was and how such projects help us track the movement of the discipline; the journey it is taking toward a relatively uncertain destination. Footprints suggest where a discipline has been, where it is, and where it might be going.
In such projects, we can never forget that we are dealing with a profession. People can be educated, accredited, and rewarded for the quality of their professional work. They can be scorned for engaging in spin. The question is how well academics work with professionals for the good of the profession, the organizations it serves, and the societies where it is practiced. Many of us aspire to make a strong connection between what is good for the profession and what is good for society. Like other academic disciplines and professions, we are variously chauvinistic with enthusiasm for what this profession can do for others and how it can continually be improved by tough love.Pathways and WanderingsWhere Have We Been?
I appreciate the history of public relations every time I am fortunate enough to participate in useful projects such as the Encyclopedia of Public Relations. I have similar feelings when I read a truly interesting article, chapter, or book. The discipline has, and even suffers from, lots of history that is subjected to quite different interpretive lenses.
Many events and traditions have shaped the current professional practice of public relations in many countries, locales, and organizational-individual relationships. Public relations seems to have left footprints back to the dawn of time even if it got its name (and identity as a profession and academic discipline) only relatively recently. And, all of that is changing for good and bad reasons. We have legendary figures. There are telling moments, events, and challenges. We also have entanglements with various perspectives, such as “propaganda,” and self-interested discourses and other symbolic actions of individuals (think in terms of monarchs) and institutions and organizations (think in terms of corporations, governments, and religious establishments). We even have a history where antiestablishment and other “nonprofits” engage in what can be thought of as “public relations.” It is essential that what came to be known as public relations is not something uniquely and originally developed in the 19th century, or in the United States. Nor is it simply a self-interested tool of powerful corporations. It cannot be set aside by substituting it for terms such as communication management or strategic communication.
Topics that were featured in EPR1 provided evidence of the culmination of a century of professional best practices, primarily in the United States and United Kingdom. It also reflected a research tradition, among academics, that was launched tentatively in the 1970s. By then, as well, there were well-established national and international professional associations specializing in the field and promoting practice-oriented research. Early research often was commissioned to help practitioners do what they wanted to do better. They wanted to refine their skill sets.Where Are We?
I think the answer to that question is “pretty well along,” as is evident by the scope and depth of topics covered in this edition. It covers some of the same ground and even reprints approximately [Page xxx]150 entries from EPR1. But, we revised more than 190 others from EPR1 to keep them current. We added about 160 new entries and have included an appendix on Women Pioneers in Public Relations. All of that text, especially the new additions, constitutes an advance that serves as evidence of the dynamic state of scholarly and practitioner interest in the current health and challenges of the discipline. So, we see well-defined footprints as evidence of lots of participants in the discussion, both professional and academic.
For EPR2, we added many topics relevant to new media and what is generically titled critical studies. The first is important because new media deterministically reshape the communication landscape. The latter topic is important because it offers a very robust dialogue and wonderful insights that are shaping the character and worth of public relations and social responsibility of its professional practitioners. We are not only interested in how it can help organizations wisely and ethically to achieve their missions and visions (that pathway is well established), but we also are increasingly committed to the paradigm that the practice is best when it helps make society more fully functioning. This trend seems well grounded in a shift from a compulsive focus on organizational effectiveness to a broad discussion of how the organization can only be effective in its community, as it is constrained and supported by the cultures of the societies where it operates.
Such outcomes presume that we are making progress in the effort to understand the “public relations processes” that are unique to and vital for the practice as a unique, definable aspect of the human experience. So, such focus keeps us mindful of what we are studying and why. But, and here is a major advance, we are increasingly aware of and focused on the “meaning(s)” created for better or worse by social construction fostered by the multiple voices ringing out in society.
For these reasons, EPR2 offers insights into voice, culture, dialogue, discourse aspects of relationships, co-created meaning, constituted meaning, and dozens of other topics. We have moved beyond the simplistic models and commitment to systems theory that was current in the 1990s; changes in the scope and depth of the profession have come as a response to the challenges that were confronting the public and private sectors as a result of the turbulent 1970s and 1980s. Much of this turbulence accounts for the new public relations paradigms that emerged in the last part of the 20th century and 95% of the topics and research projects that attracted an increasing number of interested and well-educated scholars to the fray.
Most discussants of theory and practice realize that push-button approaches to the practice and theory (and their companion research) are interesting but only a step, a footprint, not the end of the journey. Theories that offer a push-button approach (“take two aspirins and call the doctor”) still play a role in the profession, but the footsteps of a lot of competing positions are kicking up dust. As paradigms have shifted before, they seem certain to do so continually. And, in place of buttons to push, there seems to be a commitment to achieve sound and defensible principles that can, and will, guide professional practice.
Terms such as control, power, social responsibility and public relations ethics are seen as rich areas of study and continual refinement rather than settled matters. In part, for that reason, this edition offers substantially deeper and broader discussions of crisis and risk communication, as well as the complexities of power, control, and other similar aspects of the human condition that are thought of by some theorists to best be viewed through a colonial (or postcolonial) perspective.
One can see, embedded in each statement that presumes to tell us where we are, the marks that point the path forward. As such, we invoke a variety of metaphors to capture the state of discussion. We might, for instance, see the path leading to completed and furnished edifices or going into more fog—but with a variety of lanterns to keep the journey from wandering badly. Do we know what the “edifice” is that we are finishing, or are we still in search of its floor plans and blueprints? Do we have a guiding sense of what makes a society fully functioning? Have we firmly staked the foundation of the profession in ways that reflect sound knowledge of and appreciation for its position in the history of human society?
In EPR1, I cited Rex Harlow who is the subject of an entry on his life and contribution in EPR2. Writing in 1977, he observed the following, which again is worth reconsideration:[Page xxxi]
A review of the history of the definition of public relations shows that the definition has changed considerably over the past 70 years. This historical review reveals how inextricably the development of the definition has been and is bound to the movement of thought and action of the society in which the public relations practitioner does his [or her] work. It shows the present form, content and status of the public relations definition, but even more the effect of environmental factors and change upon its development during the past quarter of a century. (p. 49)
The changes, revisions, additions, and deletions made to EPR2 are, we hope, a result of a wise, judicious, and insightful exploration of the “movement of thought and action of the society” that this work must serve.Where Do the Footsteps Lead?
We recognize that there is a bias to the U.S. view of public relations in this second edition. That is a function of the number of authors who work and write in the United States. But, despite this inherent bias, and one that is too complex to solve easily, we have added lots of topics that suggest a much more global and complex approach is being devoted to important matters. Thus, instead of only seeing these matters from a U.S. perspective, we try but know that we fall short of the goal of seeing the globe of public relations as the astronauts see the earth.
One of the major advances in EPR2 is to have more authors educated outside of and independent of the U.S. paradigm. Nevertheless, we have a lot of U.S. educated authors, and it is true that the professional practice during the 20th century had a U.S.-centric character to it. Most of the authors contributing their work in Public Relations Review and Journal of Public Relations Research in the last decades of that century were from U.S. universities and professional practices. We had a generation of U.S. faculty members going abroad on proselytizing missions touting “their” view of public relations as “the” view. At the same time, scholars working outside of the United States wanted to write on topics and in ways that were not welcomed into these leading journals.
One can aspire, however, to find and continue on the path of research and practice in ways that help us imagine that EPR3 will move ever more away from a U.S.-centric view to one that is more richly global. My experience, however, is that such shifts tend to move more like tortoises than hares. But we should be heartened to recall that the tortoise beat the hare.
Despite the sense that footprints lead in different ways, become blurred, and often wander off in unproductive directions, it is rejuvenating to see all of the footprints in EPR2 as a “state of the discipline.”The DNA of Public Relations
The array of authors whose voices are heard in EPR2 suggests that no matter how insightful and prescient one researcher and theorist's voice might be, change is necessarily going to occur discursively and preferably collaboratively. Some persons are likely to think that all of the points of view and opinions, the preferences expressed, are a jangle and a wrangle. But the engagement of interested parties can never be stopped, especially by edict or insistence. Nor do we doubt that however inefficient the process is, it is enriched by engagement, dialogue, debate, as well as temporary misstarts and false directions.
The DNA of public relations is inseparable from the effectiveness of some individual or organization (or both). The assumption defining public relations is well established that skilled and effective public relations (and practitioners) can help make organizations and individuals more likely to succeed. It's unlikely that such linearity will cease to be the aspiration of professionals and most academicians.
Such logic can give public relations an institutional bias, hence the adherence of some variation of institutional theory. It presumes, as a skilled automobile engineer and a mechanic do, that having an automobile well designed and mechanically fit makes it more successful as a tool to serve someone's plan to get from point A to point B. Such logic, however, can miss the point that however seemingly desirable such an aspiration might be, the complexity and chaos inherent to the world and human existence argue for flexibility, variety, and adaptability. It is likely to presume, as well, that no matter how many variables are carefully inspected and how well matters are understood, complexity will prevail. Principles are likely to be more useful than prescriptions.[Page xxxii]
For that reason, the functional, tool-like approach may feature concepts such as mission and vision, goals, objectives, strategies, discipline-specific structures and functions, as well as tools and tactics. This view of public relations is given full-throated support in this edition. But, set against such linear analysis, ignoring complexity and critical perspectives, the “functional” view demands contingency. It presumes that discourse processes and symbolic behavior not only responds to uncertainty but advances through uncertainty— with caution and even luck. This cautious view continues to make inroads into theory and practice that recognize the processes unique to the profession and to the skilled and perhaps ethical implementation of the profession's defining functions and structures. But, it also suggests that humans are sentient and complex; ethics are contestable matters. Policies, public and private, are dynamic— “under construction.”
EPR2's examination of the DNA of public relations reasons that the structure and function approach cannot explore, explain, and expand the role that meaning plays in the human condition, including within the care of public relations. Does public relations play a role in societal discourse? Is it a relevant player in how societies individually driven and collectively managed create and instantiate ideas? Is the human being capable of being reduced to processes, or is the nature of humanity in each of its configurations buffeted by socially constructed meanings and variously dynamic identities? Do humans create powerful meaning structures that guide behavior based on seemingly enlightened choices, define and enact relationships and associations (along with inherent dissociations), and supply the resources of power and control as stakeholder exchanges? Do words and other symbols become the reality that humans live, and by the standards of contestable social responsibility? Do humans use words to give themselves the power to bend matters to their interests? Is reality, under such circumstances, recalcitrant and discourse partners contentious? Is their identity merely the enactment of process and behavioral adjustment? Perhaps, and that can account for the success of ants.
But are humans, for better or worse, wordy animals whose discourse, dialogue, and rhetorical enactments shape society, relationships, cultures, and world views that justify or deny the legitimacy of organizations, actions, and even individuals? How much power is there in the words parent, president, king, relationship, collaboration, cooperation, consensus, and on and on? How is power reshaped by terms such as gender, race, sexual orientation, and political assumptions such as democracy and terrorism?
As one reads the entries in EPR2, noting the breadth of coverage, we hope there is an incentive to recognize and appreciate processes but also to realize the rich importance of meaning for humans as sentient beings. Both (processes and meanings) are important aspects of the DNA of public relations; in that discussion and balance, each author and practitioner might be biased one way or another. But neither side of that quandary can be dismissed or ignored, but rather should be enjoyed for what it offers and where it falls short.
The DNA of public relations is its role and service to others. It lacks separate integrity independent of its roles. For that reason, the question is not what it does for itself—but how it serves and who it serves. Who is its master, or is it master of its own fate? Does it make individuals and organizations more effective? Does it serve to make society a better place to live and organizations a better place to work? Does it help people to know what better means and how it can be achieved?
For this reason, the discussion of interests or identities is not a trivial or an indifferent matter for those interested in the practice and research of public relations. They are central and definitional to the human experience as products of the cultural webs in which people entangle themselves. The practice, research, and theory of public relations are limited or enriched by how interests are defined and by the terms that are used to modify that concept. Thus, the DNA of public relations asks us to consider not how public relations operates in a disinterested way, but whose interests are advanced, and whose might be harmed?
Public relations’ nature—its character and legitimacy—and its role in society depends on the interests served, and how. If it is “an” or “the” unseen power, as Scott M. Cutlip (1994) reasoned, it is worth studying for the possibility, probability, or certainty such is the case. As being relevant to ideas that drive process, and processes that shape ideas, public relations can make organizations and [Page xxxiii]individuals successful in ways that can help or harm the greater interests of community, a society of many levels and interdependencies. It is, as a profession, then central to how outcomes are achieved and what outcomes are successful—and why so. It can, especially as an academic discipline, understand, correct, and support certain ideas and practices as normatively better than others. But it can never, whether as practice or academic study, divorce itself from society.
Because of public relations’ ability to help shape and reshape society, which presumes insights into the dynamics of society, David McKie and Debashish Munshi (2009) offered a challenge to the discipline.
No discipline is an island. Public relations education cannot be independent of, or be indifferent toward, the society in which it operates. Without a sense of the different ways that society might be theorized, public relations students and practitioners are limited in their participation in broader dialogues about how public relations contributes to public communication. It is not enough to be technically proficient without being able to make informed contributions to debates about contemporary society and its future development. (p. 61)
By this claim, McKie and Munshi, and they are not alone, aspire to a time when public relations is not viewed as a negative force in society, but something quite positive through its wise and ethical influence on managements and the ability to foster discourses and ideas that help make society the best community that it can be. It is a means by which the human spirit couples with professional practice to truly make society an instrument for the collective management of the risks and self-interests of human society.RobertL.Heath[Page xxxiv]Bibliography1994). The unseen power: Public relations, a history. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(1977). Public relations definitions through the years. Public Relations Review, 3 (1), 49–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0363-8111%2877%2980018-0(2009). Theoretical black holes: A partial A to Z of missing critical thought in public relations. In R.L.Heath, E.L.Toth, & D.Waymer (eds.), Rhetorical and critical approaches to public relations II (pp. 61–75). New York: Routledge., & (
People like to talk about teams. Some even claim, “there is no I in team,” even though they miss the point that the word team contains the letters m-e. So, let me say that I (me) could not have done this project without lots of I‘s.
A project such as the design, development, and production of the second edition of the Encyclopedia of Public Relations is a team effort. As such, it requires a lot of I‘s and me‘s setting aside other projects to pitch in. Perhaps violating the spirit of no I in team, I'm going to express my (a variation of me) gratitude to many who helped bring this project to fruition.
First, I acknowledge SAGE acquisitions editor Jim Brace-Thompson who came to me and said, “Because of the success of the first edition, we would like to do a second.” That actually was an exhilarating opening line of the drama that culminated in the production of this edition. In that regard, we as a discipline also need to acknowledge the librarians and others who believed that the cost of the work was money well spent. That is hugely gratifying.
Second, I acknowledge SAGE's willingness to let me pick and invite a first-rate advisory board. As important as that ever is for an editor, this time it was INVALUABLE. I simply did not know a lot of entries and authors that should be selected and invited to contribute because of the expanded array of topics. The entries on new communication technologies, which were recommended by older colleagues and written by younger ones for the most part, enriched this work. The new technologies are a playground and perhaps stumbling blocks for public relations practitioners, and seem best understood as such by our younger colleagues.
Also, I appreciate the Advisory Board members who offered topics and contributors generically under critical theories. I knew just enough to realize what I did not know and appreciate. I did not know who to ask who would be willing and able to write on what are often quite complex topics.
Third, I appreciated the advice and guidance on topics that fall under the headings of feminism, race, gender, and ethnicity—what seem to be identity topics. That sort of topic is definitionally the nature of societies and cultures. It, and other topics similar to that, are not matters of political correctness. They are core elements of society where public relations is enacted and where it can help or hinder such persons’ narratives. The nature of that stew determines how good the meal is. That appreciation, by definition, extends as well to those who helped to give a much more global topic structure and content for Encyclopedia of Public Relations, Second Edition. Several of the Advisory Board members also edited entries as they came in and went through various iterations before going to publication.
To each of the Advisory Board members, you are welcome to see your role as generously in the contribution to the final project as you wish.
I acknowledge so many colleagues who might have been doing any number of activities if not writing entries for an encyclopedia. I believe the culmination of the product and its contribution to academic and professional work are rewarding.
Finally, I acknowledge the SAGE team. Carole Maurer, senior developmental editor, raised and then helped solve hundreds of editorial challenges. She made my work look, and be, easy. I acknowledge the patience and precision of Anna Villasenor, reference systems coordinator. SAGE developed an SRT (SAGE Reference Tracking) computerized system. We used a version of it in the development of the first edition of the Encyclopedia of Public Relations. The new and improved version is super. But, for so many of us, a computer system is at times horrid and daunting. I appreciated a thorough tutorial one afternoon to get me ready to [Page xxxvi]help make it work. Then, some days later, I started to “make it serve me.”
Thank you, Anna, for being one of those who walked me through the SRT, both during the orientation and again and again. You made it work for us and did so with such a sense of fun and patience. I found all of the SAGE personnel to have a good sense of work and enjoyment for the project. But Anna and I got into the easy habit of everyday banter as Monday arrived, and she saved me once again as Friday arrived. Anna, I enjoyed working with you. And I would also like to thank Tracy Buyan, project editor, and Diane DiMura and Janet Ford, copy editors.
In the Acknowledgments to the first edition, I noted how the process of pulling off an encyclopedia together is similar to that of the barn raising in the movie Witness, starring Harrison Ford. I imagine that many of the younger authors don't remember that movie. One scene focused on the harmony in an Amish community where everyone young and old, male and female, played a key role as all hands helped raise a barn and nourish those hard at work. That sort of collaboration, cooperation, and camaraderie characterized the crafting of Encyclopedia of Public Relations, Second Edition. Our team really clicked.RobertL.Heath
- Women Pioneers in Public Relations
- Milestones in the History of Public Relations
- Public Relations Online Resources
Women Pioneers in Public Relations[Page 980]
In the 21st-century field of public relations, women practitioners are in the gender majority. They hold leadership positions in corporations, agencies, and nonprofits like governments, educational institutions, and social service agencies. They are elected heads of professional public relations associations. However, before the 1980s, this was not the case. The modern practice of public relations between 1900 and the 1970s was mostly an all-male field.
There is generally a lack of historical research on public relations because “most public relations practitioners have toiled in anonymity, no doubt in great part because of the nature of their work, which demands that good practitioners remain behind the scenes …” but “women have been especially neglected” (Miller, 1997, p. 252). Some exceptions to this pattern are Miller's 1997 study of Jane Stewart, Susan Henry's 1997 research on Doris Fleischman, Karla K. Gower's 2001 history of women in the Public Relations Journal between 1945 and 1972, and Diana Martinelli and Elizabeth L. Toth's 2010 oral history of Charlotte Klein.
This second edition of the Encyclopedia of Public Relations features only in-depth treatments of two 20th-century women public relations pathfinders— Doris Fleischman and Betsy Ann Plank—whose significant stories are well researched and documented. Therefore, the purpose of this essay is to summarize what little is known about 20 other women public relations pathfinders from the 20th century; it adapts 19 biographies done for the first edition of Encyclopedia of Public Relations, because unfortunately little else has been found to add to the material background of these women.
Fortunately, the authors of these 20 bios were professors who as a team worked to secure some history of women public relations pathfinders of the 20th century. Since the publication of the first edition of the encyclopedia, four of the women featured— Betsy A. Plank, Jean Schoonover, Marilyn Laurie, and Carol Hills—have passed away.
Beyond merely reprinting these entries, however, this entry works to contextualize them into a package that features their pioneering efforts, not as a well-coordinated group per se, but as individuals dedicated to a profession and willing to exert their intellect and talent to be influential in a male-dominated profession.
This work is not in any way representative of all of the women pathfinders who practiced public relations in the 20th century. These stories provide only a glimpse of the social history of public relations. The dominant history of public relations focused mostly on corporate communication, whereas a social history depicts public relations at the “grassroots that would be more inclusive of women and minorities” (Lamme & Russell, 2010, p. 285). While this presentation captures something of gender identities of these pathfinders, less evident is how the intricacies of race, class, nationality, religion, education, marital status, and sexual orientation influenced their professional careers.
Providing biographies should avoid the pitfalls of previous histories of public relations that suggest a progressive or periodization approach (Lamme & Russell, p. 286), as if the practice of public relations through time became “more professionalized” or had distinct periods. As advised by Lana Rakow and Diana Nastasia (2008), every effort is made to avoid canonizing these women as “great” women. Our society values individual accomplishments. The women featured here were [Page 981]“firsts” in many regards; but many other women introduced new practices, paved new avenues for others to follow, or changed the field in indelible ways.
We should push forward from their experiences to ask different historical questions about the collective and diverse experiences of women in public relations (Lamme & Russell, p. 290). Different historical questions provide a new lens through which to examine the feminization of the public relations field. For example, Karen S. Miller (1997) asked that historians find out “how being female affected the ways that women communicators did their jobs” (p. 350). Larissa A. Grunig, Elizabeth L. Toth, and Linda Childers Hon (2001) were interested in how gender influenced the practice of public relations.
Indeed, a second purpose of this essay is to encourage others to seek out rigorously and thoroughly the original papers and accounts of the women noted in this essay. Their stories should not be read as stories of individuals, but as a focus on their contributions to the field of public relations when they did not have 21st-century educational and career opportunities that are now taken for granted.
There is a gendered dimension to this essay. Historical accounts of “great men” do not mention gender, which speaks to the theory that the society in which men and women move accepts masculinity as the unspoken norm. Values of masculinity, such as rationality, competition, individualism, and efficiency (Rakow, 1989, p. 291) are assumed and identified in accounts of men in public relations, whereas women are rarely seen at all in our historical accounts unless it is through these masculine values.
To find 20th-century women public relations pathfinders is difficult because they did not write their own biographies nor did they usually provide archives for others to find. In a way, they were present yet not considered of interest to those who examined public relations history. Perhaps, the feminist values argued by Grunig, Toth, and Hon (2000) for the practice of public relations, such as “cooperation, respect, caring nurturance, interconnection, justice, equity, sensitivity, perceptiveness, intuition, altruism, fairness, morality and commitment” were not values worth noting in historical accounts. Perhaps, it was because women public relations practitioners were assumed to be of lesser interest. Yet, because we know that the field of public relations experienced a gender transition from an almost all-male practice to a majority female practice, women's stories should be of interest if not because they were fewer, but because they were pathfinders for other women. This entry attempts to give women in the history of public relations more voice.
Rakow (1989) provided a feminist theoretical framework that suggested analyses that account for gender systems, women's identities, power relations, social injustice, and social change as a means of building a feminist theory of public relations. These women's stories could contribute to a feminist theory of public relations by considering how these individual pathfinders reflected on Rakow's concepts.How Are Public Relations Practitioners Defined?
Lamme and Russell (2010) defined public relations practitioners as having a common skill set:
those who understood the power of persuasion, who realized the importance of identifying and then engaging publics through messages and channels that would be meaningful to them, and who understood the strategies involved in doing these things effectively, such as choosing between pathos and logos or interpersonal and mass communication. (p. 352)What Made These Women Pathfinders?
Six of the women profiled—Ann Barkelew, Judith Bogart, Barbara Hunter, Marilyn Laurie, Isobel Parke, and Betsy Plank—were named “legends in public relations” on the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the Public Relations Student Society of America (PRSSA).
However, a general meaning for the word pathfinder is that these women contributed something new to the practice of public relations. The biographies presented in this appendix are incomplete without recognizing the conditions that influenced these women. The few interviews included hint at the conditions of their times by providing some social and cultural context. However, other women [Page 982]included in this essay are only available to us because they had the foresight to include themselves in “Who's Who” collections.
Many of the women are identified in writings because they achieved a “first” as women. They were first to have corporate executive positions. They were the first women agency heads; they were the first women elected to professional association leadership positions. Their public relations career “firsts” were considered to be breakthroughs in some cases against the glass ceilings of their generation. However, many of their achievements and recognitions came from other women. One is struck by the number of 20th-century all-women organizations. Women public relations pathfinders of the 20th century found leadership opportunities until the 1980s from all-women public relations associations.
Our culture celebrates individuality and the recognition as “first” to accomplish certain things. But, future historians are expected to provide the culture context in which these women advanced. They should be able to identify whether various social factors permitted or were obstacles for these women to achieve “firsts.”
The 20 women highlighted here have been grouped by the type of organizations in which they became pathfinders and leaders. This attempt at a categorization is preliminary because some of their histories showed that they moved between agencies, corporations, and nonprofit organizations.AgencyLeone Baxter and Clem Wbitaker
The California-based husband and wife team of Clem Whitaker (1899–1961) and Leone Baxter (1906-) opened the first professional political campaign management agency in the United States in 1933. Their clients included Earl Warren, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Richard Nixon, and the American Medical Association.
Whitaker and Baxter met while working on a campaign to promote California's Central Valley Water Project in 1933. Whitaker, a former journalist, was working as a lobbyist when he was hired by supporters of the water project to convince voters to approve the project in an upcoming referendum. Baxter, a 26-year-old widow, was manager of the Redding, California, Chamber of Commerce, which had a vested interest in passage of the project. Finding they worked well together, the two opened Campaigns, Inc., a public relations agency specializing in political campaigns for candidates and propositions, that same year. They also formed an advertising agency to handle the advertising used in campaigns run by Campaigns, Inc. Three years later, they established the California Feature Service, which sent out a weekly clipsheet of editorials and feature stories to the state's small daily and weekly newspapers. They formalized their partnership on a personal level by marrying in 1938.
Political campaigning and the hiring of publicists to manage media coverage were not new when Whitaker and Baxter came on the scene. What they brought to the table was the concept of experts managing the entire campaign. In addition to the usual publicity and advertising functions, Whitaker and Baxter provided overall strategy, campaign organization, and even financial supervision. They insisted on having complete control over the entire operation.
California served as a particularly ready market for the kind of services the two provided. Party identity in the state had been undercut by the cross-filing system, which allowed Republicans and Democrats to run in each other's primaries. In addition, progressive reforms in the first 2 decades of the 20th century granted more power to California citizens through initiatives and referendums. The reforms were intended to break the stronghold of the old party machines, and they did. But by the 1930s, the number of initiatives and referendums in each election meant electors were constantly asked to make decisions about complex issues. Reaching individual voters via the mass media, therefore, became a political necessity in California.
Whitaker and Baxter were experts at using all of the communication media available to them. In a typical campaign, they would use thousands, if not tens of thousands, of leaflets, letters to opinion leaders, advertisements, film trailers, billboards, and posters to promote their client. They were among the first to recognize the value of radio and newsreels to reach voters.
The two enjoyed remarkable success. Between 1933 and 1959, for example, Whitaker and Baxter managed 80 campaigns and won all but six of those. Their success can be credited to the way they approached their business and to their [Page 983]understanding of the American electorate. According to Whitaker and Baxter, a successful campaign depended on having the best candidate or the best cause. In fact, they were known to refuse candidates whom they did not feel had a chance of winning. According to the pair, there were two kinds of winning candidates: those who were fighting for a cause, because Americans love a good fight, and those who could put on a show, because Americans like to be entertained. Most often, the pair combined the two, presenting a fight in an entertaining way. But they never allowed their clients to wage a defensive fight. Candidates always had to appear to be on the offensive, even if they were not.
Once the couple took on a candidate or an issue, they secluded themselves in their home to work on their overall plan, which included a campaign budget. The most important part of the plan was the theme or appeal that guided the rest of the campaign. The appeal had to be simple, with strong human interest potential. It had to have more “corn than caviar,” a phrase used by the two to illustrate that the theme had to capture what was important to voters in their daily lives. The theme also had to appeal to voters as individuals. Whitaker and Baxter recognized that voters were not just Democrats or Republicans; they were parents, employees, veterans, club members, and churchgoers. The theme, then, had to resonate with voters on a number of different levels. Part of their deliberations was the creation of a hypothetical plan for the opposition, which they would test out to determine the strength of their plan.
Once satisfied with their plan, they would boil the theme down to a slogan. Baxter was apparently the source of most of the slogans created by the pair. For example, for a mayoral recall in which there was no visible opponent, she created “the Faceless Man” to generate in voters’ minds the idea of a sinister and cowardly opposition. When voters were faced with the issue of legalizing gambling, Whitaker and Baxter built their campaign for the opposition on the theme, “Keep the Crime Syndicates Out.”
Believing that the success of a campaign depended in part on grassroots organization to effectively disseminate material, Whitaker and Baxter also relied heavily on the support of allies. Alliances with organizations directly or indirectly affected by the issue meant that campaign materials reached more people. For example, when campaigning on behalf of teachers for pay raises, Whitaker and Baxter enlisted the support of parent-teacher associations and school construction companies.
One of their first campaigns, and the one that established their reputation, was to defeat Upton Sinclair, the author of The Jungle, in his bid for governor of California in 1934. Whitaker and Baxter spent days poring over Sinclair's writing, finding damaging quotes that could be used against the left-wing author. They then hired an artist to create cartoons portraying typical Americans juxtaposed with quotes from Sinclair that, when taken out of context, appeared to denigrate traditional American values, such as marriage and family. The cartoons, which essentially linked Sinclair to communism, ran in newspapers and appeared on billboards throughout California. Sinclair was soundly defeated in the election.
One of their later campaigns became what sociologist Stuart Ewen called the most underrated public relations campaign in American history. In 1945, California Governor Earl Warren proposed a state-administered health insurance plan. Whitaker and Baxter were hired by the California Medical Association to defeat the plan. They were so successful that, in 1948, when President Truman proposed a similar plan for compulsory health insurance at the national level, the American Medical Association approached them to handle the campaign. It was the first national campaign the two had run, and to facilitate the operation, they moved to Chicago.
From Chicago, Whitaker and Baxter directed an eleven-month campaign to doctors and the public, arguing that the government should be kept out of the doctor-patient relationship and promoting voluntary group insurance plans as an alternative. They used the slogan “The Voluntary Way Is the American Way” to get their point across and to foster the idea that compulsory health insurance was socialized medicine. Connecting Truman's plan with socialism and suggesting it was un-American meant defeat for the national health insurance plan.
In 1958, Whitaker and Baxter sold Campaigns, Inc., to three junior partners, one of whom was Clem Whitaker, Jr., Whitaker's son from a previous marriage. They continued as consultants under the [Page 984]name of Whitaker & Baxter International until 1961, when Whitaker died. After her husband's death, Baxter continued consulting and speaking to groups inside and outside the public relations field. In 1985, she won a Gold Anvil award from the Public Relations Society of America for her achievements and in 1990 was among the first group inducted into the Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) College of Fellows.Phyllis Berlowe
Phyllis Berlowe (1922–2000) was a public relations executive at a time when women were largely absent from upper management in agencies. Born in New York City on December 10, 1922, she was the daughter of Louis, a businessman, and Rose Jatches Berlowe, a homemaker. Her father and several partners owned a beer distributorship that was wiped out during the Great Depression. Following this setback, he remained a salesman in the liquor industry.
Berlowe lived most of her life in New York City. She made the first step toward her career in public relations while attending New York University, where she majored in journalism and marketing. After a time, however, she went off on a tangent for two years pursuing a premedical degree at Hunter College.
On graduating from Hunter College, Berlowe took up her first position as an editorial assistant on the petroleum publications at McGraw Publishing Company in 1953. She left this position in 1955 to become head of the public relations department at Toscony Fabrics. Her agency experience included Theodore R. Sills & Co. (1959–1963), Harshe-Rotman & Druck, Inc. (1963–1965) and later as executive vice president of Edward Gottlieb & Associates (1965–1978) and vice president of Hill & Knowlton (1978–1979).
It was at this point that she was accredited by the PRSA and steadily rose to the positions of vice president of Doremus Public Relations, in charge of the Mindshare division, and president of Padilla Speer.
Berlowe was asked to mentor a client, and thus, she left Padila Speer in 1986 to establish her own consulting firm, the Berlowe Group. Through the Berlowe Group, Berlowe provided specialized advice in a variety of business areas, including firm management, crisis management, and marketing strategies. Her expertise lay in understanding existing and emerging trends and connecting clients with the relevant publics through these trends.
Over four decades, Berlowe worked on an array of accounts offering different kinds of products and services aimed at a range of audiences. Her clients included comedienne Phyllis Diller, RT French Company (makers of French Mustard and other products), Armstrong World Industries, and Pfizer, for which she created a major program for Alice Fay. Her global endeavors included working for Russian, French, and Dutch governmental agencies.
Her flair for public relations led her to win the prestigious Silver Anvil from PRSA in 1977 for her “cooking for the blind” program for Thomas Lipton, Inc. She also received the John Hill Award for balancing her conflicting professional and public priorities. Berlowe was also made member of the PRSA College of Fellows in 1990.
She eventually returned as an instructor in public relations and advertising to Hunter College, and other institutions, including New York University and Russell Sage College. She was also the chairperson of the Counselors Academy in 1982, where her monograph on effective budgeting was published.
Berlowe was a member of PRSA, Women Executives in Public Relations, the Publicity Club of New York, American Women in Radio and Television, the Society of Consumer Affairs Professionals in Business, and the World Futurist Society. Remarkably, unlike most, she was an active member of all of these societies, serving as mentor, president, or secretary. She was intensely involved in the formation of the PRSA accreditation program.
She broke through the glass ceiling at a time when women were seldom seen in business, let alone in positions of power and authority. Her niece attributed her aunt's success, in part, to a unique ability to bring people out, to get them to talk about themselves. Tough and a good listener, she was able to understand people's positions and strategize to best advantage for them. She was a master at building consensus, handling crises, and resolving conflict. Berlowe died at the age of 77 on February 9, 2000, at Lenox Hill Hospital.[Page 985]Barbara Way Hunter
Barbara Way Hunter (1927–), founder and former CEO of New York-based Hunter & Associates, Inc. (now Hunter Public Relations, LLC), was a trailblazer for women in public relations who aspire to own their own firm—to be the boss. In the late 1960s, when it was virtually unheard of for a woman to own and head a business, Hunter countered opposition and purchased her own public relations firm. Her actions encouraged other women to do the same in a field then dominated by men.
Hunter was born in 1927 in Westport, New York. After graduating from Cornell University's College of Arts & Sciences with a bachelor's degree in government, she accepted a job as a trade magazine editor. Using her liberal arts background, Hunter quickly progressed to a publicist position for a major food company. In February 1956, she joined the public relations firm of Dudley Anderson Yutzy (D-A-Y) as an account executive. After two of the original D-A-Y partners died in 1969, Hunter and her sister, Jean Schoonover, bought out the remaining partner. Hunter became president of the new firm, which grew 500% in the next 12 years.
D-A-Y was sold to Ogilvy & Mather Public Relations in 1983, and Hunter became vice chairman of the subsidiary of the large advertising agency.
In 1989, Hunter founded Hunter & Associates, a firm specializing in marketing and public relations for food and beverage companies. The firm started with two clients: Mcllhenny Company, maker of Tabasco sauce, and Kraft Foods. Eleven years later, when Hunter retired, the firm had added Campbell Soup Company, McCormick & Company, Morgan Stanley, Pepperidge Farm, Pernod Ricard USA, 3M, Sears, and others to its client roster. It also was the number two independent public relations agency in the nation, billing over $7.8 million in 2000.
Hunter led the firm as CEO until her retirement in December 2000. Senior managers then purchased the firm from Hunter, and—keeping her name and professional commitments and ideologies—renamed it Hunter Public Relations.
According to Hunter, honesty was key to her success. During her 42 years of practicing public relations in an agency setting, she lived by one rule: “Do not overpromise results to your client and make certain you deliver the promises you do make” (B. W. Hunter, personal communication, November 14, 2002).
Honesty paid off. By not overpromising, she ensured that clients stayed loyal to her firm and referred her to other business associates. She explained, “When you promise an outcome and deliver on those promises, it builds confidence, and from confidence comes a loyal client” (B. W. Hunter, personal communication, November 14, 2002). She was not afraid to admit when she could not accomplish an organization's objective. Summarizing, she said, “Honesty is a large aspect of success.”
Going to great lengths for the client also helped build successful and beneficial relationships for her firm. Hunter elaborated, “If a client knows you will be responsive to their individual needs, they will stay with you. Everyone likes personal attention” (B. W. Hunter, personal communication, November 14, 2002).
Hunter also attributes her success to the creative and interesting approaches she took with her clients and their products. The bottom line, however, is that a public relations firm is only as good as the practitioners it employs. Practitioners must have good judgment and be creative, articulate, and skillful to get their message out to targeted publics.
Hunter's contributions extend to professional and civic organizations, and her achievements are recognized with numerous honors and awards. She is a past president of the PRSA and of the New York chapter of PRSA. She is a member of PRSA's College of Fellows and the recipient of 12 PRSA presidential citations. In 1993, the society honored her with its Gold Anvil Award, its highest individual award. She also is a past recipient of the John Hill Award from the New York chapter. She served as the chairman of the 1998 PRSA national conference in Dallas, Texas, and founded PRSA's Food and Beverage Section in 1992.
A former trustee of the Institute for Public Relations, Hunter also was a board member of the Advertising Women of New York and Women Executives in Public Relations. She received the National Headliner Award from the Association for Women in Communications in 1984, the Matrix Award from New York Women in Communications in 1980, and the Entrepreneurial Woman Award from the Business Owners of New York in 1981.[Page 986]
Hunter was a charter member of the Committee of 200, the professional organization of preeminent women entrepreneurs and corporate leaders; she is also a member of the YWCA Academy of Women Achievers. In 1976, BusinessWeek named her one of the 100 Outstanding Women in Business.
Hunter served as a trustee of Cornell University, as well as a member of the advisory councils of Cornell's Colleges of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture and Life Sciences. She is a lifetime member of the Cornell University Council.
Reflecting on her chosen career, Hunter said she watched acceptance of public relations as a profession grow. As formal educational programs are offered and utilized, acceptance by the business community of public relations as a true profession emerged. Also, advancements in computers and technology extend the reach of a practitioner's message. The Internet is an invaluable tool in a profession where immediacy matters.
Looking to the future, Hunter predicts that more emphasis will be placed on ethical practice. She always believed that ethics is an essential aspect of public relations, but in tomorrow's world practitioners have no choice, but to perform ethically. Ethics will be utilized more to communicate what the organization is doing right.
Hunter also predicts that public relations practitioners have to pay more attention to social trends. Religion, economy, war, and other factors shape constandy changing trends that create communication gaps. Practitioners have to bridge these gaps to ensure that messages between organizations and their publics flow smoothly and effectively.
Barbara Hunter, who now enjoys retirement in her roles as wife, mother, and grandmother, took great risks in her career, and in turn cleared the path for other women to follow.Inez Yeargan Kaiser
Inez Yeargan Kaiser (1918-) was born on April 22, 1918, in Kansas City, Missouri. After receiving a bachelor's degree from Kansas Teacher's College in Pittsburg, Kansas, she attended Columbia University in New York for a master's degree; there she majored in home economics and received a certificate in mass communication. The certification in mass communication first exposed Kaiser to public relations.
Prior to finding her place in public relations, she taught for over 20 years in public schools in Evanston, Illinois; Kansas City, Kansas; and Kansas City, Missouri. More specifically, Kaiser taught home economics in the public schools. While working as a home economics instructor, she helped organize the Home Economics Department for the Board of Education and worked with the Red Cross and the Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC).
Additionally, she served as chairperson of the Home Economists in Business organization and was cited by Seventeen magazine as one of the most outstanding home economics teachers in the country. Kaiser was often recognized for excellence by her colleagues and was selected as Teacher of the Year by the Missouri State Teachers Association. For all of her accolades and recognitions, she was named Business Woman of the Year in Kansas City.
Kaiser was introduced to black readers and communities across America through several columns that she wrote for the black press. The columns, titled “Fashionwise and Otherwise,” “Teen Tips,” “Kaiser Konsumer Korner,” and “Hints for Homemakers,” served as precursors for a second career in public relations. Using her columns as a platform and her experience as credibility, Kaiser devoted herself to educating black consumers on issues that she considered important. During the peak of her journalistic endeavors, her most widely read column, “Hints for Homemakers,” reached a national audience of over 8 million readers. She was later honored by the National Newspaper Publishers Association (NNPA) for her 20 years of achievements in public relations and for providing information to black consumers through the black press. Kaiser also showcased her writing talents in a book titled Soul Food Cookery in 1968, which was published by Pittman.
Kaiser used her celebrity status to help black models secure work on Seventh Avenue and was one of the first African American women to cover fashion shows and menswear showings in New York, California, and Paris for the black press. Through her columns and other journalistic activities, Kaiser made black fashion and black beauty more visible and indirectly paved the way for acclaimed models like Tyra Banks, Iman, Naomi Campbell, and Tyson to grace the covers of mainstream magazines and to achieve their supermodel status. In 1980, she also received [Page 987]the Eartha M. White Women's Achievement Award from the National Business League for being a “pioneer black woman in the fields of public relations, fashions and the food industry.”
After retiring as a school teacher in the Kansas City School District during the late 1950s, she decided to use the notoriety gained from the press to become an entrepreneur and open her own public relations agency. Thus, Inez Kaiser and Associates, located in downtown Kansas City, Missouri, was founded in 1961. This venture accorded Kaiser the distinction of becoming the first African American female to establish a public relations firm with national accounts. In that capacity she also became the first black consultant to land a soft drink account, a pharmaceutical account, and a household account. Over the years, her clients included, but are not limited to, J. Walter Thompson, Seven-Up, Sperry and Hutchinson, Continental Baking Company, and Pillsbury. She was one of the first public relations practitioners to merge advertising and public relations when she prepared advertorials for Sterling Drug, Inc., and Sears Roebuck Company.
The agency worked with major corporations, federal agencies, and associations throughout America and community-based groups in Missouri. In addition to her recognition as a public relations pathfinder, Kaiser was a civil rights activist whose agency was hired to consult with the Equal Opportunity Commission in Washington, D.C. In 1972, she founded the National Association of Minority Women in Business, which was headquartered in Kansas City, Missouri. She subsequendy coordinated the Department of Commerce's first Conference for Women in Business. Moreover, she became a member of the Women's Chamber of Commerce and the American Marketing Association (AMA) of Kansas City. Her activism continued into the 1990s, when she accused the Missouri Division of Tourism of racial discrimination against businesses owned by people of color. In a news conference on October 6, 1992, held at the NAACP office located in St. Louis, she outlined charges of biases that favored white-owned businesses. Kaiser's agency, Inez Kaiser and Associates, subcontracted for two years to promote African American tourism in Missouri. She received the contract with Glennon and Company, a St. Louis firm that handled tourism advertising and public relations for Missouri. The contract was canceled, and Kaiser complained that the state was using her ideas, “even though she was told her ideas weren't needed before the contract was canceled” (Penington, 1992, p. 3A). Although Marjorie Beenders, director of the Tourism Division, said Kaiser's contract was canceled not because of her race, but because her specialty was not needed, Kaiser garnered a great deal of publicity over the cancellation.
In 1994, she continued to fight discrimination in the tourism industry when consulted for a newspaper article addressing racial issues encountered by travelers of color. Kaiser suggested that most managers and supervisors were interested in resolving any racially sensitive problems and were very interested in preserving positive images of their hotels.
Because of the roads that she paved for other blacks and her unabashed commitment to public relations, the litany of awards and accolades given to her were quite extensive. She was named Business Woman of the Year in Kansas City and was selected as one of the 100 Most Outstanding Black Business and Professional Women by Dollars & Sense magazine. Educational organizations expressed their gratefulness for her efforts by perpetuating her name in several ways. The Kansas City Branch of the American Association of University Women named a scholarship award in her honor during the mid-1970s. One of her highest accolades was an honorary doctorate of law from Lincoln University in 1986. Kaiser was the first African American female to become a member of PRSA. During the early 1990s, the Minority Scholarship in Public Relations was established by Jack Detweiler and Marilyn Kern-Foxworth for the Public Relations Division (PRD) of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (AEJMC). Graduate students of color pursuing degrees in public relations or conducting research in the area of public relations are eligible for the award. Students often are nominated by their professors, or thesis and dissertation committee chairs. The students, domestic and international, selected for this award are given funds to pay for their membership in AEJMC and for membership in the Public Relations Division (PRD) of the organization. Another benefit of the award is the introduction of students of color studying public relations to the activities of both AEJMC and the PRD. The funds are provided by public relations professors and journalism/public [Page 988]relations/communications schools and departments. During the annual PRD luncheon of the AEJMC held August 12, 1993, in Kansas City, Missouri, the award was named in honor of Inez Yeargan Kaiser. On July 31, 2003, 10 years after the awards were named in her honor, the PRD of AEJMC featured her at the Bill Adams/Edelman Luncheon. By this time over 175 graduate students were recipients of the Inez Kaiser Award.
The International Association of Market Developers (IAMD), during a ceremony held in Chicago on April 19, 1997, recognized Kaiser as a public relations legend. During that same ceremony, she passed the torch in public relations to Marilyn Kern-Foxworth, who received the Torchbearer Award.
As part of a CBS special Fourth of July program on July 4, 1997, titled “What's Right With America,” Kaiser was interviewed by Dan Rather and was one of four people profiled as having made a difference in America. Kaiser's major achievements in public relations and her leadership in advancing black business women were accompanied by a collage of pictures that showed her conversing with such luminaries as former presidents Nixon and Ford, both of whom she consulted on issues pertinent to women of color in business.
Kaiser spent her life making the world more inclusive and along the way became a pathfinder and a pioneer. Remarking on her success, Kaiser notes, “I was just a woman who happened to be black and good. Persistence and patience are the biggest things I've learned. Still, I think the thing that keeps me going is my faith in God.”Isobel Parke
Isobel Parke (1926-) is president and senior counsel of Jackson, Jackson, & Wagner, one of the most well-known consulting firms in the United States. Parke stands out in public relations history for her wide breadth of contributions to the field since the 1960s. She helped to increase professionalism of the practice and champion undergraduate public relations education. In particular, she contributed to the development of modern-day strategic environmental communication and coalition building. Her ability to balance her commitments to public relations as a democratic process, to educational issues, and to environmental concerns makes her a role model for today's young women entering public relations. “Even though we didn't consider ourselves feminists, per se, we wanted equal opportunity,” Parke said of women like herself working in public relations 35 years ago, “and we were prepared to work for that” (Parke, personal communication, 2003).
Parke's first foray into the practice of public relations occurred when she was in her early thirties and had the opportunity to help organize and promote the New England Pavilion at the 1964 World's Fair in New York. She had met Miriam Jackson and Patrick Jackson through mutual acquaintances and began to work for Jackson, Jackson, & Wagner, which was responsible for organizing and marketing the exhibition. She helped collect objects that represented New England from museums and then promoted the items through the media to attract fair attendees. She learned to work with media through trial and error. (She once sent a Boston Globe reporter a promotional photograph in a large, thick, blue paper “mat” frame in response to him requesting a “matte” finished photograph.)
After the Fair, Parke moved with Patrick Jackson and Miriam Jackson, owners and operators of Jackson, Jackson, & Wagner, to a 1735 farmhouse in New Hampshire. They grew their own fruits and vegetables and raised pigs while working for mostly nonprofit organizations. Parke's first client was a financially challenged repertory company. Parke helped the organization increase its audience base, but she also found herself placating creditors and electric companies that wanted to shut down the organization.
In the 1960s, Parke spearheaded Jackson, Jackson, & Wagner's statewide effort to build an environmental coalition to change an article in New Hampshire's constitution that allowed corporations to clear forests for purposes of business development. Parke brought together garden clubs, parent-teacher associations, residents, environmental organizations, and local businesses and politicians. This coalition helped establish state limitations and restrictions on land use, and it became a model for advocacy campaigns for the environment. Parke continues to serve on the coalition to maintain the amendment for open space.
Parke described herself as “the inner wheel” (Parke, personal communication, August 5, 2003) of Jackson, Jackson, & Wagner, a behind-the-scenes [Page 989]motivator for Patrick Jackson's vision of strategic management. Although most of Parke's initial clients were nonprofit organizations, she began working with corporations who were seeking to better understand citizen groups and environmental advocacy. Parke said, “The first responsibility of public relations is to consider the public good” (Parke, personal communication, August 5, 2003). For almost 40 years, Parke's expertise built on issue anticipation and analysis, community coalition building, strategic planning, and crisis containment. She counseled environmental coalitions on land conservation, health-care organizations on mergers and restructuring, and the private school sector on crisis communication. She explained part of her work philosophy: “It's important to have a holistic grasp of the historical and societal issues before working on public relations solutions” (Parke, personal communication, August 5, 2003).
Parke enhanced professional development for public relations as a management function through her service to the PRSA. Parke is an accredited member and fellow of PRSA, served as a director of PRSA's national board from 1986 to 1987, and served as national board secretary in 1988. She was a founding member of PRSA's Yankee Chapter, which constitutes members from Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. It was these activities in PRSA that led to her passion for public relations education.
In 1986, Parke was appointed PRSA board liaison to the Public Relations Student Society of America (PRSSA). She recalled, “At the time I had an 18 year old stepdaughter. I had little confidence in dealing with several thousand teenagers all at once!” However, she agreed to the position and attended her first PRSSA board meeting. The students at the meeting were surprised to see her because professional liaisons rarely attended their meetings. However, Parke wanted to familiarize herself with the students as well as the organization. She recounts the moment when she walked into the board meeting: “Arriving a little late, I walked in and there was a wary silence. They asked, ‘Who are you?’ I said, ‘I'm your board liaison.’ After a moment, they brought me a chair and we got to work” (Parke, personal communication, August 5, 2003). For the next two years she helped PRSSA with decisions and strategies for the benefit of its student members.
Parke was a 2002 recipient of the David W. Ferguson Award presented by the PRSA Educators Academy, which honors practitioners who have made significant contributions to advancing the profession through their support of public relations education. She was also a member of PRSA's Educational Affairs Committee (1992–2002), represented PRSA on the Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism and Mass Communications (1997–2003), and is a member of PRSA's Commission on Public Relations Education (1997-present).
Along with this active career in public relations, Parke built a reputation for public service in New Hampshire. She is the first woman president of the New Hampshire Timberland Owners Association and president of the Rockingham County Woodland Owners Association. She is a member of several other organizations, including the Rockingham County Visiting Nurse Association and Hospice, the SPACE Board of Directors and Legislation Committee, the Epping Conservation Committee, and the Seacoast Growers Association.
Parke is an award-winning conservationist and for almost 40 years worked to preserve New Hampshire's land and timber industry. She operated and cared for Tributary Farm since first moving there in 1964. The farm was originally 61 acres, but in 1992 Parke and Patrick Jackson purchased over 100 acres adjacent to the property to save the land from possible real estate development. In 2002, the New Hampshire Tree Farm Executive Committee named Parke the New Hampshire Outstanding Tree Farmer of the Year. To be eligible for the award, Parke had to meet specific objectives within 5 years that were set forth in an action plan written by her. Her objectives included improving the harvesting quality of mixed timber species, encouraging wildlife, and providing recreational enjoyment. Parke makes Tributary Farm an educational experience for college students who come to work and for kindergarten children who come to explore. She also frequently testifies before the New Hampshire legislature on a variety of forestry issues, such as licenses and use of wood-burning plants. She has won the John Hoar Award by the Rockingham County Woodland Owners Association and the Kendall Norcott Award, the highest recognition from the New Hampshire Timberland Owners [Page 990]Association. Finally, Parke is president-elect for the Granite State Woodland Institute. She said, “With ownership of land comes the responsibility of good stewardship for the next generation” (Parke, personal communication, August 5, 2003).
Born in a country village called Sturminster Marshall in Dorset, England, Parke received her high school degree in Boston from the Winsor School. She returned to England for her master's in modern history from Oxford University. After graduation, she worked for 12 years as manager of education programs at Moor Park College, an experimental adult education college. She was married to Patrick Jackson from 1974 to 1994 and remained an integral partner in his life and work until his death in March 2001. Parke said that she gave Jackson “the partnership he needed to establish for our profession the vision and the challenge of behavioral public relations” (Parke, personal communication, August 5, 2003).CorporateAnn Barkelew
Ann Barkelew (1935-) established a reputation for being one of the best public relations professionals in the field. Barkelew retired from her position as senior partner and founding general manager of Fleishman-Hillard Inc., an international communications agency, in 2001. She is now a senior counselor for the agency, providing expertise to Fleishman-Hillard worldwide on special projects.
Barkelew was born in St. Joseph, Missouri, on March 21, 1935, to Alexander Hamilton, an engineer, and Ruth Welsh Hamilton, a teacher. At the age of 12, she moved with her family to Jefferson City, Missouri. Barkelew recalls that her mother always worked, from the time Ann was little. She characterized her as an “incredible person” (Barkelew, personal communication, October 20, 2003). Active and involved, Barkelew's mother served as a strong role model for working women. Her father's political career helped Barkelew embrace a life of service, encouraging her to not stand idly by, but to jump in and take an active role in her community. A Girl Scout throughout her public school years, Barkelew credits this experience as very important in shaping her personality.
Barkelew had one brother, William Warren Hamilton, who died in 1984. Barkelew graduated from Central Missouri State University with a bachelor's degree in 1957. After graduating, she taught English and journalism in high schools in California and Missouri until she entered a master's program in 1965. She finished her master's degree in 1966, taking a year's leave of absence from her regular job to complete this advanced degree at the University of Missouri-Columbia. Her master's thesis, which organized a program of public relations for the Santa Barbara schools, so impressed administrators that she was invited to work in the district's central office to implement the public relations program. Although Barkelew acknowledges that she never wished to be an administrator, this assignment allowed her to test her management skills and propelled her into a very successful public relations career.
She worked in community relations for the Santa Barbara schools from 1966 to 1971. From 1972 until 1981, she was the chief public information officer for the Los Angeles County Office of Education. Barkelew characterized the Compton, California, teachers’ strike as the first big strike in a series of strikes in the 1970s, which created great challenges for her and for California public education. Rather than deal with strikes once they began, Barkelew encouraged administrators to work to avert strikes. This was during a period of severe enrollment decline and the closing of more than 100 secondary schools in Los Angeles County. Barkelew's formula for using communication to manage these crises included honest communication with teachers about the school district's finances. She believed in keeping school employees informed because she saw them as the most important group in the school system.
She entered the field of corporate public relations in 1981, when Munsingwear tapped her to help manage a major plant closing in Minnesota, followed by plant closings around the country. She joined Munsingwear Inc. as the vice president of corporate relations in order to build a corporate communications department. What was supposed to be a six-month leave of absence from Los Angeles County turned into a permanent move to Minnesota, a state she says she quickly came to love.
She joined Dayton Hudson as the vice president of corporate public relations in 1982 and played a [Page 991]major role in avoiding a hostile takeover threat to the corporation in 1987. Barkelew holds the distinction of being the first woman to be named a member of the Dayton Hudson Management Committee.
In 1984, Barkelew joined the Board of Directors of the Children's Theatre of Minneapolis. After just two weeks on the board, Barkelew and the board of directors faced an issue that would tear the artistic community apart. Just before the Theatre's Spring Show opened, John Clark Donahue, the theatre's artistic director, was accused of sexually abusing young boys. Known for her ability to work and succeed in a crisis, Barkelew quickly convened a public relations committee to handle the situation. She and other board members met with parents, children, and donors to work through the crisis. An interim executive committee, which Barkelew chaired, helped oversee the theatre during this difficult time. The situation was successfully managed, and today the theatre is one of the strongest regional theaters in America. In 2003, it was the first children's theatre to receive a regional Tony Award. Barkelew served as chairman of the theatre's board of directors and remained on the children's theatre board for 14 years.
Barkelew retired from Dayton Hudson (now known as Target Corp.) in 1994, but clients kept contacting her, and true retirement has never really been possible. Within less than a month of leaving Dayton Hudson, Barkelew had three significant clients, and in addition to her consulting work, she served on several boards of directors.
From 1995 to 1996, Barkelew was a senior counselor, offering advice to corporations in the Twin Cities and often working with Patrick (Pat) Jackson of Jackson, Jackson & Wagner. Although Barkelew was never a big supporter of public relations agencies, Fleishman-Hillard CEO, John Graham convinced her to join his firm by offering her the opportunity to create the kind of agency office she would have hired when she was in corporate America. She became the first general manager of Fleishman-Hillard in Minneapolis-St. Paul when the office opened on July 1, 1996.
Barkelew, an Accredited Public Relations Practitioner (1973), was also involved in the advancement of the field, working to establish common accreditation standards and codes of ethics for the public relations profession. As president of the National School Public Relations Association, in 1980 she cofounded a coordinating body for professional societies in the field called the North American Public Relations Council. Barkelew is a member of PRSA and has in the past cochaired its National Committee on the Future of Public Relations. She was elected to PRSA's College of Fellows in 1990 and served as its chair in 1992.
In September 2003, she was presented with the Arthur B. Page Society's Distinguished Service Award. This award recognizes a person whose contributions over the years in service to the profession have strengthened the role of public relations in our society. She is a member of the board of directors of the Arthur W. Page Society and is a former member of the PR Seminar and the Wisemen.
Barkelew has received many other awards:
- 1984—President's Award, National School Public Relations Association
- 1985—One of 85 Outstanding Women in Business (BusinessWeek's “85 in '85”)
- 1993—Vernon C. Schranz Lecturer Award, Ball State University
- 1993—National Honor Roll of Women in Public Relations, Northern Illinois University
- 1995—National Public Relations Achievement Award, Ball State University
- 1995—Learning and Liberty Award, National School Public Relations Association
- 1995—Voted by international peers as “PR News Public Relations Professional of the Year”
- 1997—Public Relations Hall of Fame, Rowan University
- 1999—One of City Business's 25 Most Influential Women in Business in Minnesota
- 2001—Fleishman-Hillard Lifetime Achievement Award
What also makes Barkelew exceptional are her public relations efforts in day-to-day work. She prefers answering her own telephone calls and does not leave work without returning every press call that she receives that day (“Corporate PR Heads,” 1993).[Page 992]
Barkelew credits her tremendous success in public relations to one thing: teamwork. “I love working with teams. I love leading things. Working together, we can make great things happen” (Barkelew, personal communication, 2003). Barkelew says she always had an advisory council wherever she worked and made sure she pulled people from all areas of the businesses in which she worked. “Teams,” she notes, “can accomplish great things” (Barkelew, personal communication, October 20, 2003).Dorothy Gregg
Dorothy Gregg (1920–1997), PhD, was the first woman appointed a corporate officer at Celanese Corporation and was the first vice president of the National Council of Women in the United States.
Gregg was vice president of communication at Celanese for eight years, from 1975 to 1983, and was a senior consultant to Ruder, Finn & Rotman from 1983 to 1987, when she left to open her own firm. Prior to joining Celanese, she was assistant to the director of public relations at U.S. Steel Corporation, a pioneering position she held for 16 years.
Gregg was a public relations consultant since 1954, and her contributions to the field were highlighted by numerous awards. Her exceptional leadership skills and achievements were well recognized statewide and nationwide. She was a 1962 recipient of the New York State Woman Award, given by the New York Department of Commerce. In 1968, she received the National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs Top Hat Award, the American Advertising Federation's National Advertising Woman of the Year Award, and the Advertising Woman of the Year Award in New York City. In 1969, she was the recipient of Governor Rockefeller's Certificate of Honor.
A distinguished female executive herself, Gregg was dedicated to advancing the role of women in public relations and marketing communication. As an expression of her concern for women, she chaired the Committee on Women in Public Relations, supervised the Association for Women in Communication, and was director of the American Woman's Association and the Advertising Women of New York. She was also a member of the board of governors of the International Women's Forum and the New York Women's Forum.
Other national honorary organizations where she was a member include Gamma Alpha Chi, Phi Beta Kappa, Pi Sigma Alpha, and Theta Sigma Phi.
Gregg began her career as an educator. She had been an assistant professor in Columbia University's Economics Department and on the faculty of Barnard College, the New School of Social Research, Pace College, and the University of Texas.
A graduate of the University of Texas with a B.A. and M.A. degrees in economics, Gregg earned her Ph.D. in the same discipline from Columbia University.Denny Griswold
Denny Griswold (1908–2001), cofounder and editor of PR News, was a dynamic force who facilitated the spread of public relations throughout the world during the second half of the 20th century.
She is credited with having a profound influence on winning management recognition for public relations. She said, “I early on felt that unless management gave public relations its support and understood it, public relations couldn't get anywhere” (S. A. Serini, interview with Denny Griswold, June 21, 1994). PR News was founded in part to address that concern. During her tenure on the editorial staffs of Forbes and then Business Week, she met many industrialists. “I was appalled at how little they knew about public relations … and I became motivated and almost obsessed with the need for public relations” (S. A. Serini, interview with Denny Griswold, June 21, 1994).
Griswold championed the importance of public relations among top management and the growing number of public relations practitioners, ultimately defining the field as a management function. She developed the following definition of public relations for Webster's Dictionary in the late 1940s:
Public relations is the management function which evaluates public attitudes, identifies the policies and procedures of an individual or an organization with the public interest, and plans and executes a program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance. (J. Fox, interview with Denny Griswold, May 21, 1992)
A tireless advocate for the profession, she liberally distributed business cards with that definition [Page 993]as well as large green buttons emblazoned with a phrase she coined, “PRoud to be in PR.”
Griswold's understanding of public relations developed early in her career. She began working for the media, but quickly made the transition to public relations. Her experience in the offices of early public relations pioneers, Benjamin Sonnenberg and Edward Bernays, as well as her advertising promotion background at J. Walter Thompson and Conde Nast, prepared her well. By the time she met and married Glenn Griswold, editor and publisher of Business Week, she was ready for a new venture.
The Griswolds left the magazine business to form a public relations agency to provide counsel to large industrial accounts. Mr. Griswold brought his vast experience and connections with American industrialists, and she brought the public relations acumen.
There was very little written about the practice of public relations at the time, and the Griswolds recognized that as a weakness in the field. They founded PR News, the first public relations weekly in the world, in 1944, and Mrs. Griswold served as editor for nearly 50 years. PR News filled an important void in the developing field of public relations, providing not only news and information, but the first case studies as well.
During World War II, Mrs. Griswold arranged to send PR News to public information officers overseas. It kept them informed about and connected to the growing field of public relations, which they entered in large numbers when the war ended. That was also the beginning of the spread of PR News into international markets. By the end of the 20th century, it had subscribers in over 90 countries and was instrumental in spreading the practice of public relations globally. She said, “We are developing a profession that will contribute to international relations, and bring to us the peace and harmony that we are all seeking” (N. Carlson, interview with Denny Griswold, November 11, 1986).
Also in response to the paucity of public relations literature, the Griswolds coauthored a 634-page handbook, Your Public Relations, which was used in classrooms as well as by working professionals. It was published in 1948, 2 years before Mr. Griswold died of cancer.
In addition to building the literature in the field, the Griswolds also worked to build important social networks to facilitate the growth and understanding of public relations. They held many social gatherings at their New York townhouse on East 80th Street. Some of the most powerful and influential people of the decade—industry CEOs, diplomats, senior executive officers, heads of public relations and advertising agencies, prominent public relations practitioners, and thinkers of all genres—gathered, conversed, and built relationships there. “I love giving parties and our parties are quite famous,” Mrs. Griswold said (S. A. Serini, interview with Denny Griswold, June 21, 1994).
Mrs. Griswold was a driving force in building important professional organizations. She was instrumental in founding Women Executives in Public Relations in the 1950s, and was credited with facilitating the development of public relations organizations abroad as well. She claimed responsibility for proposing the idea of holding a meeting of top public relations executives in conjunction with the annual Congress of American Industry, sponsored by the National Association of Manufacturers, to which CEOs were invited to discuss issues and problems of business. That meeting evolved into what is known today as the annual PR Seminar.
She traveled extensively, promoting public relations and PR News at conferences and important gatherings throughout the world. She was an active member of numerous professional organizations, including the PRSA, the International Public Relations Association, Women Executives in Public Relations, and the Newsletter Association.
Mrs. Griswold is a recipient of the highest award presented to an individual by the PRSA, the Gold Anvil. During her lifetime, she received over 130 honors for her contributions to public relations from organizations around the world, including Women in Communications, International Women's Forum, the International PR Association, the National Federation of Business and Professional Women's Clubs, and the National Association of Manufacturers. She was also one of the first women to be named to the Northern Illinois University Honor Roll of Women in Public Relations in 1993.
She was a strong voice for the important role that social responsibility plays in doing business, and was herself actively involved in a wide variety of service activities. She gave generously of her time and talent and served on numerous boards [Page 994]and advisory committees, including the USO (United Service Organizations), the Camp Fire Girls of America, the Institute of International Education, the Joint Council on Economic Education, Pace College, and the U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Following her death, the Women Executives in Public Relations Foundation instituted an annual award in her name, the Denny Griswold Award for Social Responsibility.
She held two degrees, a bachelor of arts from Hunter College and a master of arts from Radcliffe, and she started work on a doctorate at Columbia University. “I like to learn,” she said, “and I feel like I've wasted a day if I haven't learned something” (S. A. Serini, interview with Denny Griswold, June 21, 1994).
Although she refused to call herself a feminist, her commitment to an egalitarian workplace was unequivocal. She broke through the glass ceiling long before women had entered the workplace in significant numbers, and she helped other women do the same. Women Executives in Public Relations stands as but one example of that effort.
After the death of her first husband, Mrs. Griswold married investment manager J. Langdon Sullivan. She retained Griswold as her professional name.
In an interview recorded before she died, she was asked how she would like to be remembered. Here is what she said:
I would like them to remember me as a force that… can be credited to some extent for having spread the practice of Public Relations throughout the world…. And I think that I would like to be recognized as having persuaded top management that there was something besides the bottom line to doing business—and that was to recognize their social responsibility. (S. A. Serini, interview with Denny Griswold, June 21, 1994)Caroline Hood
Caroline Hood (married name Carlin) (1909–1981) was the first woman vice president of Rockefeller Center, Inc., a 21-building development in Manhattan, where she managed public relations programs, community events, and corporate advertising from 1934 to 1973. Hood was also the first woman to be elected to the board of directors of the New York Convention and Visitors Bureau and the Radio City Music Hall.
Hood began her work at Rockefeller Center as a “Flying Ambassadress” traveling thousands of miles annually to publicize and promote the new multi-building project (PR Newswire, 1981), although a 1951 article on women in public relations reported that Caroline Hood began selling souvenirs to tourists in the basement of Rockefeller Center and then suggested offering tours of the Center's gardens to the public (“Women in Public Relations,” 1951, p. 6).
Some of her accomplishments include the annual search for the famous Rockefeller Center Christmas tree; receptions for the world's great— “from the Dionne quintuplets to Haile Salassie to Princess Margaret; the celebration for the liberation of Paris in 1944 to the annual Christmas tree lighting ceremonies” (Carolyn Hood, PR Newswire, 1981, p. 1).
In 1972, Hood received the Distinguished Service Award from the New York Chapter of the PRSA, the first woman so honored. The New York Chapter of Theta Sigma Pi, a national journalism sorority, named her the outstanding woman in journalism and communication.
Hood was a past president of Women Executives in Public Relations and of Advertising Women in New York.
In 1959, she served on a 16-member advisory panel for the United States Information Agency in Washington, D.C., and in 1963 served on the New York State Women's Council. In 1964, the Republican Women in Business and Professions honored her as “the outstanding woman in public relations.” Her career highlights are housed at the Schlesinger Library at Radcliffe College.
Hood studied at Columbia University and the New School. She was married to John Hayward Carlin.Lee K. Jaffe
Lee K. Jaffe, APR, Fellow PRSA, and award-winning government public relations practitioner, served as director of public relations for The Port of New York Authority from 1944 until 1965, during the revitalization of Manhattan's financial district and the planning and early construction of the World Trade Center. She is credited with suggesting [Page 995]that the World Trade Center be the tallest building in the world and, by the time she retired, she was said to be earning the highest salary in the country for someone at her level.
Born Lillian Kreiselman in Treveskyn, Pennsylvania, and schooled in Ohio, Jaffe moved to Wichita, Kansas, with her family after graduating from high school. There she soon began working for U.S. Senator Henry J. Allen. Allen also was born in Pennsylvania, but moved to Kansas with his family at the age of 2. He was a reporter turned newspaper publisher who served first as the governor of Kansas from 1919 to 1923, and later as the publicity director for the Republican National Committee before being appointed to fill a U.S. Senate seat from 1929 to 1930.
When Allen lost his bid for that seat, he set Jaffe up as the Washington correspondent for his flagship newspaper, the Wichita (Kansas) Beacon, where her first story was the 1932 Veterans’ Bonus March, a demonstration by 12,000 to 15,000 veterans calling for their World War I service benefits. She also wrote for the Binghamton (New York) Press and The Northwestern Miller trade journals before joining the Domestics Division of the Office of War Information. Later she worked for the New York Metropolitan Region of the Office of Price Administration, the wartime agency charged with price regulation and rationing; there she served first as an information officer and then as the regional radio director. She married Isidore Jaffe on December 22, 1933, and they lived in Great Neck, Long Island.
In 1944, Austin J. Tobin, a longtime Port Authority attorney who had become executive director two years earlier, hired Jaffe to help promote the agency's image during a time when the wartime lack of money and materials kept it from fulfilling its own mission. Founded on April 30, 1921, The Port of New York Authority was the first agency of its kind in the Western Hemisphere with a bi-state district, and it surrounded the Statue of Liberty (in 1972 the name changed to The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey). Over the years, it was responsible for the planning, building, policing, and administering of systems and structures relating to transportation, from bridges and tunnels to airports and a rail line—which later became the Port Authority Trans-Hudson lines (PATH)—as well as other commercial entities in the port jurisdiction. Thus, the Port Authority eventually came to oversee the building of the World Trade Center, which was originally conceived in the 1940s as a global import/export business center in downtown Manhattan.
With the backing of David Rockefeller and his Downtown-Lower Manhattan Development Association, then-Governor Nelson Rockefeller, and the Port Authority, among others, the first plans for the center were unveiled in 1961. But a year earlier, according to historian Angus Kress Gillespie, Jaffe wrote a memo suggesting that the center be the tallest in the world. As it turned out, the final set of plans presented to the public in 1964 revealed two towers, each of which would be the tallest in the world upon completion—only to be upstaged by the Sears Tower in Chicago a month before the Center's dedication on April 4, 1973.
Jaffe reported directly to Tobin. Known professionally as Lee K. Jaffe, much of her subsequent success could be attributed to her own ideas concerning government public relations. In January 1950 Jaffe published an article in Public Relations Journal, the trade magazine of the PRSA, in which she emphasized the importance of public relations in city government as a nonpolitical function and one that represented “one single, assigned and authoritative news source” (Jaffe, 1950, p. 4) for the media and the general public. Additionally, she stressed the policy-level function of her role as the director of public relations for the Port Authority, her refusal to bury bad news or to block media access to Port Authority management, and her practice of responding promptly to inquiries and on-site visit requests. Indeed, Jaffe testified in a 1960 U.S. House Judiciary investigation into Port Authority finances that $2,609 worth of meals spent on herself, her assistant, and the media at New York International Airport's Golden Door restaurant over a period of two and one-half years was part of the job when conducting press tours or sponsoring other Port Authority media events.
Jaffe joined PRSA in May 1950. In 1951 she was elected president of the Government Public Relations Association, which consisted of state and city practitioners. In 1955 she published another article in Public Relations Journal exploring the place of government public relations in the post-Korean War world. Reminding readers of the 1913 federal legislation prohibiting the funding of publicists [Page 996]with congressional monies unless the funding was “specifically appropriated for that purpose,” Jaffe pointed out that the top annual salary among federal civil service information specialists during the previous year was $12,690, whereas the 1955–1956 budget for the United States Information Agency was $85 million. She observed,
The Washington “propaganda machine” of World War I has been traded in from administration to administration for newer and more powerful models. There is room for some traffic direction, if not control to keep the contraptions [the many information offices] from running wild and crashing head-on. (Jaffe, 1955, pp. 78–79)
Better organization could foster improved relations with the public, she said, and it would “increase the dignity and self-respect of public relations personnel” (Jaffe, 1955, p. 79). Ultimately, though, Jaffe wrote, “Government must first do a job that people can think well of, and then intelligently and deftly call attention to it” (Jaffe, 1955, p. 141).
In February 1956, Jaffe and the Port Authority received the Best Government Public Relations Award from PRSA. In May of that year, she was one of three speakers at the Southern Public Relations Conference in New Orleans, during which she emphasized the importance of government listening to the public, being open and honest with it, and complying with the public's desires as much as possible. In October 1956, Jaffe served on a panel, “Women in Public Relations,” at the ninth PRSA Conference in Milwaukee. In 1958, she and PR News editor Denny Griswold were the only two women representing PRSA at the First World Congress of Public Relations in Brussels.
In 1965 Jaffe became the first woman to receive PRSA's Gold Anvil Award for lifetime achievement. In May of that year, she retired from the Port Authority after 21 years of service and, with a salary of $35,000, as the highest paid person at that level of government relations. In 1989, Jaffe was one of 26 inductees into PRSA's inaugural class of the College of Fellows, along with other Golden Anvil winners Leone Baxter; Edward L. Bernays; John F. Budd, Jr.; Chester Burger; Harold Burson; Allen H. Center, PhD; W. Howard Chase; Kalman B. Druck; Dan J. Forrestal; Lawrence G Foster; James F. Fox; Ralph E. Frede; Denny Griswold; George Hammond; Rex F. Harlow, PhD; Carl F. Hawver, PhD; Patrick Jackson; Philip Lesly; Ed Lipscomb; Donald B. McCammond; Hale Nelson; Betsy Ann Plank; J. Handly Wright; Frank W. Wylie; and Kenneth Youel.
In the October/November 1994 issue of the Public Relations Journal, some of the past Gold Anvil recipients were asked to comment on the future of the public relations field. True to form, Jaffe emphasized that “integrity is the key to the proper practice of public relations” and that public relations practitioners should make it a priority not only to weigh in on policy decisions, but also to put themselves in the shoes of those who are affected by those policies.
Throughout her career, Jaffe was a member of a number of professional and community groups, including the Aviation Writers Association, the Foreign Press Association, the Women's City Club, and the Women's National Press Club. She served on the board of the American Public Relations Association, the Government Public Relations Association, the New York chapter of PRSA, and the Greater New York Safety Councils. Additionally, the American Public Relations Association recognized Jaffe in 1950, 1951, and 1957 for her work in government, as did the Government Public Relations Association in 1955 and 1956. In June 1955, Charm, a magazine for working women, selected Jaffe to spotlight the achievements of the 1,328,747 working women in New York. In 1958, PR News honored Jaffe with its Annual Achievement Award.Marilyn Laurie
Marilyn Laurie (1939–2010) was the first woman to hold senior leadership positions for American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T), one of the first corporations in the United States to recognize its social responsibility obligations through the work of the first AT&T public relations leader, Arthur Page. Laurie was senior vice president of public relations and employee information and in 1997 held the position of executive vice president-brand strategy and marketing communications for the telecommunications giant. She was a member of the company's Management Executive Committee. Her responsibilities included [Page 997]“managing one of the world's best known brands and counseling AT&T's chairman on managing the communications and corporate reputation for the company's 300,000 employees” (AT&T's Marilyn Laurie, PR Newswire, 1995).
Retired from AT&T in 1998, Laurie worked for AT&T since 1971, as speech writer, vice president of Bell Laboratories, and senior vice president of global communications. She served as a trustee of the AT&T Foundation and headed Laurie Consulting in New York.
Prior to 1971, Laurie was a nationally recognized environmentalist. She was one of the originators of Earth Day in 1970 and cofounder of the Environmental Action Committee. She wrote for The New York Times environmental section on environmental issues.
She was an officer of the PR Seminar. She was the female member of the Arthur Page Society Hall of Fame.
Laurie was on the board of directors of the New York City Ballet. She worked for the fund for New York City Public Relations Education and the New York City Partnership.
For her professional achievements and dedication to civic service, Laurie was recognized by the Women's Campaign of the American Jewish Committee with the 1995 Human Relations Award. She was elected to the YMCA Academy of Women Achievers; she received a Women in Communications Matrix Award, the Tribute to Women in International Industry Award and the Women's Equity Action League Award.
Laurie graduated from Barnard College and received an MBA from Pace University.
Laurie took responsibility in 1993 for an offensive cartoon that appeared in a company employee magazine. To the employees of AT&T she said: There's no excuse for it, and we have sincerely apologized for publishing such insulting materials. We also have taken a number of steps in response, including ceasing to publish the magazine (“Text of Letter of Apology,” 1993).Jean Way Schoonover
Jean Way Schoonover (1920–2012) was president of D-A-Y, Dudley-Anderson-Yutzy, the first major public relations firm in the New York City to be owned and managed by women.
Dudley-Anderson-Yutzy Public Relations, traces its history to its founding by Pendleton Dudley in 1909. Schoonover and her sister, Barbara Hunter, purchased the firm from the original partners in 1970. It was acquired by Ogilvy & Mather in 1983.
Schoonover grew up in Westport on Lake Champlain, New York. She graduated with a BA from Cornell University in 1941, majoring in English and Education. Her first jobs were as an English teacher and librarian at Casdeton Union School, in Hudson, New York, from 1941 to 1943.
Schoonover moved to New York City in 1943 in hopes of getting a job as a newspaper reporter. She worked as a ticket seller at Penn Station until she was finally hired as a reporter for Food Field Reporter, a biweekly trade paper for food industry executives. Schoonover interviewed Clarence Birdseye, who had sold his frozen food business to General Foods. Her story was noticed by George Anderson, partner at D-A-Y, who hired Schoonover as an account executive in 1949.
Schoonover and her sister Barbara Hunter purchased D-A-Y when it was ranked about 15th among national public relations companies. They incorporated the company, with Schoonover as president and Hunter as executive vice president. When Schoonover signed the first paychecks, she discovered that the men executives were making $25,000 a year, while she and Hunter were making $18,000. Later, Schoonover became chairman and CEO and Hunter became president of D-A-Y.
D-A-Y had the first home economics department and test kitchen in the agency business, with a staff of home economists developing recipes for food and wine accounts. Clients included Ac'cent International, Florida Citrus Commission, Gelantine, Nestle Co. SuCrest Corporate, Taylor Wine Co., United Fresh Fruit & Vegetable Association, and the Wash ‘n Dri, and Canaan Products, Inc (Dudley-Anderson-Yutzy Public Relations, 1971).
Under her leadership, D-A-Y won a number of PRSA Silver Anvil awards. D-A-Y handled the publicity, on a budget of $25,000, for the Bicentennial reenactment of the capture from the British of Fort Ticonderoga.
D-A-Y pulled off the public relations triumph of 1983 with the 100th birthday party for the Brooklyn Bridge. Over two million New Yorkers and tourists came out for the eight-block-long parade [Page 998]and 1,200 journalists reported on the story around the world (Hartman, 1983).
D-A-Y Helped the Tuna Research Foundation after a botulism incident occurred, containing the crisis that could have destroyed sales, with counsel on acting responsibly and making changes to maintain customer confidence and product loyalty.
D-A-Y clients received help with the women's market through programs on Women as Economic Equals, in cooperation with Ladies’ Home Journal and a credit card company. D-A-Y helped AT&T with a conference titled Women in the Workforce.
In 1983, upon selling D-A-Y to Ogilvy & Mather, Schoonover managed D-A-Y, eventually folded into O&M public relations offices, with offices in New York, Washington, Chicago, Atlanta, Houston, and Los Angeles. Schoonover became vice chairman in 1988 of the Ogilvy & Mather Public Relations Group and a senior vice president of Ogilvy & Mather United States.
Schoonover retired in 1990. After her retirement, she spent her time in pro bono activities and served on the Board of Director of Bliss, Gouverneur & Associates, a New York public relations firm.
Schoonover volunteered her leadership as president of the YMCA of the City of New York, 1994–1998. She was president of the Women Executives in Public Relations, New York City, 1979–1980; and, president of the Public Relations Society of New York in 1979. In 1987–1989, she was a member and vice chair of the Defense Advisory Committee on Women in the Services (DACOWITS). Her role was to report to commanding officers and the Department of Defense about military base conditions for women. She was on the Cornell University Board of Trustees from 1975–1980. She helped the International Women's Forum publicize “Why Women Lead” by Dr. Judy Rosner, featured in the 1990 issue of Harvard Business Review.
Schoonover spoke to various groups, including a Vital Speeches selection, “Why Corporate America Fears Women,” presented in 1974 to a seminar for life insurance executives.
Schoonover received many awards for her achievements: the Advertising Woman of the Year Award, 1972; the Matrix Award from Women in Communications, 1976; Business Week's top 100 Corporate Women; the International Association of Women Business Owners Leadership Award; the National Association of Women Business owners Entrepreneurial Woman Award; the National Headliner Award in Communications Inc., 1984; the Big WEAL Award, Women's Equity Action League, 1985; and, the Achievement Award from the League of Women Voters of New York City, 1997.Service to the ProfessionAlice L. Beeman
Alice L. Beeman (1919–2003) was named in 1974 the first woman president of a national public relations association, the Council for the Advancement and Support of Education (CASE), a position she held until 1978.
CASE represented a merger from the American College Public Relations Association and the American Alumni Council and a shift in emphasis from college publicity to a focus on fundraising and development. Today, CASE is the professional organization for those who work in alumni relations, communications, and development.
Beeman began her communication career as a reporter for the University of Texas News Service. Also, she held university relations positions at Vanderbilt University and the University of Michigan. During her 22 years at Michigan, she established a new university publications office and served as director of the Office of Publications (“A Legendary Loss,” 2003). She was General Director of the American Association of University Women (AAUW) in Washington, D.C., from 1969 to 1974.
Beeman was president in 1975 of the American College of Public Relations Association and president of the AAUW Michigan chapter from 1955 to 1957.
She received her BJ in 1941 from the University of Texas; her LLD at Central Methodist College and LHD from Anderson-Broaddus College, 1973 and Boston University, 1978.
CASE honored Beeman by naming in her honor its annual research awards, recognizing outstanding theses, dissertations, and published scholarship on communications and education.
Upon her passing, former CASE President, Peter McE. Buchanan reported Beeman's observation about the people of advancement in which she said: “To the degree that we convey our faith in education [Page 999]to others, we will be successful in our work of educational advancement” (“A Legendary Loss,” 2003).Judith Bogart
Judith Bogart (Meredith) (1936-), a public relations consultant in 1983 became the second woman president of the PRSA. She commented on the fact that her presidency would be followed by a third woman president, Barbara Hunter: “It's good—gets us out of feeling we should have a woman. This way, we're breaking precedent. Now sex can play less of a part, even if no more women take posts in the next 10 years” (“Judith Bogart: Giving Something Back,” 1983).
Bogart's career in nonprofit public relations was atypical of PRSA's choice in national leaders; however, Bogart pointed out that hospital public relations had much in common with corporate public relations. “Jewish Hospital of Cincinnati for example, one of the top 25 employers in Cincinnati in 1983, had an $80 million budget” (Judith Bogart, 1983, p. 36).
After completing an undergraduate degree at Baldwin-Wallace College, Bogart began her professional public relations career for the Girl Scout Council in Great Cincinnati than in Arlington, Virginia for the Girl Scout Council of the Nation's Capital, and later for the Great Rivers Council in Cincinnati. She was regional account executive for Education Funds, Inc., and director of community relations for the Cincinnati Human Relations Council.
Bogart was vice president of the Jewish Hospital of Cincinnati from 1977 to 1985. From 1985 to 1988, she was executive vice president of Diversified Communication Inc., Cincinnati. She purchased the Southwest Ohio office of Diversified Communications, changing its name in 1989 to Judith Bogart Associates, Cincinnati. From 1991 to 1996, she was director of public relations for Sive/Young & Rubicam, Cincinnati.
Bogart was named Career Woman of Achievement, YWCA, 1983; Fellow, PRSA in 1990; member and 1982 national headliner of Women in Communications; and president of the North American Public Relations Council in 1989. In 1995, she was on the Board of Governors of the Bankers Club and on the Board of Directors of the Institute for Community Capacity Building.
Bogart was winner of the Paul Lund national PRSA award for community service in 1999. In addition to the Girl Scouts of America, her career civic activities include service on Cincinnati's International Visitors Board, the Uptown Task Force Executive Committee, Xavier University's Community Relations Advisory Board and Northern Kentucky University and Western Kentucky University communication and journalism school advisory boards.Carol Hills
Carol Hills (1924–2012) was a pioneer counselor and educator at the College of Communication at Boston University. Hills was one of the first female professors at Boston University. She taught from 1953 to 1970 in Boston University's Air Force Information Officers Training Program. She developed and taught a course on public relations at the U.S. Navy War College in Rhode Island. Hills held several offices in the PRSA. She chaired the Education Committee in 1960. She was a PRSSA Founding Committee member in 1987. She served on the PRSA Accreditation Board in the 1980s.E. Roxie Howlett
E. Roxie Howlett, Fellow, PRSA, M.S. C.H.E, head of Howlett & Gaines Public Relations of Portland, Oregon, has been a leader in public service to society in the field of public relations, receiving the PRSA's Paul M. Lund Public Service Award in 1992. Lund challenged the field of public relations to change the human condition by becoming agents of understanding between institutions and society. Howlett illustrated this ideal through “exemplary dedication to the community of the San Francisco Bay area on a volunteer as well as professional basis” (“To Business Desk,” PR Newswire, 1985).
Howlett volunteered her services to such organizations as the American Lung Association of San Francisco, the Commonwealth Club of California, the Assistance League of San Mateo County, the National Assistance League, and the San Francisco School of the Arts Foundation.
Howlett heads Howlett & Gaines in Portland, Oregon. Prior to the move to Oregon, Howlett and Gaines was located in the San Francisco [Page 1000]area from 1968 to 1989. Before she formed her own agency, from 1962 to 1968 Howlett was western manager, Home and Fashion Division for Infoplan, the public relations arm of McCann-Erickson, Inc., the first nonowner to run the San Francisco office of Infoplan.
Howlett worked as an account representative for Lee & Associates Public Relations, Los Angeles, California (1958–1968); was assistant food editor for the Los Angeles Times, and was director of Women's Programs, KPOJ radio, Portland, Oregon.
Howlett was a leader in the International Public Relations Association (IPRA), serving on the IPRA Council and coordinating IPRA interests with the PRSA International Section. In 1991, she reviewed the Zimbabwe Institute of Public Relations, Public Relations Diploma, creating regulations and a syllabus for the Professional Diploma in Public Relations.
Howlett held many leadership positions in the local, state and national levels of the PRSA, receiving national presidential citations for “meritorious service to the PRSA Counselors Section.”
Howlett was the first woman president, in 1983, of the Public Relations Round Table of San Francisco, formed in 1939 and said to be the oldest public relations organization in the United States.
She was one of the first female members of the Commonwealth Club of California, a leading public affairs forum and the oldest and largest such forum with more than 20,000 members in the United States. Howlett served as secretary and Board of Governors member for the Commonwealth Club, helping receive visiting U.S. presidents, vice presidents, congressional leaders, world political personalities, authors, researchers and environmentalists.
Howlett's other professional activities included leadership roles in the American Home Economics Association; the Oregon Home Economics Association; the Oregon State University, College of Home Economics and Education Alumni Association; Kappa Omicron Nu; the International Federation for Home Economics; the California Home Economics Association; and the San Jose State University Public Relations Degree Advisory Board.
Other community service activities included Volunteers of American, Oregon, Inc., the American Lung Association of Oregon; the American Lung Association of California, where she was the second woman to serve as its president in 1984–1985; and the national American Lung Association.
Howlett received a master of science degree from the University of California at Los Angeles, and a bachelor's of science from Oregon State University. She studied with Rex Harlow, Stanford University Professor Emeritus and a founder of public relations. In 1981, she was the first woman to receive the PRSA Rex Harlow Award.Ruth Eileen Blower Kassewitz
Ruth Eileen Blower Kassewitz (1928-) began her professional public relations career armed with a bachelor of science degree in Journalism Management from Ohio State University in 1951. In that year, she started as a copywriter in charge of print advertising for the Ohio Fuel Gas Company, Columbus, Ohio. She continued to work in advertising as an account secretary for the Merritt Owens Agency, Kansas City, Kansas, and in 1956–1959 was an account executive for Grant Advertising, Inc., Miami, Florida.
Kassewitz's first public relations position came in 1968 as director of public relations for an architecture and engineering firm, Spillis/Candela Partners. In 1969, she became director of communications for the Metro-Dade County Department of Housing and Urban Development. In this position, she organized public information programs in urban renewal communities, helping impoverished citizens to communicate and participate in government's earliest community involvement initiatives.
With the passage in 1972 of the Florida Government-in-the-Sunshine Law, Metro-Dade County appointed Kassewitz to establish the first office of public information. As communications officer, Kassewitz launched a public relations campaign to inform the voters of the services represented by the county's $550 million Decade of Progress bond issue. The campaign won a PRSA Silver Anvil Award in 1973.
Kassewitz ran a successful public information campaign for Metro Dade County's $70 million water bond issue in 1974. The campaign won first place in the WICI (Women in Communications, Inc.) Clarion Awards.
During Kassewitz's 7 years as communication director, she built up her department from 1.5 to 13 staff persons to serve the public information [Page 1001]needs of the county manager, all county departments, and citizen advisory boards. Kassewitz accomplished this using an “internal agency” budgeting model so that the net impact on the county budget remained at 1.5 persons.
From 1978 to 1991, Kassewitz was administrator for public relations at the University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Medical Center. She created the campaign “One of the Nation's Best,” helping increase the county hospitals’ private patient admissions. This campaign won the Florida Public Relations Association (FPRA) Golden Image Award. Kassewitz retired in 1990.
Kassewitz's public service and leadership in professional organizations includes serving as the first woman president in 1993–1994 of the Rotary Club of Miami, Inc. Rotary, founded in 1905, began accepting women into its membership only in 1987.
Kassewitz was Miami president of Women in Communication in 1962 and president of the Mental Health Association in 1982. She was president in 1963 of the Dade/Miami Lung Association and of the University of Miami Women's Guild in 1973–1974. She served on PRSA's national board of directors from 1974 to 1976 and was the South Florida PRSA Chapter president in 1969.
Now a public service/public relations consultant in Coral Gables, Kassewitz received the Miami PRSA Lifetime Achievement Award in 1975. Among her other awards are Woman of the Year from the University of Miami School of Medicine; the PRSA Paul M. Lund Community Service Award in 1993; the Distinguished Rotarian of the Year award, 1996; and Rotarian of the Year, International District award, 1999.Amelia Lobsenz
Amelia Lobsenz (1922–1992) was the first woman president in 1996 of the IPRA (International Public Relations Association), and its fifth American president. Lobsenz was chairman and CEO of Lobsenz-Stevens, Inc., a public relations firm in New York City with annual billings of $3.7 million and such clients as Clairol, Pitney Bowes, Bristol Myers Squibb, Procter and Gamble, and Mitsubishi Motors.
She was Director of International Affairs of Pinnacle Worldwide, a network of public relations firms in 20 countries.
Born in Greensboro, North Carolina, Lobsenz graduated from Agnes Scott College in Decatur, Georgia. In the mid-1940s, she began her 40-year career as a freelance writer and book author. She worked for Edward Gottlieb & Associates before beginning her own firm Lobsenz PR in 1956. Her firm merged with Lobsenz-Stevens in 1975.
Lobsenz was a lecturer and writer whose articles appeared in Ladies Home Journal, Reader's Digest, Family Circle, and Woman's Day.
In her IPRA leadership role, Lobsenz developed a drug abuse education program, using a children's board game, to teach children about the realities of drug abuse in a nonthreatening environment.
William Corbett, 1990 president of IPRA, said of Lobsenz: “Amelia gave boundless energy and enthusiasm to the profession and she was always there to volunteer … she never stopped pushing.” (“Amelia Lobsenz, Leading PR Woman Dies,” 1992).
Lobsenz was a member of the Board of Governors of the National Women's Economic Alliance, the organization of business leaders who promote career opportunities for women; and was on the Board of the National Media Conference. She served on the PRSA national board in 1980–81 and received six PRSA presidential citations.
Lobsenz was honored in 1986 by PR societies in London, Paris, Milan, Frankfort, Vienna and Tokyo. She received the Orleans, France Medal of Honor.Pat Penney
In 1966, Patrician Penney Bennett (known professionally as Pat Penney) (1926–1998) became the first woman to chair the PRSA Counselor's Academy and she was the only woman to lead PRSA's first special interest group during the group's first two decades of existence.
At the 1965 Denver PRSA conference, Penney was nominated to become vice chair of the fledging, 5-year-old group. She was then designated to become chair the following year. Male chauvinism so pervaded the practice at the time that a Detroit counselor rose to block Penney's nomination because she was a woman. Following a raucous discussion, the assembled members voted down the challenge. Penney's nomination was a milestone event in women's efforts to acquire more prominence in the field.[Page 1002]
Penney served in 1965 as the first woman president of PRSA's Los Angeles chapter. She later became PRSA's national secretary in 1969.
A 1948 journalism graduate of the University of Kansas, Penney began her public relations career in the publicity department of Jerry Fairbanks Production in Hollywood and later became account director of the Harry Bennett agency and manager of corporate accounts for Communications Counselors, a subsidiary of McCann-Erickson.
She became a business partner with Harry Bennett, whom she married, and was president of Penney & Bennett, Inc., in Los Angeles from 1960 to 1973. The firm was a leading consultant in the emerging field of investor relations. Its prestigious client list included Prudential Insurance Company and Union Bank of California.
Following a brief stint as vice president of corporate relations in Summit Health, Ltd., in 1976 Penney opened her own firm, Pat Penney Public Relations, which she operated until the time of her death. Clients included her former employer, Summit Health, and leading Los Angeles institutions, consulting firms, charities, and philanthropic organizations.
Penney was active in and received awards from a variety of professional, business, and civic groups. From 1974 to 1988, she taught public relations part-time at the University of Southern California School of Journalism (now Annenberg School of Communications), where a public relations scholarship is established in her memory.Rea W. Smith
Rea W. Smith (1918–1981), APR, served the PRSA for 23 years, first as assistant to Shirley D. Smith, PRSA executive director and her husband, and then as vice president of administration in 1960 and as the first woman executive vice president from 1975 to 1980.
In 1980, Smith became executive director of the Foundation for Public Relations Research and Education (now called the Public Relations Foundation) until her death in 1981.
Her pioneering staff work for the national office of PRSA included staff executive for judicial and grievance matters, for legal affairs, for committees on the development of PRSA's Code of Ethics, and for the Accreditation Boards, following the initiation of Accreditation in 1962. She authored the organizational plan for establishing the International Accreditation Council, adopted in 1975 (Rea Smith, APR, 1981).
Smith was born in Jamestown, New York. She began her career in public relations in the early 1940s. She was a TV talk show moderator and in Memphis, Tennessee, was one of the first women to produce political TV broadcasts. From 1946 to 1957, she and her husband partnered in a Memphis public relations firm, Shirley D. Smith & Associates.
Smith wrote many articles dealing with public relations and the PRSA. She was treasurer (1971–1973) and board member (1977–1978) of the Women Executives in Public Relations.Further ReadingsA legendary loss. (2003, November/December). Currents, p. 53.Amelia Lobsenz, leading PR woman dies. (1992, October). O'Dwyer's PR Service Report, p. 54.Arthur W. Page Society. (2003, September). Distinguished Service Award biography. New York: Author.AT&T's Marilyn Laurie to be honored by American Jewish Women. (1995, June 1). PR Newswire, p. 11.1997, November 27). Consultant honored as minority advocate: Inez Kaiser started PR firm after leaving KC teaching job. Kansas City Star, pp. D1–D2.(Berger, B.K. (ed.). (2007). Legacies from legends in public relations. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Printing Services.Biographical directory of the United States Congress, 1774-present. (n.d.). Allen, Henry Justin. Retrieved from http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=A000126Caroline Hood. (1981, June 4). PR Newswire, p. 1.Corporate PR heads have different press policies. (1993, February). O'Dwyer's PR Services Report, p. 1.Council for Advancement and Support of Education. (2004). Alice L. Beeman Research Awards in Communications for Educational Advancement. Retrieved from http://www.cae.org/Content/AwardsScholarships/Display.cfm?1994). The unseen power: Public relations, a history. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(Denny Griswold. (1997, December). Public Relations Journal, 53, 20–21.[Page 1003]Dudley-Anderson-Yutzy Public Relations. (1971, March 24). Jack O-Dwyer's Newsletter, p. 2.2006). Public relations origins: Definitions and history. In R.Tench & L.Yeomans (eds.), Exploring public relations (pp. 2–16). Harlow, UK: Prentice Hall.(Foremost Americans Publishing Corp. (1970). Foremost women in communications. A bibliographical reference work on accomplished women in broadcasting, publishing, advertising, public relations, and allied professions. New York: Author.1992, October 27). Former area resident, founder of PR company honored by the Kansas City Star. Kansas City Star.(1999). Twin towers: The life of New York City's World Trade Center. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.(2001). Rediscovering women in public relations: Women in the Public Relations Journal, 1945–1972. Journalism History, 27 (1), 14–21.(1948). Your public relations. New York: Funk & Wagnalls., & (2000). Feminist values in public relations. Journal of Public Relations Research, 12 (1), 49–68., , & (2001). Women in public relations: How gender influences practice. Boston: Guilford Press., , & (1983, November) Selling the Brooklyn Bridge. reprint.(1997). Anonymous in her own name. Journalism History, 23 (2), 51–73.(2001, May 13). A private end for a public relations star. New York Times Metro, p. 30.(1965, April 25). Port unit's “voice” will retire soon. The New York Times, p. 54.(Jackson, Jackson, & Wagner [Public relations firm]: http://www.jjwpr.com1950, January). Public relations in municipal government. Public Relations Journal, 6 (1), 2–6.(1955, October). Public relations—The new government service. Public Relations Journal, 11 (10), 74–79, 141.(1958–1959). Who's who of American women (Vol. I). Chicago: Marquis.(Judith Bogart: Giving something back. (1983). Public Relations Journal, pp. 35–36.2010). Removing the spin: Toward a new theory of public relations history. Journalism Communication Monographs, 11 (4)., & (2002). Epping conservationist earns statewide award. Retrieved from http://www.seacoastonline.com/2002news/exeter/04232002/news/l109.htm(2010). Lessons on the big idea and public relations: Reflections on the 50-year career of Charlotte Klein. Public Relations Journal, 4 (1), 334–350., & (1997). Woman, man, lady, horse: Jane Stewart, public relations executive. Public Relations Review, 23 (3), 249–269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0363-8111%2897%2990035-7(O'Dwyer, J. (ed.). (1979). O'Dwyer's directory of public relations executives. New York: Author.O'Dwyer, J. (ed.). (1991). O'Dwyer's directory of public relations executives. New York: Author.2000). Phyllis Berlowe dies. Jack O'Dwyer's Newsletter, 33 (7), 2.(1992, October 6). Missouri Division of Lourism biased: Woman tells NAACP. St. Louis Post-Dispatch, p. 3A.(1958, June). The influence of professional campaign management firms in partisan elections in California. Western Political Quarterly, 11 (2), 278–300. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/444407(PR-education.org. (2002). David W. Ferguson Award. Retrieved from http://lamar.colostate.edu/~pr/ferguson.htmPublic Relations Society of America, (n.d.). College of Fellows inductees. Retrieved from http://www.prsa.org/Network/Communities/CollegeOfFellows/Inductees/index.htmlPublic Relations Society of America, (n.d.). Silver Anvil awards. Retrieved from http://www.prsa.org/Awards/SilverAnvil1989). From the feminization of public relations to the promise of feminism. In E.L.Toth & C.G.Cline (eds.), Beyond the velvet ghetto (pp. 287–298). San Francisco: International Association of Business Communicators.(2008). On feminist theory of public relations: An example from Dorothy E. Smith. Paper presented to the International Communication Association Conference, Montreal, Canada., & (Rea Smith, APR, Foundation executive director, dies of heart attack, May 17. (1981, June), PRSA National Newsletter, 9 (9), 1, 4.Rites held for Richard Kaiser. (2003, January 27). The (Kansas City, MO) Call.1959, July). The supersalesmen of California politics: Whitaker and Baxter. Harper's Magazine, 55–61.(Text of letter of apology. (1993, November). O'Dwyer's PR Services Report, p. 17.[Page 1004]To business desk. (1985, May 28). PR Newswire, p. 1. Who's who of American women (1974–1975) (8th ed.). Wilmette, IL: Marquis Who's Who.Women in public relations. (1951). Public Relations Journal, p. 6.Source
Adapted from the following entries in R. L. Heath (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Public Relations (pp. 70–72). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Copyright 2005 by Sage Publications: “Baxter, Leone, and Whitaker, Clem” by Karla K. Gower; “Berlowe, Phyllis” by Brenda J. Wrigley; “Hunter, Barbara W.” by Kathleen S. Kelly & Kathryn L. Ferguson; “Kaiser, Inez Y.” by Marilyn Kern-Foxworth; “Parke, Isobel” by Linda Aldoory; “Barkelew, Ann H.” by Brenda J. Wrigley; “Gregg, Dorothy” by Hsiang-Hui Claire Wang; “Griswold, Denny” by Shirley Serini; “Jaffe, Lee K.” by Margot Opdyche Lamme; “Hood, Caroline” by Elizabeth L. Toth; “Laurie, Marilyn” by Elizabeth L. Toth; “Schoonover, Jean” by Elizabeth L. Toth; “Beeman, Alice L.” by Elizabeth L. Toth; “Bogart, Judith S.” by Elizabeth L. Toth; “Howlett, E. Roxie” by Elizabeth L. Toth; “Kassewitz, Ruth B.” by Elizabeth L. Toth; “Lobsenz, Amelia” by Elizabeth L. Toth; “Penney, Pat” by Kirk Hallahan; “Smith, Rea” by Elizabeth L. Toth.
Milestones in the History of Public Relations[Page 1005]
Because public relations did not just begin at any point in history, scholars and practitioners have chronicled some of the most important and identifiable moments in the history that led up to the start of public relations by that name. As indicated in the entry titled “Antecedents of Modern Public Relations,” the practice as we know it today is part of a living legacy. The key moments indicate those communicative events that preceded and fostered today's public relations. This history indicates the enduring efforts of some person or organization to communicate with others. At times, the efforts of public relations are geared to serve the larger interest of the community. At other times they are narrowly applied to serve the interest of some leader or organization. The following list is illustrative; please note that it is not exhaustive. Nevertheless, it demonstrates how public relations, for better or worse, is a vital part of the enduring fabric of human society in its many facets.
Many of the moments mentioned in the timeline below are either featured entries in this encyclopedia or important parts of such entries. This timeline should encourage the reader to learn more about these moments and think of them as stepping-stones in the stream that is the history of public relations.
- 1800 BC—In Sumeria, a farm bulletin telling farmers how to grow crops is one of the earliest examples of mass distribution of educational materials.
- 100 BC—A signal of the rise in importance of public opinion, the Romans coin the phrase Vox populi; vox Dei, “the voice of the people is the voice of God.”
- 52 BC—Julius Caesar sends reports, including “Caesar's Gallic Wars,” to the Romans in preparation for his crossing the Rubicon River to invade Italy in 49 BC,
- AD 1215—Stephen Langton, Archbishop of Canterbury, mobilizes a disgruntled group of barons who confront King John with ultimatums that eventually mature into the Magna Carta.
- AD 1315—John Wycliffe calls for reforms by the Catholic Church, including the publication of the Bible into the vernacular.
- 1500s—In the wake of the invention of printing with movable type by Johann Gutenberg in 1446, handbills and broadsides are used to promote various causes.
- 1517—Martin Luther starts the Reformation when he nails 95 theses proclaiming wrongdoings of the Roman Catholic Church to the door of the castle church in Wittenberg, Germany.
- 1622—Pope Gregory XV creates the Congregatio de Propaganda Fide (College for Propagating the Faith), an effort by the Roman Catholic Church to retain followers and solicit converts in the aftermath of the Reformation. This was the origin of the term propaganda.
- 1641—Harvard College launches first systematic fundraising effort in the United States, sending students door-to-door to raise money.
- 1748—The first news release to solicit press coverage is sent by King's College (now Columbia University) in New York. [Page 1006]
- 1773—Sixty colonists dressed as Mohawk Indians demonstrate rising dissatisfaction with British tax policies by staging the Boston Tea Party, dumping 342 chests of tea valued at 10,000 pounds into Boston Harbor.
- 1787—The Federalist Papers, a series of 85 pamphlets that were also reprinted as articles in newspapers, were produced to generate support for the formal creation of the United States and passage of its Constitution.
- 1807—Thomas Jefferson, third president of the United States, combined public with relations in a statement about the obligation of government to the governed.
- 1829—Amos Kendall serves as the first presidential press secretary as a member of Andrew Jackson's “kitchen cabinet.” In 1829, he was appointed fourth auditor of the Treasury, in addition to writing speeches, state papers, and news releases, conducting opinion polls, and developing the administration's own newspaper.
- 1840s—P. T. Barnum becomes the first press agent, promoting local appearances by his touring circus.
- 1850s—American railroads use publicity, advertising, and printed materials to attract tourists and settlers to the American West.
- 1882—Attorney Dorman Eaton first uses the term public relations, referring to an organization's role in service to the public welfare, in an address to Yale Law School graduates on “The Public Relations and Duties of the Legal Profession.”
- 1888—Mutual Life Insurance Company creates a “species of literary bureau” to coordinate advertising and publicity.
- 1889—The first corporate public relations department is established by Westinghouse. Westinghouse ultimately prevailed in the ensuing “battle of the currents” to promote the benefits of alternating current (AC) versus the direct current (DC) invented earlier by Thomas Edison and the General Electric Company.
- 1895—Ford Motor Company pioneers press product previews for product promotion.
- 1896—The use of modern publicity in political campaigns begins with the presidential election between William McKinley and William Jennings Bryan when both candidates establish campaign headquarters in Chicago.
- 1897—General Electric creates a publicity department.
- 1900—The first public relations firm, Publicity Bureau of Boston, is established by George Michaelis, Herbert Small, and Thomas O. Marvin.
- 1902—H. S. Adams's article, “What Is Publicity?” is published in the American Review. It is believed to be the first magazine article about public relations.
- 1903—Ford Motor Company uses auto races for product promotion; Chicago Edison, under the direction of President Samuel Insull, does the same via an external magazine.
- 1906—Ivy Ledbetter Lee is hired to represent the coal industry in the anthracite coal miners’ strike. Lee issues his “Declaration of Principles,” considered the birth of modern public relations counseling.
- 1909—Chicago Edison uses films for product promotion; Pendleton Dudley opens his public relations agency on Wall Street, a firm (Dudley-Anderson-Yutzy) that was sold to Ogilvy & Mather in 1983.
- 1912—Chicago Edison uses stuffers inserted in customer bills for promotional purposes.
- 1914—The “Ludlow (Colorado) Massacre.” State militia kill 20 people—striking Colorado Fuel and Iron Company miners, along with their wives and children—a tragedy that helped establish the value of corporate public relations. Ivy Lee represented Colorado Fuel and Iron owner J. D. Rockefeller's interests. No perpetrators are convicted, but many miners and union leaders are fired and blackballed.
- 1917—The Committee on Public Information, a government agency headed by George Creel (also known as the Creel Committee), promotes public support of American involvement in World War I; Former Atlanta journalist Edward Clarke and ex-madam Bessie Tyler form the Southern Publicity Association to promote World War I fund drives. After the war, they built up membership in the Ku Klux Klan by offering a $10 induction fee to Klansmen for every new member they signed up. [Page 1007]
- 1923—Edward L. Bernays publishes Crystallizing Public Opinion, the first book on professional public relations, and teaches the first public relations course at New York University.
- 1927—Arthur W. Page is named vice president of public relations at AT&T, accepting the job on the condition that he is allowed to be involved in policy making. Page would distinguish himself as the leading corporate practitioner of the century by emphasizing the importance of cooperation with the public and of disclosure about corporate activities; John W. Hill founds Hill & Knowlton.
- 1929—Edward Bernays stages two major public relations events as marches: the “Torches of Freedom” March in New York to promote smoking for women, and the “Golden Jubilee of Light” in Dearborn, Michigan, to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the invention of the electric light bulb.
- 1931—Paul Garrett becomes the first public relations director at General Motors, inspiring other large corporations to make similar appointments.
- 1933—Campaigns, Inc., the first political campaign firm, is founded by husband and wife Clem Whitaker and Leone Baxter in California; President Franklin Delano Roosevelt uses his famous “fireside chats” to instill confidence in the American people; Edward Bernays develops the “Green Ball” campaign for Lucky Strike cigarettes, urging women to (1) wear green clothing as a fashion statement and (2) smoke Lucky Strikes, as the green packaging would mesh with their outfit.
- 1936—The first widespread use of public opinion polling, with companies conducting selected consumer interviews. Small-sample Crossley, Gallup, and Elmo Roper polls predict Franklin D. Roosevelt's presidential victory over Alf Landon, while the 2 million-ballot Literary Digest poll predicts a Landon victory, proving that proper sampling is more important than sample size.
- 1939—Rex Harlow of Stanford University becomes the first full-time public relations educator.
- 1941—The first noncommercial opinion research agency, The National Opinion Research Center, is established.
- 1942—The Office of War Information, headed by Elmer Davis, promotes public support of and involvement in World War II.
- 1945—The Advertising Council (formerly the War Advertising Council) is reorganized to create information campaigns on behalf of various social causes; the United States government announces via press release that an American plane dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima.
- 1948—The Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) is founded.
- 1950—The PRSA Code of Professional Standards is adopted.
- 1953—The United States Information Agency (USIA) is created by President Dwight Eisenhower to disseminate news and cultural information abroad.
- 1955—The International Public Relations Association (IPRA) is founded.
- 1957—Anne Williams Wheaton is appointed associate press secretary to President Eisenhower, the first time a woman holds that position.
- 1960—In opposition to his earlier prosmoking campaigns, Edward Bernays leads an effort to inform the public about the dangers of smoking.
- 1963—John Marston's four-step management process for public relations, RACE—research, action, communication, evaluation—is published in his book The Nature of Public Relations.
- 1965—PRSA accreditation is established.
- 1970—The International Association of Business Communicators (IABC) is founded.
- 1973—Carl Byoir and Associates becomes the first of several large public relations firms to become a subsidiary of an advertising company (Hill & Knowlton).
- 1980—Inez Kaiser becomes the first African American female to open a national public relations firm, Inez Kaiser & Associates.
- 1982—Six people in a Chicago suburb die of cyanide poisoning from Tylenol capsules they ingested, causing a public relations crisis for McNeil Laboratories and Johnson & Johnson. [Page 1008]
- 1989—The Exxon Valdez grounds at Bligh Reef, rupturing 8 of its 11 cargo tanks and spewing some 10.8 million gallons of crude oil into Prince William Sound. Although the spill is ranked 34th on a list of the world's largest oil spills over the previous 2 decades, the environmental damage makes the accident one of the largest public relations crises in United States history.
- 1993—A Seattle television station reports that a local couple found a syringe in a can of Diet Pepsi, inspiring a host of similar reports across the United States. Pepsi responds by working closely with the Food and Drug Administration to rule out product tampering as the cause. Throwing open their doors to the press, they demonstrate the impossibility of placing an object in a can, and the nationwide “scare” is determined to be a hoax.
- 1998—The Council of Public Relations Firms is founded.
- 1999—Anheuser-Busch unveils a public-service campaign against driving under the influence of alcohol.
- 2000—The PRSA Code of Ethics is revised as a list of “inspirational guidelines.”
- 2002—The PRSA promulgates Universal Accreditation as the standard for practice.
Adapted from A Short Timeline of Key People and Events in Public Relations History,http://lamar.colostate.edu/~hallahan/hprhist.htm;PRHistory.com, http://www.camdencc.edu/breve/teachlc/archive/humanities/prhistory/timeline/second.htm; Institute of Public Relations, http://www.instituteforpr.com/pdf/HistoryofPublic%20Relation-Institute.pdf; Pioneers in Public Relations, http://facstaff.buffalostate.edu/smithrd/PR/pioneers.htm.
Public Relations Online Resources[Page 1009]
American Society of Association Executives (now The Center for Association Leadership) World's leading membership organization for the association management profession.
Arthur W. Page Society
This professional association brings together senior public relations and corporate communications executives and public relations faculty members who seek to enrich and strengthen their profession. It is particularly focused on strengthening the management policy role of chief public relations officers.
Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (AEJMC) The Public Relations Division of AEJMC organizes the presentation of academic papers competitively selected to advance public relations scholarship. It also works to set standards for the teaching of public relations. It is an association sponsor of the Journal of Public Relations Research.
Asociación Mexicana de Profesionales de Relaciones Públicas (PRORP) (Mexico) Association of Professionals in Mexico and a member of Global Alliance.
Canadian Public Relations Society Professional organization with 1, 700 members across Canada.
The Chartered Institute of Public Relations Public relations professional membership association in Europe.
Commission on Public Relations Education (CPRE)
Organized in 1975, this organization brings together educators and practitioners who represent 15 professional societies in public relations. This organization's mission is to be the authoritative voice working to set standards for strengthening public relations education.
Association of public relations, marketing, graphics, advertising, training, information technology, and other communications organizations. http://www.roundtable.org
Council of Public Relations Firms
Information source for members regarding the public relations industry.[Page 1010]
Global Alliance for Public Relations and Communication Management
Organization network of the International Public Relations Association.
Source of news, knowledge, and career information for public relations professionals. http://www.holmesreport.com
The Institute for PR
Promotes and encourages academic and professional excellence.
International Association of Business Communicators
Products, services, activities, and networking opportunities to help people and organizations achieve excellence in public relations, employee communication, marketing communication, public affairs, and other forms of communication. http://www.iabc.com
International Communication Association (ICA)
The Public Relations Division of ICA organizes the annual presentation of academic papers on major topics relevant to the advancement of the understanding and practice of public relations. http://www.icahdq.org; http://www.icapr.org
International Public Relations Association Provides professional development and personal networking opportunities for worldwide membership in association with and links to national organizations in the following countries, each of which has one or more national associations: Africa (APRA), Australia (PRIA), Austria (PRVA), Bangladesh (BPRA), Belgium (BGPRA), Brazil (ABRP), Canada (CPRS), China (CIPRA), Croatia (HUOJ), Cuba (National Committee of Public Relations from the Cuban Association of Social Communicators), Denmark (DACP and BPRV), Estonia (EPRA), Finland (ProCom: Finnish Association of Communications Professionals), France (SYNTEC Public Relations Consultants Organisation; Information Press & Communication), Germany (CPRA; DPRG), Greece (Hellenic Association of Advertising-Communications Agencies), Hong Kong, China (Hong Kong Public Relations Professionals’ Association), Hungary (Hungarian Public Relations Association), Iceland (Public Relations Association of Iceland), India (PRCAI), Indonesia (PERHUMAS), IPRA-Gulf Chapter (Gulf Cooperation Countries: Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman, United Arab Emirates), Ireland (Public Relations Consultants Association of Ireland; PRII), Israel (Israel Public Relations Association), Public Relations Society of Kenya (PRSK), Latvia (Latvian Public Relations Association), Luxembourg (National Association of Public Relations of Luxembourg), Malaysia (Institute of Public Relations Malaysia), Netherlands (Logeion, Association for Communication; VPRA), New Zealand (Public Relations Institute of New Zealand; PRINZ), Norway (The Norwegian Communication Association); Poland (Polish Public Relations Association; Polish Public Relations Consultancies Association) Puerto Rico (Association of Public Relations Professionals of Puerto Rico), Republic of Korea (KPRA), Russian Federation (RPRA), Serbia (Public Relations Society of Serbia), Singapore (Institute of Public Relations of Singapore), Slovak Republic (Association of Public Relations of the Slovak Republic), Slovenia (Public Relations Society of Slovenia), South Africa (PRISA), Spain (DIRECOM; Association of Public Relations Consultancies), Swaziland (SPRA), Sweden (PRECIS; Swedish Public Relations Association). It also links with the European Public Relations Confederation (CERP) and European Public Relations Education and Research Association (EUPRERA), both of which are headquartered in Belgium.
I-PR Discussion List
Online community of public relations professionals. http://www.marketingwonk.com/lists/ipr[Page 1011]
National Communication Association (NCA) The Public Relations Division of NCA supports the annual presentation of scholarly papers on public relations. It also features outstanding articles and books by the PRIDE Award winners. http://www.natcom.org; http://ncaprdivision.wordpress.com
National Investor Relations Institute Advances the practice of investor relations and the professional competency and stature of its members.
Plank Center for Leadership in Public Relations
This center was created in honor of Betsy Plank at her alma mater, the University of Alabama, to specialize in discussion, research, and outreach to advance the leadership abilities of professionals and academics dedicated to the practice of public relations.
An online course for prospective public relations practitioners.
A moderated forum for public relations professionals to discuss public relations/communications issues as they relate to the Internet.
An online program for practitioners and academics to monitor innovations in the practice. email@example.com
The first weekly magazine to offer worldwide coverage of the public relations business. http://www.prweek.com
Public Affairs Council
Professional Washington, D.C.-based association for senior public affairs practitioners in large businesses and nonprofits.
Public Relations Consultants Association Information about public relations consultants in the United Kingdom.
Public Relations Links
Links compiled by Kirk Hallahan, Fellow PRSA, at Colorado State University.
Public Relations Society of America
The world's largest professional organization for public relations practitioners.
Public Relations Society of America Educators Academy
This academy is a division of the Public Relations Society of America especially dedicated to fostering collaborative efforts among academics and professionals dedicated to advance public relations education.
Public Relations Student Society of America
Cultivates mutually advantageous relationships between students and professional public relations practitioners.
Online publication of advice for entry level and senior practitioners.[Page 1012]
Technology Events Information
List of important and influential technology-related gatherings worldwide.
Young PR Pros
An online forum for those new to the public relations field.
Recruiting and career site specifically for the public relations industry, offering credible industry research, career resources, and public relations tools.