Encyclopedia of Media Violence

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Edited by: Matthew S. Eastin

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    • Copyright

      Editorial Board

      Editor

      Matthew S. Eastin The University of Texas at Austin

      Editorial Board

      Craig A. Anderson Iowa State University

      Vincent Cicchirillo The University of Texas at Austin

      Bradley S. Greenberg Michigan State University

      Dana Mastro University of California, Santa Barbara

      Ron Tamborini Michigan State University

      List of Entries

      Reader’s Guide

      The Reader’s Guide is provided to assist readers in locating articles on related topics. It classifies articles into seven general topical categories: general aggression; media content; media effects; media policy; research process; society and media; and theories of media influence. Entries may be listed under more than one topic.

      About the Editor

      Matthew S. Eastin (PhD, Michigan State University) is an associate professor in the Department of Advertising and Public Relations at The University of Texas at Austin. His research focuses on media behavior. From this perspective, he investigates message development, information processing, and the social and psychological factors associated with the use and effects of newer technology. In particular, Eastin has focused much of his research on video game engagement, including violence. Eastin has published approximately 70 research manuscripts. The Encyclopedia of Media Violence will be his third edited book.

      Contributors

      Robert Abelman Cleveland State University

      Ellen R. Albertson Fielding Graduate University

      Craig A. Anderson Iowa State University

      Kathryn B. Anderson Our Lady of the Lake University

      Osei Appiah The Ohio State University

      Marios N. Avraamides University of Cyprus

      C. Mo Bahk California State University, San Bernardino

      Albert Bandura Stanford University

      Bruce D. Bartholow University of Missouri

      Elizabeth Behm-Morawitz University of Missouri

      Katharina-Maria Behr University of California, Santa Barbara

      Leonard Berkowitz University of Wisconsin–Madison (Retired)

      Gregory Blackburn University of Massachusetts Amherst

      Nicholas David Bowman West Virginia University

      Cheryl Campanella Bracken Cleveland State University

      Paul F. Brain Swansea University

      Jeffrey E. Brand Bond University

      Laura F. Bright Texas Christian University

      Kevin Browne University of Nottingham

      Julie Cajigas Cleveland State University

      Clay Calvert University of Florida

      Esther Calvete University of Deusto

      David S. Chester University of Kentucky

      Vincent Cicchirillo The University of Texas at Austin

      Jenna L. Clark University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

      Dov Cohen University of Illinois

      Debra L. Corey Our Lady of the Lake University

      Teresa Correa Diego Portales University

      Juliann Cortese Florida State University

      Sarah M. Coyne Brigham Young University

      Nicole Cunningham The University of Texas at Austin

      Menno D. T. De Jong University of Twente

      Matt DeLisi Iowa State University

      James Denny Cleveland State University

      Thomas F. Denson The University of New South Wales

      C. Nathan DeWall University of Kentucky

      Karen E. Dill-Shackleford Fielding Graduate University

      Edward Donnerstein The University of Arizona

      Mary Elizabeth Dunn The University of Texas at Austin

      Matthew S. Eastin The University of Texas at Austin

      Allison Eden VU University Amsterdam

      Bobbie Eisenstock California State University

      Christopher R. Engelhardt University of Missouri

      Kostas A. Fanti University of Cyprus

      Allan Fenigstein Kenyon College

      Corinne Ferdon Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

      Karin M. Fikkers University of Amsterdam

      Rachel M. Flynn University of California, Riverside

      Catherine E. Goodall Kent State University

      Jordy F. Gosselt University of Twente

      Donald S. Grant Fielding Graduate University

      Melanie C. Green University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

      Bradley S. Greenberg Michigan State University

      Jennifer L. Gregg University of Louisville

      Robert P. Griffiths The Ohio State University

      Matthew Grizzard Michigan State University

      Christopher Groves Iowa State University

      Gert Martin Hald University of Copenhagen

      Richard Jackson Harris Kansas State University

      Amir Hetsroni Ariel University

      Jay Hmielowski The University of Arizona

      James D. Ivory Virginia Tech

      Seung-A Annie Jin Boston College

      Tim Jones Memorial University Newfoundland

      LeeAnn Kahlor The University of Texas at Austin

      Robin M. Kowalski Clemson University

      Barbara Krahé Universität Potsdam

      Michael Kurtz Cleveland State University

      Robert LaRose Michigan State University

      Lisa LaViers Emory University

      Allison Lazard The University of Texas at Austin

      Seungae Lee The University of Texas at Austin

      Seung-ha Lee National Youth Policy Institute in South Korea

      Anthony F. Lemieux Georgia State University

      Melinda A. Lemke The University of Texas at Austin

      Jason Levitt Georgia State University

      Robert Joel Lewis The University of Texas at Austin

      Susan P. Limber Clemson University

      Jennifer Ruh Linder Linfield College

      Amanda Mabry The University of Texas at Austin

      Chad Mahood The University of Texas at San Antonio

      Galit Marmor-Lavie The University of Texas at Austin

      Dana Mastro University of California, Santa Barbara

      Christopher J. McKinley Montclair State University

      W. James Potter Knowledge Assets, Inc.

      Sara Prot Iowa State University

      Rebekah A. Richert University of California, Riverside

      Karyn Riddle University of Wisconsin–Madison

      Anthony J. Roberto Arizona State University

      Muniba Saleem University of Michigan-Dearborn

      Meghan S. Sanders Louisiana State University

      Kevin W. Saunders Michigan State University

      Joanne Savage American University

      Angela Scarpa Virginia Tech

      Erica Scharrer University of Massachusetts Amherst

      Jaclyn Schildkraut Texas State University–San Marcos

      John L. Sherry Michigan State University

      Paul Skalski Cleveland State University

      Peter K. Smith Goldsmiths, University of London

      Kristin Stewart The University of Texas at Austin

      Carmen Stitt California State University, Sacramento

      Victor C. Strasburger Mediatrix LLC

      Robert Sweeny Indiana University of Pennsylvania

      Ron Tamborini Michigan State University

      Joel Timmer Texas Christian University

      Riva Tukachinsky Chapman University

      Monique Mitchell Turner The George Washington University

      Patti M. Valkenburg University of Amsterdam

      Joris J. van Hoof University of Twente

      Edward T. Vieira Jr. Simmons School of Management

      Zheng Wang The Ohio State University

      Wayne Warburton Macquarie University

      René Weber University of California, Santa Barbara

      Kevin D. Williams Mississippi State University

      Laura C. Wilson Virginia Tech

      Jay Wood Georgia State University

      Paul J. Wright Indiana University

      Mu Wu Pennsylvania State University

      Marjorie Yambor Western Kentucky University

      Melissa M. Yang Endicott College

      Paul Zube Ferris State University

      Introduction

      Topic Relevance

      There is a rich history of research looking at the relationship between media and violence. From the early experimental research conducted by Albert Bandura in the 1960s to the initial cultivation research by George Gerbner in the 1970s, researchers, politicians, and the press have cautiously sought to understand the relationship between media exposure and violent outcomes, whether they are affective, cognitive, or behavioral. Yet never before has media been under more scrutiny over violent content. Recent tragedies such as the mass shooting at a movie theater in Colorado in July 2012, in which 12 people were killed, and the school shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Connecticut in December 2012, in which 20 children and 6 adults were killed, have kept the topic of media violence in the popular press. From rap music to television to video games, media content (especially violent content) has fallen under great scrutiny as the world tries to make sense of needless violence. Although television research dominated the academic literature and public discourse during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, an increasing literature base investigating video games has been growing since the early 2000s. Video games are thought to increase audience engagement and thus potential effects of content exposure. For instance, although television offers audiences the opportunity to watch acts of violence, video games allow audiences to perform violent acts through their characters. Moreover, with the relatively recent diffusion of technologies such as smartphones, new topics such as cyberbullying have spurred new research agendas.

      There has been an overwhelming amount of research, opinions, and perspectives on the topic. In addition to communication research, other disciplines such as sociology, psychology, and media create a diverse interdisciplinary research perspective on the topic of media violence. Recently, research looking at functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from violent media exposure has pointed to a more rigorous approach to the research agenda.

      Defining the Encyclopedia

      Although there have been books and articles related to the subject of media violence, this encyclopedia is the most comprehensive look at the subject. To avoid confusion throughout the encyclopedia, I propose a working definition of aggression. For this, I generally speak to Craig Anderson and Brad Bushman’s definition of aggression as “any behavior directed toward another individual that is carried out with the proximate (immediate) intent to cause harm. In addition, the perpetrator must believe that the behavior will harm the target, and that the target is motivated to avoid the behavior” (2002, p. 28). By providing readers with a platform definition, I am not trying to exclude other authors’ definitions; rather, I hope readers will be able to broadly position their expectations as they read through many of the entries.

      To this end, to add a comprehensive perspective, the encyclopedia seeks to help readers broadly understand the topic of violence and media. Unlike other publications that have looked at this topic, this encyclopedia approaches the topic as it relates specifically within each medium as well as more broadly within the fields of psychology, sociology, and communication. Rather than simply pointing out effects from each medium, the encyclopedia allows users to read entries on topics such as the culture of violence, psychobiology of violence, and psychopathology of violence, to name a few. Moreover, with entries on narrative, moral development, memory, methodologies of investigation, and general effect sizes, this encyclopedia allows readers to look beyond current perspectives to a newer media or perhaps a new agenda that will, we hope, provide greater precision in understanding the influence of violent media exposure on the individual audience.

      Organization of the Entries

      Readers will be able to examine entries that explore theory, research, and debates as related to media violence in relatively jargon-free and balanced perspectives. There are 135 entries listed in alphabetical order from A to Z. Entries are 3,000, 2,000, or 1,000 words in length. Longer entries (3,000 words) are well-developed concepts or ideas and represent a complete coverage of the topic area. Entries that are 2,000 words, while core to the field, are less developed and focus more on the current thinking on the topics. Finally, shorter entries (1,000 words) represent topics that require less depth and more precision for content delivery. Each entry is grounded in a theoretical perspective or core literature.

      In addition, the Reader’s Guide at the front of the encyclopedia, which classifies entries by general topic category, will assist readers in locating related entries. The Reader’s Guide provides seven general topic categories: General Aggression; Media Content; Media Effects; Media Policy; Research Process; Society and Media; and Theories of Media Influence.

      Acknowledgments

      This encyclopedia was developed over more than one year and required the cooperation of many people. The SAGE group consisting of Jim Brace-Thompson (senior acquisitions editor), Carole Maurer (senior developmental editor), and Leticia Gutierrez (reference systems supervisor) tirelessly worked to develop and keep this project moving forward. In addition to the SAGE group, I thank Pam Suwinsky for her work on the final review of this encyclopedia. I thank each of the editorial board members: Craig Anderson, Vincent Cicchirillo, Bradley Greenberg, Dana Mastro, and Ron Tamborini. Each editorial board member was instrumental in identifying authors and crafting the headword list. They each also contributed entries as experts in their respected fields.

      I also thank my wife, Emily Eastin; my son, Johnathan Eastin; and my daughter, Anna Eastin, for dealing with the continual motion of this project. Many holidays and vacations were spent with me working to make sure the encyclopedia was finished. I also thank my mother- and father-in-law, Colleen and Robert Geiger, for their support throughout the editorial process and my career. Finally, and perhaps most important, I thank my dad, Harold Eastin; without his support I would not be where I am today. He has always been a voice of support and inspiration. Although media no doubt has had a socializing influence, there is no better window into who I am than my dad. Thanks, Dad!

      Reference
      Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2002). Human aggression. Annual Review of Psychology, 53(1), 2751.
      10.4135/9781452299655.n5
    • Resource Guide

      Books and Book Chapters
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