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Dual-Route Model of Reading Development

Anyone who has become a skilled reader of English, or any other language that is written alphabetically, has learned two different methods of translating print to speech. One of these methods uses knowledge of letter-to-sound rules, and the other uses whole-word recognition that allows the user to retrieve from memory the learned pronunciation of that whole word. Without the first method, the reader would not be able to read aloud unfamiliar words such as printed names that the reader has never seen before. Without the second method, the reader would not be able to read aloud words that disobey the standard letter-sound rules—words such as yacht, have, or blood. So for children to become skilled readers, they must master both of these methods for translating ...

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