Encyclopedia of Management Theory

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Edited by: Eric H. Kessler

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      Editor

      Eric H. Kessler Pace University

      Advisory Board

      Jean M. Bartunek Boston College

      Michael Hitt Texas A&M University

      Anne Sigismund Huff National University of Ireland, Maynooth

      Paul R. Lawrence Harvard University

      Jeffrey Pfeffer Stanford University

      Andrew H. Van de Ven University of Minnesota

      David A. Whetten Brigham Young University

      List of Entries

      Reader’s Guide

      About the Editor

      Eric H. Kessler is the Henry George Professor of Management, and founding director of the Business Honors Program, in the Lubin School of Business at Pace University in New York City. As a management scholar, Dr. Kessler holds a PhD in organization management and international business; he has produced over 100 research papers and presentations that span a broad array of management issues and published three critically acclaimed management books: (1) Handbook of Organizational and Managerial Wisdom, (2) Cultural Mythology and Global Leadership, and (3) Management Theory in Action: Real World Lessons for Walking the Talk. As a management educator Dr. Kessler instructs courses and conducts developmental workshops on a range of management levels and topics; in addition he has worked as an executive educator, corporate speaker, and has led numerous global management field studies traveling across six continents. As a management professional, Dr. Kessler is a Fellow and Past President of the Eastern Academy of Management and a long-time member of the Academy of Management; he has served on several management journals’ advisory and editorial boards and has worked with a wide variety of large and small as well as private and government organizations. Dr. Kessler has received many academic honors and awards, is a member of Phi Beta Kappa, and has been inducted into national and international honorary societies in business, forensics, economics, and psychology.

      Contributors

      Eric Abrahamson Columbia University

      Frédéric Adam University College Cork

      Susan M. Adams Bentley University

      Rachida Aïssaoui University of Memphis

      Kleio Akrivou University of Reading

      Ramon J. Aldag Wisconsin School of Business, University of Wisconsin-Madison

      Sarah F. Allgood Virginia Tech

      Sharon A. Alvarez The Ohio State University

      Mats Alvesson Lund University

      Teresa M. Amabile Harvard Business School

      John M. Amis University of Memphis

      Jon Aarum Andersen Linneaus University, Sweden

      Marc H. Anderson Iowa State University

      Siah Hwee Ang University of Auckland Business School

      Alana S. Arshoff University of Toronto

      James Bailey George Washington University

      Arnold B. Bakker Erasmus University Rotterdam

      Timothy T. Baldwin Kelley School of Business, Indiana University

      Albert Bandura Stanford University

      Kathleen J. Barnes East Stroudsburg University

      Jay B. Barney The Ohio State University

      Jérôme Barthélemy ESSEC Business School Paris

      Jean M. Bartunek Boston College

      Nigel Bassett-Jones Oxford Brookes Business School

      Rowan Bayne University of East London

      Max H. Bazerman Harvard Business School

      Lee Roy Beach University of Arizona

      Suzanne T. Bell DePaul University

      J. Kenneth Benson University of Missouri-Columbia

      John W. Berry Queen’s University

      Nicholas J. Beutell Iona College

      Magdalena Bielenia-Grajewska University of Gdansk, Poland and SISSA, Italy

      Richard S. Blackburn Kenan-Flagler Business School

      George Boak York St John University

      David M. Boje New Mexico State University

      Dianne Bolton Swinburne University of Technology

      Hyeon-Cheol Bong Chunbuk National University, Jeonju, South Korea

      Richard E. Boyatzis Case Western Reserve University

      Chris Brewster University of Reading

      Francesca Bria Imperial College London

      Shelley L. Brickson University of Illinois at Chicago

      Wayne Brockbank University of Michigan

      Philip Bromiley University of California, Irvine

      Karin Holmblad Brunsson Uppsala University

      Stéphane Brutus Concordia University

      Barbara Benedict Bunker University at Buffalo

      Anthony F. Buono Bentley University

      W. Warner Burke Teachers College, Columbia University

      Lawton Robert Burns University of Pennsylvania

      Lowell W. Busenitz University of Oklahoma

      Gervase R. Bushe Simon Fraser University

      John C. Byrne Pace University

      Kim Cameron University of Michigan Business School

      Laura B. Cardinal University of Houston

      Peter J. Carnevale University of Southern California

      Archie B. Carroll Terry College of Business, University of Georgia

      John S. Carroll Massachusetts Institute of Technology

      Canan Ceylan Uludag University

      Rajeswararao Chaganti Fox School of Business, Temple University

      Alok Chakrabarti New Jersey Institute of Technology

      Artemis Chang Queensland University of Technology

      Jennifer A. Chatman University of California at Berkeley, Haas School of Business

      Alicia Cheak INSEAD Global Leadership Centre

      Jiyao Chen Oregon State University

      Katherine K. Chen The City College of New York and the Graduate Center, CUNY

      Raveendra Chittoor Indian School of Business

      Yonjoo Cho Indiana University

      Yoonhee Choi University of Minnesota

      Edward W. Christensen Monmouth University

      Stewart R. Clegg University of Technology

      Charlotte Cloutier HEC Montreal

      David Coghlan Trinity College Dublin

      Aaron Cohen University of Haifa

      Susan Cohen University of Pittsburgh

      Christopher J. Collins Cornell University

      Jay A. Conger Claremont McKenna College

      Leonardo Corbo University of Bologna

      Taylor Cox Jr. Taylor Cox & Associates

      Russell Cropanzano University of Colorado

      Felipe A. Csaszar University of Michigan

      Richard L. Daft Vanderbilt University

      Giovanni Battista Dagnino University of Catania

      Su Mi Dahlgaard-Park Lund University

      T. K. Das City University of New York

      Rein De Cooman Lessius University College

      Edward L. Deci University of Rochester

      Stanley Deetz University of Colorado at Boulder

      Rich DeJordy Northeastern University

      Daniel Denison International Institute of Management Development

      Laurie N. DiPadova-Stocks Park University

      Nancy DiTomaso Rutgers Business School– Newark and New Brunswick

      Stanislav Dobrev Eccles School of Business, University of Utah

      Lex Donaldson University of New South Wales

      Thomas J. Donaldson Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania

      Peter Dorfman New Mexico State University

      Nicky Dries University of Leuven

      Kelly Dye Acadia University

      P. Christopher Earley Purdue University

      Marion B. Eberly University of Washington, Tacoma

      Dov Eden Tel Aviv University

      Thomas V. Edwards Jr. Pace University

      Julia R. Eisenberg Rutgers Business School– Newark and New Brunswick

      Hillary Anger Elfenbein Washington University in St. Louis

      John Elkington SustainAbility

      Amitai Etzioni The Institute for Communitarian Policy Studies

      Christina Fang New York University Stern School of Business

      Dan Farrell Western Michigan University

      Steven Fellows Boston University

      William P. Ferris Western New England University

      Lorenz Fischer University of Cologne

      Oliver Fischer University of Oxford

      Robert Folger University of Central Florida

      Nicolai J. Foss Copenhagen Business School

      Roseanne J. Foti Virginia Tech

      Nikolaus Franke WU Vienna

      Olivier Furrer Radboud University Nijmegen

      Marylène Gagné Concordia University

      Martin Ganco University of Minnesota

      William L. Gardner Texas Tech University

      Adriana Victoria Garibaldi de Hilal The COPPEAD Graduate School of Business

      Oliver Gassmann University of St.Gallen

      Ajai Gaur Rutgers University

      Megan W. Gerhardt Miami University

      Simona Giorgi Boston College

      Mary Ann Glynn Boston College

      Don Goeltz Holy Family University

      Timothy D. Golden Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

      Shanthi Gopalakrishnan New Jersey Institute of Technology

      Jonathan Gosling University of Exeter

      Remzi Gözübüyük IE Business School

      Henrich R. Greve INSEAD

      Bruce Gurd University of South Australia

      Paul J. Hanges University of Maryland

      Jeffrey S. Harrison University of Richmond

      Alex Haslam University of Exeter

      John Hassard University of Manchester

      Oscar Hauptman University of Western Sydney

      Marilyn M. Helms Dalton State College

      James V. M. L. Holzer U.S. Department of Homeland Security

      Robert Hooijberg IMD

      Sean Tsuhsiang Hsu University of Pittsburgh

      Anne Sigismund Huff National University of Ireland, Maynooth

      Lee H. Igel New York University

      Susan E. Jackson Rutgers University

      Mansour Javidan Thunderbird School of Global Management

      Francis Jeffries University of Alaska Anchorage

      Guowei Jian Cleveland State University

      David W. Johnson University of Minnesota

      Roger T. Johnson University of Minnesota

      Stephen Jones University of Minnesota

      William A. Kahn Boston University

      Steven J. Karau Southern Illinois University at Carbondale

      Merel M. S. Kats Deloitte NL

      Theresa F. Kelly The Wharton School

      Eric H. Kessler Pace University

      Manfred F. R. Kets de Vries INSEAD

      Shaista E. Khilji The George Washington University

      Yoo Kyoung Kim University of Southern California

      Brayden G. King Northwestern University

      Peter G. Klein University of Missouri

      David A. Kolb Case Western Reserve University

      Andreas S. König University of Erlangen-Nuremberg

      Richard E. Kopelman Baruch College

      Martin B. Kormanik O.D. Systems

      Tatiana Kostova University of South Carolina

      James M. Kouzes Santa Clara University

      Roderick M. Kramer Stanford University

      Chuhua Kuei Pace University

      Carol T. Kulik University of South Australia

      Stefan Lagrosen University West

      Nancy Lane IMD

      Theresa Lant Pace University

      Gary P. Latham University of Toronto

      Edward J. Lawler Cornell University

      Thomas W. Lee University of Washington

      David Lei Southern Methodist University

      Edward Levitas University of Wisconsin– Milwaukee

      Roy J. Lewicki The Ohio State University

      Leonardo Liberman Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile

      Robert C. Liden University of Illinois at Chicago

      Jeffrey K. Liker University of Michigan

      Robert C. Litchfield Washington & Jefferson College

      Anna Christina Littmann EBS Business School

      Romie Littrell Aukland University of Technology

      Edwin A. Locke University of Maryland

      Christopher P. Long Georgetown University

      Jay W. Lorsch Harvard Business School

      Todd Lubart Université Paris Descartes

      Heather MacDonald Memorial University of Newfoundland

      Joseph A. Maciariello Claremont Graduate University

      Christian N. Madu Pace University

      Ann Majchrzak University of Southern California

      Peter K. Manning Northeastern University

      Lalit Manral University of Central Oklahoma

      M. Lynne Markus Benley College

      Joanne Martin Stanford University

      Mark J. Martinko Florida State University

      Courtney R. Masterson University of Illinois at Chicago

      John E. Mathieu University of Connecticut

      Christina L. Matz Texas A&M University

      Kevin May George Washington University

      Roger C. Mayer Poole College of Management, North Carolina State University

      Abdelmagid Mazen Sawyer Business School Suffolk University

      Mary-Hunter Morris McDonnell Northwestern University

      Raymond E. Miles University of California, Berkeley

      Katherine L. Milkman The Wharton School

      Kent D. Miller Michigan State University

      Marie S. Mitchell University of Georgia

      Terence R. Mitchell University of Washington

      Mario P. Mondelli Centre for Economic Research

      Samantha D. Montes University of Toronto

      Karl Moore McGill University

      Todd W. Moss Oregon State University

      Robert Moussetis North Central College

      Troy V. Mumford Colorado State University

      Susan Elaine Murphy James Madison University

      David G. Myers Hope College

      Karen K. Myers University of California, Santa Barbara

      Anil Nair Old Dominion University

      Dilupa Jeewanie Nakandala University of Western Sydney

      Donald O. Neubaum Oregon State University

      Scott L. Newbert Villanova University

      Tjai M. Nielsen High Point University

      Levi R. G. Nieminen Denison Consulting

      Deborah Nightingale Massachusetts Institute of Technology

      Greg R. Oldham Tulane University

      Miguel R. Olivas-Luján Clarion University

      David L. Olson University of Nebraska

      Joe Peppard Cranfield School of Management

      Theodore Peridis York University

      James C. Petersen University of North Carolina at Greensboro

      Jeffrey Pfeffer Stanford University

      J. Mark Phillips Belmont University

      Nelson Phillips Imperial College Business School

      Pasquale Massimo Picone University of Catania

      Beth Polin The Ohio State University

      Marshall Scott Poole University of Illinois

      Barry Z. Posner Santa Clara University

      Richard A. Posthuma University of Texas at El Paso

      Marlei Pozzebon HEC Montreal

      Michael G. Pratt Boston College

      David J. Prottas Adelphi University

      Prem Ramburuth University of New South Wales

      W. Alan Randolph University of Baltimore

      Devaki Rau Northern Illinois University

      Davide Ravasi Bocconi University

      Barbara Ribbens Illinois State University

      Katherine M. Richardson Pace University

      Ansgar Richter EBS Business School

      Maria Carolina Saffie Robertson Concordia University

      Tonette S. Rocco Florida International University

      Zachariah J. Rodgers Brigham Young University

      Denise M. Rousseau Carnegie Mellon University

      Travis L. Russ Fordham University

      Richard M. Ryan University of Rochester

      Robert Ryan University of Pittsburgh

      Yolanda Sarason Colorado State University

      Saras Sarasvathy University of Virginia

      Carol Saunders University of Central Florida

      Stuart M. Schmidt Temple University

      Marguerite Schneider New Jersey Institute of Technology

      William D. Schneper Franklin & Marshall College

      Randall S. Schuler Rutgers University

      Joanne L. Scillitoe New York Institute of Technology

      Eliot L. Sherman Haas School of Business, University of California at Berkeley

      Katsuhiko Shimizu Keio University

      Dean Keith Simonton University of California, Davis

      David G. Sirmon Texas A&M University

      Sim B. Sitkin Duke University

      Joanne R. Smith University of Exeter

      Charles C. Snow Pennsylvania State University

      JC Spender Lund University

      David Philip Spicer Bradford University

      Gretchen Spreitzer University of Michigan

      Jayakanth Srinivasan Massachusetts Institute of Technology

      Rhetta L. Standifer University of Wisconsin–Eau Claire

      Donna Stoddard Babson College

      James A. F. Stoner Fordham University

      Roy Suddaby University of Alberta

      Mary Sully de Luque Thunderbird School of Global Management

      Kathleen M. Sutcliffe Ross School of Business, University of Michigan

      Paul Szwed U.S. Coast Guard Academy

      Ibraiz Tarique Pace University

      David J. Teece University of California, Berkeley

      Stefan Tengblad University of Skovde

      Deborah J. Terry University of Queensland

      Nicole J. Thompson Virginia Tech

      Pamela S. Tolbert Cornell University

      Maria Tomprou Carnegie Mellon University

      Linda Treviño Pennsylvania State University

      Joanne L. Tritsch University of Maryland

      Bruce W. Tuckman The Ohio State University

      Andrea Tunarosa Boston College

      Dave Ulrich University of Michigan, Ross School of Business

      Andrew H. Van de Ven University of Minnesota

      Rolf van Dick Goethe University

      Hetty van Emmerik Maastricht University

      Jeffrey B. Vancouver Ohio University

      Timothy Vogus Vanderbilt University

      Mary Ann Von Glinow Florida International University

      Victor H. Vroom Yale University

      Nigel Wadeson University of Reading

      Sigmund Wagner-Tsukamoto University of Leicester

      William Wales James Madison University

      Sandy J. Wayne University of Illinois at Chicago

      Howard M. Weiss Georgia Institute of Technology

      David A. Whetten Brigham Young University

      Richard Whittington Oxford University

      Bastian Widenmayer University of St.Gallen

      Joann Krauss Williams Judson College

      Janice Winch Pace University

      Duane Windsor Rice University

      Ingo Winkler University of Southern Denmark

      Jaana Woiceshyn University of Calgary

      Diana J. Wong-MingJi Eastern Michigan University

      Jack Denfeld Wood IMD

      Richard W. Woodman Texas A&M University

      Georges Zaccour HEC Montréal

      Shaker A. Zahra University of Minnesota

      Ting Zhang Harvard Business School

      Lynne G. Zucker University of California, Los Angeles

      Introduction

      The word manage, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is derivative of the Latin manus, or hand and emerges from the Italian maneggiare, which refers to the handling or training of horses. Its use has since been expanded to represent a broader concern for the proper handling of things or people, particularly with regard to a company or organization. This is true across multiple levels of analysis. For example, at the most fundamental social unit, the individual, it can be said that people (to varying degrees) manage themselves. We formulate our goals, regulate our behaviors, and allocate scarce physical, emotional, and intellectual resources to our decisions and actions. Further to this, we frequently attempt to manage others; these could include our family, friends, colleagues, coworkers, cohorts, or competitors. We do this through efforts to motivate them, communicate with them, influence them, lead them, and resolve conflicts with them. People also attempt to manage their context and shape their environment; this might represent a group or team, project or venture, formal or informal organization, alliance or network, industry or institution, society or nation state, or perhaps even a transnational global movement. In doing so, there is a common thread to these actions that evidences unmistakable elements of “management”: orientation and direction, coordination and control, authority and responsibility, planning and design, and administration and implementation. Thus, in a sense, we are all inexorably managers regardless of whether we are given a business card with the formal title.

      Not only does the reach of management run wide, but it also runs deep. That is to say, management is vitally important. It is with rare exception that our personal and professional activities need to be “managed”—implicitly or explicitly, internally or externally, indirectly or directly, proactively or reactively—to sustain efficient processes and achieve effective outcomes. However, highlighting something as important is quite different from saying that it is always done well. To the contrary we are all too often the victims, or perhaps the perpetrators, of poor management. It is simply not enough to cultivate advantageous resources and technologies, develop advanced skills and abilities, or construct superior capital and facilities. Who you are or what you possess (nouns) will only get you so far. We also need to pay attention to management dynamics (verbs). History is filled with countless examples of better managed “underdogs” leveraging their relatively meager means to upend better financed, entrenched, or equipped rivals. And in a world whose playing field has been characterized as increasingly “flat,” where resources, access, and opportunities are now more than ever evenly distributed, it is management that is frequently the key differentiator.

      Management is also complex. Despite a long history of academic and applied investigations, there are no simple, comprehensive, universally applicable answers to its totality of challenges and conundrums. It should therefore be of little surprise that there are countless “theories” (loosely defined as well as loosely connected) of management. The study of management is almost as broad and diverse as its practice. It encompasses multiple levels of investigation, a wide array of subdisciplines, hundreds of journals, libraries of books, armies of consultants, an eclectic array of researchers and professionals, and diverse education and training programs. For example, focusing solely on the Academy of Management, the preeminent professional organization for management scholars, its ranks comprise nearly 20,000 diverse members from over 100 nations working in over 20 distinct and scarcely integrated academic divisions and interest groups, each with its own particular mores, models, and methodologies. Thus, even in this relatively specialized domain, we still come from different management traditions, practice different management techniques, address different management issues, and speak different management languages— too often scarcely aware of where the “others” are coming from.

      Moreover, even when educators artificially narrow the field to discuss a discrete management topic, they often superficially toss out the name of a theorist (Taylor, Simon, Weber, etc.) or make a sideways reference to a specific theory (needs hierarchy, total quality management, etc.) and move on, as if assuming their audience possesses the necessary familiarity to appreciate, evaluate, integrate, and appropriately apply its assumption-based, domain-specific, frequently nuanced insights for improving their particular set of circumstances. Lamentably, this is far from the truth, and as such, management theory more often than not obscures rather than elucidates. Our students, our clients, our practitioners of the craft too often emerge more confused than empowered by these conversations. We hear questions such as, “Which motivation theory should I use?” or “What international strategies work best?” as if any of these tools can be applied without exception or without complement. And more than this, we are regularly presented with a seemingly endless stream of new books and journal articles with the latest fads and theories-of-the-day, professing to have “the answer,” yet often scarcely appreciating the theoretical insights that form their foundations, only to ride a brief wave of popularity but fall flat in the end.

      In summary, management theory is, on the one hand, (a) elevated by its pervasiveness and importance yet, on the other hand, (b) shackled by its dizzying, disconnected (dis)array of dimensions, perspectives, ideas, voices, and trends.

      Rationale for the Encyclopedia of Management Theory

      It follows from the previous discussion that a common “one-stop” resource for presenting the fundamental characteristics, constraints, explanations, and applications of core management theoretical models and concepts would be of great practical and scholarly use. To date, there is no single definitive source or rigorous, systematic academic collection of the fundamental theories that define the field of management. In response, SAGE Reference decided to publish this two-volume Encyclopedia of Management Theory (EMT). I am honored to serve as its general editor.

      Herein is the intention of this project—an authoritative compendium of the global landscape of key frameworks that have stood the test of time and whose insights provide the foundation for examining and advising contemporary management practice. The EMT is designed to serve as a reference for anyone interested in understanding, internalizing, and applying classical as well as contemporary management theory. Drawing together an impressive team of researchers and educators, it examines the key theories and the theorists behind them, presenting them in the context needed to understand their assumptions, arguments, and strengths and weaknesses. In addition to interpretations of long-established theories, it also offers consideration of cutting-edge research as one might find in a handbook. And like an unabridged dictionary, it provides concise, to-the-point definitions of key concepts, ideas, schools of thought, and major movers and shakers.

      For the purposes of this volume, a theory is defined as an ordered set of assertions that are predicted to hold true under defined instances. Ideally, theories should posit (a) factors, such as variables, concepts, or constructs, (b) that are related in some systematic way, (c) because of underlying psychological, economic, social, or other dynamics, (d) within temporal, contextual, or otherwise specified boundary conditions. Drawing from the entries Theory Development and Multilevel Research within this volume, we see management theory at its best about attempting to capture the who, what, how, where, and when but also the why to decode and influence a broad range of interdependent phenomena. Yet too often, theories are not well defined or structured. Too often, their explanations ignore critical contingencies. Too often, their central tenets are misunderstood or taken out of context so that they are misapplied, ignored, or overgeneralized. Too often, their baseline assumptions and historical development are underappreciated or obscured. Too often their relationships with complementary frameworks are underdeveloped. These must be corrected if our field is to meaningfully advance, guide research, integrate insights, and successfully contribute to practice. Moreover even among those precursory surveys of management “theories” that do exist, there are few if any filtration systems and coherent distillations that apply a consistent formula to consider their elemental messages and relative importance. This shortcoming also must be remedied. To this end, we will use the following criteria for assessment: validity times impact. Validity: The theory has been substantially supported by research and has shown to be accurate in helping understand, explain, and predict management phenomena. Impact: The theory has significant implications for improving management practice and has generated viable applications to produce intended results.

      Organization of the Encyclopedia

      Inside the EMT, the reader will find over 280 signed, cross-referenced entries from an international array of respected management scholars that represent a broad-based coverage of major interest areas and perspectives in the field. Further to this, a “Reader’s Guide” was developed to group these entries thematically into the following categories that consider common management questions—yet often proposed different, albeit potentially complementary, answers:

      • What is/should be the nature of management and management thought?
      • How do you manage people’s personalities and perceptions?
      • How do you manage people’s motivations?
      • How do you manage interpersonal interactions involving communication, power and politics, and conflict?
      • How do you manage group composition, development, and teamwork?
      • How do you manage organizational structure, culture, and systems?
      • How do you manage environmental contingencies, networks, and institutions?
      • How do you manage strategic resources, frameworks, and processes?
      • How do you manage human resources practices, functions, and employee careers?
      • How do you manage within and across international cultures, climates, and other dimensions of diversity?
      • How do you manage decision-making rationality, ethics, and creativity?
      • How do you manage “management” education, research, and consulting?
      • How do you manage operational quality, logistics, and information systems?
      • How do you manage entrepreneurial thinking, creation, and engagement?
      • How do you manage learning, adaptation, and change?
      • How do you manage technology, knowledge, and innovation?
      • How do you manage leadership attributes, behaviors, and styles?
      • How do you manage social issues such as those concerning stakeholders, society, and the environment?

      In addition, the EMT provides two appendixes that offer unique value for the reader:

      • Appendix A (longitudinal): An abbreviated timetable of the “Chronology of Management Theory”—to appreciate the historical, cumulative development of theory within the field,
      • Appendix B (cross-sectional): A delineation of “Central Insights” from the aforementioned encyclopedia entries—to encapsulate the major theoretical “take-aways” of the field.
      Structure of the Entries

      The structure of each individual entry is contingent on its placement in one of three groups, varying in length, based on validity and importance as determined by the editor and advisory board. For each of these categories, standardized author guidelines and checklists were developed that further differentiate this volume from other types of compilations.

      Each entry begins with an opening paragraph (Introduction) that establishes a framework for the entry to clearly and concisely communicate its intention. It considers the following questions: Definition of the theory: What is the theory’s central purpose and premise? Domain of the theory: Why is the theory relevant to the topic of the encyclopedia (i.e., management)? Outline of entry: How will this article be structured?

      The first and primary section of all entries (Fundamentals) describes the theory to systematically encapsulate its arguments. It considers the following questions customized to the particular nature of the topic: Content of the theory: What are the factors— core elements, variables, concepts, constructs, and so on—that make up the theory? Dynamics of the theory: What are the relationships—systematic ways in which the contents are related? Rationale of the theory: What are the underlying psychological, economic, social, and structural dynamics that explain the relationships? Domain of the theory: What are the temporal, contextual, or otherwise defined boundary conditions in which the theory holds? Context of the theory: What is the connection to similar theories and shared conceptions (general or midrange) of the phenomena?

      For longer entries a subsequent section (Importance) offers an assessment of the theory to critically evaluate its validity and impact. It considers the following questions, again customized to the particular nature of the topic: To what degree has the theory been substantially supported by research and has proven accurate in helping to understand, explain, and predict management phenomena? How has the theory influenced management scholars and educators? To what degree has the theory provided significant implications for improving management practice and generated viable applications to produce intended results? How has the theory influenced managers?

      For select theories that have been designated “anchor entries”—these are highlighted in the entry list with an asterisk—an additional section was requested that bridges the Fundamentals and Importance sections. Here a longitudinal examination (Evolution) was requested to dynamically trace its history and development. Significant discretion was allotted to consider in various lengths and approaches the following questions: What are the roots of the theory? What are the major changes, adaptations, tests, and adaptations to the theory that led to its most current form? What were the circumstances—economic, social, cultural, and so on—if any, that influenced its development, and what was their influence? Who are the people who contributed to its development and what was their contribution?

      Each entry concludes with cross-references to other related EMT entries, to provide additional breadth to the discussion, as well as a list of approximately 5 to 10 supplementary resources (Further Readings), both seminal and contemporary, to provide additional depth to the discussion.

      The Emt Team and Process

      Numerous individuals were involved with the EMT project at different stages of the process. The Board of Advisors lent considerable expertise and insight to the selection, categorization, and structure of the volume. In many cases, they also wore the hat of entry(ies) author. They rank among the most esteemed luminaries in the management theory field, and I am grateful to them for their support, listed alphabetically: Jean Bartunek, Michael Hitt, Anne Huff, Paul Lawrence, Jeffrey Pfeffer, Andrew Van de Ven, and David Whetten. During the course of compiling the volume Paul Lawrence passed from this world—Paul was a treasured colleague (he was even gracious enough to serve on my doctoral thesis committee) and will be missed. A wonderful group of colleagues at SAGE Publications shepherded this project from conception to completion including acquiring editor Jim Brace-Thompson, developmental editor Sanford Robinson, reference systems coordinators Laura Notton and Anna Villaseñor, production editor David Felts, and marketing manager Carmel Schrire.

      The selection of entries and authors for the EMT underwent a long, multiphase process. Feedback was solicited from numerous sources, including current and past officers of each Academy of Management division, editorial board members of several of the field’s most respected journals, conversations with respected colleagues, and input from the distinguished advisory board. In addition, searches of numerous management databases were conducted as well as reviews of core management research articles, texts, and compilations. From this process, topics were ultimately identified and authors were approached and contracted who were experts in these areas, many of them the principle investigators of the focal theories. Multiple iterations of each entry were drafted, reviewed, edited, revised, and copyedited. Whereas the great majority of authors delivered stellar entries, there were incidences of late drop-outs or quality concerns that necessitated us to remove an otherwise intended contributor or entry. Of course no process of this nature is perfect and there will undoubtedly be some omissions and limitations—as well as emerging research, perspectives, issues, and applications—that we will look to address in subsequent editions.

      It should also be noted that within this volume some entries might be seen as more “theoretical” than others. That is to say, there is variability in the extent to which theories can be said to embody what several have put forth are the criteria for a strong theory. In addition, some entries drill down more than others to focus on key concepts or constructs whereas others adopt a more holistic or macro view that entertains different theoretical explanations, categorizations, frameworks, patterns, or perspectives of a focal management phenomenon. Moreover, the reader will also find differences between some entries in their basic assumptions, paradigmatic foundations, intended purposes, and even general intellectual approach. A conscious decision was made to prioritize a path that was more rather than less inclusive; this allowed for a more complete encapsulation of the management theory landscape rather than one that was artificially condensed. Said another way, the volume attempts to avoid the unnecessary rejection of potentially valuable explanations, which could be relatively more dangerous in these circumstances than offering a broader range of theories that vary in their popularity or current level of support and that include potentially but not necessarily more relevant and/or less-compelling insights. In “managing” this trade-off, the intention is to put forth these contributions to management thought in an open and straightforward manner that includes an explicit element of critical review and also invites rather than presupposes consideration by the reader.

      Suggestions for Using the Emt

      As you wade into this volume it may be easy to become disoriented with the great variety of models and perspectives or perhaps vacillate between them becoming an advocate of the most recently read or most persuasively written entry. As editor it is my charge not only to organize, solicit, and shape the entries but also to try to integrate them in some metalogical schemata as to bring the proverbial forest into focus without distorting the view of the trees. The EMT Reader’s Guide is helpful in this way by offering a thematic categorization of theories, but it should be seen as a beginning and not an end to the conversation. Because management is a relatively new and “soft” science, it is helpful to borrow from those who have walked a similar path—specifically, to consider lessons from the more seasoned domain of theoretical physics, a field that has also seen its share of luminaries and similarly struggled with the integration of diverse perspectives. Mindful of what Warren Bennis has termed “physics envy,” the following discussion selectively adapts two of the strategies communicated by Stephen Hawking that are particularly promising for management in advancing its theoretical precision and practical integration.

      The “Trees”: Model-Dependent Realism

      One of the most useful tools for understanding the trees (i.e., individual theories) within the management forest can be extracted from what Hawking refers to in his 2010 book The Grand Design (New York: Bantam Books) as model-dependent realism. Per Hawking:

      There is no picture- or theory-independent concept of reality. Instead we will adopt a view that we will call model-dependent realism; the idea that a physical theory or world picture is a model … and set of rules that connect the elements of the model to observations. This provides a framework with which to interpret modern science…. [D]ifferent theories can successfully describe the same phenomenon through disparate conceptual frameworks. In fact, many scientific theories that had proven successful were later replaced by other, equally successful theories based on wholly new concepts of reality…. According to model-dependent realism, it is pointless to ask whether a mode is real, only whether it agrees with observation…. A model is a good model if it: 1) Is elegant, 2) Contains few arbitrary or adjustable elements, 3) Agrees with and explains all existing observations, 4) Makes detailed predictions about future observations that can disprove or falsify the mode if they are not borne out. (pp. 42–43, 44, 46, 51)

      Let us unpack this. First, theories provide a picture of reality. They supply the categories to label phenomena as well as the map to interpret their relationships. For instance, if one is evoking Maslow’s model of reality, then a person’s motivations might be seen as striving to fulfill one unmet need or another—for example, internal esteem; alternatively, if one is using Vroom’s framework of motivation, then the same actions by the same person might be understood as hedonically attempting to better link outcome with valence. Therefore, it is imperative to recognize that our worldview is shaped by the theories that we employ. Whether we are liberated, or imprisoned, by them is another matter entirely and largely a fate of our choosing.

      Second, that there is an evolutionary quality to theoretical development. This might take the form of successive improvements in the way that we see things, such as when new evidence is discovered or new applications are tested, or the advancement of wholly new paradigms for making sense of reality. Both cumulative as well as frame-breaking ideas populate the theoretical space. It is important to recognize not only the theoretical snapshots of management but the cinema and unfolding narrative of its story. Again, whether successive theoretical iterations represent positive enhancements or negative regressions is to be determined. We must be mindful that “newer” does not always mean better and “older” does not always mean classic.

      Third, the veracity of management theory is ultimately decided on the shop floor and office space, not in the library or lecture hall. Independent of practical analysis and application, and outside of internal consistency, there is little compelling rationale to determine which competing model is “more real” than another. Management theories perpetuate or fade away (or at least they should) based on their realistic value. That is to say, their acceptance should be a function of the degree to which their predictions agree with and can shape observation. Fourth, and related to the above, the quality of a theoretical modeling is a function of its usefulness to managers. Models are more effective if they are simple, straightforward, broad-based, predictive, and provide tools for action that, if followed, will increase management efficiency and effectiveness. Certainly this is easier said than done, and the tension between criteria recalls Dr. Einstein’s pondering of necessary trade-offs that (paraphrasing) a theory can only be two of the following: simple, accurate, and comprehensive. It is therefore important to acknowledge that management is ultimately a professional field and must be judged by the degree to which it offers elucidating perspective, helpful tools, and practical guidance for using them.

      Therefore, the first opportunity/challenge for the reader of this volume is to recognize the theories themselves, their language and their limits, and reflect on how they help explain, predict, and impact management dynamics and outcomes. My advice would be the following: Seek to truly understand, on their own terms, the essential insights of these frameworks. Try to customize their lessons and see how they might relate to your particular circumstances. Extract their most useful implications—for becoming a stronger person, for engaging in more successful interactions, and for constructing more facilitative contexts and mind-sets—to increase your management capacity. Yet do not be satisfied with the information and encapsulated knowledge communicated by the entries; combine them with sound judgment and prudent action to translate your enhanced potential into management “wisdom” for achieving personal and professional success. It is my hope that the EMT facilitates this.

      The “Forest”: (Management) M-Theory.

      Keeping our focus on the lessons of physics, but now looking not at the trees themselves but at how they relate to each other in the forest (i.e., management theory literature)—or pushing the metaphor farther, perhaps how they can be assembled into a terrarium— Hawking gives us a second vehicle: M-Theory:

      M-Theory is not a theory in the usual sense. It is a whole family of different theories, each of which is a good description of observations only in some range of physical situations. It is a bit like a map. As is well known, one cannot show the whole of the earth’s surface on a single map. The usual Mercator projection used for maps of the world makes areas appear larger and larger in the far north and south and does not cover the North and South Poles. To faithfully map the entire earth, one has to use a collection of maps, each of which covers a limited region. The maps overlap each other, and where they do, they show the same landscape. M-theory is similar. The different theories in the M-Theory family may look very different, but they can all be regarded as aspects of the same underlying theory. They are versions of the theory that are applicable only in limited ranges…. Like the overlapping maps in a Mercator projection, where the ranges of different versions overlap, they predict the same phenomena. But just as there is no flat map that is a good representation of the earth’s entire surface, there is no single theory that is a good representation of observations in all situations…. Each theory in the M-theory network is good at describing phenomena within a certain range. Wherever their ranges overlap, the various theories in the network agree, so they can all be said to be parts of the same theory. (pp. 8, 58)

      Let us extract the elements most relevant for our volume. Theories are like maps. They are more or less accurate depictions of a delineated area or landscape. As such, they have limited ranges of application, which are separated by explicitly acknowledged or implicitly active boundary conditions. As Dr. Hawking argues, and most management scholars would readily agree, there is at this time no single theory-of-everything (TOE) that is a good representation of all observations in all situations. Similarly, as inferred by numerous EMT entries, it is no easy task capturing the complex configurations of factors that combine to influence organizational success and differentiate the sage management scholar or continuously successful manager from their less distinguished counterparts. It is therefore necessary to “stitch together” (a la image or photo stitching) these depictions to see how each image relates to one another and, in the process, gain a better panoramic perspective of the overarching vista. This suggests that theories need not be seen as necessarily competing visions of reality but instead as representing potentially complementary mappings of different networked components within a multifaceted and multi-leveled reality. Areas of correspondence represent prospects for theoretical synergy. Areas of divergence represent prospects for theoretical reconciliation and extension (recalling dialectical arguments that a meeting of a thesis and its antithesis has the potential to yield synthesis). Ultimately, they are all contributors to a broader, more inclusive map; that is, they may all be part of the same “Management M-Theory.”

      What might a Management M-Theory look like? Perhaps overlapping elements of critical and functional perspectives, humanistic and bureaucratic designs, external and internal forces, operational and innovative/entrepreneurial processes, tacit and algorithmic recipes? Integrated individual, interpersonal, group, organizational, environmental, and strategic analyses? Synchronized psychological, sociological, anthropological, political, and economic engines? Amalgamated information-, knowledge-, resource-, and wisdom-based lenses? A harmony of increasingly “high-definition” static management snapshots and dynamic management cinema? The actualization of a Management M-Theory is beyond the scope of this brief introduction. What is important is the general strategy that its idea represents for making sense of the 280-plus entries herein. Therefore, the second opportunity/challenge for the reader is to understand how the entries—both within and across reader’s guide categories—relate to, inform, and influence each other so as to provide the templates for a deeper, more comprehensive comprehension of management theory and an integrated, more effective application of its principles. My advice would be the following: Uncover the underlying theories nested within or derivative of complementary frameworks. Seek to truly understand the specific conditions in which their arguments apply. Actively explore how their focal domains interact with related models and where their conclusions might coalesce. Further, and borrowing from ancient but still relevant philosophical debates, consider how their individually articulated management (lower-case t, situation-specific) truths might be reconciled to help approximate overarching management (capital T, overarching) Truth. It is my hope that the EMT facilitates this.

      In summary, as I conclude this introduction, let me share with you that it has been a wonderful experience constructing the Encyclopedia of Management Theory. It has provided me with an opportunity to revisit (and apply) many concepts and explanations, reconnect with valued colleagues and connect with new ones, and learn much from the process. My invitation to you, the reader, is to look at the contents of this volume in a variety of ways. Take a basic look—familiarize yourself with the entries and acquire fundamental information about their models and modes. Take a deep look—really dig into the entries and suggested readings to analyze their logic and comprehend the images and principles that they advance about management reality. Take a hard look—assess the validity and importance of the theories (i.e., the trees) and critically evaluate their usefulness in explaining, predicting, and influencing management dynamics. Take a progressive look— move beyond consumer to use them as a platform for buttressing and extending our field. Take a broad look—see how they relate to each other (i.e., the forest) and might be integrated into a bigger, more holistic picture. Take a reflective look—think about how they can help you on a customized path of personal development and growth. Finally, take a practical look—actively apply them in an integrated, synergistic paradigm to manage for success.

      Eric H. Kessler
      10.4135/9781452276090.n5
    • Encyclopedia of Management Theory: Appendix A: Chronology Of Management Theory*

      1905: Max Weber’s The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism—published in English in 1930; 1922: The Theory of Social and Economic Organization Weber is known for numerous contributions to management, including the theory of “bureaucracy,” a formalized and idealized view of organizations administered on the basis of knowledge and known for efficiency, impersonal relationships, task competence, and rules and procedures.

      1910–1915: Henry L. Gantt designs a project-scheduling model for increasing the efficiency of project completion (Gantt Chart); protégé and associate of Frederic Taylor.

      1911: Frederick W. Taylor’s Principles of Scientific Management—proposes an objective, systematic method rather than “rules of thumb” to indentify the “one best way” to perform a job; advocated scientific selection and training methods; cooperation between workers and managers with each doing what they are best suited to do; and pay tied to work performance.

      1912: Frank Gilbreth becomes a disciple of Taylor’s— develops, along with his wife Lillian, a scheme for labeling hand movements; identified “therbligs” (Gilbreth spelled backward with the “t” and “h” transposed) as the basic unit of motion studies.

      1913: Hugo Münsterberg’s Psychology and Industrial Efficiency—presents a scientific study of human behavior in the work environment; analysis of individual differences.

      1916: Henri Fayol, an engineer and managing director, publishes Administration Industrielle et Générale (General and Industrial Administration); identifies 14 principles of management such as authority and responsibility, unity of command, scalar principle, remuneration, esprit de corps, etc.; believed that management could be taught.

      1924: Lillian Gilbreth takes over management consulting company after her husband, Frank Gilbreth, dies. Lillian was the first woman to obtain a PhD in management; she made numerous contributions to industrial psychology.

      1933, 1939: Elton Mayo, The Human Problems of an Industrial Civilization (1933) and 1939: Fritz Roethlisberger and William Dixon, Management and the Worker (1939), Hawthorne Studies conducted at Hawthorne Plant of Western Electric Corporation—examines various changes (e.g., lighting) to gauge the effect on employee productivity in a factory environment; studies are widely criticized for experimental errors yet have a wide-ranging impact and provide the genesis of the human relations school; the “Hawthorne effect” refers to changes in behavior resulting from being studied rather than effects associated with experimental manipulations (although this interpretation has been questioned).

      1925: Mary Parker Follett, The Psychological Foundations of Business Administration—suggests that organizations are communities involving networks of groups; manager’s job is to coordinate group effort; anticipated many contemporary concepts like motivation, leadership, and empowerment.

      1938: Chester Barnard, business executive, publishes The Functions of the Executive—argues that managers should communicate and encourage workers to high levels of success; proposes the acceptance theory of authority—that success depends on cooperation of employees.

      1944–1951: Kurt Lewin’s action research model, including in Action Research and Minority Problem—presents a model of social research leading to action along with feedback on the effects of that action; noted for work on group dynamics and behavioral commitment; identifies a model of planned change (unfreezing, change, refreezing); and force field analysis. Also credited for beginning t-groups.

      1947: Herbert A. Simon, Administrative Behavior: A Study of Decision-Making Processes in Administrative Organizations, based on his doctoral dissertation—coins the terms bounded rationality (people have limits or boundaries on the amount of information they can process to make a decision) and satisficing (selecting the first solution that satisfies decision criteria even though better solutions might exist) related to decision making.

      1950: George Homans, The Human Group— advances small-group theory and research; attempts to extrapolate from a single group to understanding the social system.

      1952: Solomon Asch studies of social influence (Asch Effect)—proposes that social pressure can induce people to select choices that are objectively incorrect.

      1954: Peter F. Drucker, The Practice of Management— examines management and the managerial role as a distinct business function bridging theory and practice.

      1954: Abraham Maslow, Motivation and Personality—develops a theory of human motivation by proposing a universal, prepotent hierarchy of needs.

      1957: Chris Argyris, Personality and Organization— identifies fundamental conflicts between individual and organizational needs.

      1958: James March and Herbert Simon, Organizations —presents a comprehensive review of organizational theory revealing a number of limitations and gaps, highlighting themes relating to cognition and decision making, and presenting directions for subsequent research.

      1959: Frederick Herzberg et al., The Motivation to Work—proposes a two-factor theory (motivator-hygiene) suggesting that motivator factors (e.g., recognition, the work itself) can lead to job satisfaction and motivation, while a separate set of factors (hygiene factors—e.g., work environment, pay) can lead to job dissatisfaction.

      1959: John R. P. French and Bertram Raven, The Bases of Social Power—argues that five types, or bases, of power (coercive, reward, legitimate, referent, and expert) are linked with leadership.

      1959: John Thibaut and Harold Kelley, The Social Psychology of Group—argues that social behavior is an exchange process based on rewards and costs with the goal of maximizing rewards and minimizing costs.

      1959: Ford Foundation and Carnegie Foundation reports that blasted business schools for lack of intellectual content and fostered the hiring of people from “the disciplines” into business schools thereby fostering business school research.

      1960: Fred E. Emery and Eric L Trist discuss “sociotechnical systems”—suggests that any production system consists of two elements: a technological organization (i.e., equipment, process) and a work organization (those who do the work having social and psychological needs).

      1960: Douglas McGregor, Human Side of Enterprise—propounds an overall approach to organizations and organizational change; a model for improving relationships with employees to the extent to which managers can model the hypothetical “Manager Y,” a supportive and understanding manager who trusts employees to work hard (Theory Y vs. Theory X).

      1960–1970: Development of SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis at Stanford Research Institute, often credited to Albert Humphrey; this concept emerged for a number of theories and corporate planning approaches.

      1961: David McClelland’s The Achieving Society— discusses the need for achievement (first identified by Henry A. Murray), need to excel, to perform against standards, and to win; McClelland extended his theory to other acquired needs such as need for power and need for affiliation.

      1961: T. Burns and G. M. Stalker, The Management of Innovation—examines mechanistic and organic organizational designs and the environments conducive for each.

      1961: Harold Koontz, “ Management Theory Jungle ” ( Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 4, No. 3)—identifies schools of management thought such as empirical, human behavior, mathematical, social system, decision theory, and management process; convergence of approaches seems unlikely.

      1961: Rensis Likert, New patterns of management and 1967: The Human Organization—proposes a “linking-pin” (organizations consist of “families” that are linked together) model to bridge human relations and organization structure.

      1961: Warren Bennis, Kenneth Benne and Robert Chin, The Planning of Change—lays out a foundation for planned organizational change such as organization development.

      1962: Kaoru Ishikawa develops the quality circle concept with the Japanese Union of Scientist and Engineers quality research group; begun as an experiment to test the influence of the “leading hand” ( Gemba-cho ) on quality; W. Edwards Deming is also associated with this concept, where small groups of employees and supervisors meet regularly to solve quality issues and operational improvements.

      1962: Peter M. Blau and W. Richard Scott, Formal Organizations: A Comparative Approach, one of the founding texts of organizational sociology— analyzes formal organization in a way that goes beyond individuals and groups to explore organizations as collective actors.

      1962: Everett Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations— attempts to explain how, why, and the rate of adoption of new ideas and technologies in a culture.

      1962: Alfred Chandler, Strategy and structure— analyzes large corporations and the way executives plan, coordinate, and appraise in such structures; proposes that strategy determines long-term organizational goals, tactics, and resources; structure is the design for administering organization activities; structure follows strategy.

      1963: Warren T. Norman, Toward an Adequate Taxonomy of Personality Attributes: Replicated Factor Structure in Peer Nomination Personality Ratings—finds five essentially orthogonal personality factors (empirically derived) that were the basis for Big Five personality traits (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism).

      1963: Richard Cyert and James March, Behavioral Theory of the Firm—explains decision making within the firm suggesting, based on Simon’s work, that individuals and groups “satisfice” as they pursue goals rather than attempting to maximize the utility or profitability of a decision.

      1964: Victor Vroom, Work and Motivation—uses expectancy theory to integrate various scholarly approaches to work motivation by examining how valence, instrumentality, and expectancy can be managed to align individual and organizational objectives.

      1964: Robert Kahn, Donald Wolfe, Robert Quinn, J. Diedrick Snoek, and Robert Rosenthal, Organizational Stress: Studies in Role Conflict and Ambiguity—examines role expectations in the organizational environment leading to conflict and ambiguity such that maintained stress leads to health issues and diminished sense of well-being.

      1965: J. Stacy Adams, Inequity in Social Exchanges— uses equity theory to argue that employees compare their ratio of inputs to outputs from the job with others; an imbalance leads to actions to reduce the perceived inequity.

      1965: Joan Woodward, Industrial Organization: Theory and Practice— argues that technology and production systems were critical aspects of organizational design; advanced a contingency approach to organizing.

      1966: Daniel Katz and Robert L. Kahn, The Social Psychology of Organizations—presents a unified, open systems approach extending organizational theory beyond the boundaries of a single organization.

      1966: Peter Berger and Thomas Luckmann, The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge—identifies the ways in which individuals and groups actively participate in constructing their notions of reality as an ongoing and dynamic process.

      1967: Paul Lawrence and J. W. Lorsch, Organization and Environment: Managing Differentiation and Integration—studies organizational differentiation and integration, suggesting that successful organizations match their structure to the nature of the environment.

      1967: Fred Fiedler publishes A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness—argues that leader effectiveness is contingent upon two interacting factors, leadership style, and situational favorableness.

      1967: James Thompson, Organizations in Action: Social Science Bases of Administrative Theory—analyzes organizations and their functioning based on uncertainty, technology, and interdependencies.

      1968: Bruce Henderson creates Boston Consulting Group Matrix to help companies analyze their product lines or business units; uses market share and growth rate to classify business units as cash cows, dogs, question marks, or stars.

      1968: Edwin A. Locke, Toward a Theory of Task Motivation and Incentives (and later 1984: E. A. Locke and J. P. Latham, Goal Setting: A Motivational Technique That Works )—argues that specific and difficult goals result in higher task performance.

      1969: B. F. Skinner, Contingencies of Reinforcement: A Theoretical Analysis—argues that operant conditioning can shape behavior; identifies a reinforcer as any contingent stimulus that increases the target behavior.

      1969: Karl Weick, The Social Psychology of Organizing (second edition published in 1979)—defines organizing as “the consensually validated grammar for reducing equivocality by means of sensible interlocked behaviors”; his notable works have made many theoretical contributions, including concepts such as enactment, mindfulness, sensemaking, and loose coupling.

      1972: Michael Hunt, Competition in the Major Home Appliance Industry—coins the term strategic group based on an analysis of the appliance industry; an analytic tool for grouping companies using similar business models or strategies into direct and indirect competitors.

      1973: Henry Mintzberg, The Nature of Managerial Work—expands the view of managerial work by observing and categorizing what managers actually do.

      1974: Ken Thomas and Ralph Kilmann, The Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument—measures conflict situations along two dimensions (assertiveness and cooperativeness) along with five options for resolving conflict including competing, accommodating, avoiding, compromising, and collaborating.

      1974: Robert House and Terence Mitchell, Path Goal Theory of Leadership—examines how leader behavior can clarify paths to goals that subordinates value, and, in so doing gains increased acceptance from subordinates.

      1974: Ralph Stogdill, Handbook of Leadership: A Survey of the Literature—identifies the major traits (e.g., decisive, dependable) and skills (e.g., intelligent, creative) of managers based on previous research studies.

      1974: Chris Argyris and Donald Schön, Theory in Practice: Increasing Professional Effectiveness—examines “organizational learning” practices from a perspective other than Carnegie Mellon.

      1975, 1981: Oliver E. Williamson, Markets and Hierarchies: Analysis and Antitrust Implications (1975) and The Economics of Organization: The Transaction Cost Approach (1981)—shows that “transactions” go beyond buying and selling to include a variety of behaviors such as emotional interactions and informal gift giving; transaction costs are influenced by factors including frequency, specificity, uncertainty, bounded rationality, and opportunistic behavior; formulate the basis of the “make vs. buy” decision.

      1976: J. Richard Hackman and Greg R. Oldham, “Motivation Through the Design of Work: Test of a Theory” ( Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, Vol. 17, No. 2)—presents a job characteristics model that includes employee psychological states, task characteristics that arouse these psychological states, feedback, and employee growth need strength (based on higher order needs from A. Maslow).

      1976: Derek S. Pugh and David J. Hickson, Organizational Structure in Its Context: The Aston Programme I (and subsequent series of empirical findings from the Aston Program)—systematically analyzes dimensions of organizational structure applicable to all organizations.

      1977: Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Men and Women of the Corporation—reveals a workplace dominated by men with women caught in a cycle of powerlessness largely determined by corporate structure.

      1977: Albert Bandura, Social Learning Theory— shows that learning derives from observation and modeling; that mental processes are a critical component (in contrast to purely behavioral approaches) and that learning can occur even though the learned behaviors are not immediately exhibited. Also “Self-Efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change” ( Psychological Review, Vol. 84, No. 2)— identifies self-efficacy, a person’s belief that he or she can be successful in a particular situation, as a major factor in changing behavior.

      1977: B. J. Calder, “An Attribution Theory of Leadership” (in New Directions in Organizational Behavior, edited by Staw and Salancik)—posits that leadership is an attribution that people make rather than a set of traits or behaviors.

      1977: Michael Hannan and John Freeman, “The Population Ecology of Organizations” ( American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 82, No. 5)—examines dynamic changes within a set of organizations, statistically investigating organizational birth and mortality as well as emerging organizational forms in a longitudinal fashion.

      1977: John Meyer and Brian Rowan, “Institutional Organizations: Formal Structure as Myth and Ceremony” ( American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 83, No. 2)—perhaps the first article in making institutional theory salient, focuses on social pressures rather than “rational-economic” behavior in determining organizational practices.

      1978: Chris Argyris and Don Schön Organizational Learning: A Theory of Action Perspective—distinguishes between single-loop and double-loop learning—the former refers to corrective actions required to maintain homeostasis, whereas double-loop learning examines the assumptions and values of the actions taken.

      1978: Jeffrey Pfeffer and Jerry Salancik, The External Control of Organizations: A Resource Dependence Perspective—advances the idea that resource exchange is necessary for organizational survival, and acquiring resources can result in organizational competition and unequal, dynamic interdependencies since the supply of resources is finite.

      1979: Gibson Burrell and Gareth Morgan, Sociological Paradigms and Organizational Analysis—examines fundamental sociological approaches that underlie ways of thinking about organizations; proposes four major paradigms: radical humanist, functionalist, radical structuralist, and interpretive.

      1979: Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky publish “Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decisions Under Risk” ( Econometrica, Vol. 47, No. 2)—argues that decision makers examine potential losses and gains rather than the overall decision outcome; also examines the heuristics used to evaluate potential losses and gains.

      1979: Anthony Giddens, Central Problems in Social Theory: Action, Structure, and Contradiction in Social Analysis—considers the concept of action in the context of structural components of social institutions; attempts to resolve the long-standing agency-structure quandary in social analysis.

      1980: Michael Porter, Competitive Strategy— develops Hunt’s (1972) concept of strategic groups arguing that such groups create mobility barriers that function like entry barriers except they are created within industry groups; seminal work on strategy considers generic strategies and competitive forces (rivalry among existing competitors, new entrants, buyers, suppliers, and substitute products or services) that contribute to the profitability on an industry.

      1980: R. Revans, Action Learning: New Techniques for Management—allows learners to reflect and review their own experiences and behaviors as a basis for making improvements.

      1980: Geert Hofstede, Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values— summarizes the results of a major survey of IBM employees’ cultural values conducted between 1967 and 1973; the primary dimensions of national cultural values include power distance, individualism, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity/femininity; widely used in international human resource management.

      1981: Lawrence Kohlberg, The Philosophy of Moral Development: Moral Stages and the Idea of Justice ( Essays on Moral Development, Vol. 1)—examines preconventional, conventional, and postconventional levels of moral development, each having distinct stages. Justice is a central characteristic of moral reasoning.

      1981: William G. Ouchi, Theory Z: How American Management Can Meet the Japanese Challenge— argues that American companies should employee Japanese-style management techniques, the essence of which is a unique way of managing people (e.g., staff development, consensual decision making); based on McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y as well as Abraham Maslow’s Theory Z.

      1981: Roger Fisher and William Ury, Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In— espouses principled negotiation, a method that seeks win-win agreements between negotiators.

      1982: W. Edwards Deming, Out of the Crisis—presents an approach to a total quality management system for improving quality, productivity, and competitiveness.

      1983: Robert E. Quinn and J. A. Rohrbaugh, “A Spatial Model of Effectiveness Criteria: Towards a Competing Values Approach to Organizational Analysis” ( Management Science, Vol. 29, No. 3)— develops the competing values framework in relation to organizational effectiveness consisting of two dimensions: organizational focus (internal vs. external) and stability/control versus flexibility/change.

      1983: Teresa Amabile, The Social Psychology of Creativity: A Componential Conceptualization— identifies three necessary and sufficient conditions for creativity: domain-relevant skills, creativity-relevant skills, and task motivation; examines the impact of personality, cognitive ability, and social factors.

      1984: Eliyahu Goldratt and Jeff Cox, The Goal—advances a theory of constraints (“a chain is no stronger than its weakest link”) through a fictional account of UniCo Manufacturing.

      1984: Anthony Giddens, The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration— explores the extent to which individual or social forces shape our reality; all human action occurs against the backdrop of a social structure that shapes and is shaped by such action.

      1984: R. Edward Freeman, Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach—argues, in contrast to the traditional shareholder view of the firm, that stakeholders (“those groups without whose support the organization would cease to exist”) need to be considered as well.

      1985: Chris Argyris, Robert Putnam, and Diana McLain Smith, Action Science: Concepts, Methods and Skills for Research and Intervention—argues that research should be useful in solving practical problems.

      1985: Michael Tushman and Elaine Romanelli, “Organizational Evolution: A Metamorphosis Model of Convergence and Reorientation” ( Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol. 7)— presents a model of organizational evolution that examines forces for stability, forces for change, and the role that executive leadership plays in these processes.

      1985: Edward Deci and Richard Ryan publish Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Human Behavior, the first comprehensive statement of self-determination theory—proposes that humans have an intrinsic tendency to behave in effective and healthy ways.

      1985: Mark Granovetter, “Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness” ( American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 91, No. 3)—examines the embeddedness of economic actions in structures of social relations in industrial society.

      1985: Michael Porter publishes Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance—shows how firms leverage a combination of attributes and resources across a “value-chain” enabling the firm to outperform other firms in the industry.

      1985: Stuart Albert and David Whetten, Organizational Identity (in Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol. 7, edited by Cummings and Staw)— introduces thinking about elements of an organization that are believed to be central, enduring, and distinctive.

      1986: Bill Smith, Motorola Corporation—develops the Six Sigma methodology as a way to count quality defects in manufacturing based on conceptual developments at Motorola begun in the 1970s; six sigma quality standard is fewer than 3.4 defects per million parts or opportunities; widely used as a tool for quality improvement as well as reducing costs.

      1986: Michael Tushman and P. Anderson, “Technological Discontinuities and Organizational Environments” ( Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 31, No. 3)—examines the impact of technological discontinuities on different industries; technological evolution has long periods of incremental change followed by competency-destroying or competency-enhancing discontinuities.

      1986: J. M. Juran, “The Quality Trilogy: A Universal Approach to Managing for Quality” ( Quality Progress, Vol. 19, No. 8)—argues that “quality does not happen by accident”; gave rise to the quality trilogy: Quality planning, quality control, and quality improvement.

      1987: Randall Schuler and Susan Jackson, “Linking Competitive Strategies With Human Resource Management Practices” ( Academy of Management Executive, Vol. 1, No. 3)—argues that employee role behaviors mediate the relationship between a firm’s strategy and performance.

      1987: Marvin R. Weisbord, Productive Workplaces: Organizing and Managing for Dignity, Meaning, and Community—provides a foundation for large-group interventions, an important form of organizational change.

      1987: David L. Cooperrider and Suresh Srivastva, “Appreciative Inquiry in Organizational Life” (in Research in Organizational Change and Development, Vol. 1, edited by W. Pasmore and R. Woodman)—first introduces appreciative inquiry and its underlying philosophy as a new approach to intervention.

      1989: Blake Ashforth and Fred Mael, “Social Identity and the Organization” ( Academy of Management Review, Vol. 14, No. 1)—argues that people categorize themselves and others into categories (e.g., organizational membership, age, gender) and that social classification permits people to locate themselves in a social environment.

      1989: Warren Bennis, On Becoming a Leader— offers a unique view of leadership as self-development coupled with passion and building trust among followers.

      1989: Andrew Van de Ven, Harold Angle, and Marshall Scott Poole, Research on the Management of Innovation—reveals that the stages of innovation from invention to implementation do not follow a straightforward set of stages, suggesting a higher level of complexity to this process than previously believed.

      1989: David Whetten, “What Constitutes a Theoretical Contribution?” ( Academy of Management Review, Vol. 14, No. 4)—offers a look into the building blocks of theory, assessing the value added by theoretical constructs and judging theoretical papers in the organizational sciences.

      1990: C. K. Prahalad and Gary Hamel, “The Core Competence of the Corporation” ( Harvard Business Review, Vol. 68, No. 3)—coins the term core competence and showed this concept as the basis for corporate competitiveness.

      1990: Edgar H. Schein, Career Anchors—identifies eight major career themes (e.g., autonomy/independence, general managerial competence) that tend to keep employees anchored to their primary theme that emerges from life and occupational experience.

      1990: Peter Senge, The Fifth Discipline—popularizes the concept of the learning organization based on five disciplines: systems thinking, personal mastery, mental models, shared vision, and team learning.

      1990: Michael Porter, Competitive Advantage of Nations—examines the role played by a country’s economic environment in relation to success of firms in different industries; his diamond model includes firm strategy, structure, and rivalry; demand conditions (expectations of customers); related and supporting industries; and factor conditions (key production factors are created not inherited).

      1991: Walter W. Powell and Paul J. DiMaggio, eds., The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis—examines the institutional approach to organizational analysis from a sociological perspective; going beyond economic approaches the institutional model shows how institutions interact and how these interactions affect society.

      1992: Robert Kaplan and David Norton, The Balanced Scorecard—builds on the work of consultant Arthur Schneiderman of Analog Devices to present a comprehensive management control and performance measurement system that examines strategic success factors in addition to traditional financial measures affecting a firm’s performance.

      1992: Ronald S. Burt, Structural Holes: The Social Structure of Competition—introduces and applies social network analysis to the understanding patterns of relationships among individuals and organizations.

      1993: Michael Hammer and James Champy, Reengineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for Business Revolution—advances the idea that business processes should be reengineered to eliminate activities that do not add value and redesign core processes that support the organization’s mission.

      1993: Jeffrey Pfeffer, “Barriers to the Advancement of Organizational Science: Paradigm Development as a Dependent Variable” ( Academy of Management Review, Vol. 18, No. 4)—argues that organizational science is not well developed paradigmatically; examines how certain values (e.g., theoretical and methodological diversity) have slowed scientific progress.

      1995: Mark Huselid, “The Impact of Human Resource Management Practices on Turnover, Productivity, and Corporate Financial Performance” ( Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 38, No. 3)—demonstrates the impact of high performance work systems on employee behavior and corporate financial performance.

      1995: Denise Rousseau, Promises in Action: Psychological Contracts in Organizations— conceptualizes the psychological contract (originally used by Argyris in 1960) as the beliefs that employees hold about their employment relationship that becomes relatively stable over time.

      1995: Daniel Goleman, Emotional Intelligence: Why Can It Matter More Than IQ—suggests that emotions should be given a greater role in human behavior, decision making, and individual success.

      1996: Gary Hamel and C. K. Prahalad, Competing for the Future—redefines corporate strategy, indicating that companies need to develop a view of the future based on industry foresight to create a new competitive space.

      1996: John Kotter, Leading Change—develops an eight-step model of planned change that has guided change efforts for years; examines the profound significance of leaders in the change process.

      1997: Clayton Christensen, The Innovator’s Dilemma: When New Technologies Causes Existing Firms to Fail—shows how a company’s successes and competencies can create barriers to coping with changing technologies and markets.

      2000: Anne Huff, “Changes in Organizational Knowledge Production” ( Academy of Management Review, Vol. 25, No. 2)—reveals how the knowledge explosion has challenged business school teaching and research.

      2001: Sara Rynes, Jean Bartunek, and Richard Daft, “Across the Great Divide” ( Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 44, No. 2)—lays out boundaries differentiating academic and practitioner approaches to knowledge as well as strategies for overcoming them.

      2001: James Collins, Good to Great—describes the reasons that some companies excel while others do not; “Level 5 Leadership” ( Harvard Business Review, Product 5831)—contributes to enduring greatness by blending humility and resolve to do what is best for the company.

      2002: Michael Hitt, R. Duane Ireland, Michael Camp, and Donald Sexton, Strategic Entrepreneurship: Creating a New Mindset— identifies how firms can identify entrepreneurial opportunities by focusing on the most promising prospects and exploiting them using a strategic business plan.

      2003: Kim Cameron, Jane Dutton, and Robert E. Quinn, “Positive Organizational Scholarship” (Journal of Management Inquiry, V01.17, No. 1)— provides a framework for and highlights the effects of positive, enriching organizational dynamics that give rise to extraordinary outcomes.

      2004: C. K. Prahalad, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid—shows how the billions of poor people in the world represent a great, untapped market; serving this population helps companies and helps the economic aspirations of those being served.

      2004: Henry Mintzberg, Managers Not MBAs: A Hard Look at the Soft Practice of Management and Management Development—offers a critique of management education revealing how MBA programs are ineffectual in training practicing managers; suggests a new paradigm to increase managerial effectiveness.

      2005: Sumantra Ghoshal, “Bad Management Theories Are Destroying Good Management” ( Academy of Management Learning and Education, Vol. 4, No. 1)—shows how academic business and management research have had a negative impact on practice stemming from the ideas and assumptions that have guided research.

      2006: Jeffrey Pfeffer and Robert Sutton, Hard Facts, Half-Truths, and Total Nonsense: Profiting From Evidence-Based Management—shows how many accepted management truisms are not only incorrect but, when used by managers, may actually harm the organization; argues for a new model based on evidence.

      2007: Eric Kessler and James Bailey, Handbook of Organizational and Managerial Wisdom—proposes a framework for reconciling management theory with fundamental philosophical principles.

      2007: Andrew Van de Ven, Engaged Scholarship— proposes a participative and collective form of scholarship that transcends the capability of individual researchers.

      Encyclopedia of Management Theory: Appendix B: Central Management Insights

      Entry

      Central Management Insight

      Academic-Practitioner Collaboration and Knowledge Sharing

      It is possible to create more insightful knowledge for theory and practice if academics and practitioners collaborate.

      Acculturation Theory

      People’s cultural beliefs and behaviors need to be understood and incorporated into organizational policies and practices in order to achieve effective operations.

      Achievement Motivation Theory

      Acquired motives—achievement, affiliation, and power—are important for managerial performance and should be used for global selection and assessment of managers.

      Action Learning

      It is possible to develop organizational members’ competencies in the process of solving real, difficult management issues.

      Action Research

      Actionable knowledge is most effectively produced through deep inquiry into a group’s practices via systematic, iterative processes of data gathering, reflection, and action.

      Actor-Network Theory

      Human and nonhuman organizational actors are generated and “held together” by interactive, continuous, and heterogeneous network forces and strategies.

      Adaptive Structuration Theory

      Information technologies do not automatically change behavior or improve effectiveness; this depends on how effectively managers facilitate the appropriation of information technology (IT) by users.

      Affect Theory

      If jobs are structured as joint tasks in which responsibility for results is shared, then employees develop stronger affective commitments to the organization.

      Affective Events Theory

      Work and life experiences are proximal influences on people’s subjective mood and emotional episodes, which in turn are related to work performance and job attitudes.

      Agency Theory

      The interests of shareholders and managers tend to differ but can be aligned to achieve the maximization of shareholder value.

      Analytic Hierarchy Process Model

      Managers can utilize a relatively easy and robust process for establishing priorities in multicriteria decision settings.

      Analytical and Sociological Paradigms

      The study of organizations, and the body of knowledge about them, is shaped by researchers’ implicit assumptions and training, which reflect a range of orthodox and heterodox “paradigms.”

      Appreciative Inquiry Model

      Teams, organizations, and society evolve in whatever direction people collectively, passionately, and persistently ask questions about.

      Architectural Innovation

      Significant competitive advantage can be gained from innovations that change the linkages between product components.

      Asch Effect

      Social pressure can convince group members to falsify their beliefs in order to achieve group consensus.

      Attraction-Selection-Attrition Model

      People make organizations through a process of attracting and selecting matching employees and attritioning out nonmatching employees.

      Attribution Model of Leadership

      Leaders’ and employees’ causal explanations for employee performance uniquely and interactively influence performance responses including future expectations and behaviors.

      Authentic Leadership

      Leaders who remain true to their personal values and convictions and display consistency between their words and deeds will foster elevated levels of follower trust and performance.

      Bad Theories

      Academia perpetuates a number of bad management theories that promote detrimental business practices, and those theories must be carefully reexamined.

      Balanced Scorecard

      Strategy development and execution can be enabled by a balanced set of performance measures focusing on organizational goals—financial, customer, processes, and learning and growth.

      BCG Growth-Share Matrix

      The basis of competitive advantage and growth is derived by managing the relationship of the company’s portfolio of product lines or business units.

      Behavioral Perspective of Strategic Human Resource Management

      Human resource (HR) management systems are most effective when they are designed to support strategic business objectives.

      Behavioral Theory of the Firm

      Managers will behave differently from what is assumed in rational actor views of the organization both with respect to internal processes and relations to the environment.

      Big Five Personality Dimensions

      Individual differences along five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, openness to experience) affect many management issues.

      Bounded Rationality and Satisficing (Behavioral Decision-Making Model)

      The concept of rational economic man must be reconciled with the many cognitive, perceptual, situational, and other limits on rationality that influence decision makers to make satisfactory rather than optimal choices.

      Brainstorming

      Efforts at creative idea generation deserve focused attention and can benefit from adopting a formalized structure.

      Bureaucratic Theory

      Bureaucracy remains the dominant, albeit an imperfect and double-edged, system of administration for shaping intendedly rational, goal-oriented human interactions through objective knowledge and scientific analysis.

      Business Groups

      Firms in many parts of the world are part of business groups and derive unique advantages as well as disadvantages from their affiliation.

      Business Policy and Corporate Strategy

      Companies can create value through the configuration and coordination of their multibusiness activities by aligning vision, resources, businesses, and role of the headquarters.

      Business Process Reengineering

      Dramatic business improvement can be accomplished with radical process redesign that is supported by information technology.

      BVSR Theory of Human Creativity

      Human creativity requires individuals to generate and test low-probability ideas whose utilities are unknown in advance.

      Career Stages and Anchors

      Career choice should be seen as an ongoing journey of exploration and self-construction driven by patterns of self-perceived competence, motivators, and values that guide and constrain development.

      Causal Attribution Theory

      The behaviors and emotions of leaders and followers are driven by their beliefs about the causes of their own as well as others’ successes and failures.

      Charismatic Theory of Leadership

      Charismatic leadership is an attribution based on followers’ interpretations of their leader’s behavior; a set of distinct behaviors leads to this attribution.

      Circuits of Power and Control

      Power is not a thing that people have but a social relation that is dynamic, potentially unstable, and resisted.

      Cognitive Dissonance Theory

      Individuals’ deep-seated desire for consistency can have profound consequences, including shifts in attitudes, behavioral changes, and self-justification of decisions.

      Cognitive Resource Theory

      Leaders tend to use their raw intelligence to make decisions; however, in some situations, leaders’ relevant experience strongly contributes to effectiveness.

      Competing Values Framework

      In every organization, competing and contradictory values exist; the most effective organizations, as well as the most effective leaders, are paradoxical—they simultaneously represent and display competing values.

      Competitive Advantage

      The primary objective of a firm’s strategy is to identify, create, and sustain a competitive advantage over its industry rivals by identifying a unique position so as to reduce or counter the profit-reducing effect of the forces in that industry.

      Complexity Theory and Organizations

      Managers need to understand how individuals and firms interact and not only how they perform individually; organizational performance depends on interdependent interactions within the system as a whole.

      Compliance Theory

      Management “styles”—good practices, patterns of achievement—cannot be transferred; each kind of organization needs a form of management tailored to its special kind of hierarchy, rewards, incentives, and possible sanctions.

      Componential Theory of Creativity

      The work environment can be as important for creativity as employee talent; creativity should be highest when intrinsically motivated, expert, creative thinkers work in a social environment that supports creativity.

      Conflict Handling Styles

      Managers can choose from a variety of conflict styles, varying in concern for self and for others, which will be most effective in different situations.

      Contingency Theory

      There is no one best way to manage people or to design an organization; rather, the choices which are made must fit the situation faced.

      Contingency Theory of Leadership

      Leadership behaviors will not necessarily yield the same results in all situations; a fit between leadership style and contingency variables is positively related to leadership effectiveness.

      Continuous and Routinized Change

      Revolutions are not necessary for organizational development; continuous, routinized change shifts the focus from “change” to “changing” through an ongoing mixture of reactive and proactive modifications guided by purposes at hand.

      Cooptation

      Organizations reflect not only the aim of its principals but also to some degree other stakeholders’ aims, such as external collaborators, professional groups, and senior management.

      Core Competence

      Core competence—firm-specific bundles of skills, insights, and capabilities gained from accumulated knowledge, learning, and investment—enable organizations to create, innovate, and deliver value to its stakeholders.

      Corporate Social Responsibility

      Business is embedded in society; therefore, every business decision must consider the resulting direct or indirect social impacts.

      Critical Management Studies

      Management and organization need to be assessed broadly; in their operations and in outcomes, there are dark aspects calling for careful scrutiny and exploration.

      Critical Theory of Communication

      Organizations and the various forms of knowledge and the human identities of members are products of complex interaction processes conducted under conditions of inequality.

      CSR Pyramid

      Corporate social responsibility (CSR) embraces four distinct but overlapping responsibilities: economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic.

      Cultural Attitudes in Multinational Corporations

      The seemingly limitless ways that firms seek to internationalize can be compared and meaningfully understood by examining the cultural mind-sets of senior organizational decision makers.

      Cultural Intelligence

      Managers’ adjustments in new cultural contexts can be explained by a faceted model of cultural intelligence (CQ) that considers cognitive/metacognitive, motivational, and behavioral elements.

      Cultural Values

      To fit in with emerging globalization challenges, managers should try to understand the meaning of value systems and how they may affect the business environment.

      Decision Support Systems

      People can make better decisions with computer support that uses data access and models to aid learning about decision environments.

      Decision-Making Styles

      Managers should be mindful of differences in individuals’ preferred ways of perceiving and responding to problem-solving situations and understand their impact on decisions made.

      Dialectical Theory of Organizations

      Organizational structures and practices are shaped by complex and contradictory social forces only partially controlled by rational decisions.

      Diamond Model of National Competitive Advantage

      A number of structural factors work together to create the conditions for the competitiveness of industries and firms within particular nations which can derive benefits from their “home base.”

      Differentiation and the Division of Labor

      The distribution of work into specialized tasks, roles, and functions are key characteristics of modern management; however, this must be balanced with integration, control, and organizational flexibility needs.

      Discovery Theory of Entrepreneurship

      There are reasons—such as position, cognition, and deliberation—why some people may be more likely to discover entrepreneurial opportunities than others.

      Diversification Strategy

      Expanding the scope of the business segments where the firm competes can be a value-enhancing strategy.

      Double Loop Learning

      Entrenched assumptions and governing values inform peoples’ theory-in-use which influences their action strategies; deep reflection on this underlying reasoning process questions the status quo and enables productive change.

      Dramaturgical Theory of Organizations

      The organization can be seen through metaphor as an acting unit that presents strategies and tactics designed to enhance the power and authority of the organization.

      Dual-Concern Theory

      Managers can often achieve good outcomes if they care not only about their own interests but also other’s interests and seek outcomes of negotiation that maximize collective welfare.

      Dual-Core Model of Organizational Innovation

      Organizations implement administrative and technical innovations via different organizational groups and management processes.

      Dynamic Capabilities

      Top management needs to add and shed organizational resources as it detects opportunities, threats, and changes in the business environment.

      Emotional and Social Intelligence

      Emotional and social capabilities are direct characteristics of an individual that lead to or cause effectiveness in management, leadership, and other occupations.

      Empowerment

      When individuals feel psychologically empowered—through meaning, competence, self-determination, and impact—their intrinsic motivation and personal efficacy expectations are strengthened.

      Engaged Scholarship Model

      Collaborative inquiries between universities, practitioners, and other relevant community partners help bridge the theory-practice gap and yield more relevant solutions to societal issues.

      Entrepreneurial Cognition

      Entrepreneurs use mental models to connect seemingly dissimilar pieces of information in thinking through new opportunities and making decisions.

      Entrepreneurial Effectuation

      Effectual action inverts predictive strategies to offer entrepreneurs a learnable method for shaping their environment and better controlling situations.

      Entrepreneurial Opportunities

      Entrepreneurs should match the type of opportunity they are trying to exploit with the appropriate processes to increase their chances for successful exploitation and wealth creation.

      Entrepreneurial Orientation

      An organization can be considered more (or less) entrepreneurial as a collective entity; it may develop a strategic orientation toward entrepreneurial activity and behavior.

      Environmental Uncertainty

      Managers should adjust their attitudes toward environmental uncertainty, analyze its multidimensional sources and attributes, and then manage direct and moderating effects accordingly.

      Equity Theory

      Employees feel fairly compensated based on perceptions of rewards relative to contributions as compared with a benchmark rewards/contributions ratio.

      ERG Theory

      Three types of human needs—existence, relatedness, and growth—influence behavior and highlight the necessity of both extrinsic and intrinsic motivational options.

      Escalation of Commitment

      Decision makers should understand and reduce the danger of becoming increasingly committed to courses of action that have become unprofitable.

      Ethical Decision Making, Interactionist Model of

      Ethical decision making in organizations is driven largely by the individual’s cognitive moral development but also results from its interaction with other individual differences and contextual features.

      European Model of Human Resource Management

      Managing people, more than most other areas of management, is contextual; HR managers should consider factors such as culture, stakeholders, decision processes, markets, organization, and the state.

      Evidence-Based Management

      To the extent that research findings are incorporated into practice, managers at all levels will decrease inefficiencies; currently, many optimal solutions are being neglected.

      Excellence Characteristics

      Excellence is not a static destination; rather, it is an attitude and a pursuit where there are many ways individual or organizational actors can realize their potential and grow continuously.

      Expectancy Theory

      Aligning individual goals with organizational objectives is critical to effective management; there are several components of successful alignment: expectancy, instrumentality, and valence.

      Experiential Learning Theory and Learning Styles

      The management process involves creative tension among four learning modes—based on dual dialectics of grasping and transforming experience— within a dynamic learning cycle that is responsive to contextual demands.

      Fairness Theory

      Actions seem unfair when people feel that those actions would have been better if the relevant person could have and should have acted differently.

      Firm Growth

      The administrative and management structures of a firm play vital roles in configuring and utilizing its resources, which in turn enables and constrains its growth trajectory.

      First-Mover Advantages and Disadvantages

      Being first to market carries a host of threats and opportunities; understanding the underlying mechanisms is essential for positive economic performance in new or substantially reorganized markets and industries.

      Force Field Analysis and Model of Planned Change

      The composition of a dynamic “field” with driving and resisting forces influences intended, rational change on multiple levels and across different stages—unfreezing, movement, and refreezing.

      Functions of the Executive

      Individuals cannot achieve their aspirations independently; organizations are formed for cooperative purposes through inducements and contributions, communication and interaction, and accepted or legitimated authority relationships.

      Game Theory

      Managers need to behave strategically when their own rewards depend on decisions made by competitors or partners.

      Gantt Chart and PERT

      Various forms of critical path analyses can assist in effectively scheduling, organizing, and coordinating activities in time-constrained projects.

      Garbage Can Model of Decision Making

      Decisions that might appear arbitrary and chaotic should be understood in the context of disconnected problems, solutions, opportunities, and decision makers.

      Genderlect and Linguistic Styles

      Understanding how communication patterns are shaped by gender-related characteristics, and how they influence performance, is important for managers when interacting with internal and external stakeholders.

      GLOBE Model

      In each society, leaders are expected to act in ways that are compatible with the society’s cultural values.

      Goal-Setting Theory

      A powerful way to motivate employees is to give them specific, challenging goals.

      Group Development

      To be most effective, small groups must progress through a series of developmental stages each with their own tasks and challenges.

      Group Polarization and the Risky Shift

      Group interactions will often enhance, rather than moderate, the average preexisting tendency of individual members, yielding more extreme decisions and actions.

      Group Punctuated Equilibrium Model

      Timing is important when introducing changes to a team; habitual behavioral patterns are established in the first meeting, and groups are not susceptible to change until temporal milestones come up for review.

      Groupthink

      There are potential sources of dysfunctions in cohesive groups facing stressful decision situations as well as potential remedies for these dysfunctions.

      High- and Low-Context Cultures

      There are cross-cultural differences in the way people communicate meaning, which is a combination of information and inextricably bound up context.

      High-Performance Work Systems

      Human resource practices can be configured in a specific way to attain horizontal and vertical alignments and improve individual and organizational effectiveness.

      High-Performing Teams

      Applying a clinical approach to the study of teams allows us to develop a more in-depth understanding of potentially counterproductive interpersonal, intrapersonal, and organizational dynamics.

      High-Reliability Organizations

      A more mindful approach to managing structures, practices, and processes is advisable for an increasing number of organizations that must perform in complex, dynamic, and error-intolerant environments.

      Human Capital Theory

      People are as important as other types of resources; proper investments in human capital can result in improved performance at the individual, group, organization, and country levels.

      Human Resource Management Strategies

      Human resource management strategies will have greater positive impact when they elicit the workforce characteristics required to support the strategy of the organization.

      Human Resources Roles Model

      There are five roles that define expectations of what HR professionals should be, know, and do to deliver value: employee advocate, human capital developer, functional expert, strategic partners, and leader.

      Humanistic Management

      Managers need to treat workers and other stakeholders with dignity and sensitivity, attending to their psychological needs and “informal” social dynamics, to achieve ethical and sustainable success.

      Hypercompetition

      Competitive moves and responses can escalate to the point where traditional advantages, such as positioning and resource superiority, are no longer effective.

      Image Theory

      Professional managers create an image of what they want their organization’s future to be, and decisions and subsequent actions are directed toward ensuring that the image becomes reality.

      Individual Values

      Individuals’ value priorities relate to their attitudes, behaviors, and roles; by developing greater awareness of one’s own and others’ values, it is possible to influence people in desirable directions.

      Influence Tactics

      Organizational participants employ a finite and identifiable set of behaviors which are more successful at gaining compliance from others when appropriately matched to their circumstances.

      Informal Communication and the Grapevine

      Emergent, unofficial, and unsanctioned information flows, notably gossip, occur in predictable ways to serve different functions which have the potential to be managed.

      Information Richness Theory

      Information channels differ in information carrying capacity; effective managers select channels to fit the messages that they want to convey.

      Innovation Diffusion

      Forces within organizational or individual collectivities cause management ideas, practices, or techniques to be perceived as innovations and to spread more or less quickly, extensively, and effectively among collectivity members.

      Innovation Speed

      Managers should embrace time orientation and, when appropriate, align their innovation strategy, process, staff, and structure to prudently speed up.

      Institutional Theory

      The adoption and retention of many organizational practices is often more dependent on powerful social pressures for conformity and legitimacy than technical pressures for economic performance.

      Institutional Theory of Multinational Corporations

      Organizations’ success in the management of cross-border operations is often determined by their ability to adapt to the institutional environments in which they operate.

      Integrative Social Contracts Theory

      Confronting ethical problems in business demands the integration of universally applicable norms with specific standards that are voluntarily accepted in economic communities.

      Interactional Model of Cultural Diversity

      The existence of cultural diversity presents specific challenges and opportunities which, depending on several climate factors, can produce either positive or negative effects on organizational performance and societal well-being.

      Interactionist Model of Organizational Creativity

      Managers can have the most positive impact on organizational creativity by designing the work setting in such a way as to enhance individual and team creative behavior.

      Interorganizational Networks

      Favorable structural positions within a group of organizations connected by common affiliations or exchange relations bring advantages, including greater social capital, over others of similar ability.

      Intuitive Decision Making

      Under the right conditions, intuition—or “trusting your gut”—can result in both fast and effective judgments.

      Investment Theory of Creativity

      Creativity is itself an investment activity in which personal and environmental resources are deployed to achieve novel, appropriate valued outputs.

      Job Characteristics Theory

      Employees’ psychological states and work effectiveness can be enhanced by designing jobs high in five key characteristics and ensuring that employees with appropriate personal qualities are assigned to these jobs.

      Job Demands–Resources Model

      Job resources can buffer the impact of job demands on strain, stress, and burnout and may foster employee engagement and performance.

      Kaizen and Continuous Improvement

      Organizations should engage in a continuous, meticulous drive for excellence across the enterprise to achieve lowest cost, highest quality, and best service to the customer.

      Knowledge Workers

      Knowledge workers play a central role in modern, technology-driven organizations; these highly trained, specialized, and connected employees must be managed appropriately.

      Knowledge-Based View of the Firm

      Firm-wide tacit capabilities form a firm’s core; cultivation and refinement of these capabilities determine current and future firm vitality.

      Large Group Interventions

      Changing complex systems is more effective when system stakeholders, internal and external, are engaged in all aspects of the change process.

      Lead Users

      It pays to carefully identify, through a defined methodology, those cutting-edge users who really can foster a firm’s ideation and new product development efforts.

      Leader–Member Exchange Theory

      A leader develops different exchange relationships with his or her subordinates which vary in quality and impact important outcomes.

      Leadership Continuum Theory

      The range of managerial choices during decision-making efforts can be conceptualized along a continuum, from autocratic to democratic approaches, and are more or less appropriate under different conditions.

      Leadership Practices

      Leadership is a set of identifiable skills and abilities that are available to anyone; leadership is not about who you are; it’s about what you do.

      Lean Enterprise

      The application of seven core “lean” principles to complex enterprises requires a focus on the enterprise value proposition across all key stakeholders.

      Learning Organization

      Learning involves more than transferring information; it is embedded in ongoing social interactions and cyclical, multilevel practices and routines by which organizations notice, interpret, and manage their experience.

      Level 5 Leadership

      The pinnacle of executive leadership styles is that of a “Level 5” leader who embodies personal humility and strong and willful persistence in pursuing common goals and objectives.

      Locus of Control

      Managers can use their understanding of an individual’s source of perceived power to effect an outcome to influence the individual’s behavior, especially toward empowerment and planned change.

      Logical Incrementalism

      Strategic decisions are rarely brought about deliberately; they often emerge from an iterative yet logical process of proactively developing a course of action and reactively adapting to unfolding circumstances.

      Management (Education) as Practice

      Learning how to manage is best done by reflecting on current experience, informed by concepts, and usually in conversation with other managers.

      Management by Objectives

      All employees, in all levels of an organization, should know explicitly what they need to do to accelerate the implementation of their organization’s strategic plan.

      Management Control Systems

      Organizational structure, procedures, practices, and norms—that is, controls—are integral to organizational functioning, effectiveness, and goal achievement.

      Management Roles

      How managers behave at work is influenced by predictable, multidimensional roles related to the context, content, and forms of managerial jobs that specify rights, duties, expectations, and norms.

      Management Symbolism and Symbolic Action

      Focusing on symbolic action reveals the importance of meaning making within processes of organizing and the related understanding of management as cocreating meaning.

      Managerial Decision Biases

      Systematic and predictable biases can lead to irrational decisions that are oftentimes outside of the individual’s own awareness.

      Managerial Grid

      There are two primary dimensions or orientations in leaders’ behavior— concern for production and concern for people—and this resultant leadership style impacts organizational effectiveness.

      Managerialism

      Managers wield great power and control over firms to the potential detriment of both narrow shareholder and broader societal interests.

      Managing Diversity

      Effective management of a demographically diverse workforce requires an integrated strategic approach incorporating recruitment, development, and retention initiatives.

      Matrix Structure

      Complex organizational structures can be designed to achieve goals of both specialization and scale economies along with coordination and product focus.

      Meaning and Functions of Organizational Culture

      People’s behavior in organizations is guided by relatively shared meaning structures that influence how they make and give sense of themselves, their organization, and their workplace reality.

      Modes of Strategy: Planned and Emergent

      Strategic execution contains uncertainty that necessitates the balanced use of both proactive, explicitly planned strategy and flexible, reactive emergent strategies.

      Moral Reasoning Maturity

      Individual cognitive dynamics determine how people—including managers— understand, and make judgments and decisions in, ethical problems and issues involving moral dilemmas.

      Multicultural Work Teams

      Potential coordination difficulties between team members separated by culture, distance, and time zones need to be addressed and actively managed for optimal multicultural work team performance.

      Multifirm Network Structure

      A great deal of activity in the global economy is performed by groups of firms working together in well-defined network structures.

      Multilevel Research

      Organizational outcomes are the result of a confluence of effects emanating from different levels of analysis; managers must consider factors at multiple levels to improve understanding and influence.

      Narrative (Story) Theory

      Linear narratives are in interplay with other forms of storytelling, such as living stories and antenarratives, as one of the preferred sensemaking currencies of management and organizations.

      Needs Hierarchy

      Humans are motivated by unmet needs; these needs vary along a universal, prepotent hierarchy according to different stages in their lives and careers.

      Neo-Institutional Theory

      Managers need to be conscious of social pressures to follow other organizations in adopting new structural arrangements and assess their conditions and impact before making their own decisions.

      Norms Theory

      An individual’s attitudes and behaviors are fundamentally shaped and guided by the attitudes and behaviors of other actors in that individual’s social world.

      Occupational Types, Model of

      Analyzing fit between attributes of individuals and attributes of jobs and careers provides a system to parse a complex entity into categorized, manageable attributes to improve occupational congruence.

      Open Innovation

      Companies must open their innovation process to inflows and outflows of knowledge in order to leverage their research and development (R & D) competencies and speed up their product, process, and technology development.

      Organic and Mechanistic Forms

      Mechanistic management systems, which facilitate decision making bureaucratically, are better suited for stable environments whereas organic management systems, applying more decentralized and fluid practices, are more appropriate for dynamic environments.

      Organizational and Managerial Wisdom

      A wisdom-based management paradigm goes beyond traditional information- and knowledge-based perspectives by applying philosophic insights across organizational levels to facilitate personal and professional success and enable it for others.

      Organizational Assimilation Theory

      The processes by which newcomers become integrated into an organization is neither simple nor guaranteed and therefore should be properly facilitated to better anticipate and facilitate successful assimilation.

      Organizational Commitment Theory

      Employees with greater organizational commitment (i.e., attachment to the work organization) are more effective, more motivated, and more likely to remain with the organization.

      Organizational Culture and Effectiveness

      The cultural systems that evolve over time within organizations have important consequences for an organization’s survival and effectiveness.

      Organizational Culture Model

      Organizational culture is a powerful, yet largely invisible, multilayered (deep assumptions, intermediate values and principles, visible artifacts) social force that is not easily understood or changed.

      Organizational Culture Theory

      To understand how and why organizations function and the nature of employees’ work experiences, researchers have to go beyond structure, size, technology, job descriptions, reporting relationships, and so on to also study culture.

      Organizational Demography

      Demographic composition—for example, the gender, tenure, and functional backgrounds—of organizational units matter for understanding organizational dynamics.

      Organizational Development

      Organizational change can occur successfully provided it is planned, supported by organizational leaders, and involves organizational members and intensive effort to sustain the transition.

      Organizational Ecology

      Organizational dynamics can be fully understood only when all like organizations in a market are examined over time; evolving interdependence among organizations shapes and is shaped by social structure.

      Organizational Effectiveness

      There is no one single theory of effectiveness; rather, there are multiple models, each of which has a legitimate claim to being the key approach for defining and determining the effectiveness of an organization.

      Organizational Identification

      The sense of “us-ness” associated with self-definition in terms of shared organizational or subunit identity provides a strong and distinct basis for key forms of organizational behavior.

      Organizational Identity

      A shared understanding of “who we are” as an organization—what is central, enduring, and distinctive—is essential for effective organizational self-management, over time and across situations.

      Organizational Learning

      Managers need to recognize the many complications brought by the experiential nature of organizational learning and their implications for risk taking, feedback, interpersonal networks, and learning curves.

      Organizational Socialization

      Socialization processes that are strategically aligned and properly executed to integrate new members and influence existing members can benefit both employee well-being and organizational effectiveness.

      Organizational Structure and Design

      To attain its goals, an organization has to have an organizational structure to provide coordination and control; core structural dimensions must be designed to fit multiple contingency factors.

      Organizationally Based Self-Esteem

      An individual’s self-esteem can be shaped by the work setting, affecting the individual’s view of how capable and valuable he or she is as a member of the organization.

      Participative Model of Decision Making

      The degree of participation in decision making can be determined by applying multidimensional criteria that, when assessed, result in different approaches for soliciting and using employees’ input.

      Path-Goal Theory of Leadership

      Situational factors determine the choice of optimal leader behaviors designed to help remove obstacles and motivate employees as they strive to achieve work-related goals.

      Patterns of Innovation

      Firms shift from product to process innovation as their industries evolve and their productive processes become increasingly specialized.

      Patterns of Political Behavior

      Recognizing the patterns of political behavior in organizations, frequently undervalued by management theories, helps managers understand and influence a wide range of organizational phenomena.

      Personal Engagement (at Work) Model

      Workers invest degrees of themselves into role performances based on the extent to which certain psychological conditions are met.

      Positive Organizational Scholarship

      Human, organizational, and societal well-being is facilitated by focusing on the generative organizational dynamics that lead to developing human strength, producing resilience and restoration, fostering vitality, and cultivating extraordinary individuals.

      Practice of Management, The

      The practice of management is a polycentric configuration of related elements that should be viewed as a whole so that it can be taught, learned, institutionalized, and executed systematically.

      Principled Negotiation

      Parties in a negotiation can follow a specified integrative process manifest in five major components—such as focusing on interests, not positions—to achieve an agreement that maximizes joint gain.

      Principles of Administration and Management Functions

      Management consists of the same fundamental functions and activities— planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, controlling—in all kinds of organizations irrespective of their production or formal affiliation.

      Process Consultation

      Building a collaborative relationship between consultant and client helps the client perceive, understand, and act on process events to think out and work through problems.

      Process Theories of Change

      Managers need to understand how and why organizational change unfolds over time and the different motors or mechanisms that drive the process.

      Product Champions

      The product champion role of identifying with an innovation and pushing it through despite personal risks is important to mediate the political process of change in complex organizations.

      Product-Market Differentiation Model

      Managers need to relate a firm’s product-market engagements with its general strategic direction; growth strategies include expanding or developing markets and diversifying or developing new products.

      Profiting From Innovation

      An innovator must develop a commercialization strategy that avoids the sharing of undue value with the owners of key complementary assets.

      Programmability of Decision Making

      Some decision situations faced by managers can be programmed (routinized and modeled) whereas others involve some fundamental uncertainties and are not amenable to processing by computer systems.

      Prospect Theory

      People evaluate the potential outcomes of risky choices as changes from their current situation and take more risk when facing potential losses than when facing potential gains.

      Protean and Boundaryless Careers

      The changing workplace and nature of work necessitates new ways for individuals to manage their careers and new ways for organizations to offer career management options.

      Psychological Contract Theory

      Understanding of employees’ beliefs about their exchange relationship with the employer is important in fostering positive employee attitudes and behaviors.

      Psychological Type and Problem-Solving Styles

      People with different personality preferences may have complementary strengths (and weaknesses) that lead to distinctive, potentially valuable approaches to problem solving.

      Punctuated Equilibrium Model

      The process of organizational change is marked by long periods of incremental or evolutionary change “punctuated” by sudden bursts of radical or revolutionary change; each needs to be managed differently.

      Quality Circles

      Voluntary improvement activities in groups are powerful tools for quality management in an integrated system oriented toward the development of the enterprise.

      Quality Trilogy

      Managers need to plan for quality, control performance variations, and enhance systems’ capability to excel on all dimensions of quality all the time.

      Quantum Change

      Large-scale change should be carried out rapidly across an organization’s structures, systems, and values when initiating or responding to a transformative event.

      Reinforcement Theory

      Employee behavior is a function of both antecedents (e.g., training, job redesign) and contingent consequences (e.g., rewards, punishment); behavior increases in strength and/or probability when positively reinforced.

      Resource Dependence Theory

      To understand organizational choices and actions, consider its environment and particularly the constraints emanating from transaction partners.

      Resource Orchestration Management

      Managerial actions of structuring, bundling, and leveraging resources, along with the synchronization of these actions, affect competitive advantage.

      Resource-Based View of Firm

      Managers can attain competitive advantages by exploiting the unique resources and capabilities to which their firms have access.

      Role Theory

      Roles, created at the intersection of social structure and individual behavior, enable consistent performances across individuals and situations.

      Schemas Theory

      Individuals interpret, evaluate, and apply information and knowledge by organizing them into cognitive structures which can be managed to facilitate understanding and shape behavior.

      Scientific Management

      Conflicts between managers and/or employers and employees need to be economically resolved through proper incentives and precisely designed job structures, content, processes, and targets.

      Self-Concept and the Theory of Self

      Construals and understandings of self play important functions in individual and organizational behavior.

      Self-Determination Theory

      Two different motivation types—autonomous and controlled—have very different consequences and are prompted by different managerial behaviors.

      Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

      Managers get the employees they expect; managers can boost effectiveness by expecting more of their subordinates.

      Sensemaking

      Developing retrospective images and words that rationalize what people are doing makes meaningful the social action taking place in an organization and illuminates how organizations work, change, and grow.

      Servant Leadership

      Leaders must make their top priority that of providing followers with the tools and support they need to develop mutual trust and reach their full potential.

      Seven-S Framework

      Conceptualizing organizations’ main elements in terms of interdependent, mutually reinforcing soft- and hard factors provides a powerful tool for diagnosing and analyzing organizational performance.

      Situational Theory of Leadership

      Managers can best lead and develop subordinates by using specified leadership styles to match a subordinate’s level of ability and commitment.

      Six Sigma

      Through a specified process of variation and defect reduction, organizations can simultaneously improve the quality of process outputs, increase customer satisfaction, and reduce waste, time, and costs.

      Social Cognitive Theory

      Human agency operates in concert with social and structural factors in determining organizational well-being and productivity.

      Social Construction Theory

      Social interaction influences the creating and institutionalizing of taken-for-granted knowledge, practices, and structures that can both enable and constrain activities.

      Social Entrepreneurship

      Entrepreneurship principles are applicable to multiple forms of (social) value creation which are not necessarily independent of or contrary to but instead can complement economic value creation.

      Social Exchange Theory

      Social systems can be understood as sets of interdependent economic and noneconomic transactions and relationships; managers can facilitate positive, cooperative exchange relations to produce benefits and limit costs.

      Social Facilitation Management

      The social context created by managers and coworkers can augment or reduce employee performance.

      Social Identity Theory

      Individuals’ identities are influenced by their perceived social group memberships; classifications and comparative perspectives of in- and out-groups generate meaning and shape members’ self-concept, attitudes, values, and behavior.

      Social Impact Theory and Social Loafing

      The magnitude of social impact is based on the strength, immediacy, and number of sources of social influence; managers need to particularly understand and reduce factors for social “loafing.”

      Social Information Processing Model

      People’s attitudes and behavior at work are affected both by what others do and say as well as by the need to rationalize their own past behavior.

      Social Movements

      Challenger groups are often sources of innovation in organizations, influencing managers to overcome the status quo and developing the energy and resources needed for transformative change.

      Social Network Theory

      Organizations generally exist for the purpose of establishing interaction and exchange with other entities, and they do so by bounding and coordinating the interactions of multiple individuals to achieve ends not achievable separately.

      Social Power, Bases of

      Managers must appropriately acquire and use bases of power—referent, expert, legitimate, reward, and coercive—if they are to exercise effective leadership.

      Sociotechnical Theory

      People and technology interact in complex ways such that their implications must be considered together to optimize performance.

      Stages of Creativity

      Creativity results from a process, each stage of which can be facilitated or frustrated by managers.

      Stages of Innovation

      The process of developing and implementing new ideas cannot be controlled, but managers can learn to maneuver the process.

      Stakeholder Theory

      Effectively managing relationships with internal and external parties who impact and are impacted by an organization is a primary responsibility of managers and is central to value creation.

      Stewardship Theory

      By pursuing cooperative, pro-organizational outcomes, stewards maximize their own utility as well as the performance of the organization.

      Strategic Alliances

      Strategic alliances can facilitate effective cooperation between firms by combining needed resources to achieve mutually compatible objectives.

      Strategic Contingencies Theory

      Intraorganizational power is derived from a subunit’s ability to support the critical tasks of other subunits in a way that no others can.

      Strategic Decision Making

      Managers can improve the chances of making successful strategic decisions by choosing the right decision-making processes across various levels of the organization.

      Strategic Entrepreneurship

      Strategy and entrepreneurship go together—successful entrepreneurship requires attention to strategy, and strategy is inherently entrepreneurial; opportunity-seeking and advantage-seeking are processes that should be considered jointly.

      Strategic Flexibility

      In a rapidly changing business environment, an organization’s capability for attention, assessment, and action in balancing commitment and timely change contributes to sustainable, positive performance.

      Strategic Frames

      Strategic frames—distinct cognitive constructs anchored in social schema and sensemaking—organize collective interpretations and support prospective guides to action.

      Strategic Groups

      By identifying the emergence and persistence of competitive structure within an industry, members of a strategic group can formulate their own strategies to remain competitive.

      Strategic Information Systems

      The strategic application of information systems to align investments and support an organization’s business model can provide a source of competitive differentiation.

      Strategic International Human Resources Management

      An integrative framework of five major factors explains how human resource management issues affect the success of a firm that is operating in an international environment.

      Strategic Profiles

      An accurate, comprehensive profile of a firm’s configuration, competitive strategy, and its industrial environment is useful in making strategic decisions.

      Strategies for Change

      Gaining organizational alignment with an external environment where change seems the only constant requires managers and leaders to implement systematic strategies for change.

      Strategy and Structure

      The relationship between strategy and structure is a reciprocal one where each should fit and complement one another optimally.

      Strategy-as-Practice

      Strategy is a kind of work; it is something that people do, rather than something that organizations have.

      Structuration Theory

      While structural properties of societies are real, they depend upon regularities of social reproduction; structure exists only in and through the activities of human agents.

      Substitutes for Leadership

      There are multiple contextual factors that enhance, neutralize, or substitute for relationship-oriented versus task-oriented leadership across three categories: subordinate, task, and organizational characteristics.

      SWOT Analysis Framework

      Assessing internal and external strategic issues enables managers to understand how current and future strengths can be leveraged to realize opportunities and how weaknesses can slow progress or magnify organizational threats.

      Systems Theory of Organizations

      Interventions to one part of an organizational system can affect other interrelated, interacting parts in intended as well as unintended ways, possibly undoing or otherwise altering the original interventions.

      Tacit Knowledge

      All knowledge used (in organizations) has a tacit dimension that carries implications for creating, storing, transferring, coordinating, and applying knowledge.

      Technological Discontinuities

      Nonparadigmatic changes in value creation and capturing pose fundamental challenges to incumbent organizations and can radically reshape industry structures.

      Technology Acceptance Model

      The use of a technology is significantly and primarily influenced by the user perceptions of its ease-of-use and usefulness.

      Technology Affordances and Constraints Theory (of MIS)

      The uses and outcomes of information systems are best understood in terms of dynamic relationships between the individual or organizational users and the technology features.

      Technology and Complexity

      Effective organizational responses to complex challenges are achieved through dynamic and holistic technologies cocreated by designers, implementers and users, which in turn influence organizational structure and social processes.

      Technology and Interdependence/Uncertainty

      Managers need to protect an organization’s technical core from environmental uncertainty and optimize coordination by matching its structure to technological and inter-unit interdependencies.

      Technology and Programmability

      The nature of technology used by a firm—the degree to which the production system is controllable and predictable—has important ramifications for how it should be structured.

      Technology S-Curve

      The management of, and transition from, a technology is influenced by multiple actors over time that affect technology performance through slow initial improvement, rapid increase, and eventual maturity.

      Theory Development

      Strong theories offer better causal explanations of important outcomes; for the majority of management theorizing, the objective is to answer, within specified contextual conditions, What causes what and why?

      Theory of Constraints

      Managers can structure their thinking about how to improve system performance by examining its component processes and sequentially addressing the most significant constraints.

      Theory of Cooperation and Competition

      Management involves creating and facilitating cooperation among the organization’s members while minimizing competitive and individualistic efforts.

      Theory of Emotions

      Emotion is a diverse multistage process, not a unitary experience, with each stage having important implications for organizational life.

      Theory of Organizational Attractiveness

      An individual’s perception of and desire to work for an organization is influenced by organizational, individual, and job or task characteristics; organizations can manage these to increase their attractiveness to potential applicants.

      Theory of Reasoned Action

      Behavioral intentions, influenced by subjective norms and attitude toward the act, are the most proximal and reliable predictors of whether a person will engage in a specific volitional act.

      Theory of Self-Esteem

      Self-esteem is a complex construct that is potentially developable and may be related to a number of important work-relevant variables.

      Theory of the Interesting

      It is more important for a theory to be interesting than true; challenging some assumptions can help achieve this.

      Theory of Transfer of Training

      To achieve transfer of training, designers and trainees must actively pursue those training elements and activities known to foster generalization, maintenance, and adaptation of learned skills and knowledge.

      Theory X and Theory Y

      Manager’s assumptions about human behavior, whether pessimistic (theory x) or optimistic (theory y), tend to result in corresponding patterns of behaviors; managers should assist employees in reaching their full potential.

      Total Quality Management

      Organizations can apply the philosophy and specified principles of total quality management to reduce costs, improve reliability, and enhance customers’ and other stakeholders’ satisfaction.

      Trait Theory of Leadership

      Leadership emergence and effectiveness is a function of the exceptional qualities, abilities, or traits—such as personality and intelligence—which one possesses.

      Transaction Cost Theory

      Firms organize their relationships with customers, suppliers, employees, and partners to economize on the costs of transacting business; these relate to search, communication, bargaining and contracting, and enforcing activities.

      Transfer of Technology

      Effective transfer of technical, organizational, and operational knowledge between providers and recipients is a function of the engaged entities’ characteristics, their interactions and context, and technology and transfer mechanisms.

      Transformational Theory of Leadership

      Inspiring employees is a better way to achieve your goals than motivating them with rewards and punishments; this power comes from idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration.

      Transnational Management

      Managers must recognize the increased complexity and conflicting demands of the global environment to simultaneously cultivate multinational flexibility, global scale efficiency, and worldwide learning capability.

      Triple Bottom Line

      Value creation is multidimensional—comprising “people, planet, and profit” considerations—with money alone being a poor measure of both positive and negative externalities.

      Trust

      Trust can be defined and measured, has several key antecedents that apply to multiple organizational levels, and can be managed based on attention to several factors.

      Two-Factor Theory (and Job Enrichment)

      There are two clusters of variables that influence humans’ motivation to work; the first motivates, the second can potentially demotivate.

      Type A Personality Theory

      Managers who manifest unmitigated “Type-A” behavior of high-achievement workaholics, especially anger and hostility, can have a negative long-term impact on themselves as well as their subordinates, groups, and organizations.

      Typology of Organizational Culture

      Organizational success depends on creating an environment that shapes the norms and behavior of participants in ways that will serve the organization well as circumstances and competition change.

      “Unstructured” Decision Making

      Processes and models for decision making can be developed for unfamiliar or unprecedented conditions in which accepted decision-making methods and solutions are unsuitable.

      Upper-Echelons Theory

      Organizations are reflections of their most senior level managers; top management team characteristics and actions explain strategic and performance consequences of the organization as a whole.

      Value Chain

      A firm’s primary and support activities, from purchasing raw materials to distributing products, must be systematically analyzed, organized, selected, and optimized for customer value creation and competitive advantage.

      Virtual Teams

      Virtual teams, whose members are separated by distance and time and who use technology to communicate, face unique challenges and should not be managed just like proximate teams.

      Work Team Effectiveness

      Teams are multifaceted, complex, and dynamic entities that create unique management challenges but offer the potential for superlative performance.

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