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Diagnosing Reading Impairments

Literacy is a generic term that may be defined as the ability to read with adequate comprehension; to spell most written words accurately; and to communicate, in a written language, thoughts and ideas that speakers of that language understand. Thus, literacy skills are, by definition, language-based skills. Success in learning to become literate is a marvelous achievement, and most young children have little difficulty acquiring functional literacy skills given exposure to at least adequate literacy instruction.

However, some children have a great deal of difficulty acquiring such skills, despite even optimal literacy instruction. Most of these children have basic impairments in learning to identify, spell, and write printed words accurately and fluently. And, because of these impairments, especially impairments in word identification accuracy and fluency, they ...

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