Encyclopedia of Management Theory

Encyclopedia of Management Theory

Encyclopedias

Edited by: Eric H. Kessler

Abstract

In discussing a management topic, scholars, educators, practitioners, and the media often toss out the name of a theorist (Taylor, Simon, Weber) or make a sideways reference to a particular theory (bureaucracy, total quality management, groupthink) and move on, as if assuming their audience possesses the necessary background to appreciate and integrate the reference. This is often far from the case. Individuals are frequently forced to seek out a hodgepodge of sources varying in quality and presentation to provide an overview of a particular idea. This work is designed to serve as a core reference for anyone interested in the essentials of contemporary management theory. Drawing together a team of international scholars, it examines the global landscape of the key theories and the theorists behind ...

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Reader's Guide
  • Entries A-Z
  • Subject Index
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
    • Nature of Management
    • Managing People, Personality, and Perception
    • Managing Motivation
    • Managing Interactions
    • Managing Groups
    • Managing Organizations
    • Managing Environments
    • Strategic Management
    • Human Resources Management
    • International Management and Diversity
    • Managerial Decision Making, Ethics, and Creativity
    • Management Education, Research, and Consulting
    • Management of Operations, Quality, and Information Systems
    • Management of Entrepreneurship
    • Management of Learning and Change
    • Management of Technology and Innovation
    • Management and Leadership
    • Management and Social/Environmental Issues
    • A
    • B
    • C
    • D
    • E
    • F
    • G
    • H
    • I
    • J
    • K
    • L
    • M
    • N
    • O
    • P
    • Q
    • R
    • S
    • T
    • U
    • V
    • W
    • X
    • Y
    • Z


      • Loading...
    • Advisory Board

      Eric H. Kessler, Editor

      Pace University

      Jean M. Bartunek

      Boston College

      Michael Hitt

      Texas A&M University

      Anne Sigismund Huff

      National University of Ireland, Maynooth

      Paul R. Lawrence

      Harvard University

      Jeffrey Pfeffer

      Stanford University

      Andrew H. Van de Ven

      University of Minnesota

      David A. Whetten

      Brigham Young University

      Copyright

      View Copyright Page

      List of Entries

      Editor's Note: Anchor entries are designated with an asterisk.

      Reader's Guide

      About the Editor

      Eric H. Kessler is the Henry George Professor of Management, and founding director of the Business Honors Program, in the Lubin School of Business at Pace University in New York City. As a management scholar, Dr. Kessler holds a PhD in organization management and international business; he has produced over 100 research papers and presentations that span a broad array of management issues and published three critically acclaimed management books: (1) Handbook of Organizational and Managerial Wisdom, (2) Cultural Mythology and Global Leadership, and (3) Management Theory in Action: Real World Lessons for Walking the Talk. As a management educator Dr. Kessler instructs courses and conducts developmental workshops on a range of management levels and topics; in addition he has worked as an executive educator, corporate speaker, and has led numerous global management field studies traveling across six continents. As a management professional, Dr. Kessler is a Fellow and Past President of the Eastern Academy of Management and a long-time member of the Academy of Management; he has served on several management journals’ advisory and editorial boards and has worked with a wide variety of large and small as well as private and government organizations. Dr. Kessler has received many academic honors and awards, is a member of Phi Beta Kappa, and has been inducted into national and international honorary societies in business, forensics, economics, and psychology.

      Contributors

      Eric Abrahamson

      Columbia University

      Frédéric Adam

      University College Cork

      Susan M. Adams

      Bentley University

      Rachida Aïssaoui

      University of Memphis

      Kleio Akrivou

      University of Reading

      Ramon J. Aldag

      Wisconsin School of Business, University of Wisconsin-Madison

      Sarah F. Allgood

      Virginia Tech

      Sharon A. Alvarez

      The Ohio State University

      Mats Alvesson

      Lund University

      Teresa M. Amabile

      Harvard Business School

      John M. Amis

      University of Memphis

      Jon Aarum Andersen

      Linneaus University, Sweden

      Marc H. Anderson

      Iowa State University

      Siah Hwee Ang

      University of Auckland Business School

      Alana S. Arshoff

      University of Toronto

      James Bailey

      George Washington University

      Arnold B. Bakker

      Erasmus University Rotterdam

      Timothy T. Baldwin

      Kelley School of Business, Indiana University

      Albert Bandura

      Stanford University

      Kathleen J. Barnes

      East Stroudsburg University

      Jay B. Barney

      The Ohio State University

      Jérôme Barthélemy

      ESSEC Business School Paris

      Jean M. Bartunek

      Boston College

      Nigel Bassett-Jones

      Oxford Brookes Business School

      Rowan Bayne

      University of East London

      Max H. Bazerman

      Harvard Business School

      Lee Roy Beach

      University of Arizona

      Suzanne T. Bell

      DePaul University

      J. Kenneth Benson

      University of Missouri-Columbia

      John W. Berry

      Queen's University

      Nicholas J. Beutell

      Iona College

      Magdalena Bielenia-Grajewska

      University of Gdansk, Poland and SISSA, Italy

      Richard S. Blackburn

      Kenan-Flagler Business School

      George Boak

      York St John University

      David M. Boje

      New Mexico State University

      Dianne Bolton

      Swinburne University of Technology

      Hyeon-Cheol Bong

      Chunbuk National University, Jeonju, South Korea

      Richard E. Boyatzis

      Case Western Reserve University

      Chris Brewster

      University of Reading

      Francesca Bria

      Imperial College London

      Shelley L. Brickson

      University of Illinois at Chicago

      Wayne Brockbank

      University of Michigan

      Philip Bromiley

      University of California, Irvine

      Karin Holmblad Brunsson

      Uppsala University

      Stéphane Brutus

      Concordia University

      Barbara Benedict Bunker

      University at Buffalo

      Anthony F. Buono

      Bentley University

      W. Warner Burke

      Teachers College, Columbia University

      Lawton Robert Burns

      University of Pennsylvania

      Lowell W. Busenitz

      University of Oklahoma

      Gervase R. Bushe

      Simon Fraser University

      John C. Byrne

      Pace University

      Kim Cameron

      University of Michigan Business School

      Laura B. Cardinal

      University of Houston

      Peter J. Carnevale

      University of Southern California

      Archie B. Carroll

      Terry College of Business, University of Georgia

      John S. Carroll

      Massachusetts Institute of Technology

      Canan Ceylan

      Uludag University

      Rajeswararao Chaganti

      Fox School of Business, Temple University

      Alok Chakrabarti

      New Jersey Institute of Technology

      Artemis Chang

      Queensland University of Technology

      Jennifer A. Chatman

      University of California at Berkeley, Haas School of Business

      Alicia Cheak

      INSEAD Global Leadership Centre

      Jiyao Chen

      Oregon State University

      Katherine K. Chen

      The City College of New York and the Graduate Center, CUNY

      Raveendra Chittoor

      Indian School of Business

      Yonjoo Cho

      Indiana University

      Yoonhee Choi

      University of Minnesota

      Edward W. Christensen

      Monmouth University

      Stewart R. Clegg

      University of Technology

      Charlotte Cloutier

      HEC Montreal

      David Coghlan

      Trinity College Dublin

      Aaron Cohen

      University of Haifa

      Susan Cohen

      University of Pittsburgh

      Christopher J. Collins

      Cornell University

      Jay A. Conger

      Claremont McKenna College

      Leonardo Corbo

      University of Bologna

      Taylor Cox Jr.

      Taylor Cox & Associates

      Russell Cropanzano

      University of Colorado

      Felipe A. Csaszar

      University of Michigan

      Richard L. Daft

      Vanderbilt University

      Giovanni Battista Dagnino

      University of Catania

      Su Mi Dahlgaard-Park

      Lund University

      T. K. Das

      City University of New York

      Rein De Cooman

      Lessius University College

      Edward L. Deci

      University of Rochester

      Stanley Deetz

      University of Colorado at Boulder

      Rich DeJordy

      Northeastern University

      Daniel Denison

      International Institute of Management Development

      Laurie N. DiPadova-Stocks

      Park University

      Nancy DiTomaso

      Rutgers Business School–Newark and New Brunswick

      Stanislav Dobrev

      Eccles School of Business, University of Utah

      Lex Donaldson

      University of New South Wales

      Thomas J. Donaldson

      Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania

      Peter Dorfman

      New Mexico State University

      Nicky Dries

      University of Leuven

      Kelly Dye

      Acadia University

      P. Christopher Earley

      Purdue University

      Marion B. Eberly

      University of Washington, Tacoma

      Dov Eden

      Tel Aviv University

      Thomas V. Edwards Jr.

      Pace University

      Julia R. Eisenberg

      Rutgers Business School–Newark and New Brunswick

      Hillary Anger Elfenbein

      Washington University in St. Louis

      John Elkington

      SustainAbility

      Amitai Etzioni

      The Institute for Communitarian Policy Studies

      Christina Fang

      New York University Stern School of Business

      Dan Farrell

      Western Michigan University

      Steven Fellows

      Boston University

      William P. Ferris

      Western New England University

      Lorenz Fischer

      University of Cologne

      Oliver Fischer

      University of Oxford

      Robert Folger

      University of Central Florida

      Nicolai J. Foss

      Copenhagen Business School

      Roseanne J. Foti

      Virginia Tech

      Nikolaus Franke

      WU Vienna

      Olivier Furrer

      Radboud University Nijmegen

      Marylène Gagné

      Concordia University

      Martin Ganco

      University of Minnesota

      William L. Gardner

      Texas Tech University

      Adriana Victoria Garibaldi de Hilal

      The COPPEAD Graduate School of Business

      Oliver Gassmann

      University of St. Gallen

      Ajai Gaur

      Rutgers University

      Megan W. Gerhardt

      Miami University

      Simona Giorgi

      Boston College

      Mary Ann Glynn

      Boston College

      Don Goeltz

      Holy Family University

      Timothy D. Golden

      Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

      Shanthi Gopalakrishnan

      New Jersey Institute of Technology

      Jonathan Gosling

      University of Exeter

      Remzi Gözübüyük

      IE Business School

      Henrich R. Greve

      INSEAD

      Bruce Gurd

      University of South Australia

      Paul J. Hanges

      University of Maryland

      Jeffrey S. Harrison

      University of Richmond

      Alex Haslam

      University of Exeter

      John Hassard

      University of Manchester

      Oscar Hauptman

      University of Western Sydney

      Marilyn M. Helms

      Dalton State College

      James V. M. L. Holzer

      U.S. Department of Homeland Security

      Robert Hooijberg

      IMD

      Sean Tsuhsiang Hsu

      University of Pittsburgh

      Anne Sigismund Huff

      National University of Ireland, Maynooth

      Lee H. Igel

      New York University

      Susan E. Jackson

      Rutgers University

      Mansour Javidan

      Thunderbird School of Global Management

      Francis Jeffries

      University of Alaska Anchorage

      Guowei Jian

      Cleveland State University

      David W. Johnson

      University of Minnesota

      Roger T. Johnson

      University of Minnesota

      Stephen Jones

      University of Minnesota

      William A. Kahn

      Boston University

      Steven J. Karau

      Southern Illinois University at Carbondale

      Merel M. S. Kats

      Deloitte NL

      Theresa F. Kelly

      The Wharton School

      Eric H. Kessler

      Pace University

      Manfred F. R. Kets de Vries

      INSEAD

      Shaista E. Khilji

      The George Washington University

      Yoo Kyoung Kim

      University of Southern California

      Brayden G. King

      Northwestern University

      Peter G. Klein

      University of Missouri

      David A. Kolb

      Case Western Reserve University

      Andreas S. König

      University of Erlangen-Nuremberg

      Richard E. Kopelman

      Baruch College

      Martin B. Kormanik

      O.D. Systems

      Tatiana Kostova

      University of South Carolina

      James M. Kouzes

      Santa Clara University

      Roderick M. Kramer

      Stanford University

      Chuhua Kuei

      Pace University

      Carol T. Kulik

      University of South Australia

      Stefan Lagrosen

      University West

      Nancy Lane

      IMD

      Theresa Lant

      Pace University

      Gary P. Latham

      University of Toronto

      Edward J. Lawler

      Cornell University

      Thomas W. Lee

      University of Washington

      David Lei

      Southern Methodist University

      Edward Levitas

      University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee

      Roy J. Lewicki

      The Ohio State University

      Leonardo Liberman

      Universidad de los Andes

      Robert C. Liden

      University of Illinois at Chicago

      Jeffrey K. Liker

      University of Michigan

      Robert C. Litchfield

      Washington & Jefferson College

      Anna Christina Littmann

      EBS Business School

      Romie Littrell

      Aukland University of Technology

      Edwin A. Locke

      University of Maryland

      Christopher P. Long

      Georgetown University

      Jay W. Lorsch

      Harvard Business School

      Todd Lubart

      Université Paris Descartes

      Heather MacDonald Memorial University of Newfoundland

      Joseph A. Maciariello

      Claremont Graduate University

      Christian N. Madu

      Pace University

      Ann Majchrzak

      University of Southern California

      Peter K. Manning

      Northeastern University

      Lalit Manral

      University of Central Oklahoma

      M. Lynne Markus

      Benley College

      Joanne Martin

      Stanford University

      Mark J. Martinko

      Florida State University

      Courtney R. Masterson

      University of Illinois at Chicago

      John E. Mathieu

      University of Connecticut

      Christina L. Matz

      Texas A&M University

      Kevin May

      George Washington University

      Roger C. Mayer

      Poole College of Management, North Carolina State University

      Abdelmagid Mazen

      Sawyer Business School Suffolk University

      Mary-Hunter Morris McDonnell

      Northwestern University

      Raymond E. Miles

      University of California, Berkeley

      Katherine L. Milkman

      The Wharton School

      Kent D. Miller

      Michigan State University

      Marie S. Mitchell

      University of Georgia

      Terence R. Mitchell

      University of Washington

      Mario P. Mondelli

      Centre for Economic Research

      Samantha D. Montes

      University of Toronto

      Karl Moore

      McGill University

      Todd W. Moss

      Oregon State University

      Robert Moussetis

      North Central College

      Troy V. Mumford

      Colorado State University

      Susan Elaine Murphy

      James Madison University

      David G. Myers

      Hope College

      Karen K. Myers

      University of California, Santa Barbara

      Anil Nair

      Old Dominion University

      Dilupa Jeewanie Nakandala

      University of Western Sydney

      Donald O. Neubaum

      Oregon State University

      Scott L. Newbert

      Villanova University

      Tjai M. Nielsen

      High Point University

      Levi R. G. Nieminen

      Denison Consulting

      Deborah Nightingale

      Massachusetts Institute of Technology

      Greg R. Oldham

      Tulane University

      Miguel R. Olivas-Luján

      Clarion University

      David L. Olson

      University of Nebraska

      Joe Peppard

      Cranfield School of Management

      Theodore Peridis

      York University

      James C. Petersen

      University of North Carolina at Greensboro

      Jeffrey Pfeffer

      Stanford University

      J. Mark Phillips

      Belmont University

      Nelson Phillips

      Imperial College Business School

      Pasquale Massimo Picone

      University of Catania

      Beth Polin

      The Ohio State University

      Marshall Scott Poole

      University of Illinois

      Barry Z. Posner

      Santa Clara University

      Richard A. Posthuma

      University of Texas at El Paso

      Marlei Pozzebon

      HEC Montreal

      Michael G. Pratt

      Boston College

      David J. Prottas

      Adelphi University

      Prem Ramburuth

      University of New South Wales

      W. Alan Randolph

      University of Baltimore

      Devaki Rau

      Northern Illinois University

      Davide Ravasi

      Bocconi University

      Barbara Ribbens

      Illinois State University

      Katherine M. Richardson

      Pace University

      Ansgar Richter

      EBS Business School

      Maria Carolina Saffie Robertson

      Concordia University

      Tonette S. Rocco

      Florida International University

      Zachariah J. Rodgers

      Brigham Young University

      Denise M. Rousseau

      Carnegie Mellon University

      Travis L. Russ

      Fordham University

      Richard M. Ryan

      University of Rochester

      Robert Ryan

      University of Pittsburgh

      Yolanda Sarason

      Colorado State University

      Saras Sarasvathy

      University of Virginia

      Carol Saunders

      University of Central Florida

      Stuart M. Schmidt

      Temple University

      Marguerite Schneider

      New Jersey Institute of Technology

      William D. Schneper

      Franklin & Marshall College

      Randall S. Schuler

      Rutgers University

      Joanne L. Scillitoe

      New York Institute of Technology

      Eliot L. Sherman

      Haas School of Business, University of California at Berkeley

      Katsuhiko Shimizu

      Keio University

      Dean Keith Simonton

      University of California, Davis

      David G. Sirmon

      Texas A&M University

      Sim B. Sitkin

      Duke University

      Joanne R. Smith

      University of Exeter

      Charles C. Snow

      Pennsylvania State University

      JC Spender

      Lund University

      David Philip Spicer

      Bradford University

      Gretchen Spreitzer

      University of Michigan

      Jayakanth Srinivasan

      Massachusetts Institute of Technology

      Rhetta L. Standifer

      University of Wisconsin–Eau Claire

      Donna Stoddard

      Babson College

      James A. F. Stoner

      Fordham University

      Roy Suddaby

      University of Alberta

      Mary Sully de Luque

      Thunderbird School of Global Management

      Kathleen M. Sutcliffe

      Ross School of Business, University of Michigan

      Paul Szwed

      U.S. Coast Guard Academy

      Ibraiz Tarique

      Pace University

      David J. Teece

      University of California, Berkeley

      Stefan Tengblad

      University of Skovde

      Deborah J. Terry

      University of Queensland

      Nicole J. Thompson

      Virginia Tech

      Pamela S. Tolbert

      Cornell University

      Maria Tomprou

      Carnegie Mellon University

      Linda Treviño

      Pennsylvania State University

      Joanne L. Tritsch

      University of Maryland

      Bruce W. Tuckman

      The Ohio State University

      Andrea Tunarosa

      Boston College

      Dave Ulrich

      University of Michigan, Ross School of Business

      Andrew H. Van de Ven

      University of Minnesota

      Rolf van Dick

      Goethe University

      Hetty van Emmerik

      Maastricht University

      Jeffrey B. Vancouver

      Ohio University

      Timothy Vogus

      Vanderbilt University

      Mary Ann Von Glinow

      Florida International University

      Victor H. Vroom

      Yale University

      Nigel Wadeson

      University of Reading

      Sigmund Wagner-Tsukamoto

      University of Leicester

      William Wales

      James Madison University

      Sandy J. Wayne

      University of Illinois at Chicago

      Howard M. Weiss

      Georgia Institute of Technology

      David A. Whetten

      Brigham Young University

      Richard Whittington

      Oxford University

      Bastian Widenmayer

      University of St. Gallen

      Joann Krauss Williams

      Judson College

      Janice Winch

      Pace University

      Duane Windsor

      Rice University

      Ingo Winkler

      University of Southern Denmark

      Jaana Woiceshyn

      University of Calgary

      Diana J. Wong-MingJi

      Eastern Michigan University

      Jack Denfeld Wood

      IMD

      Richard W. Woodman

      Texas A&M University

      Georges Zaccour

      HEC Montréal

      Shaker A. Zahra

      University of Minnesota

      Ting Zhang

      Harvard Business School

      Lynne G. Zucker

      University of California, Los Angeles

      Introduction

      The word manage, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is derivative of the Latin manus, or hand and emerges from the Italian maneggiare, which refers to the handling or training of horses. Its use has since been expanded to represent a broader concern for the proper handling of things or people, particularly with regard to a company or organization. This is true across multiple levels of analysis. For example, at the most fundamental social unit, the individual, it can be said that people (to varying degrees) manage themselves. We formulate our goals, regulate our behaviors, and allocate scarce physical, emotional, and intellectual resources to our decisions and actions. Further to this, we frequently attempt to manage others; these could include our family, friends, colleagues, coworkers, cohorts, or competitors. We do this through efforts to motivate them, communicate with them, influence them, lead them, and resolve conflicts with them. People also attempt to manage their context and shape their environment; this might represent a group or team, project or venture, formal or informal organization, alliance or network, industry or institution, society or nation state, or perhaps even a transnational global movement. In doing so, there is a common thread to these actions that evidences unmistakable elements of “management”: orientation and direction, coordination and control, authority and responsibility, planning and design, and administration and implementation. Thus, in a sense, we are all inexorably managers regardless of whether we are given a business card with the formal title.

      Not only does the reach of management run wide, but it also runs deep. That is to say, management is vitally important. It is with rare exception that our personal and professional activities need to be “managed”—implicitly or explicitly, internally or externally, indirectly or directly, proactively or reactively—to sustain efficient processes and achieve effective outcomes. However, highlighting something as important is quite different from saying that it is always done well. To the contrary we are all too often the victims, or perhaps the perpetrators, of poor management. It is simply not enough to cultivate advantageous resources and technologies, develop advanced skills and abilities, or construct superior capital and facilities. Who you are or what you possess (nouns) will only get you so far. We also need to pay attention to management dynamics (verbs). History is filled with countless examples of better managed “underdogs” leveraging their relatively meager means to upend better financed, entrenched, or equipped rivals. And in a world whose playing field has been characterized as increasingly “flat,” where resources, access, and opportunities are now more than ever evenly distributed, it is management that is frequently the key differentiator.

      Management is also complex. Despite a long history of academic and applied investigations, there are no simple, comprehensive, universally applicable answers to its totality of challenges and conundrums. It should therefore be of little surprise that there are countless “theories” (loosely defined as well as loosely connected) of management. The study of management is almost as broad and diverse as its practice. It encompasses multiple levels of investigation, a wide array of subdisciplines, hundreds of journals, libraries of books, armies of consultants, an eclectic array of researchers and professionals, and diverse education and training programs. For example, focusing solely on the Academy of Management, the preeminent professional organization for management scholars, its ranks comprise nearly 20,000 diverse members from over 100 nations working in over 20 distinct and scarcely integrated academic divisions and interest groups, each with its own particular mores, models, and methodologies. Thus, even in this relatively specialized domain, we still come from different management traditions, practice different management techniques, address different management issues, and speak different management languages—too often scarcely aware of where the “others” are coming from.

      Moreover, even when educators artificially narrow the field to discuss a discrete management topic, they often superficially toss out the name of a theorist (Taylor, Simon, Weber, etc.) or make a sideways reference to a specific theory (needs hierarchy, total quality management, etc.) and move on, as if assuming their audience possesses the necessary familiarity to appreciate, evaluate, integrate, and appropriately apply its assumption-based, domain-specific, frequently nuanced insights for improving their particular set of circumstances. Lamentably, this is far from the truth, and as such, management theory more often than not obscures rather than elucidates. Our students, our clients, our practitioners of the craft too often emerge more confused than empowered by these conversations. We hear questions such as, “Which motivation theory should I use?” or “What international strategies work best?” as if any of these tools can be applied without exception or without complement. And more than this, we are regularly presented with a seemingly endless stream of new books and journal articles with the latest fads and theories-of-the-day, professing to have “the answer,” yet often scarcely appreciating the theoretical insights that form their foundations, only to ride a brief wave of popularity but fall flat in the end.

      In summary, management theory is, on the one hand, (a) elevated by its pervasiveness and importance yet, on the other hand, (b) shackled by its dizzying, disconnected (dis)array of dimensions, perspectives, ideas, voices, and trends.

      Rationale for the Encyclopedia of Management Theory

      It follows from the previous discussion that a common “one-stop” resource for presenting the fundamental characteristics, constraints, explanations, and applications of core management theoretical models and concepts would be of great practical and scholarly use. To date, there is no single definitive source or rigorous, systematic academic collection of the fundamental theories that define the field of management. In response, SAGE Reference decided to publish this two-volume Encyclopedia of Management Theory (EMT). I am honored to serve as its general editor.

      Herein is the intention of this project—an authoritative compendium of the global landscape of key frameworks that have stood the test of time and whose insights provide the foundation for examining and advising contemporary management practice. The EMT is designed to serve as a reference for anyone interested in understanding, internalizing, and applying classical as well as contemporary management theory. Drawing together an impressive team of researchers and educators, it examines the key theories and the theorists behind them, presenting them in the context needed to understand their assumptions, arguments, and strengths and weaknesses. In addition to interpretations of long-established theories, it also offers consideration of cutting-edge research as one might find in a handbook. And like an unabridged dictionary, it provides concise, to-the-point definitions of key concepts, ideas, schools of thought, and major movers and shakers.

      For the purposes of this volume, a theory is defined as an ordered set of assertions that are predicted to hold true under defined instances. Ideally, theories should posit (a) factors, such as variables, concepts, or constructs, (b) that are related in some systematic way, (c) because of underlying psychological, economic, social, or other dynamics, (d) within temporal, contextual, or otherwise specified boundary conditions. Drawing from the entries Theory Development and Multilevel Research within this volume, we see management theory at its best about attempting to capture the who, what, how, where, and when but also the why to decode and influence a broad range of interdependent phenomena. Yet too often, theories are not well defined or structured. Too often, their explanations ignore critical contingencies. Too often, their central tenets are misunderstood or taken out of context so that they are misapplied, ignored, or overgeneralized. Too often, their baseline assumptions and historical development are underappreciated or obscured. Too often their relationships with complementary frameworks are underdeveloped. These must be corrected if our field is to meaningfully advance, guide research, integrate insights, and successfully contribute to practice. Moreover even among those precursory surveys of management “theories” that do exist, there are few if any filtration systems and coherent distillations that apply a consistent formula to consider their elemental messages and relative importance. This shortcoming also must be remedied. To this end, we will use the following criteria for assessment: validity times impact. Validity: The theory has been substantially supported by research and has shown to be accurate in helping understand, explain, and predict management phenomena. Impact: The theory has significant implications for improving management practice and has generated viable applications to produce intended results.

      Organization of the Encyclopedia

      Inside the EMT, the reader will find over 280 signed, cross-referenced entries from an international array of respected management scholars that represent a broad-based coverage of major interest areas and perspectives in the field. Further to this, a “Reader's Guide” was developed to group these entries thematically into the following categories that consider common management questions—yet often proposed different, albeit potentially complementary, answers:

      • What is/should be the nature of management and management thought?
      • How do you manage people's personalities and perceptions?
      • How do you manage people's motivations?
      • How do you manage interpersonal interactions involving communication, power and politics, and conflict?
      • How do you manage group composition, development, and teamwork?
      • How do you manage organizational structure, culture, and systems?
      • How do you manage environmental contingencies, networks, and institutions?
      • How do you manage strategic resources, frameworks, and processes?
      • How do you manage human resources practices, functions, and employee careers?
      • How do you manage within and across international cultures, climates, and other dimensions of diversity?
      • How do you manage decision-making rationality, ethics, and creativity?
      • How do you manage “management” education, research, and consulting?
      • How do you manage operational quality, logistics, and information systems?
      • How do you manage entrepreneurial thinking, creation, and engagement?
      • How do you manage learning, adaptation, and change?
      • How do you manage technology, knowledge, and innovation?
      • How do you manage leadership attributes, behaviors, and styles?
      • How do you manage social issues such as those concerning stakeholders, society, and the environment?

      In addition, the EMT provides two appendixes that offer unique value for the reader:

      • Appendix A (longitudinal): An abbreviated timetable of the “Chronology of Management Theory”—to appreciate the historical, cumulative development of theory within the field,
      • Appendix B (cross-sectional): A delineation of “Central Insights” from the aforementioned encyclopedia entries—to encapsulate the major theoretical “take-aways” of the field.
      Structure of the Entries

      The structure of each individual entry is contingent on its placement in one of three groups, varying in length, based on validity and importance as determined by the editor and advisory board. For each of these categories, standardized author guidelines and checklists were developed that further differentiate this volume from other types of compilations.

      Each entry begins with an opening paragraph (Introduction) that establishes a framework for the entry to clearly and concisely communicate its intention. It considers the following questions: Definition of the theory: What is the theory's central purpose and premise? Domain of the theory: Why is the theory relevant to the topic of the encyclopedia (i.e., management)? Outline of entry: How will this article be structured?

      The first and primary section of all entries (Fundamentals) describes the theory to systematically encapsulate its arguments. It considers the following questions customized to the particular nature of the topic: Content of the theory: What are the factors—core elements, variables, concepts, constructs, and so on—that make up the theory? Dynamics of the theory: What are the relationships—systematic ways in which the contents are related? Rationale of the theory: What are the underlying psychological, economic, social, and structural dynamics that explain the relationships? Domain of the theory: What are the temporal, contextual, or otherwise defined boundary conditions in which the theory holds? Context of the theory: What is the connection to similar theories and shared conceptions (general or midrange) of the phenomena?

      For longer entries a subsequent section (Importance) offers an assessment of the theory to critically evaluate its validity and impact. It considers the following questions, again customized to the particular nature of the topic: To what degree has the theory been substantially supported by research and has proven accurate in helping to understand, explain, and predict management phenomena? How has the theory influenced management scholars and educators? To what degree has the theory provided significant implications for improving management practice and generated viable applications to produce intended results? How has the theory influenced managers?

      For select theories that have been designated “anchor entries”—these are highlighted in the entry list with an asterisk—an additional section was requested that bridges the Fundamentals and Importance sections. Here a longitudinal examination (Evolution) was requested to dynamically trace its history and development. Significant discretion was allotted to consider in various lengths and approaches the following questions: What are the roots of the theory? What are the major changes, adaptations, tests, and adaptations to the theory that led to its most current form? What were the circumstances—economic, social, cultural, and so on—if any, that influenced its development, and what was their influence? Who are the people who contributed to its development and what was their contribution?

      Each entry concludes with cross-references to other related EMT entries, to provide additional breadth to the discussion, as well as a list of approximately 5 to 10 supplementary resources (Further Readings), both seminal and contemporary, to provide additional depth to the discussion.

      The EMT Team and Process

      Numerous individuals were involved with the EMT project at different stages of the process. The Board of Advisors lent considerable expertise and insight to the selection, categorization, and structure of the volume. In many cases, they also wore the hat of entry(ies) author. They rank among the most esteemed luminaries in the management theory field, and I am grateful to them for their support, listed alphabetically: Jean Bartunek, Michael Hitt, Anne Huff, Paul Lawrence, Jeffrey Pfeffer, Andrew Van de Ven, and David Whetten. During the course of compiling the volume Paul Lawrence passed from this world—Paul was a treasured colleague (he was even gracious enough to serve on my doctoral thesis committee) and will be missed. A wonderful group of colleagues at SAGE Publications shepherded this project from conception to completion including acquiring editor Jim Brace-Thompson, developmental editor Sanford Robinson, reference systems coordinators Laura Notton and Anna Villaseñor, production editor David Felts, and marketing manager Carmel Schrire.

      The selection of entries and authors for the EMT underwent a long, multiphase process. Feedback was solicited from numerous sources, including current and past officers of each Academy of Management division, editorial board members of several of the field's most respected journals, conversations with respected colleagues, and input from the distinguished advisory board. In addition, searches of numerous management databases were conducted as well as reviews of core management research articles, texts, and compilations. From this process, topics were ultimately identified and authors were approached and contracted who were experts in these areas, many of them the principle investigators of the focal theories. Multiple iterations of each entry were drafted, reviewed, edited, revised, and copyedited. Whereas the great majority of authors delivered stellar entries, there were incidences of late drop-outs or quality concerns that necessitated us to remove an otherwise intended contributor or entry. Of course no process of this nature is perfect and there will undoubtedly be some omissions and limitations—as well as emerging research, perspectives, issues, and applications—that we will look to address in subsequent editions.

      It should also be noted that within this volume some entries might be seen as more “theoretical” than others. That is to say, there is variability in the extent to which theories can be said to embody what several have put forth are the criteria for a strong theory. In addition, some entries drill down more than others to focus on key concepts or constructs whereas others adopt a more holistic or macro view that entertains different theoretical explanations, categorizations, frameworks, patterns, or perspectives of a focal management phenomenon. Moreover, the reader will also find differences between some entries in their basic assumptions, paradigmatic foundations, intended purposes, and even general intellectual approach. A conscious decision was made to prioritize a path that was more rather than less inclusive; this allowed for a more complete encapsulation of the management theory landscape rather than one that was artificially condensed. Said another way, the volume attempts to avoid the unnecessary rejection of potentially valuable explanations, which could be relatively more dangerous in these circumstances than offering a broader range of theories that vary in their popularity or current level of support and that include potentially but not necessarily more relevant and/or less-compelling insights. In “managing” this trade-off, the intention is to put forth these contributions to management thought in an open and straightforward manner that includes an explicit element of critical review and also invites rather than presupposes consideration by the reader.

      Suggestions for Using the EMT

      As you wade into this volume it may be easy to become disoriented with the great variety of models and perspectives or perhaps vacillate between them becoming an advocate of the most recently read or most persuasively written entry. As editor it is my charge not only to organize, solicit, and shape the entries but also to try to integrate them in some metalogical schemata as to bring the proverbial forest into focus without distorting the view of the trees. The EMT Reader's Guide is helpful in this way by offering a thematic categorization of theories, but it should be seen as a beginning and not an end to the conversation. Because management is a relatively new and “soft” science, it is helpful to borrow from those who have walked a similar path—specifically, to consider lessons from the more seasoned domain of theoretical physics, a field that has also seen its share of luminaries and similarly struggled with the integration of diverse perspectives. Mindful of what Warren Bennis has termed “physics envy,” the following discussion selectively adapts two of the strategies communicated by Stephen Hawking that are particularly promising for management in advancing its theoretical precision and practical integration.

      The “Trees”: Model-Dependent Realism

      One of the most useful tools for understanding the trees (i.e., individual theories) within the management forest can be extracted from what Hawking refers to in his 2010 book The Grand Design (New York: Bantam Books) as model-dependent realism. Per Hawking:

      There is no picture- or theory-independent concept of reality. Instead we will adopt a view that we will call model-dependent realism; the idea that a physical theory or world picture is a model … and set of rules that connect the elements of the model to observations. This provides a framework with which to interpret modern science.… [D]ifferent theories can successfully describe the same phenomenon through disparate conceptual frameworks. In fact, many scientific theories that had proven successful were later replaced by other, equally successful theories based on wholly new concepts of reality.… According to model-dependent realism, it is pointless to ask whether a mode is real, only whether it agrees with observation.… A model is a good model if it: 1) Is elegant, 2) Contains few arbitrary or adjustable elements, 3) Agrees with and explains all existing observations, 4) Makes detailed predictions about future observations that can disprove or falsify the mode if they are not borne out. (pp. 42–43, 44, 46, 51)

      Let us unpack this. First, theories provide a picture of reality. They supply the categories to label phenomena as well as the map to interpret their relationships. For instance, if one is evoking Maslow's model of reality, then a person's motivations might be seen as striving to fulfill one unmet need or another—for example, internal esteem; alternatively, if one is using Vroom's framework of motivation, then the same actions by the same person might be understood as hedonically attempting to better link outcome with valence. Therefore, it is imperative to recognize that our worldview is shaped by the theories that we employ. Whether we are liberated, or imprisoned, by them is another matter entirely and largely a fate of our choosing.

      Second, that there is an evolutionary quality to theoretical development. This might take the form of successive improvements in the way that we see things, such as when new evidence is discovered or new applications are tested, or the advancement of wholly new paradigms for making sense of reality. Both cumulative as well as frame-breaking ideas populate the theoretical space. It is important to recognize not only the theoretical snapshots of management but the cinema and unfolding narrative of its story. Again, whether successive theoretical iterations represent positive enhancements or negative regressions is to be determined. We must be mindful that “newer” does not always mean better and “older” does not always mean classic.

      Third, the veracity of management theory is ultimately decided on the shop floor and office space, not in the library or lecture hall. Independent of practical analysis and application, and outside of internal consistency, there is little compelling rationale to determine which competing model is “more real” than another. Management theories perpetuate or fade away (or at least they should) based on their realistic value. That is to say, their acceptance should be a function of the degree to which their predictions agree with and can shape observation. Fourth, and related to the above, the quality of a theoretical modeling is a function of its usefulness to managers. Models are more effective if they are simple, straightforward, broad-based, predictive, and provide tools for action that, if followed, will increase management efficiency and effectiveness. Certainly this is easier said than done, and the tension between criteria recalls Dr. Einstein's pondering of necessary trade-offs that (paraphrasing) a theory can only be two of the following: simple, accurate, and comprehensive. It is therefore important to acknowledge that management is ultimately a professional field and must be judged by the degree to which it offers elucidating perspective, helpful tools, and practical guidance for using them.

      Therefore, the first opportunity/challenge for the reader of this volume is to recognize the theories themselves, their language and their limits, and reflect on how they help explain, predict, and impact management dynamics and outcomes. My advice would be the following: Seek to truly understand, on their own terms, the essential insights of these frameworks. Try to customize their lessons and see how they might relate to your particular circumstances. Extract their most useful implications—for becoming a stronger person, for engaging in more successful interactions, and for constructing more facilitative contexts and mind-sets—to increase your management capacity. Yet do not be satisfied with the information and encapsulated knowledge communicated by the entries; combine them with sound judgment and prudent action to translate your enhanced potential into management “wisdom” for achieving personal and professional success. It is my hope that the EMT facilitates this.

      The “Forest”: (Management) M-Theory

      Keeping our focus on the lessons of physics, but now looking not at the trees themselves but at how they relate to each other in the forest (i.e., management theory literature)—or pushing the metaphor farther, perhaps how they can be assembled into a terrarium—Hawking gives us a second vehicle: M-Theory:

      M-Theory is not a theory in the usual sense. It is a whole family of different theories, each of which is a good description of observations only in some range of physical situations. It is a bit like a map. As is well known, one cannot show the whole of the earth's surface on a single map. The usual Mercator projection used for maps of the world makes areas appear larger and larger in the far north and south and does not cover the North and South Poles. To faithfully map the entire earth, one has to use a collection of maps, each of which covers a limited region. The maps overlap each other, and where they do, they show the same landscape. M-theory is similar. The different theories in the M-Theory family may look very different, but they can all be regarded as aspects of the same underlying theory. They are versions of the theory that are applicable only in limited ranges.… Like the overlapping maps in a Mercator projection, where the ranges of different versions overlap, they predict the same phenomena. But just as there is no flat map that is a good representation of the earth's entire surface, there is no single theory that is a good representation of observations in all situations.… Each theory in the M-theory network is good at describing phenomena within a certain range. Wherever their ranges overlap, the various theories in the network agree, so they can all be said to be parts of the same theory. (pp. 8, 58)

      Let us extract the elements most relevant for our volume. Theories are like maps. They are more or less accurate depictions of a delineated area or landscape. As such, they have limited ranges of application, which are separated by explicitly acknowledged or implicitly active boundary conditions. As Dr. Hawking argues, and most management scholars would readily agree, there is at this time no single theory-of-everything (TOE) that is a good representation of all observations in all situations. Similarly, as inferred by numerous EMT entries, it is no easy task capturing the complex configurations of factors that combine to influence organizational success and differentiate the sage management scholar or continuously successful manager from their less distinguished counterparts. It is therefore necessary to “stitch together” (a la image or photo stitching) these depictions to see how each image relates to one another and, in the process, gain a better panoramic perspective of the overarching vista. This suggests that theories need not be seen as necessarily competing visions of reality but instead as representing potentially complementary mappings of different networked components within a multifaceted and multileveled reality. Areas of correspondence represent prospects for theoretical synergy. Areas of divergence represent prospects for theoretical reconciliation and extension (recalling dialectical arguments that a meeting of a thesis and its antithesis has the potential to yield synthesis). Ultimately, they are all contributors to a broader, more inclusive map; that is, they may all be part of the same “Management M-Theory.”

      What might a Management M-Theory look like? Perhaps overlapping elements of critical and functional perspectives, humanistic and bureaucratic designs, external and internal forces, operational and innovative/entrepreneurial processes, tacit and algorithmic recipes? Integrated individual, interpersonal, group, organizational, environmental, and strategic analyses? Synchronized psychological, sociological, anthropological, political, and economic engines? Amalgamated information-, knowledge-, resource-, and wisdom-based lenses? A harmony of increasingly “high-definition” static management snapshots and dynamic management cinema? The actualization of a Management M-Theory is beyond the scope of this brief introduction. What is important is the general strategy that its idea represents for making sense of the 280-plus entries herein. Therefore, the second opportunity/challenge for the reader is to understand how the entries—both within and across reader's guide categories—relate to, inform, and influence each other so as to provide the templates for a deeper, more comprehensive comprehension of management theory and an integrated, more effective application of its principles. My advice would be the following: Uncover the underlying theories nested within or derivative of complementary frameworks. Seek to truly understand the specific conditions in which their arguments apply. Actively explore how their focal domains interact with related models and where their conclusions might coalesce. Further, and borrowing from ancient but still relevant philosophical debates, consider how their individually articulated management (lower-case t, situation-specific) truths might be reconciled to help approximate overarching management (capital T, overarching) Truth. It is my hope that the EMT facilitates this.

      In summary, as I conclude this introduction, let me share with you that it has been a wonderful experience constructing the Encyclopedia of Management Theory. It has provided me with an opportunity to revisit (and apply) many concepts and explanations, reconnect with valued colleagues and connect with new ones, and learn much from the process. My invitation to you, the reader, is to look at the contents of this volume in a variety of ways. Take a basic look—familiarize yourself with the entries and acquire fundamental information about their models and modes. Take a deep look—really dig into the entries and suggested readings to analyze their logic and comprehend the images and principles that they advance about management reality. Take a hard look—assess the validity and importance of the theories (i.e., the trees) and critically evaluate their usefulness in explaining, predicting, and influencing management dynamics. Take a progressive look—move beyond consumer to use them as a platform for buttressing and extending our field. Take a broad look—see how they relate to each other (i.e., the forest) and might be integrated into a bigger, more holistic picture. Take a reflective look—think about how they can help you on a customized path of personal development and growth. Finally, take a practical look—actively apply them in an integrated, synergistic paradigm to manage for success.

      EricH.Kessler
    • <span class="hi-italic">Encyclopedia of Management Theory:</span> Appendix A

      Chronology of Management Theory*
      NicholasJ.Beutell

      1905: Max Weber's The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism—published in English in 1930; 1922: The Theory of Social and Economic Organization Weber is known for numerous contributions to management, including the theory of “bureaucracy,” a formalized and idealized view of organizations administered on the basis of knowledge and known for efficiency, impersonal relationships, task competence, and rules and procedures.

      1910–1915: Henry L. Gantt designs a project-scheduling model for increasing the efficiency of project completion (Gantt Chart); protégé and associate of Frederic Taylor.

      1911: Frederick W. Taylor's Principles of Scientific Management—proposes an objective, systematic method rather than “rules of thumb” to indentify the “one best way” to perform a job; advocated scientific selection and training methods; cooperation between workers and managers with each doing what they are best suited to do; and pay tied to work performance.

      1912: Frank Gilbreth becomes a disciple of Taylor's—develops, along with his wife Lillian, a scheme for labeling hand movements; identified “therbligs” (Gilbreth spelled backward with the “t” and “h” transposed) as the basic unit of motion studies.

      1913: Hugo Münsterberg's Psychology and Industrial Efficiency—presents a scientific study of human behavior in the work environment; analysis of individual differences.

      1916: Henri Fayol, an engineer and managing director, publishes Administration Industrielle et Générale (General and Industrial Administration); identifies 14 principles of management such as authority and responsibility, unity of command, scalar principle, remuneration, esprit de corps, etc.; believed that management could be taught.

      1924: Lillian Gilbreth takes over management consulting company after her husband, Frank Gilbreth, dies. Lillian was the first woman to obtain a PhD in management; she made numerous contributions to industrial psychology.

      1933, 1939: Elton Mayo, The Human Problems of an Industrial Civilization (1933) and 1939: Fritz Roethlisberger and William Dixon, Management and the Worker (1939), Hawthorne Studies conducted at Hawthorne Plant of Western Electric Corporation—examines various changes (e.g., lighting) to gauge the effect on employee productivity in a factory environment; studies are widely criticized for experimental errors yet have a wide-ranging impact and provide the genesis of the human relations school; the “Hawthorne effect” refers to changes in behavior resulting from being studied rather than effects associated with experimental manipulations (although this interpretation has been questioned).

      1925: Mary Parker Follett, The Psychological Foundations of Business Administration—suggests that organizations are communities involving networks of groups; manager's job is to coordinate group effort; anticipated many contemporary concepts like motivation, leadership, and empowerment.

      1938: Chester Barnard, business executive, publishes The Functions of the Executive—argues that managers should communicate and encourage workers to high levels of success; proposes the acceptance theory of authority—that success depends on cooperation of employees.

      1944–1951: Kurt Lewin's action research model, including in Action Research and Minority Problem—presents a model of social research leading to action along with feedback on the effects of that action; noted for work on group dynamics and behavioral commitment; identifies a model of planned change (unfreezing, change, refreezing); and force field analysis. Also credited for beginning t-groups.

      1947: Herbert A. Simon, Administrative Behavior: A Study of Decision-Making Processes in Administrative Organizations, based on his doctoral dissertation—coins the terms bounded rationality (people have limits or boundaries on the amount of information they can process to make a decision) and satisficing (selecting the first solution that satisfies decision criteria even though better solutions might exist) related to decision making.

      1950: George Homans, The Human Group—advances small-group theory and research; attempts to extrapolate from a single group to understanding the social system.

      1952: Solomon Asch studies of social influence (Asch Effect)—proposes that social pressure can induce people to select choices that are objectively incorrect.

      1954: Peter F. Drucker, The Practice of Management—examines management and the managerial role as a distinct business function bridging theory and practice.

      1954: Abraham Maslow, Motivation and Personality—develops a theory of human motivation by proposing a universal, prepotent hierarchy of needs.

      1957: Chris Argyris, Personality and Organization—identifies fundamental conflicts between individual and organizational needs.

      1958: James March and Herbert Simon, Organizations—presents a comprehensive review of organizational theory revealing a number of limitations and gaps, highlighting themes relating to cognition and decision making, and presenting directions for subsequent research.

      1959: Frederick Herzberg et al., The Motivation to Work—proposes a two-factor theory (motivator-hygiene) suggesting that motivator factors (e.g., recognition, the work itself) can lead to job satisfaction and motivation, while a separate set of factors (hygiene factors—e.g., work environment, pay) can lead to job dissatisfaction.

      1959: John R. P. French and Bertram Raven, The Bases of Social Power—argues that five types, or bases, of power (coercive, reward, legitimate, referent, and expert) are linked with leadership.

      1959: John Thibaut and Harold Kelley, The Social Psychology of Group—argues that social behavior is an exchange process based on rewards and costs with the goal of maximizing rewards and minimizing costs.

      1959: Ford Foundation and Carnegie Foundation reports that blasted business schools for lack of intellectual content and fostered the hiring of people from “the disciplines” into business schools thereby fostering business school research.

      1960: Fred E. Emery and Eric L Trist discuss “sociotechnical systems”—suggests that any production system consists of two elements: a technological organization (i.e., equipment, process) and a work organization (those who do the work having social and psychological needs).

      1960: Douglas McGregor, Human Side of Enterprise—propounds an overall approach to organizations and organizational change; a model for improving relationships with employees to the extent to which managers can model the hypothetical “Manager Y,” a supportive and understanding manager who trusts employees to work hard (Theory Y vs. Theory X).

      1960–1970: Development of SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis at Stanford Research Institute, often credited to Albert Humphrey; this concept emerged for a number of theories and corporate planning approaches.

      1961: David McClelland's The Achieving Society—discusses the need for achievement (first identified by Henry A. Murray), need to excel, to perform against standards, and to win; McClelland extended his theory to other acquired needs such as need for power and need for affiliation.

      1961: T. Burns and G. M. Stalker, The Management of Innovation—examines mechanistic and organic organizational designs and the environments conducive for each.

      1961: Harold Koontz, “Management Theory Jungle” (Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 4, No. 3)—identifies schools of management thought such as empirical, human behavior, mathematical, social system, decision theory, and management process; convergence of approaches seems unlikely.

      1961: Rensis Likert, New patterns of management and 1967: The Human Organization—proposes a “linking-pin” (organizations consist of “families” that are linked together) model to bridge human relations and organization structure.

      1961: Warren Bennis, Kenneth Benne and Robert Chin, The Planning of Change—lays out a foundation for planned organizational change such as organization development.

      1962: Kaoru Ishikawa develops the quality circle concept with the Japanese Union of Scientist and Engineers quality research group; begun as an experiment to test the influence of the “leading hand” (Gemba-cho) on quality; W. Edwards Deming is also associated with this concept, where small groups of employees and supervisors meet regularly to solve quality issues and operational improvements.

      1962: Peter M. Blau and W. Richard Scott, Formal Organizations: A Comparative Approach, one of the founding texts of organizational sociology—analyzes formal organization in a way that goes beyond individuals and groups to explore organizations as collective actors.

      1962: Everett Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations—attempts to explain how, why, and the rate of adoption of new ideas and technologies in a culture.

      1962: Alfred Chandler, Strategy and structure—analyzes large corporations and the way executives plan, coordinate, and appraise in such structures; proposes that strategy determines long-term organizational goals, tactics, and resources; structure is the design for administering organization activities; structure follows strategy.

      1963: Warren T. Norman, Toward an Adequate Taxonomy of Personality Attributes: Replicated Factor Structure in Peer Nomination Personality Ratings—finds five essentially orthogonal personality factors (empirically derived) that were the basis for Big Five personality traits (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism).

      1963: Richard Cyert and James March, Behavioral Theory of the Firm—explains decision making within the firm suggesting, based on Simon's work, that individuals and groups “satisfice” as they pursue goals rather than attempting to maximize the utility or profitability of a decision.

      1964: Victor Vroom, Work and Motivation—uses expectancy theory to integrate various scholarly approaches to work motivation by examining how valence, instrumentality, and expectancy can be managed to align individual and organizational objectives.

      1964: Robert Kahn, Donald Wolfe, Robert Quinn, J. Diedrick Snoek, and Robert Rosenthal, Organizational Stress: Studies in Role Conflict and Ambiguity—examines role expectations in the organizational environment leading to conflict and ambiguity such that maintained stress leads to health issues and diminished sense of well-being.

      1965: J. Stacy Adams, Inequity in Social Exchanges—uses equity theory to argue that employees compare their ratio of inputs to outputs from the job with others; an imbalance leads to actions to reduce the perceived inequity.

      1965: Joan Woodward, Industrial Organization: Theory and Practice—argues that technology and production systems were critical aspects of organizational design; advanced a contingency approach to organizing.

      1966: Daniel Katz and Robert L. Kahn, The Social Psychology of Organizations—presents a unified, open systems approach extending organizational theory beyond the boundaries of a single organization.

      1966: Peter Berger and Thomas Luckmann, The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge—identifies the ways in which individuals and groups actively participate in constructing their notions of reality as an ongoing and dynamic process.

      1967: Paul Lawrence and J. W. Lorsch, Organization and Environment: Managing Differentiation and Integration—studies organizational differentiation and integration, suggesting that successful organizations match their structure to the nature of the environment.

      1967: Fred Fiedler publishes A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness—argues that leader effectiveness is contingent upon two interacting factors, leadership style, and situational favorableness.

      1967: James Thompson, Organizations in Action: Social Science Bases of Administrative Theory—analyzes organizations and their functioning based on uncertainty, technology, and interdependencies.

      1968: Bruce Henderson creates Boston Consulting Group Matrix to help companies analyze their product lines or business units; uses market share and growth rate to classify business units as cash cows, dogs, question marks, or stars.

      1968: Edwin A. Locke, Toward a Theory of Task Motivation and Incentives (and later 1984: E. A. Locke and J. P. Latham, Goal Setting: A Motivational Technique That Works)—argues that specific and difficult goals result in higher task performance.

      1969: B. F. Skinner, Contingencies of Reinforcement: A Theoretical Analysis—argues that operant conditioning can shape behavior; identifies a reinforcer as any contingent stimulus that increases the target behavior.

      1969: Karl Weick, The Social Psychology of Organizing (second edition published in 1979)—defines organizing as “the consensually validated grammar for reducing equivocality by means of sensible interlocked behaviors;” his notable works have made many theoretical contributions, including concepts such as enactment, mindfulness, sensemaking, and loose coupling.

      1972: Michael Hunt, Competition in the Major Home Appliance Industry—coins the term strategic group based on an analysis of the appliance industry; an analytic tool for grouping companies using similar business models or strategies into direct and indirect competitors.

      1973: Henry Mintzberg, The Nature of Managerial Work—expands the view of managerial work by observing and categorizing what managers actually do.

      1974: Ken Thomas and Ralph Kilmann, The Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument—measures conflict situations along two dimensions (assertiveness and cooperativeness) along with five options for resolving conflict including competing, accommodating, avoiding, compromising, and collaborating.

      1974: Robert House and Terence Mitchell, Path Goal Theory of Leadership—examines how leader behavior can clarify paths to goals that subordinates value, and, in so doing gains increased acceptance from subordinates.

      1974: Ralph Stogdill, Handbook of Leadership: A Survey of the Literature—identifies the major traits (e.g., decisive, dependable) and skills (e.g., intelligent, creative) of managers based on previous research studies.

      1974: Chris Argyris and Donald Schön, Theory in Practice: Increasing Professional Effectiveness—examines “organizational learning” practices from a perspective other than Carnegie Mellon.

      1975, 1981: Oliver E. Williamson, Markets and Hierarchies: Analysis and Antitrust Implications (1975) and The Economics of Organization: The Transaction Cost Approach (1981)—shows that “transactions” go beyond buying and selling to include a variety of behaviors such as emotional interactions and informal gift giving; transaction costs are influenced by factors including frequency, specificity, uncertainty, bounded rationality, and opportunistic behavior; formulate the basis of the “make vs. buy” decision.

      1976: J. Richard Hackman and Greg R. Oldham, “Motivation Through the Design of Work: Test of a Theory” (Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, Vol. 17, No. 2)—presents a job characteristics model that includes employee psychological states, task characteristics that arouse these psychological states, feedback, and employee growth need strength (based on higher order needs from A. Maslow).

      1976: Derek S. Pugh and David J. Hickson, Organizational Structure in Its Context: The Aston Programme I (and subsequent series of empirical findings from the Aston Program)—systematically analyzes dimensions of organizational structure applicable to all organizations.

      1977: Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Men and Women of the Corporation—reveals a workplace dominated by men with women caught in a cycle of powerlessness largely determined by corporate structure.

      1977: Albert Bandura, Social Learning Theory—shows that learning derives from observation and modeling; that mental processes are a critical component (in contrast to purely behavioral approaches) and that learning can occur even though the learned behaviors are not immediately exhibited. Also “Self-Efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change” (Psychological Review, Vol. 84, No. 2)—identifies self-efficacy, a person's belief that he or she can be successful in a particular situation, as a major factor in changing behavior.

      1977: B. J. Calder, “An Attribution Theory of Leadership” (in New Directions in Organizational Behavior, edited by Staw and Salancik)—posits that leadership is an attribution that people make rather than a set of traits or behaviors.

      1977: Michael Hannan and John Freeman, “The Population Ecology of Organizations” (American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 82, No. 5)—examines dynamic changes within a set of organizations, statistically investigating organizational birth and mortality as well as emerging organizational forms in a longitudinal fashion.

      1977: John Meyer and Brian Rowan, “Institutional Organizations: Formal Structure as Myth and Ceremony” (American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 83, No. 2)—perhaps the first article in making institutional theory salient, focuses on social pressures rather than “rational-economic” behavior in determining organizational practices.

      1978: Chris Argyris and Don Schön Organizational Learning: A Theory of Action Perspective—distinguishes between single-loop and double-loop learning—the former refers to corrective actions required to maintain homeostasis, whereas double-loop learning examines the assumptions and values of the actions taken.

      1978: Jeffrey Pfeffer and Jerry Salancik, The External Control of Organizations: A Resource Dependence Perspective—advances the idea that resource exchange is necessary for organizational survival, and acquiring resources can result in organizational competition and unequal, dynamic interdependencies since the supply of resources is finite.

      1979: Gibson Burrell and Gareth Morgan, Sociological Paradigms and Organizational Analysis—examines fundamental sociological approaches that underlie ways of thinking about organizations; proposes four major paradigms: radical humanist, functionalist, radical structuralist, and interpretive.

      1979: Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky publish “Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decisions Under Risk” (Econometrica, Vol. 47, No. 2)—argues that decision makers examine potential losses and gains rather than the overall decision outcome; also examines the heuristics used to evaluate potential losses and gains.

      1979: Anthony Giddens, Central Problems in Social Theory: Action, Structure, and Contradiction in Social Analysis—considers the concept of action in the context of structural components of social institutions; attempts to resolve the long-standing agency-structure quandary in social analysis.

      1980: Michael Porter, Competitive Strategy—develops Hunt's (1972) concept of strategic groups arguing that such groups create mobility barriers that function like entry barriers except they are created within industry groups; seminal work on strategy considers generic strategies and competitive forces (rivalry among existing competitors, new entrants, buyers, suppliers, and substitute products or services) that contribute to the profitability on an industry.

      1980: R. Revans, Action Learning: New Techniques for Management—allows learners to reflect and review their own experiences and behaviors as a basis for making improvements.

      1980: Geert Hofstede, Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values—summarizes the results of a major survey of IBM employees’ cultural values conducted between 1967 and 1973; the primary dimensions of national cultural values include power distance, individualism, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity/femininity; widely used in international human resource management.

      1981: Lawrence Kohlberg, The Philosophy of Moral Development: Moral Stages and the Idea of Justice (Essays on Moral Development, Vol. 1)—examines preconventional, conventional, and postconventional levels of moral development, each having distinct stages. Justice is a central characteristic of moral reasoning.

      1981: William G. Ouchi, Theory Z: How American Management Can Meet the Japanese Challenge—argues that American companies should employee Japanese-style management techniques, the essence of which is a unique way of managing people (e.g., staff development, consensual decision making); based on McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y as well as Abraham Maslow's Theory Z.

      1981: Roger Fisher and William Ury, Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In—espouses principled negotiation, a method that seeks win-win agreements between negotiators.

      1982: W. Edwards Deming, Out of the Crisis—presents an approach to a total quality management system for improving quality, productivity, and competitiveness.

      1983: Robert E. Quinn and J. A. Rohrbaugh, “A Spatial Model of Effectiveness Criteria: Towards a Competing Values Approach to Organizational Analysis” (Management Science, Vol. 29, No. 3)—develops the competing values framework in relation to organizational effectiveness consisting of two dimensions: organizational focus (internal vs. external) and stability/control versus flexibility/change.

      1983: Teresa Amabile, The Social Psychology of Creativity: A Componential Conceptualization—identifies three necessary and sufficient conditions for creativity: domain-relevant skills, creativity-relevant skills, and task motivation; examines the impact of personality, cognitive ability, and social factors.

      1984: Eliyahu Goldratt and Jeff Cox, The Goal—advances a theory of constraints (“a chain is no stronger than its weakest link”) through a fictional account of UniCo Manufacturing.

      1984: Anthony Giddens, The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration—explores the extent to which individual or social forces shape our reality; all human action occurs against the backdrop of a social structure that shapes and is shaped by such action.

      1984: R. Edward Freeman, Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach—argues, in contrast to the traditional shareholder view of the firm, that stakeholders (“those groups without whose support the organization would cease to exist”) need to be considered as well.

      1985: Chris Argyris, Robert Putnam, and Diana McLain Smith, Action Science: Concepts, Methods and Skills for Research and Intervention—argues that research should be useful in solving practical problems.

      1985: Michael Tushman and Elaine Romanelli, “Organizational Evolution: A Metamorphosis Model of Convergence and Reorientation” (Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol. 7)—presents a model of organizational evolution that examines forces for stability, forces for change, and the role that executive leadership plays in these processes.

      1985: Edward Deci and Richard Ryan publish Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Human Behavior, the first comprehensive statement of self-determination theory—proposes that humans have an intrinsic tendency to behave in effective and healthy ways.

      1985: Mark Granovetter, “Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness” (American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 91, No. 3)—examines the embeddedness of economic actions in structures of social relations in industrial society.

      1985: Michael Porter publishes Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance—shows how firms leverage a combination of attributes and resources across a “value-chain” enabling the firm to outperform other firms in the industry.

      1985: Stuart Albert and David Whetten, Organizational Identity (in Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol. 7, edited by Cummings and Staw)—introduces thinking about elements of an organization that are believed to be central, enduring, and distinctive.

      1986: Bill Smith, Motorola Corporation—develops the Six Sigma methodology as a way to count quality defects in manufacturing based on conceptual developments at Motorola begun in the 1970s; six sigma quality standard is fewer than 3.4 defects per million parts or opportunities; widely used as a tool for quality improvement as well as reducing costs.

      1986: Michael Tushman and P. Anderson, “Technological Discontinuities and Organizational Environments” (Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 31, No. 3)—examines the impact of technological discontinuities on different industries; technological evolution has long periods of incremental change followed by competency-destroying or competency-enhancing discontinuities.

      1986: J. M. Juran, “The Quality Trilogy: A Universal Approach to Managing for Quality” (Quality Progress, Vol. 19, No. 8)—argues that “quality does not happen by accident;” gave rise to the quality trilogy: Quality planning, quality control, and quality improvement.

      1987: Randall Schuler and Susan Jackson, “Linking Competitive Strategies With Human Resource Management Practices” (Academy of Management Executive, Vol. 1, No. 3)—argues that employee role behaviors mediate the relationship between a firm's strategy and performance.

      1987: Marvin R. Weisbord, Productive Workplaces: Organizing and Managing for Dignity, Meaning, and Community—provides a foundation for large-group interventions, an important form of organizational change.

      1987: David L. Cooperrider and Suresh Srivastva, “Appreciative Inquiry in Organizational Life” (in Research in Organizational Change and Development, Vol. 1, edited by W. Pasmore and R. Woodman)—first introduces appreciative inquiry and its underlying philosophy as a new approach to intervention.

      1989: Blake Ashforth and Fred Mael, “Social Identity and the Organization” (Academy of Management Review, Vol. 14, No. 1)—argues that people categorize themselves and others into categories (e.g., organizational membership, age, gender) and that social classification permits people to locate themselves in a social environment.

      1989: Warren Bennis, On Becoming a Leader—offers a unique view of leadership as self-development coupled with passion and building trust among followers.

      1989: Andrew Van de Ven, Harold Angle, and Marshall Scott Poole, Research on the Management of Innovation—reveals that the stages of innovation from invention to implementation do not follow a straightforward set of stages, suggesting a higher level of complexity to this process than previously believed.

      1989: David Whetten, “What Constitutes a Theoretical Contribution?” (Academy of Management Review, Vol. 14, No. 4)—offers a look into the building blocks of theory, assessing the value added by theoretical constructs and judging theoretical papers in the organizational sciences.

      1990: C. K. Prahalad and Gary Hamel, “The Core Competence of the Corporation” (Harvard Business Review, Vol. 68, No. 3)—coins the term core competence and showed this concept as the basis for corporate competitiveness.

      1990: Edgar H. Schein, Career Anchors—identifies eight major career themes (e.g., autonomy/independence, general managerial competence) that tend to keep employees anchored to their primary theme that emerges from life and occupational experience.

      1990: Peter Senge, The Fifth Discipline—popularizes the concept of the learning organization based on five disciplines: systems thinking, personal mastery, mental models, shared vision, and team learning.

      1990: Michael Porter, Competitive Advantage of Nations—examines the role played by a country's economic environment in relation to success of firms in different industries; his diamond model includes firm strategy, structure, and rivalry; demand conditions (expectations of customers); related and supporting industries; and factor conditions (key production factors are created not inherited).

      1991: Walter W. Powell and Paul J. DiMaggio, eds., The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis—examines the institutional approach to organizational analysis from a sociological perspective; going beyond economic approaches the institutional model shows how institutions interact and how these interactions affect society.

      1992: Robert Kaplan and David Norton, The Balanced Scorecard—builds on the work of consultant Arthur Schneiderman of Analog Devices to present a comprehensive management control and performance measurement system that examines strategic success factors in addition to traditional financial measures affecting a firm's performance.

      1992: Ronald S. Burt, Structural Holes: The Social Structure of Competition—introduces and applies social network analysis to the understanding patterns of relationships among individuals and organizations.

      1993: Michael Hammer and James Champy, Reengineering the Corporation: A Manifesto for Business Revolution—advances the idea that business processes should be reengineered to eliminate activities that do not add value and redesign core processes that support the organization's mission.

      1993: Jeffrey Pfeffer, “Barriers to the Advancement of Organizational Science: Paradigm Development as a Dependent Variable” (Academy of Management Review, Vol. 18, No. 4)—argues that organizational science is not well developed paradigmatically; examines how certain values (e.g., theoretical and methodological diversity) have slowed scientific progress.

      1995: Mark Huselid, “The Impact of Human Resource Management Practices on Turnover, Productivity, and Corporate Financial Performance” (Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 38, No. 3)—demonstrates the impact of high performance work systems on employee behavior and corporate financial performance.

      1995: Denise Rousseau, Promises in Action: Psychological Contracts in Organizations—conceptualizes the psychological contract (originally used by Argyris in 1960) as the beliefs that employees hold about their employment relationship that becomes relatively stable over time.

      1995: Daniel Goleman, Emotional Intelligence: Why Can It Matter More Than IQ—suggests that emotions should be given a greater role in human behavior, decision making, and individual success.

      1996: Gary Hamel and C. K. Prahalad, Competing for the Future—redefines corporate strategy, indicating that companies need to develop a view of the future based on industry foresight to create a new competitive space.

      1996: John Kotter, Leading Change—develops an eight-step model of planned change that has guided change efforts for years; examines the profound significance of leaders in the change process.

      1997: Clayton Christensen, The Innovator's Dilemma: When New Technologies Causes Existing Firms to Fail—shows how a company's successes and competencies can create barriers to coping with changing technologies and markets.

      2000: Anne Huff, “Changes in Organizational Knowledge Production” (Academy of Management Review, Vol. 25, No. 2)—reveals how the knowledge explosion has challenged business school teaching and research.

      2001: Sara Rynes, Jean Bartunek, and Richard Daft, “Across the Great Divide” (Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 44, No. 2)—lays out boundaries differentiating academic and practitioner approaches to knowledge as well as strategies for overcoming them.

      2001: James Collins, Good to Great—describes the reasons that some companies excel while others do not; “Level 5 Leadership” (Harvard Business Review, Product 5831)—contributes to enduring greatness by blending humility and resolve to do what is best for the company.

      2002: Michael Hitt, R. Duane Ireland, Michael Camp, and Donald Sexton, Strategic Entrepreneurship: Creating a New Mindset—identifies how firms can identify entrepreneurial opportunities by focusing on the most promising prospects and exploiting them using a strategic business plan.

      2003: Kim Cameron, Jane Dutton, and Robert E. Quinn, “Positive Organizational Scholarship” (Journal of Management Inquiry, V01.17, No. 1)—provides a framework for and highlights the effects of positive, enriching organizational dynamics that give rise to extraordinary outcomes.

      2004: C. K. Prahalad, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid—shows how the billions of poor people in the world represent a great, untapped market; serving this population helps companies and helps the economic aspirations of those being served.

      2004: Henry Mintzberg, Managers Not MBAs: A Hard Look at the Soft Practice of Management and Management Development—offers a critique of management education revealing how MBA programs are ineffectual in training practicing managers; suggests a new paradigm to increase managerial effectiveness.

      2005: Sumantra Ghoshal, “Bad Management Theories Are Destroying Good Management” (Academy of Management Learning and Education, Vol. 4, No. 1)—shows how academic business and management research have had a negative impact on practice stemming from the ideas and assumptions that have guided research.

      2006: Jeffrey Pfeffer and Robert Sutton, Hard Facts, Half-Truths, and Total Nonsense: Profiting From E vidence-Based Management—shows how many accepted management truisms are not only incorrect but, when used by managers, may actually harm the organization; argues for a new model based on evidence.

      2007: Eric Kessler and James Bailey, Handbook of Organizational and Managerial Wisdom—proposes a framework for reconciling management theory with fundamental philosophical principles.

      2007: Andrew Van de Ven, Engaged Scholarship—proposes a participative and collective form of scholarship that transcends the capability of individual researchers.

      Note: *Chronology covers a time period beginning at the onset of the 20th century and ending 5 years prior to the writing of this appendix.

      <span class="hi-italic">Encyclopedia of Management Theory:</span> Appendix B

      Central Management Insight
      Academic-Practitioner Collaboration and Knowledge SharingIt is possible to create more insightful knowledge for theory and practice if academics and practitioners collaborate.
      Acculturation TheoryPeople's cultural beliefs and behaviors need to be understood and incorporated into organizational policies and practices in order to achieve effective operations.
      Achievement Motivation TheoryAcquired motives—achievement, affiliation, and power—are important for managerial performance and should be used for global selection and assessment of managers.
      Action LearningIt is possible to develop organizational members’ competencies in the process of solving real, difficult management issues.
      Action ResearchActionable knowledge is most effectively produced through deep inquiry into a group's practices via systematic, iterative processes of data gathering, reflection, and action.
      Actor-Network TheoryHuman and nonhuman organizational actors are generated and “held together” by interactive, continuous, and heterogeneous network forces and strategies.
      Adaptive Structuration TheoryInformation technologies do not automatically change behavior or improve effectiveness; this depends on how effectively managers facilitate the appropriation of information technology (IT) by users.
      Affect TheoryIf jobs are structured as joint tasks in which responsibility for results is shared, then employees develop stronger affective commitments to the organization.
      Affective Events TheoryWork and life experiences are proximal influences on people's subjective mood and emotional episodes, which in turn are related to work performance and job attitudes.
      Agency TheoryThe interests of shareholders and managers tend to differ but can be aligned to achieve the maximization of shareholder value.
      Analytic Hierarchy Process ModelManagers can utilize a relatively easy and robust process for establishing priorities in multicriteria decision settings.
      Analytical and Sociological ParadigmsThe study of organizations, and the body of knowledge about them, is shaped by researchers’ implicit assumptions and training, which reflect a range of orthodox and heterodox “paradigms.”
      Appreciative Inquiry ModelTeams, organizations, and society evolve in whatever direction people collectively, passionately, and persistently ask questions about.
      Architectural InnovationSignificant competitive advantage can be gained from innovations that change the linkages between product components.
      Asch EffectSocial pressure can convince group members to falsify their beliefs in order to achieve group consensus.
      Attraction-Selection-Attrition ModelPeople make organizations through a process of attracting and selecting matching employees and attritioning out nonmatching employees.
      Attribution Model of LeadershipLeaders’ and employees’ causal explanations for employee performance uniquely and interactively influence performance responses including future expectations and behaviors.
      Authentic LeadershipLeaders who remain true to their personal values and convictions and display consistency between their words and deeds will foster elevated levels of follower trust and performance.
      Bad TheoriesAcademia perpetuates a number of bad management theories that promote detrimental business practices, and those theories must be carefully reexamined.
      Balanced ScorecardStrategy development and execution can be enabled by a balanced set of performance measures focusing on organizational goals—financial, customer, processes, and learning and growth.
      BCG Growth-Share MatrixThe basis of competitive advantage and growth is derived by managing the relationship of the company's portfolio of product lines or business units.
      Behavioral Perspective of Strategic Human Resource ManagementHuman resource (HR) management systems are most effective when they are designed to support strategic business objectives.
      Behavioral Theory of the FirmManagers will behave differently from what is assumed in rational actor views of the organization both with respect to internal processes and relations to the environment.
      Big Five Personality DimensionsIndividual differences along five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, openness to experience) affect many management issues.
      Bounded Rationality and Satisficing (Behavioral Decision-Making Model)The concept of rational economic man must be reconciled with the many cognitive, perceptual, situational, and other limits on rationality that influence decision makers to make satisfactory rather than optimal choices.
      BrainstormingEfforts at creative idea generation deserve focused attention and can benefit from adopting a formalized structure.
      Bureaucratic TheoryBureaucracy remains the dominant, albeit an imperfect and double-edged, system of administration for shaping intendedly rational, goal-oriented human interactions through objective knowledge and scientific analysis.
      Business GroupsFirms in many parts of the world are part of business groups and derive unique advantages as well as disadvantages from their affiliation.
      Business Policy and Corporate StrategyCompanies can create value through the configuration and coordination of their multibusiness activities by aligning vision, resources, businesses, and role of the headquarters.
      Business Process ReengineeringDramatic business improvement can be accomplished with radical process redesign that is supported by information technology.
      BVSR Theory of Human CreativityHuman creativity requires individuals to generate and test low-probability ideas whose utilities are unknown in advance.
      Career Stages and AnchorsCareer choice should be seen as an ongoing journey of exploration and self-construction driven by patterns of self-perceived competence, motivators, and values that guide and constrain development.
      Causal Attribution TheoryThe behaviors and emotions of leaders and followers are driven by their beliefs about the causes of their own as well as others’ successes and failures.
      Charismatic Theory of LeadershipCharismatic leadership is an attribution based on followers’ interpretations of their leader's behavior; a set of distinct behaviors leads to this attribution.
      Circuits of Power and ControlPower is not a thing that people have but a social relation that is dynamic, potentially unstable, and resisted.
      Cognitive Dissonance TheoryIndividuals’ deep-seated desire for consistency can have profound consequences, including shifts in attitudes, behavioral changes, and self-justification of decisions.
      Cognitive Resource TheoryLeaders tend to use their raw intelligence to make decisions; however, in some situations, leaders’ relevant experience strongly contributes to effectiveness.
      Competing Values FrameworkIn every organization, competing and contradictory values exist; the most effective organizations, as well as the most effective leaders, are paradoxical—they simultaneously represent and display competing values.
      Competitive AdvantageThe primary objective of a firm's strategy is to identify, create, and sustain a competitive advantage over its industry rivals by identifying a unique position so as to reduce or counter the profit-reducing effect of the forces in that industry.
      Complexity Theory and OrganizationsManagers need to understand how individuals and firms interact and not only how they perform individually; organizational performance depends on interdependent interactions within the system as a whole.
      Compliance TheoryManagement “styles”—good practices, patterns of achievement—cannot be transferred; each kind of organization needs a form of management tailored to its special kind of hierarchy, rewards, incentives, and possible sanctions.
      Componential Theory of CreativityThe work environment can be as important for creativity as employee talent; creativity should be highest when intrinsically motivated, expert, creative thinkers work in a social environment that supports creativity.
      Conflict Handling StylesManagers can choose from a variety of conflict styles, varying in concern for self and for others, which will be most effective in different situations.
      Contingency TheoryThere is no one best way to manage people or to design an organization; rather, the choices which are made must fit the situation faced.
      Contingency Theory of LeadershipLeadership behaviors will not necessarily yield the same results in all situations; a fit between leadership style and contingency variables is positively related to leadership effectiveness.
      Continuous and Routinized ChangeRevolutions are not necessary for organizational development; continuous, routinized change shifts the focus from “change” to “changing” through an ongoing mixture of reactive and proactive modifications guided by purposes at hand.
      CooptationOrganizations reflect not only the aim of its principals but also to some degree other stakeholders’ aims, such as external collaborators, professional groups, and senior management.
      Core CompetenceCore competence—firm-specific bundles of skills, insights, and capabilities gained from accumulated knowledge, learning, and investment—enable organizations to create, innovate, and deliver value to its stakeholders.
      Corporate Social ResponsibilityBusiness is embedded in society; therefore, every business decision must consider the resulting direct or indirect social impacts.
      Critical Management StudiesManagement and organization need to be assessed broadly; in their operations and in outcomes, there are dark aspects calling for careful scrutiny and exploration.
      Critical Theory of CommunicationOrganizations and the various forms of knowledge and the human identities of members are products of complex interaction processes conducted under conditions of inequality.
      CSR PyramidCorporate social responsibility (CSR) embraces four distinct but overlapping responsibilities: economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic.
      Cultural Attitudes in Multinational CorporationsThe seemingly limitless ways that firms seek to internationalize can be compared and meaningfully understood by examining the cultural mind-sets of senior organizational decision makers.
      Cultural IntelligenceManagers’ adjustments in new cultural contexts can be explained by a faceted model of cultural intelligence (CQ) that considers cognitive/metacognitive, motivational, and behavioral elements.
      Cultural ValuesTo fit in with emerging globalization challenges, managers should try to understand the meaning of value systems and how they may affect the business environment.
      Decision Support SystemsPeople can make better decisions with computer support that uses data access and models to aid learning about decision environments.
      Decision-Making StylesManagers should be mindful of differences in individuals’ preferred ways of perceiving and responding to problem-solving situations and understand their impact on decisions made.
      Dialectical Theory of OrganizationsOrganizational structures and practices are shaped by complex and contradictory social forces only partially controlled by rational decisions.
      Diamond Model of National Competitive AdvantageA number of structural factors work together to create the conditions for the competitiveness of industries and firms within particular nations which can derive benefits from their “home base.”
      Differentiation and the Division of LaborThe distribution of work into specialized tasks, roles, and functions are key characteristics of modern management; however, this must be balanced with integration, control, and organizational flexibility needs.
      Discovery Theory of EntrepreneurshipThere are reasons—such as position, cognition, and deliberation—why some people may be more likely to discover entrepreneurial opportunities than others.
      Diversification StrategyExpanding the scope of the business segments where the firm competes can be a value-enhancing strategy.
      Double Loop LearningEntrenched assumptions and governing values inform peoples’ theory-in-use which influences their action strategies; deep reflection on this underlying reasoning process questions the status quo and enables productive change.
      Dramaturgical Theory of OrganizationsThe organization can be seen through metaphor as an acting unit that presents strategies and tactics designed to enhance the power and authority of the organization.
      Dual-Concern TheoryManagers can often achieve good outcomes if they care not only about their own interests but also other's interests and seek outcomes of negotiation that maximize collective welfare.
      Dual-Core Model of Organizational InnovationOrganizations implement administrative and technical innovations via different organizational groups and management processes.
      Dynamic CapabilitiesTop management needs to add and shed organizational resources as it detects opportunities, threats, and changes in the business environment.
      Emotional and Social IntelligenceEmotional and social capabilities are direct characteristics of an individual that lead to or cause effectiveness in management, leadership, and other occupations.
      EmpowermentWhen individuals feel psychologically empowered—through meaning, competence, self-determination, and impact—their intrinsic motivation and personal efficacy expectations are strengthened.
      Engaged Scholarship ModelCollaborative inquiries between universities, practitioners, and other relevant community partners help bridge the theory-practice gap and yield more relevant solutions to societal issues.
      Entrepreneurial CognitionEntrepreneurs use mental models to connect seemingly dissimilar pieces of information in thinking through new opportunities and making decisions.
      Entrepreneurial EffectuationEffectual action inverts predictive strategies to offer entrepreneurs a learnable method for shaping their environment and better controlling situations.
      Entrepreneurial OpportunitiesEntrepreneurs should match the type of opportunity they are trying to exploit with the appropriate processes to increase their chances for successful exploitation and wealth creation.
      Entrepreneurial OrientationAn organization can be considered more (or less) entrepreneurial as a collective entity; it may develop a strategic orientation toward entrepreneurial activity and behavior.
      Environmental UncertaintyManagers should adjust their attitudes toward environmental uncertainty, analyze its multidimensional sources and attributes, and then manage direct and moderating effects accordingly.
      Equity TheoryEmployees feel fairly compensated based on perceptions of rewards relative to contributions as compared with a benchmark rewards/contributions ratio.
      ERG TheoryThree types of human needs—existence, relatedness, and growth—influence behavior and highlight the necessity of both extrinsic and intrinsic motivational options.
      Escalation of CommitmentDecision makers should understand and reduce the danger of becoming increasingly committed to courses of action that have become unprofitable.
      Ethical Decision Making, Interactionist Model ofEthical decision making in organizations is driven largely by the individual's cognitive moral development but also results from its interaction with other individual differences and contextual features.
      European Model of Human Resource ManagementManaging people, more than most other areas of management, is contextual; HR managers should consider factors such as culture, stakeholders, decision processes, markets, organization, and the state.
      Evidence-Based ManagementTo the extent that research findings are incorporated into practice, managers at all levels will decrease inefficiencies; currently, many optimal solutions are being neglected.
      Excellence CharacteristicsExcellence is not a static destination; rather, it is an attitude and a pursuit where there are many ways individual or organizational actors can realize their potential and grow continuously.
      Expectancy TheoryAligning individual goals with organizational objectives is critical to effective management; there are several components of successful alignment: expectancy, instrumentality, and valence.
      Experiential Learning Theory and Learning StylesThe management process involves creative tension among four learning modes—based on dual dialectics of grasping and transforming experience—within a dynamic learning cycle that is responsive to contextual demands.
      Fairness TheoryActions seem unfair when people feel that those actions would have been better if the relevant person could have and should have acted differently.
      Firm GrowthThe administrative and management structures of a firm play vital roles in configuring and utilizing its resources, which in turn enables and constrains its growth trajectory.
      First-Mover Advantages and DisadvantagesBeing first to market carries a host of threats and opportunities; understanding the underlying mechanisms is essential for positive economic performance in new or substantially reorganized markets and industries.
      Force Field Analysis and Model of Planned ChangeThe composition of a dynamic “field” with driving and resisting forces influences intended, rational change on multiple levels and across different stages—unfreezing, movement, and refreezing.
      Functions of the ExecutiveIndividuals cannot achieve their aspirations independently; organizations are formed for cooperative purposes through inducements and contributions, communication and interaction, and accepted or legitimated authority relationships.
      Game TheoryManagers need to behave strategically when their own rewards depend on decisions made by competitors or partners.
      Gantt Chart and PERTVarious forms of critical path analyses can assist in effectively scheduling, organizing, and coordinating activities in time-constrained projects.
      Garbage Can Model of Decision MakingDecisions that might appear arbitrary and chaotic should be understood in the context of disconnected problems, solutions, opportunities, and decision makers.
      Genderlect and Linguistic StylesUnderstanding how communication patterns are shaped by gender-related characteristics, and how they influence performance, is important for managers when interacting with internal and external stakeholders.
      GLOBE ModelIn each society, leaders are expected to act in ways that are compatible with the society's cultural values.
      Goal-Setting TheoryA powerful way to motivate employees is to give them specific, challenging goals.
      Group DevelopmentTo be most effective, small groups must progress through a series of developmental stages each with their own tasks and challenges.
      Group Polarization and the Risky ShiftGroup interactions will often enhance, rather than moderate, the average preexisting tendency of individual members, yielding more extreme decisions and actions.
      Group Punctuated Equilibrium ModelTiming is important when introducing changes to a team; habitual behavioral patterns are established in the first meeting, and groups are not susceptible to change until temporal milestones come up for review.
      GroupthinkThere are potential sources of dysfunctions in cohesive groups facing stressful decision situations as well as potential remedies for these dysfunctions.
      High- and Low-Context CulturesThere are cross-cultural differences in the way people communicate meaning, which is a combination of information and inextricably bound up context.
      High-Performance Work SystemsHuman resource practices can be configured in a specific way to attain horizontal and vertical alignments and improve individual and organizational effectiveness.
      High-Performing TeamsApplying a clinical approach to the study of teams allows us to develop a more in-depth understanding of potentially counterproductive interpersonal, intrapersonal, and organizational dynamics.
      High-Reliability OrganizationsA more mindful approach to managing structures, practices, and processes is advisable for an increasing number of organizations that must perform in complex, dynamic, and error-intolerant environments.
      Human Capital TheoryPeople are as important as other types of resources; proper investments in human capital can result in improved performance at the individual, group, organization, and country levels.
      Human Resource Management StrategiesHuman resource management strategies will have greater positive impact when they elicit the workforce characteristics required to support the strategy of the organization.
      Human Resources Roles ModelThere are five roles that define expectations of what HR professionals should be, know, and do to deliver value: employee advocate, human capital developer, functional expert, strategic partners, and leader.
      Humanistic ManagementManagers need to treat workers and other stakeholders with dignity and sensitivity, attending to their psychological needs and “informal” social dynamics, to achieve ethical and sustainable success.
      HypercompetitionCompetitive moves and responses can escalate to the point where traditional advantages, such as positioning and resource superiority, are no longer effective.
      Image TheoryProfessional managers create an image of what they want their organization's future to be, and decisions and subsequent actions are directed toward ensuring that the image becomes reality.
      Individual ValuesIndividuals’ value priorities relate to their attitudes, behaviors, and roles; by developing greater awareness of one's own and others’ values, it is possible to influence people in desirable directions.
      Influence TacticsOrganizational participants employ a finite and identifiable set of behaviors which are more successful at gaining compliance from others when appropriately matched to their circumstances.
      Informal Communication and the GrapevineEmergent, unofficial, and unsanctioned information flows, notably gossip, occur in predictable ways to serve different functions which have the potential to be managed.
      Information Richness TheoryInformation channels differ in information carrying capacity; effective managers select channels to fit the messages that they want to convey.
      Innovation DiffusionForces within organizational or individual collectivities cause management ideas, practices, or techniques to be perceived as innovations and to spread more or less quickly, extensively, and effectively among collectivity members.
      Innovation SpeedManagers should embrace time orientation and, when appropriate, align their innovation strategy, process, staff, and structure to prudently speed up.
      Institutional TheoryThe adoption and retention of many organizational practices is often more dependent on powerful social pressures for conformity and legitimacy than technical pressures for economic performance.
      Institutional Theory of Multinational CorporationsOrganizations’ success in the management of cross-border operations is often determined by their ability to adapt to the institutional environments in which they operate.
      Integrative Social Contracts TheoryConfronting ethical problems in business demands the integration of universally applicable norms with specific standards that are voluntarily accepted in economic communities.
      Interactional Model of Cultural DiversityThe existence of cultural diversity presents specific challenges and opportunities which, depending on several climate factors, can produce either positive or negative effects on organizational performance and societal well-being.
      Interactionist Model of Organizational CreativityManagers can have the most positive impact on organizational creativity by designing the work setting in such a way as to enhance individual and team creative behavior.
      Interorganizational NetworksFavorable structural positions within a group of organizations connected by common affiliations or exchange relations bring advantages, including greater social capital, over others of similar ability.
      Intuitive Decision MakingUnder the right conditions, intuition—or “trusting your gut”—can result in both fast and effective judgments.
      Investment Theory of CreativityCreativity is itself an investment activity in which personal and environmental resources are deployed to achieve novel, appropriate valued outputs.
      Job Characteristics TheoryEmployees’ psychological states and work effectiveness can be enhanced by designing jobs high in five key characteristics and ensuring that employees with appropriate personal qualities are assigned to these jobs.
      Job Demands–Resources ModelJob resources can buffer the impact of job demands on strain, stress, and burnout and may foster employee engagement and performance.
      Kaizen and Continuous ImprovementOrganizations should engage in a continuous, meticulous drive for excellence across the enterprise to achieve lowest cost, highest quality, and best service to the customer.
      Knowledge WorkersKnowledge workers play a central role in modern, technology-driven organizations; these highly trained, specialized, and connected employees must be managed appropriately.
      Knowledge-Based View of the FirmFirm-wide tacit capabilities form a firm's core; cultivation and refinement of these capabilities determine current and future firm vitality.
      Large Group InterventionsChanging complex systems is more effective when system stakeholders, internal and external, are engaged in all aspects of the change process.
      Lead UsersIt pays to carefully identify, through a defined methodology, those cutting-edge users who really can foster a firm's ideation and new product development efforts.
      Leader–Member Exchange TheoryA leader develops different exchange relationships with his or her subordinates which vary in quality and impact important outcomes.
      Leadership Continuum TheoryThe range of managerial choices during decision-making efforts can be conceptualized along a continuum, from autocratic to democratic approaches, and are more or less appropriate under different conditions.
      Leadership PracticesLeadership is a set of identifiable skills and abilities that are available to anyone; leadership is not about who you are; it's about what you do.
      Lean EnterpriseThe application of seven core “lean” principles to complex enterprises requires a focus on the enterprise value proposition across all key stakeholders.
      Learning OrganizationLearning involves more than transferring information; it is embedded in ongoing social interactions and cyclical, multilevel practices and routines by which organizations notice, interpret, and manage their experience.
      Level 5 LeadershipThe pinnacle of executive leadership styles is that of a “Level 5” leader who embodies personal humility and strong and willful persistence in pursuing common goals and objectives.
      Locus of ControlManagers can use their understanding of an individual's source of perceived power to effect an outcome to influence the individual's behavior, especially toward empowerment and planned change.
      Logical IncrementalismStrategic decisions are rarely brought about deliberately; they often emerge from an iterative yet logical process of proactively developing a course of action and reactively adapting to unfolding circumstances.
      Management (Education) as PracticeLearning how to manage is best done by reflecting on current experience, informed by concepts, and usually in conversation with other managers.
      Management by ObjectivesAll employees, in all levels of an organization, should know explicitly what they need to do to accelerate the implementation of their organization's strategic plan.
      Management Control SystemsOrganizational structure, procedures, practices, and norms—that is, controls—are integral to organizational functioning, effectiveness, and goal achievement.
      Management RolesHow managers behave at work is influenced by predictable, multidimensional roles related to the context, content, and forms of managerial jobs that specify rights, duties, expectations, and norms.
      Management Symbolism and Symbolic ActionFocusing on symbolic action reveals the importance of meaning making within processes of organizing and the related understanding of management as cocreating meaning.
      Managerial Decision BiasesSystematic and predictable biases can lead to irrational decisions that are oftentimes outside of the individual's own awareness.
      Managerial GridThere are two primary dimensions or orientations in leaders’ behavior—concern for production and concern for people—and this resultant leadership style impacts organizational effectiveness.
      ManagerialismManagers wield great power and control over firms to the potential detriment of both narrow shareholder and broader societal interests.
      Managing DiversityEffective management of a demographically diverse workforce requires an integrated strategic approach incorporating recruitment, development, and retention initiatives.
      Matrix StructureComplex organizational structures can be designed to achieve goals of both specialization and scale economies along with coordination and product focus.
      Meaning and Functions of Organizational CulturePeople's behavior in organizations is guided by relatively shared meaning structures that influence how they make and give sense of themselves, their organization, and their workplace reality.
      Modes of Strategy: Planned and EmergentStrategic execution contains uncertainty that necessitates the balanced use of both proactive, explicitly planned strategy and flexible, reactive emergent strategies.
      Moral Reasoning MaturityIndividual cognitive dynamics determine how people—including managers—understand, and make judgments and decisions in, ethical problems and issues involving moral dilemmas.
      Multicultural Work TeamsPotential coordination difficulties between team members separated by culture, distance, and time zones need to be addressed and actively managed for optimal multicultural work team performance.
      Multifirm Network StructureA great deal of activity in the global economy is performed by groups of firms working together in well-defined network structures.
      Multilevel ResearchOrganizational outcomes are the result of a confluence of effects emanating from different levels of analysis; managers must consider factors at multiple levels to improve understanding and influence.
      Narrative (Story) TheoryLinear narratives are in interplay with other forms of storytelling, such as living stories and antenarratives, as one of the preferred sensemaking currencies of management and organizations.
      Needs HierarchyHumans are motivated by unmet needs; these needs vary along a universal, prepotent hierarchy according to different stages in their lives and careers.
      Neo-Institutional TheoryManagers need to be conscious of social pressures to follow other organizations in adopting new structural arrangements and assess their conditions and impact before making their own decisions.
      Norms TheoryAn individual's attitudes and behaviors are fundamentally shaped and guided by the attitudes and behaviors of other actors in that individual's social world.
      Occupational Types, Model ofAnalyzing fit between attributes of individuals and attributes of jobs and careers provides a system to parse a complex entity into categorized, manageable attributes to improve occupational congruence.
      Open InnovationCompanies must open their innovation process to inflows and outflows of knowledge in order to leverage their research and development (R & D) competencies and speed up their product, process, and technology development.
      Organic and Mechanistic FormsMechanistic management systems, which facilitate decision making bureaucratically, are better suited for stable environments whereas organic management systems, applying more decentralized and fluid practices, are more appropriate for dynamic environments.
      Organizational and Managerial WisdomA wisdom-based management paradigm goes beyond traditional information- and knowledge-based perspectives by applying philosophic insights across organizational levels to facilitate personal and professional success and enable it for others.
      Organizational Assimilation TheoryThe processes by which newcomers become integrated into an organization is neither simple nor guaranteed and therefore should be properly facilitated to better anticipate and facilitate successful assimilation.
      Organizational Commitment TheoryEmployees with greater organizational commitment (i.e., attachment to the work organization) are more effective, more motivated, and more likely to remain with the organization.
      Organizational Culture and EffectivenessThe cultural systems that evolve over time within organizations have important consequences for an organization's survival and effectiveness.
      Organizational Culture ModelOrganizational culture is a powerful, yet largely invisible, multilayered (deep assumptions, intermediate values and principles, visible artifacts) social force that is not easily understood or changed.
      Organizational Culture TheoryTo understand how and why organizations function and the nature of employees’ work experiences, researchers have to go beyond structure, size, technology, job descriptions, reporting relationships, and so on to also study culture.
      Organizational DemographyDemographic composition—for example, the gender, tenure, and functional backgrounds—of organizational units matter for understanding organizational dynamics.
      Organizational DevelopmentOrganizational change can occur successfully provided it is planned, supported by organizational leaders, and involves organizational members and intensive effort to sustain the transition.
      Organizational EcologyOrganizational dynamics can be fully understood only when all like organizations in a market are examined over time; evolving interdependence among organizations shapes and is shaped by social structure.
      Organizational EffectivenessThere is no one single theory of effectiveness; rather, there are multiple models, each of which has a legitimate claim to being the key approach for defining and determining the effectiveness of an organization.
      Organizational IdentificationThe sense of “us-ness” associated with self-definition in terms of shared organizational or subunit identity provides a strong and distinct basis for key forms of organizational behavior.
      Organizational IdentityA shared understanding of “who we are” as an organization—what is central, enduring, and distinctive—is essential for effective organizational self-management, over time and across situations.
      Organizational LearningManagers need to recognize the many complications brought by the experiential nature of organizational learning and their implications for risk taking, feedback, interpersonal networks, and learning curves.
      Organizational SocializationSocialization processes that are strategically aligned and properly executed to integrate new members and influence existing members can benefit both employee well-being and organizational effectiveness.
      Organizational Structure and DesignTo attain its goals, an organization has to have an organizational structure to provide coordination and control; core structural dimensions must be designed to fit multiple contingency factors.
      Organizationally Based Self-EsteemAn individual's self-esteem can be shaped by the work setting, affecting the individual's view of how capable and valuable he or she is as a member of the organization.
      Participative Model of Decision MakingThe degree of participation in decision making can be determined by applying multidimensional criteria that, when assessed, result in different approaches for soliciting and using employees’ input.
      Path-Goal Theory of LeadershipSituational factors determine the choice of optimal leader behaviors designed to help remove obstacles and motivate employees as they strive to achieve work-related goals.
      Patterns of InnovationFirms shift from product to process innovation as their industries evolve and their productive processes become increasingly specialized.
      Patterns of Political BehaviorRecognizing the patterns of political behavior in organizations, frequently undervalued by management theories, helps managers understand and influence a wide range of organizational phenomena.
      Personal Engagement (at Work) ModelWorkers invest degrees of themselves into role performances based on the extent to which certain psychological conditions are met.
      Positive Organizational ScholarshipHuman, organizational, and societal well-being is facilitated by focusing on the generative organizational dynamics that lead to developing human strength, producing resilience and restoration, fostering vitality, and cultivating extraordinary individuals.
      Practice of Management, TheThe practice of management is a polycentric configuration of related elements that should be viewed as a whole so that it can be taught, learned, institutionalized, and executed systematically.
      Principled NegotiationParties in a negotiation can follow a specified integrative process manifest in five major components—such as focusing on interests, not positions—to achieve an agreement that maximizes joint gain.
      Principles of Administration and Management FunctionsManagement consists of the same fundamental functions and activities—planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, controlling—in all kinds of organizations irrespective of their production or formal affiliation.
      Process ConsultationBuilding a collaborative relationship between consultant and client helps the client perceive, understand, and act on process events to think out and work through problems.
      Process Theories of ChangeManagers need to understand how and why organizational change unfolds over time and the different motors or mechanisms that drive the process.
      Product ChampionsThe product champion role of identifying with an innovation and pushing it through despite personal risks is important to mediate the political process of change in complex organizations.
      Product-Market Differentiation ModelManagers need to relate a firm's product-market engagements with its general strategic direction; growth strategies include expanding or developing markets and diversifying or developing new products.
      Profiting From InnovationAn innovator must develop a commercialization strategy that avoids the sharing of undue value with the owners of key complementary assets.
      Programmability of Decision MakingSome decision situations faced by managers can be programmed (routinized and modeled) whereas others involve some fundamental uncertainties and are not amenable to processing by computer systems.
      Prospect TheoryPeople evaluate the potential outcomes of risky choices as changes from their current situation and take more risk when facing potential losses than when facing potential gains.
      Protean and Boundaryless CareersThe changing workplace and nature of work necessitates new ways for individuals to manage their careers and new ways for organizations to offer career management options.
      Psychological Contract TheoryUnderstanding of employees’ beliefs about their exchange relationship with the employer is important in fostering positive employee attitudes and behaviors.
      Psychological Type and Problem-Solving StylesPeople with different personality preferences may have complementary strengths (and weaknesses) that lead to distinctive, potentially valuable approaches to problem solving.
      Punctuated Equilibrium ModelThe process of organizational change is marked by long periods of incremental or evolutionary change “punctuated” by sudden bursts of radical or revolutionary change; each needs to be managed differently.
      Quality CirclesVoluntary improvement activities in groups are powerful tools for quality management in an integrated system oriented toward the development of the enterprise.
      Quality TrilogyManagers need to plan for quality, control performance variations, and enhance systems’ capability to excel on all dimensions of quality all the time.
      Quantum ChangeLarge-scale change should be carried out rapidly across an organization's structures, systems, and values when initiating or responding to a transformative event.
      Reinforcement TheoryEmployee behavior is a function of both antecedents (e.g., training, job redesign) and contingent consequences (e.g., rewards, punishment); behavior increases in strength and/or probability when positively reinforced.
      Resource Dependence TheoryTo understand organizational choices and actions, consider its environment and particularly the constraints emanating from transaction partners.
      Resource Orchestration ManagementManagerial actions of structuring, bundling, and leveraging resources, along with the synchronization of these actions, affect competitive advantage.
      Resource-Based View of FirmManagers can attain competitive advantages by exploiting the unique resources and capabilities to which their firms have access.
      Role TheoryRoles, created at the intersection of social structure and individual behavior, enable consistent performances across individuals and situations.
      Schemas TheoryIndividuals interpret, evaluate, and apply information and knowledge by organizing them into cognitive structures which can be managed to facilitate understanding and shape behavior.
      Scientific ManagementConflicts between managers and/or employers and employees need to be economically resolved through proper incentives and precisely designed job structures, content, processes, and targets.
      Self-Concept and the Theory of SelfConstruals and understandings of self play important functions in individual and organizational behavior.
      Self-Determination TheoryTwo different motivation types—autonomous and controlled—have very different consequences and are prompted by different managerial behaviors.
      Self-Fulfilling ProphecyManagers get the employees they expect; managers can boost effectiveness by expecting more of their subordinates.
      SensemakingDeveloping retrospective images and words that rationalize what people are doing makes meaningful the social action taking place in an organization and illuminates how organizations work, change, and grow.
      Servant LeadershipLeaders must make their top priority that of providing followers with the tools and support they need to develop mutual trust and reach their full potential.
      Seven-S FrameworkConceptualizing organizations’ main elements in terms of interdependent, mutually reinforcing soft- and hard factors provides a powerful tool for diagnosing and analyzing organizational performance.
      Situational Theory of LeadershipManagers can best lead and develop subordinates by using specified leadership styles to match a subordinate's level of ability and commitment.
      Six SigmaThrough a specified process of variation and defect reduction, organizations can simultaneously improve the quality of process outputs, increase customer satisfaction, and reduce waste, time, and costs.
      Social Cognitive TheoryHuman agency operates in concert with social and structural factors in determining organizational well-being and productivity.
      Social Construction TheorySocial interaction influences the creating and institutionalizing of taken-for-granted knowledge, practices, and structures that can both enable and constrain activities.
      Social EntrepreneurshipEntrepreneurship principles are applicable to multiple forms of (social) value creation which are not necessarily independent of or contrary to but instead can complement economic value creation.
      Social Exchange TheorySocial systems can be understood as sets of interdependent economic and noneconomic transactions and relationships; managers can facilitate positive, cooperative exchange relations to produce benefits and limit costs.
      Social Facilitation ManagementThe social context created by managers and coworkers can augment or reduce employee performance.
      Social Identity TheoryIndividuals’ identities are influenced by their perceived social group memberships; classifications and comparative perspectives of in- and out-groups generate meaning and shape members’ self-concept, attitudes, values, and behavior.
      Social Impact Theory and Social LoafingThe magnitude of social impact is based on the strength, immediacy, and number of sources of social influence; managers need to particularly understand and reduce factors for social “loafing.”
      Social Information Processing ModelPeople's attitudes and behavior at work are affected both by what others do and say as well as by the need to rationalize their own past behavior.
      Social MovementsChallenger groups are often sources of innovation in organizations, influencing managers to overcome the status quo and developing the energy and resources needed for transformative change.
      Social Network TheoryOrganizations generally exist for the purpose of establishing interaction and exchange with other entities, and they do so by bounding and coordinating the interactions of multiple individuals to achieve ends not achievable separately.
      Social Power, Bases ofManagers must appropriately acquire and use bases of power—referent, expert, legitimate, reward, and coercive—if they are to exercise effective leadership.
      Sociotechnical TheoryPeople and technology interact in complex ways such that their implications must be considered together to optimize performance.
      Stages of CreativityCreativity results from a process, each stage of which can be facilitated or frustrated by managers.
      Stages of InnovationThe process of developing and implementing new ideas cannot be controlled, but managers can learn to maneuver the process.
      Stakeholder TheoryEffectively managing relationships with internal and external parties who impact and are impacted by an organization is a primary responsibility of managers and is central to value creation.
      Stewardship TheoryBy pursuing cooperative, pro-organizational outcomes, stewards maximize their own utility as well as the performance of the organization.
      Strategic AlliancesStrategic alliances can facilitate effective cooperation between firms by combining needed resources to achieve mutually compatible objectives.
      Strategic Contingencies TheoryIntraorganizational power is derived from a subunit's ability to support the critical tasks of other subunits in a way that no others can.
      Strategic Decision MakingManagers can improve the chances of making successful strategic decisions by choosing the right decision-making processes across various levels of the organization.
      Strategic EntrepreneurshipStrategy and entrepreneurship go together—successful entrepreneurship requires attention to strategy, and strategy is inherently entrepreneurial; opportunity-seeking and advantage-seeking are processes that should be considered jointly.
      Strategic FlexibilityIn a rapidly changing business environment, an organization's capability for attention, assessment, and action in balancing commitment and timely change contributes to sustainable, positive performance.
      Strategic FramesStrategic frames—distinct cognitive constructs anchored in social schema and sensemaking—organize collective interpretations and support prospective guides to action.
      Strategic GroupsBy identifying the emergence and persistence of competitive structure within an industry, members of a strategic group can formulate their own strategies to remain competitive.
      Strategic Information SystemsThe strategic application of information systems to align investments and support an organization's business model can provide a source of competitive differentiation.
      Strategic International Human Resources ManagementAn integrative framework of five major factors explains how human resource management issues affect the success of a firm that is operating in an international environment.
      Strategic ProfilesAn accurate, comprehensive profile of a firm's configuration, competitive strategy, and its industrial environment is useful in making strategic decisions.
      Strategies for ChangeGaining organizational alignment with an external environment where change seems the only constant requires managers and leaders to implement systematic strategies for change.
      Strategy and StructureThe relationship between strategy and structure is a reciprocal one where each should fit and complement one another optimally.
      Strategy-as-PracticeStrategy is a kind of work; it is something that people do, rather than something that organizations have.
      Structuration TheoryWhile structural properties of societies are real, they depend upon regularities of social reproduction; structure exists only in and through the activities of human agents.
      Substitutes for LeadershipThere are multiple contextual factors that enhance, neutralize, or substitute for relationship-oriented versus task-oriented leadership across three categories: subordinate, task, and organizational characteristics.
      SWOT Analysis FrameworkAssessing internal and external strategic issues enables managers to understand how current and future strengths can be leveraged to realize opportunities and how weaknesses can slow progress or magnify organizational threats.
      Systems Theory of OrganizationsInterventions to one part of an organizational system can affect other interrelated, interacting parts in intended as well as unintended ways, possibly undoing or otherwise altering the original interventions.
      Tacit KnowledgeAll knowledge used (in organizations) has a tacit dimension that carries implications for creating, storing, transferring, coordinating, and applying knowledge.
      Technological DiscontinuitiesNonparadigmatic changes in value creation and capturing pose fundamental challenges to incumbent organizations and can radically reshape industry structures.
      Technology Acceptance ModelThe use of a technology is significantly and primarily influenced by the user perceptions of its ease-of-use and usefulness.
      Technology Affordances and Constraints Theory (of MIS)The uses and outcomes of information systems are best understood in terms of dynamic relationships between the individual or organizational users and the technology features.
      Technology and ComplexityEffective organizational responses to complex challenges are achieved through dynamic and holistic technologies cocreated by designers, implementers and users, which in turn influence organizational structure and social processes.
      Technology and Interdependence/UncertaintyManagers need to protect an organization's technical core from environmental uncertainty and optimize coordination by matching its structure to technological and inter-unit interdependencies.
      Technology and ProgrammabilityThe nature of technology used by a firm—the degree to which the production system is controllable and predictable—has important ramifications for how it should be structured.
      Technology S-CurveThe management of, and transition from, a technology is influenced by multiple actors over time that affect technology performance through slow initial improvement, rapid increase, and eventual maturity.
      Theory DevelopmentStrong theories offer better causal explanations of important outcomes; for the majority of management theorizing, the objective is to answer, within specified contextual conditions, What causes what and why?
      Theory of ConstraintsManagers can structure their thinking about how to improve system performance by examining its component processes and sequentially addressing the most significant constraints.
      Theory of Cooperation and CompetitionManagement involves creating and facilitating cooperation among the organization's members while minimizing competitive and individualistic efforts.
      Theory of EmotionsEmotion is a diverse multistage process, not a unitary experience, with each stage having important implications for organizational life.
      Theory of Organizational AttractivenessAn individual's perception of and desire to work for an organization is influenced by organizational, individual, and job or task characteristics; organizations can manage these to increase their attractiveness to potential applicants.
      Theory of Reasoned ActionBehavioral intentions, influenced by subjective norms and attitude toward the act, are the most proximal and reliable predictors of whether a person will engage in a specific volitional act.
      Theory of Self-EsteemSelf-esteem is a complex construct that is potentially developable and may be related to a number of important work-relevant variables.
      Theory of the InterestingIt is more important for a theory to be interesting than true; challenging some assumptions can help achieve this.
      Theory of Transfer of TrainingTo achieve transfer of training, designers and trainees must actively pursue those training elements and activities known to foster generalization, maintenance, and adaptation of learned skills and knowledge.
      Theory X and Theory YManager's assumptions about human behavior, whether pessimistic (theory x) or optimistic (theory y), tend to result in corresponding patterns of behaviors; managers should assist employees in reaching their full potential.
      Total Quality ManagementOrganizations can apply the philosophy and specified principles of total quality management to reduce costs, improve reliability, and enhance customers’ and other stakeholders’ satisfaction.
      Trait Theory of LeadershipLeadership emergence and effectiveness is a function of the exceptional qualities, abilities, or traits—such as personality and intelligence—which one possesses.
      Transaction Cost TheoryFirms organize their relationships with customers, suppliers, employees, and partners to economize on the costs of transacting business; these relate to search, communication, bargaining and contracting, and enforcing activities.
      Transfer of TechnologyEffective transfer of technical, organizational, and operational knowledge between providers and recipients is a function of the engaged entities’ characteristics, their interactions and context, and technology and transfer mechanisms.
      Transformational Theory of LeadershipInspiring employees is a better way to achieve your goals than motivating them with rewards and punishments; this power comes from idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration.
      Transnational ManagementManagers must recognize the increased complexity and conflicting demands of the global environment to simultaneously cultivate multinational flexibility, global scale efficiency, and worldwide learning capability.
      Triple Bottom LineValue creation is multidimensional—comprising “people, planet, and profit” considerations—with money alone being a poor measure of both positive and negative externalities.
      TrustTrust can be defined and measured, has several key antecedents that apply to multiple organizational levels, and can be managed based on attention to several factors.
      Two-Factor Theory (and Job Enrichment)There are two clusters of variables that influence humans’ motivation to work; the first motivates, the second can potentially demotivate.
      Type A Personality TheoryManagers who manifest unmitigated “Type-A” behavior of high-achievement workaholics, especially anger and hostility, can have a negative long-term impact on themselves as well as their subordinates, groups, and organizations.
      Typology of Organizational CultureOrganizational success depends on creating an environment that shapes the norms and behavior of participants in ways that will serve the organization well as circumstances and competition change.
      “Unstructured” Decision MakingProcesses and models for decision making can be developed for unfamiliar or unprecedented conditions in which accepted decision-making methods and solutions are unsuitable.
      Upper-Echelons TheoryOrganizations are reflections of their most senior level managers; top management team characteristics and actions explain strategic and performance consequences of the organization as a whole.
      Value ChainA firm's primary and support activities, from purchasing raw materials to distributing products, must be systematically analyzed, organized, selected, and optimized for customer value creation and competitive advantage.
      Virtual TeamsVirtual teams, whose members are separated by distance and time and who use technology to communicate, face unique challenges and should not be managed just like proximate teams.
      Work Team EffectivenessTeams are multifaceted, complex, and dynamic entities that create unique management challenges but offer the potential for superlative performance.
    Back to Top