Encyclopedia of Language Development

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Edited by: Patricia J. Brooks & Vera Kempe

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      Reader's Guide

      About the Editors

      Patricia J. Brooks completed her undergraduate degree in psychology at Johns Hopkins University and her Ph.D. in experimental psychology at New York University, where she studied language development under the supervision of Martin Braine and social-cognitive development under the supervision of Douglas Frye. Her dissertation examined children's collective and distributive interpretations of universal quantifiers and quantifier-spreading errors. Brooks worked as a post-doctoral research fellow with Brian MacWhinney at Carnegie Mellon University, where she began research on spoken word production in children with and without language impairments. Subsequently, Brooks worked as a post-doctoral fellow with Michael Tomasello at Emory University, where she focused on early syntactic development and overgeneralization in children's sentence production.

      Brooks holds the position of professor of psychology at the College of Staten Island, City University of New York (CUNY), where she directs the Language Learning Laboratory. She holds a joint appointment to the Doctoral Faculty of Psychology and Speech-Language-Hearing Sciences at the CUNY Graduate Center. Brooks teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in language development and coordinates instruction of introductory psychology at the undergraduate level. Her research uses a variety of methodologies including experiments, parent-child conversational analysis, and meta-analysis to uncover factors that facilitate learning over the life span. In addition to her research on language learning, Brooks has interests in effective pedagogy, especially with regard to active learning environments, use of technology, and mentoring.

      Brooks has authored or coauthored over 75 scientific papers and book chapters. With Vera Kempe, she coauthored the textbook Language Development (2012).

      Vera Kempe completed her undergraduate degree in psychology at Moscow State University and her Ph.D. at Humboldt University Berlin (Germany), where she studied sentence processing under the supervision of Friedhart Klix. She then worked as a post-doctoral research fellow with Brian MacWhinney at Carnegie Mellon University and with Stephen Christman at the University of Toledo (Ohio). During this period, she became interested in the cross-linguistic study of first and second language learning, and used experimental and computational methods to study how distributional characteristics of morphosyntax affect learning and processing in different languages.

      Kempe subsequently held faculty positions at the State University of New York, Oswego, and at Stirling University in Scotland. Currently, she holds the position of Chair of Psychology of Language Learning at Abertay University, where she lectures in developmental psychology, language development, and individual differences. Her research examines how characteristics of the language input, especially those found in child-directed speech, interact with individual differences in the learner's cognitive abilities to shape the process of language learning in children and adults. Her interests also include the interaction of emotion and communication, acquisition and representation of dialects, as well as evolutionary perspectives on language acquisition and use. Together, Kempe and Brooks developed a methodology that harnesses the strict control of language input found in artificial language learning studies to examine the simultaneous acquisition of phonology, morphosyntax, and vocabulary of natural languages in the laboratory.

      Kempe has authored or coauthored over 50 scientific papers and book chapters including the textbook Language Development, coauthored with Patricia J. Brooks.

      List of Contributors

      • Leonard Abbeduto

        University of California, Davis

      • Lauren B. Adamson

        Georgia State University

      • Nameera Akhtar

        University of California, Santa Cruz

      • Afra Alishahi

        University of Tilburg

      • Shanley Allen

        University of Kaiserslautern

      • Irene Altarelli

        CNRS, École Normale Supérieure

      • Ben Am bridge

        University of Liverpool

      • Lisa Archibald

        Western University

      • Inbal Arnon

        Hebrew University of Jerusalem

      • Sherrie Atwood

        Simon Fraser University

      • Ana Aznar

        Kingston University

      • Dare Baldwin

        University of Oregon

      • Colin Bannard

        University of Texas-Austin

      • Isabelle Barriere

        Brooklyn College, City University of New York

      • Lisa Baumwell

        New York University

      • Edith L. Bavin

        La Trobe University

      • Jessica Beer

        Indiana University School of Medicine

      • Tanya Behne

        University of Göttingen

      • Titia Benders

        Radboud University

      • Ruth A. Berman

        Tel Aviv University

      • Josie Bernicot

        CNRS, University of Poitiers

      • John Bernthal

        University of Nebraska-Lincoln

      • Cari A. Bogulski

        Pennsylvania State University

      • John D. Bonvillian

        University of Virginia

      • Heather Bortfeld

        University of Connecticut

      • Laura Bosch

        University of Barcelona

      • Nicola Botting

        City University of London

      • Jeremy K. Boyd

        University of California, San Diego

      • Holly P. Branigan

        University of Edinburgh

      • Jens Brauer

        Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences

      • Laure Brimbal

        John Jay College, City University of New York

      • Bonnie Brinton

        Brigham Young University

      • Judith Becker Bryant

        University of South Florida

      • Krista Byers-Heinlein

        Concordia University

      • Kathryn Cabbage

        Massachusetts General Hospital Institute of Health Professions

      • Kate Cain

        Lancaster University

      • Thea Cameron-Faulkner

        University of Manchester

      • Cláudia Cardoso-Martins

        Federal University of Minas Gerais

      • Jeremy I. M. Carpendale

        Simon Fraser University

      • Malinda Carpenter

        Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology

      • Julia M. Carroll

        University of Warwick

      • Devin M. Casenhiser

        University of Tennessee Health Science Center

      • Yi-Jui Chen

        University of California, Berkeley

      • Jane B. Childers

        Trinity University

      • Anna Maria Chilosi

        University of Pisa

      • Soonja Choi

        San Diego State University

      • Morten H. Christiansen

        Cornell University

      • Anne Christophe

        École Normale Supérieure

      • Lynn E. Cohen

        Long Island University

      • Max Coltheart

        Macquarie University

      • Catherine Compton-Lilly

        University of Wisconsin—Madison

      • Gina Conti-Ramsden

        University of Manchester

      • Christopher M. Conway

        Georgia State University

      • Mary L. Courage

        Memorial University

      • Angela M. Crossman

        John Jay College, City University of New York

      • Anne E. Cunningham

        University of California, Berkeley

      • Suzanne Curtin

        University of Calgary

      • Ineta Dabašinskiene

        Vytautas Magnus University

      • Philip S. Dale

        University of New Mexico

      • Jennifer Chang Damonte

        University of Delaware

      • Isabelle Dautriche

        Ecole Normale Supérieure

      • Annick De Houwer

        University of Erfurt

      • Gedeon O. Deák

        University of California, San Diego

      • Audrey Delcenserie

        McGill University

      • Özlem Ece Demir

        Northwestern University

      • Katherine Demuth

        Macquarie University, ARC Center of Excellence for Cognition and Its Disorders

      • Joanne A. Deocampo

        Georgia State University

      • Gil Diesendruck

        Bar-Ilan University

      • Holger Diessel

        University of Jena

      • Nevena Dimitrova

        Georgia State University

      • Gwyneth Doherty-Sneddon

        Northumbria University

      • Esther Dromi

        Tel Aviv University

      • Lynne G. Duncan

        University of Dundee

      • Linnea Ehri

        The Graduate Center, City University of New York

      • Paola Escudero

        University of Western Sydney

      • Peter Feigenbaum

        Fordham University

      • Larry Fenson

        San Diego State University

      • Anna Fisher

        Carnegie Mellon University

      • Stanka A. Fitneva

        Queen's University

      • Roseanne L. Flores

        Hunter College, City University of New York

      • Lucia French

        University of Rochester

      • Daniel Freudenthal

        University of Liverpool

      • Martin Fujiki

        Brigham Young University

      • Natalia Gagarina

        Zentrum für Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft

      • Megan Galligan

        University of Iowa

      • Linda Gambrell

        Clemson University

      • Simon Garrod

        University of Glasgow

      • Susan A. Gelman

        University of Michigan

      • Fred Genesee

        McGill University

      • Nathan R. George

        Temple University

      • Lisa Gershkoff-Stowe

        Indiana University

      • Judit Gervain

        CNRS et Universite Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité

      • Kristen Gillespie-Lynch

        College of Staten Island, City University of New York

      • Steven Gillis

        University of Antwerp

      • Jean Berko Gleason

        Boston University

      • Lila Gleitman

        University of Pennsylvania

      • Joseph Glick

        The Graduate Center, City University of New York

      • Lisa Goffman

        Purdue University

      • Susan Goldin-Meadow

        University of Chicago

      • Roberta Michnick Golinkoff

        University of Delaware

      • Judith Goodman

        University of Missouri, Columbia

      • Peter Gordon

        Teachers College, Columbia University

      • Susan S. Graham

        University of Calgary

      • Susanne Grassmann

        University of Zurich

      • Maya Gratier

        Paris West University Nanterre La Défense

      • Elena L. Grigorenko

        Yale University, Haskins Laboratories, Columbia University, and Moscow City University of Psychology and Education

      • Julie Gros-Louis

        University of Iowa

      • Annalisa Guarini

        University of Bologna

      • Maria Teresa Guasti

        University of Milano-Bicocca

      • Dominic F. Gullo

        Drexel University

      • Pamela A. Hadley

        University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

      • Brenna Hassinger-Das

        University of Delaware

      • Emma Hayiou-Thomas

        University of York

      • Lucy A. Henry

        City University London

      • Kathy Hirsh-Pasek

        Temple University

      • Tiffany P. Hogan

        Massachusetts General Hospital Institute of Health Professions

      • Elena Hoicka

        University of Sheffield

      • Taylor F. Holubar

        Stanford University

      • Carmel Houston-Price

        University of Reading

      • Lorraine Howard

        Northumbria University

      • Carla L. Hudson Kam

        University of British Columbia

      • Falk Huettig

        Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics

      • Paul Ibbotson

        Open University

      • Hande Ilgaz

        Temple University

      • Christopher Jarrold

        University of Bristol

      • Harriet Jisa

        University of Lyon

      • Megan Johanson

        University of Delaware

      • Evan Kidd

        Australian National University

      • So Hyun Kim

        Yale University School of Medicine

      • Christine Kitamura

        University of Western Sydney

      • Haruka Konishi

        University of Delaware

      • Sergey A. Kornilov

        University of Connecticut, Yale University, Haskins Laboratories, and Moscow State University

      • Judith F. Kroll

        Pennsylvania State University

      • Yana Kuchirko

        New York University

      • Stan A. Kuczaj II

        University of Southern Mississippi

      • Aylin C. Küntay

        Koç University

      • Mariel Kyger

        University of California, Los Angeles

      • Patrick Leman

        Royal Holloway, University of London

      • David J. Lewkowicz

        Florida Atlantic University

      • Ping Li

        Pennsylvania State University

      • Ulf Liszkowski

        University of Hamburg

      • Catherine Lord

        Weill Cornell Medical College

      • Joan M. Lucariello

        City University of New York

      • Jarrad A. G. Lum

        Deakin University

      • Gary Lupyan

        University of Wisconsin, Madison

      • Barbara C. Lust

        Cornell University

      • Heidi Lyn

        University of Southern Mississippi

      • Rose Maier

        University of Oregon

      • Jason Mandelbaum

        John Jay College, City University of New York

      • Jean Matter Mandler

        University of California, San Diego

      • Michael P. Maratsos

        University of Minnesota

      • Barbara A. Marinak

        Mount St. Mary's University

      • Ellen M. Markman

        Stanford University

      • Klara Marton

        The Graduate Center, City University of New York

      • Nobuo Masataka

        Kyoto University

      • Danielle Matthews

        University of Sheffield

      • Sven Mattys

        University of York

      • Christine A. Maul

        California State University, Fresno

      • Janet McDonald

        Louisiana State University

      • Laraine McDonough

        Brooklyn College and The Graduate Center, City University of New York

      • Andrea McDuffie

        University of California, Davis

      • Sharynne McLeod

        Charles Sturt University

      • Bob McMurray

        University of Iowa

      • Lise Menn

        University of Colorado

      • William E. Merriman

        Kent State University

      • David Messer

        Open University

      • Meredith Meyer

        Otterbein University

      • Carol A. Miller

        Pennsylvania State University

      • Jennifer Miller

        Illinois Institute of Technology

      • Padraic Monaghan

        Lancaster University

      • Silvina Montrul

        University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

      • Gary Morgan

        City University London

      • Julien Musolino

        Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

      • Laura L. Namy

        Emory University

      • Thierry Nazzi

        CNRS, Université Paris Descartes

      • Elena Nicoladis

        University of Alberta

      • Anat Ninio

        Hebrew University of Jerusalem

      • Marilyn A. Nippold

        University of Oregon

      • Ira Noveck

        Centre de Recherche Francais à Jérusalem

      • Eva Nwokah

        Our Lady of the Lake University

      • Jane Oakhill

        University of Sussex

      • John W. Oller Jr.

        University of Louisiana at Lafayette

      • David R. Olson

        University of Toronto

      • Luca Onnis

        Nanyang Technological University

      • Yuriko Oshima-Takane

        McGill University

      • Şeyda Özçalişkan

        Georgia State University

      • Anna Papafragou

        University of Delaware

      • Barbara Zurer Pearson

        University of Massachusetts Amherst

      • Elizabeth D. Peña

        University of Texas-Austin

      • Sue Peppé

        Independent Scholar

      • Irene M. Pepperberg

        Harvard University

      • Amy Perfors

        University of Adelaide

      • Lynn K. Perry

        University of Wisconsin-Madison

      • Kimberly Peters

        Western Washington University

      • Penny M. Pexman

        University of Calgary

      • Martin J. Pickering

        University of Edinburgh

      • David B. Pisoni

        Indiana University School of Medicine

      • Heather Porter

        University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

      • Sandeep Prasada

        Hunter College, City University of New York

      • Anat Prior

        University of Haifa

      • Adele Proctor

        University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign

      • Nancy de Villiers Rader

        Ithaca College

      • Natalia Rakhlin

        Yale University

      • Franck Ramus

        CNRS, École Normale Supérieure

      • Nan Bernstein Ratner

        University of Maryland

      • Jessa Reed

        Temple University

      • Leslie Rescorla

        Bryn Mawr College

      • Thomas Roeper

        University of Massachusetts, Amherst

      • Alexa R. Romberg

        Indiana University

      • Meredith L. Rowe

        University of Maryland, College Park

      • Caroline Rowland

        University of Liverpool

      • Susan Rvachew

        McGill University

      • Edmund J. Safra

        University of Haifa

      • Virginia Salo

        University of Maryland, College Park

      • Larissa K. Samuelson

        University of Iowa

      • Catherine M. Sandhofer

        University of California, Los Angeles

      • Alessandra Sansavini

        University of Bologna

      • Lynn Santelmann

        Portland State University

      • Sue Savage-Rumbaugh

        Great Ape Trust

      • Jeremy Sawyer

        The Graduate Center, City University of New York

      • Rachel Schmale

        North Park University

      • Mariah G. Schug

        Wesley an University

      • Amanda Seidl

        Purdue University

      • Irina A. Sekerina

        College of Staten Island, City University of New York

      • Monique Sénéchal

        Carleton University

      • Ludovica Serratrice

        University of Manchester

      • Valerie L. Shafer

        The Graduate Center, City University of New York

      • Li Sheng

        University of Texas-Austin

      • Catriona Silvey

        University of Edinburgh

      • Virginia Slaughter

        University of Queensland

      • Vladimir Sloutsky

        Ohio State University

      • Kenny Smith

        University of Edinburgh

      • William Snyder

        University of Connecticut

      • Melanie Soderstrom

        University of Manitoba

      • Patricia E. Spencer

        Gallaudet University and P Spencer Counsulting

      • Michelle C. St. Clair

        University of Cambridge

      • Joseph Paul Stemberger

        University of British Columbia

      • Anna Stetsenko

        The Graduate Center, City University of New York

      • Carol Stoel-Gammon

        University of Washington

      • Stephanie F. Stokes

        University of Canterbury

      • Holly L. Storkel

        University of Kansas

      • James A. Street

        Northumbria University

      • Tricia Striano

        Hunter College, City University of New York

      • Kristen Syrett

        Rutgers University

      • Catherine Tamis-LeMonda

        New York University Steinhardt

      • Christina Tausch

        McGill University

      • Harriet Tenenbaum

        University of Surrey

      • Anne Marie Tharpe

        Vanderbilt University School of Medicine

      • Anna L. Theakston

        University of Manchester

      • Michael S. C. Thomas

        Birkbeck College University of London

      • Karen Thorpe

        Queensland University of Technology

      • Malathi Thothathiri

        George Washington University

      • Rebecca Treiman

        Washington University

      • Colwyn Trevarthen

        University of Edinburgh

      • Michael T. Ullman

        Georgetown University

      • Marieke van Heugten

        Ecole Normale Supérieure

      • Jo Van Herwegen

        Kingston University

      • Frank Rocco Vellutino

        State University of New York, Albany

      • Edy Veneziano

        CNRS, Paris Descartes University

      • Ludo Verhoeven

        Radboud University Nijmegen

      • Marilyn M. Vihman

        University of York

      • Athena Vouloumanos

        New York University

      • Ena Vukatana

        University of Calgary

      • Laura Wagner

        Ohio State University

      • Daniel J. Weiss

        Pennsylvania State University

      • Bill Wells

        University of Sheffield

      • Nan Xu Rattanasone

        Macquarie University

      • Jungmee Yoon

        The Graduate Center, City University of New York

      • Chen Yu

        Indiana University

      • Xiaowei Zhao

        Emmanuel College

      • Jennifer M. Zosh

        Penn State University, Brandywine

      • Patricia Zukow-Goldring

        University of California, Los Angeles

      Introduction

      Language is the foundation of human society, wherein each community creates and maintains its own system of conventions for negotiating social interactions and the sharing of ideas. Every human language comprises a complex, hierarchically structured system of symbols used for purposes of communication—systems that, despite their complexity, are all readily learnable by children in their first years of life. Hearing and deaf children alike acquire language, either spoken or signed, while engaging socially with others and they become proficient conversationalists at remarkably young ages. Nevertheless, whereas most children acquire language with ease, many children show impairments in acquiring aspects of language and/or literacy, with cascading effects on the development of social, cognitive, and academic skills.

      Through cleverly designed studies, researchers have shown that language learning and development begins in utero and extends well into adulthood—encompassing increasingly complex linguistic representations, sophisticated conversational skills, inferential abilities, and conceptual knowledge. Whereas the communicative exchanges of young infants and caregivers mostly revolve around issues of physical comfort and rapport, infants over the first year of life come to grasp that speakers' utterances convey their social intentions and that words can be used referentially to draw attention to things in the world. From the onset, children's linguistic knowledge follows the power law of practice, with accumulated knowledge facilitating the processing of unfamiliar words and phrases, and with expertise diminishing the child's attention to features of unfamiliar languages. Language development undergoes further dramatic growth during the school years and beyond, as children take on reading, writing, and rhetoric, and display varying levels of mastery of the complexities of language usage into adulthood.

      In recent years, major advances have been made in understanding how children acquire the formal properties of the ambient languages to which they are exposed, with research identifying biological, sociocultural, cognitive, and evolutionary mechanisms that underlie learning processes. Still, many questions remain unanswered with respect to the extent to which language development unfolds similarly across cultures, the universality of the various properties of languages, the domain-specificity or generality of the social and cognitive processes supporting language usage, the impact of acquiring a specific language or multiple languages on cognition, and the sources of individual differences in language learning trajectories and outcomes. These topics are among those considered by contributing authors to this volume.

      Language development continues to be of academic interest to an interdisciplinary group of scholars attempting to integrate the diversity of research findings into coherent theories that drive further research. In addition to theoretical significance, research findings are of paramount interest to practitioners, including the speech-language pathologists, pediatricians, and educators faced with the tasks of evaluating the language learning trajectories of individual children, and of devising clinical and educational interventions that facilitate language development. Given the theoretical and practical importance of this field of study, sources of reference that provide regular updates of knowledge for scholars and practitioners alike are of immense importance. This volume attempts to deliver such an updated overview.

      Content of the Volume

      Whereas the last decades of the 20th century saw language development research dominated by controversies between nativist/generativist versus functionalist/social-constructivist approaches, 21st-century language development research is a theoretically and methodologically more diverse and nuanced field. Narrow theoretical debates have been supplanted by greater breadth of empirical research on the development of a wider range of linguistic skills across a wider age range, as well as by increased interdisciplinary ties with neighboring disciplines, such as speech and hearing sciences, education, cognitive science, behavioral genetics and epigenetics, neuroscience, and evolutionary psychology. Thus, language development research is no longer just the provenance of psychology and linguistics. The present volume reflects this increased diversity and the interdisciplinary character of the field.

      In addition, language development research has gained considerable methodological sophistication by augmenting traditional observational and experimental methods with a variety of new behavioral, computational, and neuroscientific methods. The present volume reflects these methodological developments by covering both established methodologies such as use of the considerably expanded CHILDES database of caregiver-child interactions (S. Gillis), child-development inventories and assessment tests (L. Fenson and P. Dale; I. Barriere), habituation and preferential looking paradigms (C. Houston-Price; K. Byers-Heinlein), grammaticality judgment tasks (B. Ambridge), and elicited production methods (J. Gleason), as well as newer methodological approaches including computational and connectionist modeling (D. Freudental and A. Alishani; P. Li and X. Zhao), corpus-based methods (L. Onnis), cross-linguistic and cross-cultural methods (L. Duncan; K. Marton and J. Yoon; E. Peña), twin studies (E. Hayiou-Thomas), adoption studies (A. Delcenserie and F. Genesee), visual world eye-tracking (I. Sekerina), functional neuro-imaging (J. Brauer), and electrophysiology (V. Shafer).

      Structure of the Volume

      This encyclopedia is designed with academic researchers and practitioners in mind. For the theoretically minded reader, it offers a range of survey entries addressing current thinking in the domains of phonological (L. Menn and C. Stoel-Gammon), morphological (N. Gagarina), lexical (W. Merriman), semantic (S. Prasada), and pragmatic (A. Ninio) development, as well as an overview of milestones in language development (J. Oller). The substantial and theoretically diverse research on syntactic development is represented by several entries describing influential theoretical approaches to the subject—generative grammar (T. Roeper), dependency grammar (A. Ninio), and construction grammar (D. Casenhiser)—as well as research on the development of complex syntactic structures (R. A. Berman). In addition, several survey entries cover research on the genetic (S. Kornilov, N. Rakhlin and Grigorenko) and neural (J. Gervain) underpinnings of language development and link it to social (M. Schug and T. Striano), motor (L. Goffman), and cognitive (G. Deák) development. Moreover, the volume offers state-of-the-art overviews of diverse aspects of language development such as bilingual language development (A. De Houwer; A. Prior and E. Safra), development of communicative gestures (E. Bavin), and sign language development (J. Bonvillian).

      The larger survey entries are complemented and expanded on by middle-sized and smaller entries covering different angles on various aspects of language development of different levels of specificity, which offer the reader different entry points into a topic. These entries include, but are not limited to:

      • Entries that focus on nonverbal aspects of early communicative development, including dyadic interaction (E. Nwokah), baby sign systems (G. Doherty-Sneddon and L. Howard), pointing (U. Liszkowski), proto-conversations (C. Trevarthen), and symbolic gestures (L. Namy).
      • Entries that focus on specific speech-related phenomena, such as articulation of speech sounds (S. McLeod and J. Bernthal), accommodation to speech variability (A. Seidl and R. Schmale), cross-modal perception of speech (D. Lewkowicz), linguistic tonal systems (N. Xu-Rattanasone and K. Demuth), neonatal speech perception (J. Gervain), neonatal preferences for speech (A. Vouloumanos), perseveration and speech errors (J. Stemberger), phoneme discrimination (P. Escudero), phonological processes (H. Storkel), phonological templates (M. Vihman), prelinguistic vocalization (N. Masataka), speech perception and processing (S. Curtin; B. McMurray and T. Benders), speech prosody (S. Peppé and B. Wells), and word segmentation (S. Mattys; T. Nazzi).
      • Entries that focus on phenomena related to word learning, such as early word learning (S. Curtin and S. Graham), fast mapping (C. Houston-Price), cross-situational word learning (C. Yu), lexical innovations (J. Becker Bryant), noun bias (J. B. Childers), over-extensions and under-extensions (E. Dromi), shape bias (L. Gershkoff-Stowe), slow mapping (G. Deák), spoken word recognition (H. Bortfeld), symbol formation (J. Glick), vocabulary growth curves and spurts (B. McMurray; L. Verhoeven), word-learning constraints (E. M. Markman and T. F. Holubar), word-learning strategies (M. A. Nippold), and word-to-world mapping (S. Graham and E. Vukatana).
      • Entries that focus on specific structure-related phenomena, such as filler syllables and grammatical morphemes (E. Veneziano), generalization and over-generalization of linguistic patterns (B. Ambridge; C. Bannard; J. K. Boyd), long-distance dependencies (L. Santelmann), sentence processing (E. Kidd), and syntactic priming (M. Thothathiri).
      • Entries that focus on conversational aspects of language use, including conversational implicature (I. Noveck), conversational skills (E. Veneziano), discourse pragmatics (L. Serratrice), interactive alignment (H. Branigan, S. Garrod, and M. Pickering), referential communication (D. Matthews), and speech acts (T. Cameron-Faulkner).
      • Entries that cover the development of specific linguistic categories such as adjectives (K. Syrett), argument structure (S. Allen), aspect (L. Wagner), auxiliaries and modals (A. L. Theakston), epistemic markers (S. Choi), evidential markers (S. A. Fitneva), grammatical categories (M. St. Clair, P. Monaghan, and M. H. Christiansen), grammatical gender (I. Arnon), pronouns (Y. Oshima-Takane), quantifiers (J. Musolino), questions (C. F. Rowland and B. Ambridge), relational terms (L. French), and verbs (J. B. Childers).
      • Entries that address development of language-related skills such as humor (E. Hoicka), lying (J. Mandelbaum, L. Brimbal and A. M. Crossman), metaphor (ş. Özçalişkan), narrative (Ö. Demir and A. Küntay), and nonliteral language (P. M. Pexman).
      • Entries that focus on meta-cognitive aspects of language development, including meta-linguistic awareness (M. Sénéchal), phonological awareness (K. Cabbage and T. Hogan), private/inner speech (P. Feigenbaum), and thinking for speaking (E. Nicoladis).
      • Entries that focus on aspects of literacy, such as learning to read (C. Cardoso-Martins and L. Ehri; H. Ilgaz, B. Hassinger-Das, K. Hirsh-Pasek, and R. M. Golinkoff), cognitive effects of literacy (D. R. Olson), developmental dyslexia (F. Ramus and I. Altarelli; F. R. Vellutino), the dual-route model of reading (M. Coltheart); Matthew Effects (A. E. Cunningham and Y.-J. Chen), reading comprehension (J. Oakhill and K. Cain), spelling (R. Treiman), and written discourse (H. L. Jisa).
      • Entries that elucidate underlying learning mechanisms, such as associative learning (A. R. Romberg and C. Yu), auditory sequence learning (J. A. Deocampo and C. M. Conway), chunk-based language acquisition (I. Arnon and M. H. Christiansen), distributional learning and multiple cue integration (I. Arnon; P. Monaghan and M. H. Christiansen), induction (A. Fisher and V. Sloutsky; S. A. Gelman and M. Meyer; A. Perfors), frequency effects (H. Diessel), item-based/exemplar-based learning (P. Ibbotson), lexical bootstrapping (J. Goodman), phonological and prosodic bootstrapping (M. van Heugten, I. Dautriche, and A. Christophe), prediction (F. Huettig), syntactic bootstrapping (L. Gleitman), and statistical learning (D. J. Weiss).
      • Entries that introduce theoretical approaches to language development including Bayesian inference (A. Perfors), cultural learning and transmission models (T. Behne; C. Silvey and K. Smith), domain specificity (M. T. Ullman, J. Lum, and G. Conti-Ramsden), dynamic systems theory (L. Samuelson and M. Galligan), the emergentist coalition model (J. Damonte, M. Johanson, R. M. Golinkoff, and K. Hirsh-Pasek), evolutionary perspectives (M. H. Christiansen); the Less-Is-More Hypothesis (J. McDonald), the principles-and-parameters framework (M. T. Guasti), and universal grammar (W. Snyder).
      • Entries that describe aspects of child-directed speech, including the use of diminutives (I. Dabašinskiene), hyper-articulation (C. Kitamura), natural pedagogy (R. Maier and D. Baldwin), parental responsiveness and scaffolding (C. Tamis-LeMonda, L. Baumwell, and Y. Kuchirko), recasts, clarifications, and indirect negative evidence (J. Bernicot), synchrony of speech and gesture (P. Zukow-Goldring and N. Rader), and variation in the quality and features of child-directed speech (M. L. Rowe and V. Salo; M. Soderstrom).
      • Entries that explore social factors in language development including imitiation (M. Carpenter; M. Gratier), joint attention (L. B. Adamson and N. Dimitrova), overheard speech (N. Akhtar), perspective taking (J. I. Carpendale and S. Atwood), play (J. M. Zosh, J. Reed, R. M. Golinkoff, and K. Hirsh-Pasek), and social conventions (G. Diesendruck).
      • Entries that focus on environmental influences on language development, including effects of the home environment (C. Compton-Lilly), schooling (L. E. Cohen), and socioeconomic factors (D. F. Gullo)
      • Entries that trace the relationship of language development to other areas of cognitive development such as autobiographical memory (M. L. Courage), categorization and concept formation (G. Lupyan and L. K. Perry; L. McDonough and J. M. Mandler), color cognition (C. M. Sandhofer and M. Kyger), executive functions (L. A. Henry), event and motion perception (N. R. George, H. Konishi, K. Hirsh-Pasek, and R. M. Golinkoff; A. Papafragou), numerical cognition (P. Gordon), spatial cognition (S. Choi), theory of mind (V. Slaughter), and verbal working memory (C. Jarrold).
      • Entries that focus on language impairments, including apraxia (A. Proctor), stuttering (N. Bernstein Ratner), and specific language impairment (N. Botting), which may co-occur with delays or deficits in auditory processing (C. A. Miller), information processing (L. Archibald), grammatical development (P. A. Hadley), semantic development (L. Sheng), social functioning (M. Fujiki and B. Brinton), phonological development (J. M. Carroll), and word finding (D. Messer).
      • Entries that address language development in special populations such as children with autism (S. H. Kim and C. Lord), genetic syndromes (A. McDuffie and L. Abbeduto; M. Thomas and J. V. Herwegen), focal lesions (A. M. Chilosi), cochlear implants (J. Beer, K. Peters, and D. B. Pisoni), deaf children (S. Goldin-Meadow; P. E. Spencer), late talkers (L. Rescorla), pre-term children (A. Sansavini and A. Guarini), and twins (K. Thorpe).
      • Entries that describe intervention methods and programs for general language development (R. L. Flores; S. F. Stokes) and for reading and literacy acquisition (B. A. Marinak and L. Gambrell; F. R. Vellutino).
      • Entries that focus on individual differences and variation in language development and usage, including age of acquisition effects (C. Hudson Kam), the Critical Period Hypothesis (G. Morgan), dialect (B. Z. Pearson), first-language attrition and loss (S. Montrul), gender differences (H. Tenenbaum, A. Aznar, and P. Leman), and individual differences in adult attainment (J. A. Street).
      • Entries that provide a comparative perspective by describing how language learning in animals, such as avians (I. M. Pepperberg), cetaceans (S. Kuczaj), dogs (S. Grassmann), and nonhuman primates (K. Gillespie-Lynch, S. Savage-Rumbaugh, and J. Lyn), resembles, as well as differs, from that of children.
      • Entries that detail the contribution of influential scholars who have shaped theoretical views of child language development in profound ways, such as Noam Chomsky (B. C. Lust), Jerome Bruner (J. M. Lucariello), Roger Brown (M. P. Maratsos), and Lev Vygotsky (J. Sawyer and A. Stetsenko).
      Structure of Entries

      Entries are written in accessible language to be suitable for a broad readership both from inside and outside the field of language development research. Technical terms are clearly defined from the outset, crucial psychological and linguistic concepts are explained in the Glossary, and further in-depth reading is suggested at the end of each entry and at the end of the volume.

      All entries contain pointers to related entries allowing the reader to explore a specific topic in greater depth by considering the relevant theoretical approaches, underlying mechanisms, developmental trajectories, research methodologies, and, where applicable, diagnostic and intervention methods. The pointers are organized in such a way as to enable the reader to approach a topic either in a top-down manner working from a broader survey down to specific phenomena associated with the topic, or in a bottom-up manner starting with a specific phenomenon and then using the pointers to find entries that put this phenomenon into a broader theoretical and methodological context. Finally, the pointers also allow readers to make horizontal connections by linking a specific aspect of language development to other, related aspects.

      Last, but not least, this volume provides convincing evidence that the field of language development research continues to attract a wealth of new talent. This is testimony to its success as a burgeoning scientific discipline as well as its relevance for the wider public, and is reflected in the broad authorship of entries ranging from established scholars to promising young researchers who are just beginning to make their mark in the field. We would like to thank all of them for their valuable contributions.

      Patricia J.Brooks
      VeraKempe, Editors

      Chronology

      1600: In France, publication of the “Grammaire Générale et Raisonnée,” commonly called the Port Royal Grammar, an influential treatise that discusses, among other things, the theory of linguistic universals.

      1604: Robert Cawdrey publishes the first English-only (i.e., not bilingual) English dictionary A Table Alphabetical of Hard Unusual English Words.

      1620: The Spanish priest Juan Pablo Bonet creates and publishes one of the first systems of alphabetic signs for communication with deaf people.

      1755: Samuel Johnson publishes A Dictionary of the English Language, which he intended to be a complete record of the language, with the exclusion of certain types of words (e.g., proper nouns) and the inclusion of many literary quotations to illustrate meaning.

      1761: Josiah Priestly publishes Rudiments of English Grammar, in which he argues that the spoken, rather than the written, form of a language should be held up as the standard for the language.

      1774-89: Many official documents of the U.S. Continental Congress are published in English, German, and French, indicating that bilingualism was an accepted aspect of American life at the time, and the government made efforts to accommodate speakers of languages other than English.

      1775: The Abbé Charles Michel de l'Epée develops a sign language for his deaf students in Paris, drawing on several sources including the Spanish manual alphabet and hand signals by monks during periods of silence.

      1798: An apparent feral child, Victor of Aveyron, is spotted in a forest, and is captured but escapes; in 1800, he leaves the woods by choice and is taken in and educated by the physician Jean Marc Gaspard Itard. Victor achieves only limited language use and his case is often cited as supporting the Critical Period Hypothesis, but it is also possible that his ability to acquire language was impaired by mental retardation or autism.

      1812: The brothers Wilhelm and Jacob Grimm publish the first edition of their Children's and Household Tales, a collection of folk tales, which, once edited and translated from German into about 160 languages, provided early exposure to literary narratives for subsequent generations of children around the world.

      1817: Thomas Gallaudet and Laurent Clerc found the American School for the Deaf in Hartford, Connecticut, using the Sign Language developed by the Archbishop Roche Sicard in France.

      1828: Noah Webster publishes An American Dictionary of the English Language, differentiating American spelling (e.g., “honor” instead of “honour”) and usage from British, and including many scientific terms and word etymologies.

      1854: Peak rate of community deafness on Martha's Vineyard. High rates of profound hereditary deafness and full integration of deaf individuals in community life lead to the formation of Martha's Vineyard Sign Language, which was influenced by French Sign Language and served as an important precursor to the development of American Sign Language.

      1857: The Philological Society of London calls for the production of a new English dictionary, which becomes the Oxford English Dictionary or OED. Work begins in 1879 with the first volume published in 1884, and the last in 1928, followed by a series of supplements published from 1933 to 1986; the supplements are integrated into the main text in the 1980s to form the second edition of the OED.

      1881: Oswald Berkhan identifies an inability to read that in 1887 came to be described as dyslexia, a term coined by the German ophthalmologist Rudolf Berlin. Around the same time, the British physician W. Pringle Morgan publishes a description of a 14-year-old boy who had normal intelligence and physical qualities, but was unable to learn to read.

      1886: A group of French language teachers found the Phonetic Teacher's Association to further the use of phonetics in teaching; in 1897 the organization changes its name to the International Phonetic Association.

      1887: Ludwig Zamenhof publishes a description, in Russian, of Esperanto, the most successful artificial language ever created, and one that is still in use today.

      1888: The first version of the International Phonetic Alphabet is published, based on the idea put forth by the Danish linguist Otto Jespersen that a single symbol should correspond to a single sound, no matter what language is being transcribed.

      1906: In the United States, the Nationality Act stipulates that the ability to speak English is a requirement for persons wishing to become naturalized citizens.

      1916: A Course in General Linguistics, written by the French-speaking Swiss linguist and semiotician Ferdinand de Saussure, is published posthumously.

      1923: The Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget publishes The Language and Thought of the Child, putting forth his theories of the process of intellectual development of children, and how children and adults think and use language differently.

      1926: The British lexicographer Henry W. Fowler publishes Modern English Usage, a prescriptive guide to British English.

      1933: The American linguist Leonard Bloomfield publishes Language, an influential textbook describing the structuralist approach, using analyses of texts in a variety of languages and incorporating ideas based on the psychological theory of behaviourism.

      1934: Lev Vygotsky's book Thinking and Speech is published in Russian. In this book, Vygotsky emphasizes the role of language in the development of thought and higher cognitive functioning. The English translation appears in 1986.

      1935: The epidemiologist Willis Beasley is appointed by the U.S. Public Health Service to conduct a national audiometric survey.

      1936: Edmund Fowler describes the ABLB (alternate binaural loudness balance) hearing test, during which a tone is presented alternately to each ear, held at a constant level in one and made louder or softer in the other; the patient reports when the sound is equal in both ears.

      1941: The Russian linguist Roman Jakobson publishes Child Language, Aphasia and Phonological Universals, where he lays out his influential theory of a universal progression in phonological development, with development following a set of structural laws that govern successive divisions of phonological space into binary contrasts.

      1943: The Austrian-American psychiatrist Leo Kanner publishes a paper, “Autistic Disturbances of Affective Contact,” describing “infantile autism” as a condition whose characteristics include lack of communication and affective contact, a desire for sameness, and a fascination with objects.

      1949: The German-American linguist Werner Leopold publishes the first of four volumes of Speech Development of a Bilingual Child, based on his diary studies of the language development of his English-German bilingual daughter, Hildegard.

      1953: Publication of Philosophical Investigations, in which the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein focuses on the many ways language is used in so-called language games, and outlines a usage-based theory of meaning.

      1954: Helmer Myklebust begins research on auditory-specific perceptual disorder, making a distinction between difficulties in learning language and difficulties in auditory processing.

      1954: The British linguist A. S. C. Ross publishes an article introducing the terms U and non-U, meaning upper class and not upper class, in which he describes differences in language usage (including pronunciation, vocabulary, and methods of writing letters) that differentiated the British upper classes from everyone else in the country.

      1957: Noam Chomsky publishes Syntactic Structures, outlining his ideas about Generative Grammar, a theory that represented a distinct departure from previous structuralist and behaviorist approaches.

      1958: Jean Berko publishes “A Child's Learning of English Morphology” in the journal Word. In this paper, she describes a methodology to elicit children's structural knowledge through elicited productions of artificial words; her methodology later became known as the Wug Test.

      1959: Iona and Peter Opie publish The Lore and Language of Schoolchildren, a collection of words, phrases, and language practices used primarily by children and passed along by them to other children.

      1959: Wilder Penfield and Lamar Roberts publish their book Speech and Brain Mechanisms detailing recovery from aphasia and postulating the importance of the left hemisphere for language. In this book, they are the first to hypothesize the existence of a critical period for language by suggesting that adequate rich language input needs to be provided during the first years of life, otherwise full proficiency cannot be attained.

      1960: In his book Word and Object, the philosopher W. V. O. Quine poses the problem of inscrutability or indeterminacy of reference, also known as the “Gavagai-problem,” according to which there are an infinite number of possible meanings of a word in the absence of constraints. Much language development research subsequently was devoted to uncovering such constraints.

      1960: William Stokoe, Jr. publishes Sign Language Structure, which describes American Sign Language as a fully formed natural language, with linguistic structure as complex and generative as that of any oral language.

      1961: Alexander Gvozdev publishes Issues in the Study of Child Language, an extensive diary study of the language development of a Russian child, which provides unique insight into the acquisition of a morphologically rich language.

      1962: Roger Brown initiates the longitudinal study of the language development of three children, Adam, Eve, and Sarah, who were audio-taped at regular intervals. The obtained speech corpus was the first of its kind to consist of transcribed recordings rather than anecdotal diaries. The analysis of this corpus culminated in the publication of A First Language: The Early Stages in 1973.

      1964: In the United States, Title VI of the Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination on the basis of (among other things) national origin in programs receiving federal money; one interpretation of this stipulation results in a 1970 order by the Office of Civil Rights that language-minority students have to be provided with effective instruction.

      1965: Founding of the Head Start Program, initially as a summer school program, to enhance school readiness and preparation for literacy in low-income American children. Forty years after its inception, 22 million children had participated, although its efficacy remains controversial.

      1965: Noam Chomsky publishes the book Aspects of the Theory of Syntax, in which he postulates the existence of a Language Acquisition Device, a brain module that is responsible for the maturation of innate knowledge (described as a Universal Grammar).

      1966: The organization Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) is founded, due in part to awareness of the growing need of professionals trained to teach English to students for whom it is not their native language.

      1967: Eric Lenneberg publishes the book Biological Foundations of Language, in which he popularizes the Critical Period Hypothesis for language acquisition linking it to neuroplasticity and postulating puberty as its endpoint.

      1967: Beatrice and Allen Gardner, professors at the University of Nevada, begin teaching American Sign Language to Washoe, a female chimpanzee. Washoe learned over 130 signs and was able to combine them, although it was not clear whether she acquired grammatical structure.

      1968: In the United States, the Bilingual Education Act provides federal support for programs for language-minority children; this is the first federal effort to address the problem of children who are not native English speakers, although (despite the name) it does not specifically require bilingual education be provided.

      1970: Child welfare authorities in Los Angeles, California, take custody of an abused, nonverbal 13-year-old girl, known by the pseudonym “Genie.” The case provides an opportunity to test whether language can be acquired past a critical period. Although Genie is able to acquire some language skills, experts disagree as to how much progress is made and whether neurological abnormalities impaired her ability to learn.

      1970: The International Association of the Study of Child Language (IASCL) is founded to promote international and interdisciplinary research in child language development. IASCL holds the triennial International Congress for the Study of Child Language; its publications include the Journal of Child Language, First Language, Child Language Bulletin and the edited book series Trends in Language Acquisition Research (TiLAR).

      1971: Peter Eimas and colleagues' seminal Science paper “Speech Perception in Infants” demonstrates that 1-month-old infants are capable of perceiving speech sounds in a categorical manner.

      1972: Bettye Caldwell and Robert Bradley develop the “Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Scale” to provide a standardized measure of the quality of the child's learning environment at home; in particular, of the amount of stimulation provided for infant cognitive and language development.

      1976: Martin Braine publishes the monograph “Children's First Word Combinations,” which describes the item-based learning of positional formulae (pivot-grammar) in 11 children acquiring one of five different languages.

      1978: In their paper “Acquiring a Single New Word,” Susan Carey and Elsa Bartlett coin the term fast mapping when describing 3-year-olds' rapid acquisition of a new color word (“chromium”) in an experimental setting.

      1979: Elizabeth Bates and colleagues publish The Emergence of Symbols: Cognition and Communication in Infancy, in which they describe the developmental continuity in infants' use of communicative gestures and first words.

      1980: Anthony DeCasper and William Fifer's Science article “Of Human Bonding: Newborns Prefer Their Mothers' Voices” provides first evidence for prenatal learning of speech sounds.

      1980: Opening of a vocational school for the Deaf in Nicaragua allows Judy Kegl, Ann Senghas and others to document the emergence of a new sign language.

      1983: Shirley Brice Heath publishes Ways With Words: Language, Life and Work in Communities and Classrooms, a classical ethnographic study of language socialization as a critical factor in literacy development.

      1983: In the Science paper “Gestural Communication in Deaf Children: Noneffect of Parental Input on Language Development,” Susan Goldin-Meadow and Carolyn Mylander document the spontaneous emergence of language-like gestural systems called home sign in deaf children of hearing parents.

      1983: The American linguist Jerome Bruner publishes Child's Talk: Learning to Use Language, putting forth his theory that children learn language in the context of social interaction with a support system (the Language Acquisition Support System, or LASS) provided by their parents and other caregivers.

      1984: A group of language researchers, led by Brian MacWhinney and Catherine Snow, establishes the Child Language Data Exchange System (CHILDES) to facilitate research by sharing transcriptions through an openly accessible database.

      1984: Janet Werker and Richard Tees publish “Cross-Language Speech Perception: Evidence for Perceptual Reorganization During the First Year of Life” in Infant Behavior and Development, which documents infants' loss of ability to discriminate non-native speech sounds during the first year of life as a result of experience with the ambient language.

      1984: In a Child Development paper titled “Coordinated Attention to People and Objects in Mother-Infant and Peer-Infant Interaction,” Roger Bakeman and Lauren Adamson describe the emergence of joint attention in infancy, and the role of the mother in scaffolding infants' attention to objects.

      1984: In their chapter “Language Acquisition and Socialization,” published in Culture Theory: Essays on Mind, Self and Emotion, Elinor Ochs and Bambi Schieffelin draw attention to the cultural diversity of children's socialization through language.

      1985: Adult clinical trials begin for the cochlear implant, a device that transmits sound waves directly to the cochlea, and thus restores a high degree of hearing to many deaf people.

      1985: Dan Slobin edits the first of five volumes of The Cross-Linguistic Study of Language Acquisition, a collection of chapters that summarize and discuss language development in over 20 languages.

      1986: In “Matthew Effects in Reading: Some Consequences of Individual Differences in the Acquisition of Literacy,” published in Reading Research Quarterly, Keith Stanovich describes mechanisms underlying rich-get-richer and poor-get-poorer patterns of reading achievement, with broad implications for education.

      1987: In a chapter titled “Learning the Past Tenses of English Verbs: Implicit Rules or Parallel Distributed Processing,” David Rumelhart and James McClelland introduce connectionist modeling, utilizing domain-general learning mechanisms inspired by neural processing, to the study of child language development.

      1987: Irene Pepperberg demonstrates in an African Grey parrot named “Alex” cognitive abilities found in toddlers, such as the ability to form abstract categories, to verbally label a wide variety of objects, and to categorize objects by color, shape, number, and material.

      1989: In “Critical Period Effects in Second Language Learning: The Influence of Maturational States on the Acquisition of English as a Second Language,” Jacqueline Johnson and Elissa Newport assess the grammatical knowledge of immigrants to the United States and conclude that the ability to learn a second language declines after puberty.

      1990: Jane Hurst and colleagues publish “An Extended Family With a Dominantly Inherited Speech Disorder” in Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, providing the first description of the KE family. This family exhibited a speech disorder initially classified as verbal dyspraxia, but later publicized as a deficit of grammatical suffixation, triggering a search for the genetic basis of grammar.

      1990: In their Child Development paper “Preference for Infant-Directed Speech in the First Month after Birth,” Robin Cooper and Richard Aslin demonstrate, through an auditory preference procedure, that young infants prefer child-directed speech to adult-directed speech.

      1991: Laura Petitto and Paula Marentette report in their Science paper “Babbling in the Manual Mode: Evidence for the Ontogeny of Language” the existence of babbling with the hands in deaf infants exposed to Sign Language from birth.

      1992: Patricia Kuhl and colleagues publish the Science paper “Linguistic Experience Alters Phonetic Perception by 6 Months of Age,” in which they show, using the head-turn procedure, that children's phonetic prototypes (‘magnets') are language-specific at 6 months of age.

      1993: Katherine Nelson, in a Psychological Science paper titled “The Psychological and Social Origins of Autobiographical Memory” explores the phenomenon of infantile amnesia and the critical role of narrative language in the development of memory for personal experiences.

      1994: Esther Thelen and Linda Smith publish the book A Dynamic Systems Approach to the Development of Cognition and Action, which applies non-linear dynamics systems theory to infant development. Their approach emphasizes the role of embodied sensori-motor experience, perception-action feedback, and the interaction of multiple factors in development processes, with profound implications for language development.

      1994: In the bestseller The Language Instinct, Steven Pinker argues for the child's innate capacity to learn language, and offers an adaptationist perspective on the evolution of the language acquisition device. In response, Michael Tomasello publishes, in 1995, the book review “Language Is Not an Instinct,” and, in 2003, the book Constructing a Language: A Usage-Based Theory of Language Acquisition, wherein he argues that language development relies on social-cognitive skills for inferring speakers' communicative intentions and domain-general learning mechanisms for discovering patterns.

      1994: Ruth Berman and Dan Slobin publish the edited volume Relating Events in Narrative: A Crosslinguistic Study, which reports a study in which child speakers of English, German, Spanish, Hebrew, or Turkish provided the words to a wordless picture book (Frog, Where Are You? by Mercer Mayer). By the time of publication, the methodology has taken off, with over 150 researchers collecting frog story narratives in 50 languages.

      1994: The first norming study of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) is published. The CDI comprise a set of standardized, parent-completed report forms that track infant and toddlers' language and communication skills.

      1995: Betty Hart and Todd Risley publish the book Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experiences of Young American Children, which documents, as a function of household income, drastic differences in the amount of talk children are exposed to and its implications for language development.

      1995: Dorothy Bishop and colleagues publish “Genetic Basis of Specific Language Impairment: Evidence rom a Twin Study” in Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, in which they show, for the first time, that Specific Language Impairment is to a substantial degree heritable.

      1995: Adele Goldberg publishes her book Constructions: A Construction Grammar Approach to Argument Structure, in which she proposes the construction—comprising a pairing of a specific form and its meaning—to be the basic unit of grammar; this theoretical framework argues against the view that syntactic processes are independent of semantics (meaning), and views lexicon (vocabulary) and grammar as acquired through similar mechanisms.

      1996: Anat Ninio and Catherine Snow publish Pragmatic Development, which details how children acquire rules for appropriate and communicatively effective language use.

      1996: Drawing on speech act theory, in his book Using Language, Herb Clark proposes an integrative theory of language that views speaking and listening as coordinated joint action.

      1996: In the Science paper “Statistical Learning by 8-Month-Old Infants,” Jenny Saffran, Richard Aslin, and Elissa Newport describe babies' ability to track co-occurrence statistics of adjacent syllables to solve the problem of segmenting uninterrupted speech into discrete words.

      1996: John Gumperz and Stephen Levinson edit the volume Rethinking Linguistic Relativity, which re-opens debates about the status of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. This leads to a proliferation of studies examining whether features of specific languages impact aspects of cognition, such as perception and memory.

      1998: In their letter to Nature titled “Localisation of a Gene Implicated in a Severe Speech and Language Disorder,” Simon Fisher and colleagues report the results of a genome-wide linkage study of the KE family, which implicates a small region of the long arm of chromosome 7 in the disorder.

      1998: In their article “The Phonological Loop as a Language Learning Device,” published in Psychological Review, Alan Baddeley and colleagues propose that the phonological loop, a component of working memory dedicated to short-term shortage of verbal information, plays a critical role in language development, especially with regards to vocabulary acquisition.

      1999: Ellen Bialystok suggests, in the Child Development paper “Cognitive Complexity and Attentional Control in the Bilingual Mind,” that bilingual children develop superior executive functions related to inhibitory control, due to the cognitive demands of alternating use of more than one language.

      2000: In her doctoral dissertation, Cynthia Breazeal describes the building of Kismet, a sociable, child-like robot able to acquire communication skills by eliciting child-directed interactions that afford rich learning opportunities. This leads to the advent of developmental (aka epigenetic) robotics as a new methodology in understanding developmental processes.

      2001: In their letter to Nature titled “A Forkhead-Domain Gene is Mutated in a Severe Speech and Language Disorder,” Cecilia Lai and colleagues identify a mutation on the FOXP2 gene as underlying language disorders like the ones described in the KE family.

      2002: Angela Friederici and colleagues demonstrate, in their paper “Brain Signatures of Artificial Language Processing: Evidence Challenging the Critical Period Hypothesis” published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, that the time course of electrical brain potentials in adults processing a newly learned artificial language is similar to that of adults processing their native language.

      2004: Ann Senghas and colleagues publish a paper in Science titled “Children Creating Core Properties of Language: Evidence From an Emerging Sign Language in Nicaragua,” documenting the contribution of younger cohorts of children to the creation of structure in the emerging sign language.

      2004: Juliane Kaminski and colleagues publish a Science paper “Word Learning in a Domestic Dog: Evidence for ‘Fast Mapping,’” which documents the ability of a border collie to learn a vocabulary of over 200 words by associating novel labels with hitherto unnamed objects.

      2005: Michael Ullman and Elizabeth Pierpont publish a paper in Cortex titled “Specific Language Impairment Is Not Specific to Language: The Procedural Deficit Hypothesis,” linking this impairment to a brain network which subserves the learning and execution of motor and cognitive skills.

      2007: Heather Bortfeld and colleagues publish the study “Assessing Infants' Cortical Response to Speech Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy” in Neuroimage. This is the first study to demonstrate the viability of NIRS for the study of speech processing in 6– to 9-month-old infants.

      2007: In their Psychological Review paper “Word Learning as Bayesian Inference,” Fei Xu and Joshua Tenenbaum introduce Bayesian probabilistic inference as an alternative model to deductive hypothesis testing and associative learning in explaining children's word learning from limited input.

      2008: Morten Christiansen and Nick Chater publish an article in Brain and Behavioral Sciences titled “Language as Shaped by the Brain,” which reframes the debate about the evolution of language by focusing on how the evolution of language structure might reflect constraints of neural development and processing.

      2011: Brian MacWhinney receives the IASCL's Inaugural Roger Brown award, given in recognition of theoretical and methodological contributions to the field of child language. Among his outstanding achievements are the development of the Competition Model, with Elizabeth Bates, and the creation of the Child Language Data Exchange System (CHILDES), with Catherine Snow.

      2012: Elka Bergelson and Daniel Swingley publish a paper titled “At 6-9 Months, Human Infants Know the Meanings of Many Common Nouns” in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, in which they demonstrate that infants know the meaning of many words before being able to say them, and earlier than previously assumed.

    • Glossary

      • Affixation: Word-formation process by which the addition of affixes results in changes of semantic or grammatical properties of a word.
      • Allophones: Pronunciation variants of phonemes that do not mark distinctions in meaning, such as producing aspiration (“puff of air”) on plosives (e.g., /p/) at the beginning but not in the middle of English words.
      • Amplitude rise time: Time it takes for a sound to reach peak-level amplitude; manipulated in discrimination experiments in the range of tens of milliseconds to study rapid temporal processing.
      • Analogy: Type of cognitive process in which information from one domain is transferred to, or identified in, another domain. In usage-based approaches to language development, analogy is a proposed mechanism for generalizing usage of a grammatical construction from one word to another.
      • Aphasia: A condition in which an individual has lost the ability to use language or certain aspects of language. It is often caused by brain damage.
      • Artificial Language: A language-like system artificially created to control for effects of language proficiency in laboratory experiments. Artificial languages typically consist of non-words (e.g., blik, wug) organized into sentences in accordance with simplified sets of grammatical rules.
      • Babbling: Prelinguistic vocalizations of infants consisting of consonant-vowel (CV) combinations; the first stage, reduplicative babbling, emerging at about 4 to 6 months of age, involves repetition of identical CV syllables (e.g., bababa), whereas the second stage, variegated babbling, at about 8 to 9 months, contains a mixture of syllables. In infants exposed to Sign Language, manual babbling involving hand shapes is observed.
      • Basic-level category: Level in the hierarchy of categorical representations referring to cognitively basic categories that most closely reflect natural kinds such as “ball,” “mouse,” “tree.”
      • Bigram: Sequence of two consecutive elements in a larger sequence of such elements. In language research these elements are typically phonemes, graphemes (letters), syllables or words.
      • Broca's Area: A brain region in the left inferior frontal gyrus, named after French physician Paul Broca who identified its role in language processing.
      • Categorical perception: Perceptual partitioning of a continuous change in a physical parameter into discrete categories, such as changes in Voice
      • Onset Time being perceived as voiced or voiceless, thus distinguishing members of an opposing pair of plosive consonants (e.g., /b/ vs. /p/).
      • Childhood amnesia (also infantile amnesia): An inability to retrieve memories of personally experienced events from infancy into early childhood. Age of offset typically ranges from age 2 to 5 years, or even later.
      • Classical conditioning: A type of learning whereby a neutral stimulus comes to elicit a (conditioned) response through associative pairing with another (unconditioned) stimulus, thus turning the neutral stimulus into a conditioned stimulus.
      • Closed syllable: A type of syllable that ends in one or several consonants, for example, ham or harm.
      • Coarticulation: Modification of the pronunciation of speech sounds based on articulation of the preceding and following sounds.
      • Cochlea: An anatomical structure situated in the inner ear containing hair cells that convert sound waves into neural impulses.
      • Code switching: Alternating use of two (or more) languages within a conversation.
      • Cognates: Words of different languages that originate from a common ancestor, for example, Haus in German versus house in English.
      • Communication accommodation theory: Theory developed by Howard Giles and Nikolas Coupland, according to which people adjust speech, vocal and gestural patterns to match those of their interlocutors. Convergence of patterns minimizes, and divergence accentuates, social distance.
      • Compounding: A process of word formation, in which two free morphemes are added together, with one morpheme serving as the head and the other as a modifier, for example, man and weather combine to form weatherman.
      • Concordance rate: Proportion of twins sharing a trait; used to compare identical and fraternal twins to determine trait heritability.
      • Conditional probability: Probability of an event occurring given that another event has already occurred.
      • Connotation: Often emotional or culturally determined associations evoked by a word; distinct from the word's literal meaning.
      • Consonant harmony: A form of assimilation between non-adjacent consonants wherein the consonants acquire shared articulatory features, such as place of articulation (e.g., take → [kek]), as frequently observed in child language.
      • Constructivism: Theoretical approach to language acquisition according to which linguistic knowledge is assembled gradually (“constructed”) from patterns observed in language input.
      • Conversion (or zero derivation): A process of word formation wherein a word changes its part of speech without changing its form, for example, the noun drink is derived from the verb drink.
      • Cooing: Prelinguistic vocalizations produced at around 2 months of age involving tongue movements at the back of the mouth; a pre-cursor to babbling.
      • Copula: Verb-like word that links subject and predicate as in “The tea is hot.”
      • Declarative memory: Long-term memory for facts that can be consciously recalled.
      • Deep orthography: Writing system in which there is no simple one-to-one relationship between phonemes (speech sounds) and graphemes (letters), for example, English.
      • Deictic gestures: Hand and body gestures, such as pointing, that direct attention to aspects of the environment and can only be interpreted in context.
      • Deixis: Communicative devices, including words and gestures, that are interpreted based on the context of use, e.g., pronouns you and I, locatives here and there, adverbs now and then.
      • Denotation: The literal meaning of a word.
      • Derivation: A process of word formation in which the addition of affixes creates new word meanings, for example, swim → swimmer.
      • Differential diagnosis: Diagnostic methodology that systematically tries to eliminate alternative conditions with overlapping symptoms.
      • Diffusion tensor imaging: A neuro-imaging technique based on magnetic resonance imaging that produces images of neural fibre tracts consisting of bundles of axons.
      • Ditransitive Construction: Double object construction, in which the verb takes both an indirect and direct object, as in George gave Kate a present.
      • Dysgraphia: An impairment of writing ability associated with difficulties in orthographic coding but also sequencing of graphemes and associated motor movements.
      • Dyspraxia: An impairment of motor learning associated with difficulties in movement planning and motor coordination.
      • Echolalia: Involuntary repetition of another person's vocalizations.
      • Electroencephalography: Recording of electrical activity over the scalp using multiple electrodes.
      • Episodic memory: Long-term memory for personal experiences and events.
      • Event-related potential (ERP): Electrophysiological response to a specific stimulus (event), measured over the scalp and averaged over multiple presentations of this stimulus.
      • Executive functions: Mental functions involved in cognitive control of behavior, including inhibition of irrelevant information, task switching, and updating working memory.
      • Expressive vocabulary: Vocabulary that a child is able to produce spontaneously.
      • Feed-forward model: Type of neural network model where activation is propagated in one direction from input to output.
      • FOXP2: A gene located on chromosome 7 that encodes one of the forkhead box proteins. FOXP2 is a transcription factor involved in the regulation of gene expression. Although it exists in a number of vertebrates, in humans it is associated with neural plasticity and has been implicated in certain speech and language disorders.
      • Fricatives: Consonants for which air is forced through a narrow channel created by the articulators to achieve turbulences in the airflow, for example, /s/, /f/, /z/.
      • Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI): A neuroimaging technique that measures the hemodynamic response (changes in blood oxygen levels) in various brain areas in response to the processing of specific stimuli.
      • Gender agreement: Coordinated inflectional changes in parts of speech related to a noun (e.g., adjectives, determiners, pronouns), which reflect the gender of the noun.
      • Genotype: Inherited genetic make-up of a biological organism.
      • Genre: Category of speech, text, or of other form of expression (e.g., music, visual arts) established by conventional groupings of functional and stylistic criteria, for example, narrative, lecture, poetry, or debate.
      • Grammatical agreement: Coordinated inflectional changes in related parts of speech reflecting shared grammatical information (e.g. number, gender, tense).
      • Graphemes: Written symbols used to represent speech sounds.
      • Gricean Maxims: A set of four principles that govern cooperative communication, formulated by the philosopher H. Paul Grice. These principles include the Maxim of Quality (be truthful), the Maxim of Quantity (be as informative as
      • necessary), the Maxim of Relation (be relevant) and the Maxim of Manner (be clear).
      • Habituation: Form of learning in which the response to a stimulus decreases continuously as a result of repeated presentation.
      • Head: The member of a syntactic constituent that determines the syntactic properties of the whole, for example, for a “verb+object” combination, the verb is the head and the combination is a verb phrase.
      • Homographs: Words that share the same spelling but differ in meaning.
      • Homophones: Words that share the same pronunciation but differ in meaning.
      • Hyperlexia: Precocious word decoding ability that exceeds age norms; it may be associated with poor comprehension of what is read.
      • Iambic: Metric stress pattern for bi-syllabic words with stress on the second syllable, as in guitar.
      • Illocutionary Act: In Speech Act Theory, the speaker's communicative intent in producing an utterance, as in promising, questioning, requesting, etc.
      • Implicit learning: Learning that proceeds unintentionally and without conscious awareness.
      • Indeterminacy of translation: Conjecture formulated by the philosopher W. V. O Quine, which refers to the inevitability of multiple equivalent translations across languages. In language acquisition research, it is known as the “Gavagai” problem, and refers to the infinite number of potential referents and meanings for a linguistic expression.
      • Inflection: Modification of a word through affixes that mark changes in grammatical functions, for example, swim → swims.
      • Information structure: A way of dividing up the content of an utterance to distinguish what is given information and what is new, what is the topic/theme and what is the comment/focus. Grammatical structures, such as the active and passive voice, allow speakers to organize information-structural elements to meet discourse demands.
      • Instrumental/operant conditioning: A type of learning wherein behavior is associated with contingencies of reward or punishment.
      • Interlingual homographs: Words of different languages that have identical spellings, but distinct meanings; “false friends,” as in angel meaning “hook” in Dutch.
      • Intersubjectivity: Awareness that the significance of a shared experience or the meaning of a linguistic expression is mutually understood between interlocutors.
      • Intonation: Prosodic modifications in speech used to distinguish speech acts (e.g., questions versus statements), grammatical constituents, and information structure (given versus new information).
      • Iterated learning: Methodology used to study cultural transmission of information through a chain of learners in which the learning output of one learner serves as input for the next learner.
      • L1, L2: Commonly used abbreviations for first language, second language.
      • Language acquisition device (LAD): According to American linguist Noam Chomsky, a hypothetical part of the brain that provides the biological capacity for children to acquire language, and purported to be innate in humans.
      • Language acquisition support system (LASS): In Jerome Bruner's theory of language acquisition, caregivers' interactive behaviors and routines that encourage (or suppress) a child's language development.
      • Larynx: Organ comprising the vocal folds, located in the neck; used for sound production, with vibration causing phonation, and manipulation affecting pitch, volume, and other parameters of sound.
      • Latent semantic analysis (LSA): A mathematical model of word meaning that computes co-occurrences between words, and represents words as vectors in multi-dimensional space (after dimensionality has been reduced); LSA shows good approximations to human judgments of word similarity.
      • Linguistic relativity: View that specific features of a language can shape perception, categorization, memory and other aspects of thought.
      • Locutionary act: In Speech Act Theory, the actual production of a communicative form (e.g., gesture, spoken utterance, text).
      • Logographic script: Writing system in which graphemes encode entire morphemes rather than individual speech sounds, for example, Kanji.
      • Low-pass filter: Filter that passes sound frequencies below a certain cut-off value and attenuates frequencies above this value.
      • Magnetoencephalography: Brain imaging technique based on the recording of magnetic fields generated by the brain's electrical activity.
      • Mean length of utterance (MLU): A commonly used measure of syntactic development based on samples of spontaneous speech; refers to the average number of morphemes produced per utterance.
      • Mental model: Internal representation of an unfolding situation, conversation, text, or other aspect of the world, with its constituent parts and relationships; such interpretive representations influence memory and guide behavior.
      • Mental rotation: The ability to mentally rotate representations of two- and three-dimensional objects; used as a measure of visual-spatial cognition.
      • Merge: A binary combinatorial operation that combines a head with its dependent, whereby the merged constituent takes on the syntactic properties of its head.
      • Meta-analysis: A statistical technique that pools data from various studies on a specific topic to identify possible moderators of effect sizes across studies.
      • Microgenetic: Refers to dynamics of a developmental process as it unfolds in real time, as opposed to ontogenetic (over the course of human development) and phylogenetic (over the course of evolution of a species).
      • Mimetics: Words that use sound symbolism to evoke sensory experiences.
      • Morphological paradigm: A set of words sharing a stem but differing in inflections, marking grammatical features, such as tense, number, person, and gender; examples include the conjugation paradigms of verbs or the declension paradigms of nouns.
      • Mutual exclusivity: A word-learning heuristic whereby children assume that each object should have only one label.
      • Myelination: The production of myelin, the white fatty matter that forms an insulating layer around the axons of neurons and is essential for neuronal conductivity.
      • Nativism: Theoretical view that certain aspects of linguistic knowledge are innate and thus serve to constrain hypotheses about grammatical structure and word meaning.
      • Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): Functional brain-imaging technique used with infants; uses near-infrared light to measure changes in concentrations of chemicals associated with blood oxygenation and blood volume that reflect local brain activity.
      • Negative evidence: Language input that indicates which of the child's productions are incorrect; direct negative evidence (explicit correction of a child's pronunciation, vocabulary, or grammar in response to an incorrect form) is considered to be rare in child-directed speech, whereas indirect forms (recasts, clarifications) are consider common.
      • Neural network model: Class of biologically inspired computational models, which simulates
      • the propagation of activation through a network of units thereby allowing it to learn associations between inputs and outputs.
      • Neural plasticity: Processes in the central nervous system that take place over a lifetime and modify the functioning of, and connections between, neurons.
      • Nonverbal intelligence: Psychometric construct involving a set of cognitive abilities related to pattern manipulation and nonverbal problem solving.
      • Nonword repetition task: Measure of verbal short-term memory capacity in which participants are asked to repeat non-words of varying length, such as pombrell or differamus.
      • Oddball-detection paradigm: Method of recording of event-related potentials (ERPs) and analyzing a specific component of the electrophysiological response (i.e., a mismatch negativity) to an occasional unique auditory stimulus, interspersed in a series of identical auditory stimuli.
      • Palate: Roof of the mouth, separates the oral from the nasal cavity.
      • Parts of speech: Categories of words differing in their syntactic features and functions, such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions.
      • Perlocutionary act: In Speech Act Theory refers to the social and communicative consequences of an utterance, and how it is interpreted—for example, the question Can you open the window? may be treated as a request.
      • Pharynx: Part of the digestive and respiratory system situated posterior to the nasal cavity and the mouth.
      • Phenotype: A biological organism's observable characteristics, such as its appearance and behavior.
      • Phonesthemes: Categories of sound that provide cues to word meaning, for example, sl- used to indicate negative events, traits, and behaviors, as in sloppy, slob, slow, etc.
      • Phonics approach: An approach to literacy instruction that explicitly teaches children to link speech sounds with letters and letter combinations.
      • Phonological neighborhood: Sets of words that differ only with respect to a single phoneme addition, deletion or substitution, for example, the neighbors of speech are peach, speed, and speak.
      • Phonological recoding (also decoding): The process of converting graphemes into speech sounds, that is, sounding out written words.
      • Phonotactic constraints: Language-specific constraints on permissible sequences of phonemes; these vary as a function of the position of the sequence in the word (e.g., for English, initial but not final pr- is permissible versus final but not initial -pt is permissible).
      • Pinyin: System of transcribing the sound patterns associated with Chinese characters into Latin script.
      • Pitch accent: Pitch contours that give prominence to a syllable and thereby distinguish words that have identical phoneme sequences, but distinct meanings.
      • Plosive: Consonant in which the articulators completely stop and then release the airflow, as in /p/, /t/,/g/.
      • Positron emission tomography (PET): Functional brain-imaging technique that uses an injection of a radioactive compound (an analogue of glucose) to map neural activity in the brain; it exploits the fact that areas of increased blood flow during task processing show higher radioactivity due to increased glucose metabolism.
      • Poverty of the stimulus argument: Claim made by Noam Chomsky that the grammars of human languages are too complex to be learned given the limited amount of language input that children receive; therefore, language acquisition must be supported by an innate knowledge of grammar.
      • Predicate: The portion of a sentence or clause that states something about the subject.
      • Presupposition: Implicit assumptions or beliefs about the world that affect utterance interpretation.
      • Priming effect: Speeding up of processing of a stimulus due to pre-activation induced by a preceding stimulus related in meaning or form.
      • Procedural memory: Long-term memory involved in skill acquisition and the coordination of sequences of actions; it appears to play an important role in grammar acquisition, and the emergent automaticity of grammatical operations.
      • Proto-declarative: Prelinguistic communicative act wherein the child uses a gesture or action, such as pointing, showing or giving, to attract an adult's attention to something in the environment.
      • Proto-imperative: Prelinguistic communicative act wherein the child directs a gesture or action towards an adult to obtain sometime or otherwise fulfill a need.
      • Prototype: Representation of the best example of a category, for example, a robin is a more prototypical bird than an eagle.
      • Rapid automatized naming (RAN): A verbal fluency test in which participants are asked to rapidly name a series of well-known objects.
      • Receptive vocabulary: Vocabulary that a child is able to comprehend.
      • Recognitory gestures: Play actions that reflect the functionality of objects, such as holding an empty cup to one's lips to pretend to drink or using a spoon to pretend to eat; also called nominal gestures, gestural labels, or gesture names.
      • Recursion: Feature of grammar whereby syntactic operations (e.g., Merge) can be applied to their own output to create increasingly complex syntactic structures.
      • Reduplication: A process of word formation in which two similar or identical elements are joined, for example, fancy-shmancy or wee-wee; reduplication characterizes the first stage of babbling involving repetitions of consonant-vowel syllables such as dadada.
      • Referential communication task: A perspective-taking task in which two participants must communicate with each other about a complex object display while sitting on opposite sides of a barrier, which occludes their respective perspectives from the other's view; it is used to measure participants' ability to take their interlocutor's point of view into account in their verbal descriptions.
      • Rescorla-Wagner model: Model that describes the likelihood of classical conditioning occurring as a function of the anticipated co-occurrence of the conditioned and unconditioned stimulus, based on the associative strength established through previous learning trials.
      • Scaffolding: Responsive caregiver behavior that supports a child's activity by taking into consideration the child's developmental status.
      • Scalar implicature: A form of conversational implicature involving quantifiers (e.g., all, some, many); when a weak term is used (e.g., some) the listener assumes that the speaker had a reason for not using the stronger term (e.g., all), thus inviting the implicature “some, but not all.”
      • Schemas: Abstract representations of categories (of objects, events, sentence structures, etc.), formed by generalizing information across learned exemplars.
      • Self-organizing map (Kohonen-network): Type of neural network, named after its inventor Teuvo Kohonen, which uses unsupervised learning to map input vectors of varying dimensionality onto a two-dimensional, spatial representation for purposes of classification.
      • Semantic bootstrapping: A proposed mechanism by which children use knowledge about the meaning of a world to infer its syntactic properties, in effect, mapping semantic primitives, such as “Actor,” onto syntactic roles, such as “Subject.”
      • Semantic neighborhood: Sets of concepts that are linked either through shared semantic features, as
      • in cat and dog, or through associations based on co-occurrence, as in doctor and hospital.
      • Semantic network: Network of conceptual representations wherein concepts are linked through various semantic relations, for example, is a, as in “A robin is a bird,” or has, as in “A bird has wings,” or through association “A bird flies, lays eggs, lives in a nest;” because activation spreads through the network, activation of a concept can be achieved through activation of related concepts.
      • Shallow orthography: Writing system in which there is a transparent, one-to-one mapping between phonemes and graphemes, for example, Finnish.
      • Simple recurrent network: Type of neural network model in which activation feeds back onto a layer of context units which then provide part of the input, along with novel input, for the next iteration of learning.
      • Speech accommodation theory: Theory developed by Howard Giles and Nikolas Coupland, according to which people adjust features of their speech to their interlocutors during communication. Convergence of these patterns minimizes, and divergence accentuates, social distance.
      • Still-face paradigm: Experimental paradigm which exploits the distress exhibited by infants when an adult suddenly freezes movement of her face in dyadic interaction; used to establish to what extent young infants have social expectations that people will engage responsively and provide contingent feedback during face-to-face interaction.
      • Syllable coda: Final part of a syllable consisting of one or several consonants.
      • Syllable nucleus: Central, peak part of a syllable, usually consisting of the vowel, but occasionally a syllabic consonant, as in the final syllable of button or butter.
      • Taxonomic assumption: A word-learning heuristic whereby children assume that novel words label categories of things as opposed to individual exemplars.
      • Temporal processing: The ability to distinguish subtle changes in duration or temporal order of stimuli.
      • Tense: Grammatical feature indicating when an action occurs in time, for example, in the past, present, or future.
      • Transitional probability: Probability associated with a change of state in a system, that is, the probability of transitioning from one state to another in single step; transitional probabilities of syllable sequences within words (e.g., by following ba, as in baby) are higher than syllable sequences that span word boundaries (e.g., ba following ty, as in pretty baby).
      • Trochaic: Metric stress pattern of bi-syllabic words with stress on the first syllable, as in cookie.
      • U-shaped learning: A learning trajectory often assumed to be indicative of a change in learning mechanism, in which error-free performance is followed by a temporary phase of error-prone performance, which, in turn, is followed by error-free performance again.
      • Vocal play: Play-like vocalizations of infants comprising sound patterns that gradually transform to become the child's speech sound repertoire.
      • Voice onset time: Amount of time that elapses between the release of air and the onset of vocal fold vibration in consonant production.
      • Vowel space: Graphical representation of the area encompassed by the vowels of a language; a two-dimensional space with the first and second formants plotted on the vertical and horizontal axis, respectively.
      • Wernicke's area: A brain region named after Carl Wernicke; located in the temporal lobe of the dominant hemisphere, this region is implicated in language comprehension and semantic processing.
      • Whole-object assumption: A word-learning heuristic whereby children assume that novel words label whole objects as opposed to their properties or parts.
      • Whole-word approach: An approach to literacy instruction that teaches children to recognize entire words by sight based on their overall shape.
      • Zero derivation (or conversion): A process of word formation in which the word-form itself does not change, but it changes its part of speech, for example, the noun drink is derived from the verb to drink.
      • Zipf's law: A principle of statistical regularity formulated by the American philologist George Zipf, who showed that language data can be approximated by a power law probability distribution, with the frequency of a word inversely proportional to its frequency rank.
      • Zone of proximal development (ZPD): A concept, introduced by the psychologist Lev Vygotsky, that describes behaviors at the cusp of the child's ability—specifically, behaviors a child can execute with the help of an adult, but not unassisted.

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      Journals
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      Internet Sites
      Academy of Neurologic Communication
      Disorders and Sciences http://www.ancds.org
      Acoustical Society of America http://acousticalsociety.org
      Alliance for the Advancement of Heritage Languages http://www.cal.org/heritage
      American Academy of Audiology http://www.audiology.org/Pages/default.aspx
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      Canadian Association of Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists http://www.caslpa.ca
      Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (University of Minnesota) http://www.carla.umn.edu
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      United Kingdom Literacy Association http://www.ukla.org
      Washington University Speech and Hearing Lab Neighborhood Database http://neighborhoodsearch.wustl.edu/Home.asp
      World Federation of the Deaf http://wfdeaf.org

      Appendix

      World Literacy Statistics
      CIA World Factbook 2013

      This appendix includes a definition of literacy and Census Bureau percentages for the total population, males, and females. There are no universal definitions and standards of literacy. Unless otherwise specified, all rates are based on the most common definition—the ability to read and write at a specified age. Detailing the standards that individual countries use to assess the ability to read and write is beyond the scope of the Factbook. Information on literacy, while not a perfect measure of educational results, is probably the most easily available and valid for international comparisons. Low levels of literacy, and education in general, can impede the economic development of a country in the current rapidly changing, technology-driven world.

      COUNTRYLITERACY (%)
      AfghanistanAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 28.1% Male: 43.1 %, female: 12.6% (2000 est.)
      AlbaniaAge 9 and over can read and write Total population: 96.8% Male: 98%, female: 95.7% (2011 est.)
      AlgeriaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 72.6% Male: 81.3%, female: 63.9% (2006 est.)
      American SamoaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 97% Male: 98%, female: 97% (1980 est.)
      AndorraAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 100% Male: 100%, female: 100%
      AngolaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 70.4% Male: 82.6%, female: 58.6% (2011 est.)
      AnguillaAge 12 and over can read and write Total population: 95% Male: 95%, female: 95% (1984 est.)
      Antigua and BarbudaAge 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling Total population: 99% Male: 98.4%, female: 99.4% (2011 est.)
      ArgentinaAge 10 and over can read and write Total population: 97.9% Male: 97.8%, female: 97.9% (2011 est.)
      ArmeniaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99.6% Male: 99.7%, female: 99.5% (2011 est.)
      ArubaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 96.8% Male: 96.9%, female: 96.7% (2010 est.)
      AustraliaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99% Male: 99%, female: 99% (2003 est.)
      AustriaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 98% Male: NA, female: NA
      AzerbaijanAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99.8% Male: 99.9%, female: 99.7% (2010 census)
      Bahamas, TheAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 95.6% Male: 94.7%, female: 96.5% (2003 est.)
      BahrainAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 94.6% Male: 96.1 %, female: 91.6% (2010 est.)
      BangladeshAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 57.7% Male: 62%, female: 53.4% (2011 est.)
      BarbadosAge 15 and over has ever attended school Total population: 99.7% Male: 99.7%, female: 99.7% (2002 est.)
      BelarusAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99.6% Male: 99.8%, female: 99.5% (2009 est.)
      BelgiumAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99% Male: 99%, female: 99% (2003 est.)
      BelizeAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 76.9% Male: 76.7%, female: 77.1% (2000 census)
      BeninAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 42.4% Male: 55.2%, female: 30.3% (2010 census)
      BermudaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 98% Male: 98%, female: 99% (2005 est.)
      BhutanAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 52.8% Male: 65%, female: 38.7% (2005 est.)
      BoliviaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 91.2% Male: 95.8%, female: 86.8% (2009 est.)
      Bosnia and HerzegovinaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 98% Male: 99.5%, female: 96.7% (2011 est.)
      BotswanaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 85.1% Male: 84.6%, female: 85.6% (2011 est.)
      BrazilAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 90.4% Male: 90.1%, female: 90.7% (2010 est.)
      British Virgin IslandsAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 97.8% Male: NA, female: NA (1991 est.)
      BruneiAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 95.4% Male: 97%, female: 93.9% (2011 est.)
      BulgariaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 98.4% Male: 98.7%, female: 98% (2011 est.)
      Burkina FasoAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 28.7% Male: 36.7%, female: 21.6% (2007 est.)
      BurmaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 92.7% Male: 95.1%, female: 90.4% (2011 est.)
      BurundiAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 67.2% Male: 72.9%, female: 61.8% (2010 est.)
      CambodiaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 73.9% Male: 82.8%, female: 65.9% (2009 est.)
      CameroonAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 71.3% Male: 78.3%, female: 64.8% (2010 est.)
      CanadaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99% Male: 99%, female: 99% (2003 est.)
      Cape VerdeAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 84.9% Male: 89.7%, female: 80.3% (2011 est.)
      Cayman IslandsAge 15 and over has ever attended school Total population: 98.9% Male: 98.7%, female: 99% (2007 est.)
      Central African RepublicAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 56.6% Male: 69.6%, female: 44.2% (2011 est.)
      ChadAge 15 and over can read and write French or Arabic Total population: 35.4% Male: 45.6%, female: 25.4% (2011 est.)
      ChileAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 98.6% Male: 98.6%, female: 98.5% (2009 est.)
      ChinaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 95.1% Male: 97.5%, female: 92.7% (2010 est.)
      Christmas IslandNA
      Cocos (Keeling) IslandsNA
      ColombiaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 93.6% Male: 93.5%, female: 93.7% (2011 est.)
      ComorosAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 75.5% Male: 80.5%, female: 70.6% (2011 est.)
      Congo, Democratic Republic of theAge 15 and over can read and write French, Lingala, Kingwana, orTshiluba Total population: 66.8% Male: 76.9%, female: 57% (2010 est.)
      Congo, Republic of theAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 83.8% Male: 89.6%, female: 78.4% (2003 est.)
      Cook IslandsAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 95% Male: NA, female: NA
      Costa RicaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 96.3% Male: 96%, female: 96.5% (2011 est.)
      Côte d'IvoireAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 56.9% Male: 65.6%, female: 47.6% (2011 est.)
      CroatiaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 98.9% Male: 99.5%, female: 98.3% (2011 est.)
      CubaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99.8% Male: 99.8%, female: 99.8% (2011 est.)
      CyprusAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 98.7% Male: 99.3%, female: 98.1% (2011 est.)
      Czech RepublicDefinition: NA Total population: 99% Male: 99%, female: 99% (2011 est.)
      DenmarkAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99% Male: 99%, female: 99% (2003 est.)
      DjiboutiAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 67.9% Male: 78%, female: 58.4% (2003 est.)
      DominicaAge 15 and over has ever attended school Total population: 94% Male: 94%, female: 94% (2003 est.)
      Dominican RepublicAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 90.1% Male: 90%, female: 90.2% (2011 est.)
      EcuadorAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 91.6% Male: 93.1%, female: 90.2% (2011 est.)
      EgyptAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 73.9% Male: 81.7%, female: 65.8% (2012 est.)
      El SalvadorAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 84.5% Male: 87.1%, female: 82.3% (2010 est.)
      Equatorial GuineaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 94.2% Male: 97.1%, female: 91.1% (2011 est.)
      EritreaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 68.9% Male: 79.5%, female: 59% (2011 est.)
      EstoniaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99.8% Male: 99.8%, female: 99.8% (2011 est.)
      EthiopiaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 39% Male: 49.1 %, female: 28.9% (2007 est.)
      Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)NA
      Faroe IslandsNA; Note: likely 99%, the same as Denmark proper
      FijiAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 93.7% Male: 95.5%, female: 91.9% (2003 est.)
      FinlandAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 100% Male: 100%, female: 100% (2000 est.)
      FranceAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99% Male: 99%, female: 99% (2003 est.)
      French PolynesiaAge 14 and over can read and write Total population: 98% Male: 98%, female: 98% (1977 est.)
      GabonAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 89% Male: 92.3%, female: 85.6% (2011 est.)
      Gambia, TheAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 51.1% Male: 60.9%, female: 41.9% (2011 est.)
      Gaza StripAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 95.3% Male: 97.9%, female: 92.6% Note: estimates are for the Palestinian Territories (2011 est.)
      GeorgiaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99.7% Male: 99.8%, female: 99.7% (2011 est.)
      GermanyAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99% Male: 99%, female: 99% (2003 est.)
      GhanaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 71.5% Male: 78.3%, female: 65.3% (2010 est.)
      GibraltarNA Total population: above 80% Male: NA, female: NA
      GreeceAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 97.3% Male: 98.4%, female: 96.3% (2011 est.)
      GreenlandAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 100% Male: 100%, female: 100% (2001 est.)
      GrenadaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 96% Male: NA, female: NA (2003 est.)
      GuamAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99% Male: 99%, female: 99% (1990 est.)
      GuatemalaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 75.9% Male: 81.2%, female: 71.1% (2011 est.)
      GuernseyNA
      GuineaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 41% Male: 52%, female: 30% (2010 est.)
      Guinea-BissauAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 55.3% Male: 68.9%, female: 42.1 % (2011 est.)
      GuyanaAge 15 and over has ever attended school Total population: 91.8% Male: 92%, female: 91.6% (2002 census)
      HaitiAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 48.7% Male: 53.4%, female: 44.6% (2006 est.)
      Holy See (Vatican City)Age 15 and over can read and write Total population: 100% Male: 100%, female: 100%
      HondurasAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 85.1% Male: 85.3%, female: 84.9% (2011 est.)
      Hong KongAge 15 and over has ever attended school Total population: 93.5% Male: 96.9%, female: 89.6% (2002)
      HungaryAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99% Male: 99.2%, female: 98.9% (2011 est.)
      IcelandAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99% Male: 99%, female: 99% (2003 est.)
      IndiaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 62.8% Male: 75.2%, female: 50.8% (2006 est.)
      IndonesiaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 92.8% Male: 95.6%, female: 90.1% (2011 est.)
      IranAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 85% Male: 89.3%, female: 80.7% (2008 est.)
      IraqAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 78.5% Male: 86%, female: 71.2% (2011 est.)
      IrelandAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99% Male: 99%, female: 99% (2003 est.)
      Isle of ManNA
      IsraelAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 97.1% Male: 98.5%, female: 95.9% (2004 est.)
      ItalyAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99% Male: 99.2%, female: 98.7% (2011 est.)
      JamaicaAge 15 and over has ever attended school Total population: 87% Male: 82.1 %, female: 91.8% (2011 est.)
      JapanAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99% Male: 99%, female: 99% (2002)
      JerseyNA
      JordanAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 95.9% Male: 97.7%, female: 93.9% (2011 est.)
      KazakhstanAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99.7% Male: 99.8%, female: 99.7% (2009 est.)
      KenyaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 87.4% Male: 90.6%, female: 84.2% (2010 est.)
      KiribatiNA
      Korea, NorthAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 100% Male: 100%, female: 100% (2008 est.)
      Korea, SouthAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 97.9% Male: 99.2%, female: 96.6% (2002)
      KosovoAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 91.9% Male: 96.6%, female: 87.5% (2007 census)
      KuwaitAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 93.9% Male: 95%, female: 91.8% (2008 est.)
      KyrgyzstanAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99.2% Male: 99.5%, female: 99% (2009 est.)
      LaosAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 72.7% Male: 82.5%, female: 63.2% (2005 est.)
      LatviaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99.8% Male: 99.8%, female: 99.8% (2011 est.)
      LebanonAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 89.6% Male: 93.4%, female: 86% (2007 est.)
      LesothoAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 89.6% Male: 83.3%, female: 95.6% (2010 est.)
      LiberiaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 60.8% Male: 64.8%, female: 56.8% (2010 est.)
      LibyaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 89.5% Male: 95.8%, female: 83.3% (2011 est.)
      LiechtensteinAge 10 and over can read and write Total population: 100% Male: 100%, female: 100%
      LithuaniaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99.7% Male: 99.7%, female: 99.7% (2011 est.)
      LuxembourgAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 100% Male: 100%, female: 100% (2000 est.)
      MacauAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 95.6% Male: 97.8%, female: 93.7% (2011 est.)
      MacedoniaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 97.4% Male: 98.7%, female: 96% (2011 est.)
      MadagascarAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 64.5% Male: 67.4%, female: 61.6% (2009 est.)
      MalawiAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 74.8% Male: 81.1%, female: 68.5% (2010 est.)
      MalaysiaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 93.1% Male: 95.4%, female: 90.7% (2010 est.)
      MaldivesAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 98.4% Male: 98.4%, female: 98.4% (2006 est.)
      MaliAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 33.4% Male: 43.1 %, female: 24.6% (2011 est.)
      MaltaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 92.4% Male: 91.2%, female: 93.5% (2005 est.)
      Marshall IslandsAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 93.7% Male: 93.6%, female: 93.7% (1999)
      MauritaniaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 58.6% Male: 65.3%, female: 52% (2011 est.)
      MauritiusAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 88.8% Male: 91.1%, female: 86.7% (2011 est.)
      MexicoAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 93.5% Male: 94.8%, female: 92.3% (2011 est.)
      Micronesia, Federated States ofAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 89% Male: 91%, female: 88% (1980 est.)
      MoldovaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99% Male: 99.5%, female: 98.5% (2011 est.)
      MonacoAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99% Male: 99%, female: 99% (2003 est.)
      MongoliaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 97.4% Male: 96.8%, female: 97.9% (2011 est.)
      MontenegroAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 98.5% Male: 99.4%, female: 97.6% (2011 est.)
      MontserratAge 15 and over has ever attended school Total population: 97% Male: 97%, female: 97% (1970 est.)
      MoroccoAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 67.1% Male: 76.1%, female: 57.6% (2011 est.)
      MozambiqueAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 56.1% Male: 70.8%, female: 42.8% (2010 est.)
      NamibiaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 88.8% Male: 89%, female: 88.5% (2010 est.)
      NauruNA
      NepalAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 57.4% Male: 71.1%, female: 46.7% (2011 est.)
      NetherlandsAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99% Male: 99%, female: 99% (2003 est.)
      New CaledoniaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 96.2% Male: 96.8%, female: 95.5% (1996 census)
      New ZealandAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99% Male: 99%, female: 99% (2003 est.)
      NicaraguaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 78% Male: 78.1 %, female: 77.9% (2005 est.)
      NigerAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 28.7% Male: 42.9%, female: 15.1 % (2005 est.)
      NigeriaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 61.3% Male: 72.1%, female: 50.4% (2010 est.)
      NiueDefinition: NA Total population: 95% Male: NA, female: NA
      Norfolk IslandNA
      Northern Mariana IslandsAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 97% Male: 97%, female: 96% (1980 est.)
      NorwayAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 100% Male: 100%, female: 100%
      OmanAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 86.9% Male: 90.2%, female: 81.8% (2010 est.)
      PakistanAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 54.9% Male: 68.6%, female: 40.3% (2009 est.)
      PalauAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 92% Male: 93%, female: 90% (1980 est.)
      PanamaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 94.1% Male: 94.7%, female: 93.5% (2010 est.)
      Papua New GuineaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 62.4% Male: 65.4%, female: 59.4% (2011 est.)
      ParaguayAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 93.9% Male: 94.8%, female: 92.9% (2010 est.)
      PeruAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 89.6% Male: 94.9%, female: 84.6% (2007 est.)
      PhilippinesAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 95.4% Male: 95%, female: 95.8% (2008 est.)
      Pitcaim IslandsNA
      PolandAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99.7% Male: 99.9%, female: 99.6% (2011 est.)
      PortugalAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 95.4% Male: 97%, female: 94% (2011 est.)
      Puerto RicoAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 90.3% Male: 89.7%, female: 90.9% (2011 est.)
      QatarAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 96.3% Male: 96.5%, female: 95.4% (2010 est.)
      RomaniaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 97.7% Male: 98.3%, female: 97.1% (2011 est.)
      RussiaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99.7% Male: 99.7%, female: 99.6% (2010 est.)
      RwandaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 71.1% Male: 74.8%, female: 67.5% (2010 est.)
      Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da CunhaAge 20 and over can read and write Total population: 97% Male: 97%, female: 98% (1987 est.)
      Saint Kitts and NevisAge 15 and over has ever attended school Total population: 97.8% Male: NA, female: NA (2003 est.)
      Saint LuciaAge 15 and over has ever attended school Total population: 90.1% Male: 89.5%, female: 90.6% (2001 est.)
      Saint Pierre and MiquelonAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99% Male: 99%, female: 99% (1982 est.)
      Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesAge 15 and over has ever attended school Total population: 96% Male: 96%, female: 96% (1970 est.)
      SamoaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 98.8% Male: 99%, female: 98.6% (2003 est.)
      San MarinoAge 10 and over can read and write Total population: 96% Male: 97%, female: 95%
      Sao Tome and PrincipeAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 69.5% Male: 80.3%, female: 60.1 % (2008 est.)
      Saudi ArabiaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 87.2% Male: 90.8%, female: 82.2% (2011 est.)
      SenegalAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 49.7% Male: 61.8%, female: 38.7% (2009 est.)
      SerbiaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 98% Male: 99.2%, female: 96.9% (2011 est.)
      SeychellesAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 91.8% Male: 91.4%, female: 92.3% (2011 est.)
      Sierra LeoneAge 15 and over can read and write English, Mende, Temne, or Arabic Total population: 43.3% Male: 54.7%, female: 32.6% (2011 est.)
      SingaporeAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 95.9% Male: 98%, female: 93.8% (2010 est.)
      SlovakiaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99.6% Male: 99.7%, female: 99.6% (2004)
      SloveniaNA Total population: 99.7% Male: 99.7%, female: 99.7% (2011 est.)
      Solomon IslandsAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 84.1% Male: 88.9%, female: 79.2%
      SomaliaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 37.8% Male: 49.7%, female: 25.8% (2001 est.)
      South AfricaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 93% Male: 93.9%, female: 92.2% (2011 est.)
      South SudanAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 27% Male:40%, female: 16% (2009)
      SpainAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 97.7% Male: 98.5%, female: 97% (2010 est.)
      Sri LankaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 91.2% Male: 92.6%, female: 90% (2010 census)
      SudanAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 71.9% Male: 80.7%, female: 63.2% Note: pre-secession of South Sudan (2011 est.)
      SurinameAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 94.7% Male: 95.4%, female: 94% (2010 est.)
      SvalbardNA
      SwazilandAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 87.8% Male: 88.4%, female: 87.3% (2011 est.)
      SwedenAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99% Male: 99%, female: 99% (2003 est.)
      SwitzerlandAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99% Male: 99%, female: 99% (2003 est.)
      SyriaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 84.1% Male: 90.3%, female: 77.7% (2011 est.)
      TaiwanAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 96.1% Male: NA, female: NA (2003)
      TajikistanAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99.7% Male: 99.8%, female: 99.6% (2011 est.)
      TanzaniaAge 15 and over can read and write Kiswahili (Swahili), English, or Arabic Total population: 67.8% Male: 75.5%, female: 60.8% (2010 est.)
      ThailandAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 93.5% Male: 95.6%, female: 91.5% (2005 est.)
      Timor-LesteAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 58.3% Male: 63.6%, female: 53% (2010 est.)
      TogoAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 60.4% Male: 74.1%, female: 48% (2011 est.)
      TokelauNA
      TongaCan read and write Tongan and/or English Total population: 99% Male: 99%, female: 99.1 % (2006 est.)
      Trinidad and TobagoAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 98.8% Male: 99.2%, female: 98.5% (2011 est.)
      TunisiaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 79.1% Male: 87.4%, female: 71.1% (2010 est.)
      TurkeyAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 94.1% Male: 97.9%, female: 90.3% (2011 est.)
      TurkmenistanAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99.6% Male: 99.7%, female: 99.5% (2011 est.)
      Turks and Caicos IslandsAge 15 and over has ever attended school Total population: 98% Male: 99%, female: 98% (1970 est.)
      TuvaluNA
      UgandaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 73.2% Male: 82.6%, female: 64.6% (2010 est.)
      UkraineAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99.7% Male: 99.8%, female: 99.7% (2011 est.)
      United Arab EmiratesAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 90% Male: 89.5%, female: 91.5% (2005 est.)
      United KingdomAge 15 and over has completed five or more years of schooling Total population: 99% Male: 99%, female: 99% (2003 est.)
      United StatesAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99% Male: 99%, female: 99% (2003 est.)
      UruguayAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 98.1% Male: 97.6%, female: 98.5% (2010 est.)
      UzbekistanAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 99.4% Male: 99.6%, female: 99.2% (2011 est.)
      VanuatuAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 83.2% Male: NA 84.9%, female: NA 81.6% (2011 est.)
      VenezuelaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 95.5% Male: 95.7%, female: 95.4% (2009 est.)
      VietnamAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 93.4% Male: 95.4%, female: 91.4% (2011 est.)
      Virgin IslandsAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 90-95% est. Male: NA, female: NA (2005 est.)
      Wallis and FutunaAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 50% Male: 50%, female: 50% (1969 est.)
      West BankAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 95.3% Male: 97.9%, female: 92.6% Notes: estimates are for the Palestinian Territories (2011 est.)
      Western SaharaNA
      YemenAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 65.3% Male: 82.1 %, female: 48.5% (2011 est.)
      ZambiaAge 15 and over can read and write English Total population: 61.4% Male: 71.9%, female: 51.8% (2007 est.)
      ZimbabweAge 15 and over can read and write English Total population: 83.6% Male: 87.8%, female: 80.1% (2011 est.)
      WorldAge 15 and over can read and write Total population: 84.1% Male: 88.6%, female: 79.7%
      Note: almost three-quarters of the world's 775 million illiterate adults are found in only 10 countries (in descending order: India, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Egypt, Brazil, Indonesia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo); of all the illiterate adults in the world, two-thirds are women; extremely low literacy rates are concentrated in South and West Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa (2010 est.).
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