Encyclopedia of Crisis Management
- Publisher: SAGE Publications, Inc. |
- Publication Year: 2013 |
- Online Publication Date: March 1, 2013 |
- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452275956 |
- Print ISBN: 9781452226125 |
- Online ISBN: 9781452275956 |
- Print Purchase Options
- Subject: Crisis Management
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Although now a growing and respectable research field, crisis management—as a formal area of study—is relatively young, having emerged since the 1980s following a succession of such calamities as the Bhopal gas leak, Chernobyl nuclear accident, Space Shuttle Challenger loss, and Exxon Valdez oil spill. Analysis of organizational failures that caused such events helped drive the emerging field of crisis management. Simultaneously, the world has experienced a number of devastating natural disasters: Hurricane Katrina, the Japanese earthquake and tsunami, etc. From such crises, both human-induced and natural, we have learned our modern, tightly interconnected and interdependent society is simply more vulnerable to disruption than in the past. This interconnectedness is made possible in part by crisis management and increases our reliance upon it. As such, ...
- Reader's Guide
- Entries A-Z
- Subject Index
- Agencies, United Nations
- Agencies, U.S.
- Categories of Crises: Engineering and Technological
- Categories of Crises: Financial and Business
- Categories of Crises: Natural Disasters
- Categories of Crises: Politics, International Relations, and Civil Violence
- Categories of Crises: Population and Demographics
- Disaster Information Databases
- Nongovernmental Organizations
- Risk Management Standards
- Theory, Issues, and Techniques: Civil
- Theory, Issues, and Techniques: Corporate
- Theory, Issues, and Techniques: General
- Theory, Issues, and Techniques: Public Health
- Theory, Issues, and Techniques: Social Sciences
Copyright © 2013 by SAGE Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Encyclopedia of crisis management / editors, K. Bradley Penuel, Matt Statler, Ryan Hagen.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4522-2612-5 (cloth)
1. Emergency management–Encyclopedias. 2. Crisis management–Encyclopedias. 3. Disaster relief–Encyclopedias. I. Penuel, K. Bradley. II. Statler, Matthew. III. Hagen, Ryan.
13 14 15 16 17 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
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List of Articles[Page vii]
- [Page viii]
- [Page ix]
- [Page x]
- [Page xi]
Reader's Guide[Page xiii]
- Agencies, United Nations
- Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery, UN (UNDP/BCPR)
- Environment Programme, UN (UNEP)
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
- International Children's Fund, UN (UNICEF)
- International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, UN (UNISDR)
- Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute, UN (UNICRI)
- Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), UN
- World Health Organization (WHO), UN
- Agencies, U.S.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
- Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
- Emergency Management Agencies, City and County
- Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
- Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
- National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
- State Emergency Management Agencies
- U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)
- Categories of Crises: Engineering and Technological
- Air Traffic Control
- Air Travel
- Biological Engineering Risk
- Chemical Risk
- Cyber Crime
- Cyber Security
- Cyber Warfare
- Dams, Levees, and Seawalls
- Electronics Waste
- Environmental Contamination
- Hazardous Materials
- Hazardous Waste Disposal
- Improvised Explosive Devices
- Manufacturing Risks
- Marine Shipping
- Marine Travel
- Nuclear Risks
- Ozone Layer Depletion
- Petrochemical Risk
- Sewage Spill
- Spaceflight [Page xiv]
- Transportation Systems, Vulnerability
- Y2K Bug
- Categories of Crises: Financial and Business
- Bankruptcy, Corporate
- Budget Crisis
- Commodity Shortages
- Debt Crisis
- Denial-of-Service Attack
- Global Food Crisis
- Income Inequality and Labor Unrest
- Product Defects and Recalls
- Product Tampering
- Stock Market Crises
- Categories of Crises: Natural Disasters
- Avalanches and Landslides
- Global Warming
- Heat Waves
- Hurricanes, Typhoons, and Cyclones
- Invasive Species
- Red Tide
- Resource Collapse
- Tornadoes and Severe Thunderstorms
- Volcanic Eruptions
- Categories of Crises: Politics, International Relations, and Civil Violence
- Arms Control
- Biological Weapons
- Border Disputes
- Cabinet Office, UK
- Chemical Weapons
- Civil War
- Ethnic Cleansing
- Failed States
- Foreign Policy Crises
- Hostage Taking and Negotiation
- Human Trafficking
- Interstate War
- Land Mines
- Nuclear and Radiological Weapons
- Nuclear Proliferation
- Religious Violence
- Suicide Bombings
- Transportation Security
- War Crimes
- Weapons Trafficking
- Categories of Crises: Population and Demographics
- Brain Drain
- Carrying Capacity
- Food Security
- Freshwater Demands and Shortages
- Refugees and Forced Migration
- Vulnerable Populations
- Disaster Information Databases
- NatCatSERVICE (Munich Re)
- Sigma (Swiss Re)
- Nongovernmental Organizations
- Catholic Relief Services
- Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere (CARE)
- Doctors Without Borders
- Network for Good
- Paul G. Allen Foundation Emergency Relief Program [Page xv]
- Red Cross and Red Crescent
- Salvation Army
- United Way
- World Water Relief
- Risk Management Standards
- American Society for Industrial Security (ASIS) SPC.1-2009
- BS 25999
- International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 31000
- National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 1600, 2007, and 2010
- Publicly Available Specification (PAS) 200
- Theory, Issues, and Techniques: Civil
- Agency Notification and Mobilization
- Civil Protection
- Civilian Protection, Post-Conflict
- Contingency Planning
- Continuity of Government
- Crisis Information Management Systems
- Debris Management
- Decision Making
- Decision Support Tools
- Disaster Assessment
- Disaster Declaration
- Disaster Risk Reduction
- Emergency Alert Systems
- Emergency Management System
- Emergency Manager
- Emergency Support Functions
- Financial Risk Management in Higher Education
- Hazard Mitigation
- Incident Action Plans
- Laws, Regulations, and Authorities
- National Incident Management System (NIMS)
- National Preparedness Goal
- National Response Framework
- Operational Plans
- Operational Readiness
- Perimeter Control
- Policy Setting
- Political and Organizational Leadership
- Search and Rescue
- Situational Analysis
- Stafford Act
- Threat Detection
- Theory, Issues, and Techniques: Corporate
- Alternate Site, Corporate
- Application Failover
- Backup Facility
- Backup Media
- Backup Strategy
- Business Continuity Management
- Business Continuity Planning
- Business Continuity Planning Life Cycle
- Business Impact Analysis
- Business Resumption Planning
- Classification of Systems
- Cold Site
- Continual Improvement
- Critical Applications
- Critical Business Functions
- Criticality Assessment
- Data Mirroring
- Data Recovery
- Dedicated Site
- Disaster Declaration Officer
- Disaster Recovery
- Disaster Recovery Life Cycle
- Disaster Recovery Plan Test Cycle
- Electronic Vaulting
- Fink's Crisis Life Cycle
- Impact Analysis
- Incident Management
- Incident Response
- Losses, Quantitative Versus Qualitative
- Maximum Acceptable Outage
- Minimum Business Continuity Objective
- Mitroff's Five Stages of Crisis Management
- Mobile Recovery Site
- Reciprocal Agreement
- Reciprocal Site
- Recovery Time Objective
- Reinsurance [Page xvi]
- Reputational Risk
- Response Team
- Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threat (SWOT) Analysis
- Supply Chain
- Vital Records
- Warm Site
- Theory, Issues, and Techniques: General
- Cascading Crisis
- Catastrophe, Definition of
- Climate Change Adaptation
- Command and Control
- Contingent Coordination
- Coping Capacity and Response Capability
- Crisis, Definition of
- Crisis Communications
- Crisis Management, Emerging Trends in
- Crisis Simulations
- Critical Infrastructure
- Damage Assessment
- Damage Containment
- Decision Making Under Stress
- Disaster, Definition of
- Disaster Drills
- Disruption of Organizations
- Early Warning Systems
- Electronic Media
- Emergency, Definition of
- Emergency Management, Principles of
- Emergency Medical Care
- Emergency Operations Center
- Emergency Public Information
- Emergency Responders
- Fusion Center
- Hazard, Definition of
- Hazard Vulnerability Analysis
- Historical Analogies, Use of
- Impact, Definition of
- Incidents Versus Crises
- Legal Liability
- Mass Care
- Mass Fatality Management
- Mass Media
- Mental Models
- Methods, Qualitative
- Methods, Quantitative
- Multiple Disaster Problem
- News Media
- Nongovernmental Organizations
- Panic, Nature and Conditions of
- Pre-Crisis Training and Planning
- Pre-Impact Planning Process
- Public Awareness and Education
- Public Image
- Public Relations
- Residual Risk
- Resource Management
- Risk Analysis
- Risk Assessment
- Risk Treatment
- Routine Emergencies Versus True Crises
- Safety Policies
- Scenario Planning
- Social Media
- Spokesperson, Designating and Utilizing
- Strategic Plans
- Trigger Events
- Volunteer Coordination
- Whistle Blowers
- Worker Error
- Theory, Issues, and Techniques: Public Health
- Drug Resistance [Page xvii]
- Ebola Virus
- Emergency Medicine
- Health and Medical Response Scenarios
- HIV/AIDS Epidemic
- Hospital Emergency Room
- Infectious Disease
- Infestations, Parasite
- Living Modified Organisms
- Mental Illness
- Noncommunicable Diseases
- Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
- Public Health Surveillance
- Public Safety Canada
- Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)
- Social Distancing
- Surge Capacity, Hospitals
- Theory, Issues, and Techniques: Social Sciences
- Blame, Politics of
- Bounded Rationality
- Chaos Theory
- Cognitive Novelty, Engaging in
- Cosmology Episode
- Decision Making, Theories of
- Decision Stream
- High Reliability Organization Theory
- Information Asymmetry
- Information Vacuums
- Normal Accident Theory
- Normalization of Deviance
- Organizational Failure
- Paradigm Blindness
- Practical Drift
- Risk Society
- Structural Secrecy
About the Editors[Page xviii]
K. Bradley Penuel is the Director of the Center for Catastrophe Preparedness and Response (CCPR) at New York University (NYU) where he also serves as the assistant vice president for Health Initiatives. Additionally, in response to the recent major storm events that have effected New York State, Mr. Penuel was appointed co-chair (along with Admiral Thad Allen) by Governor Andrew Cuomo of the NYS Respond Commission to improve New York State's emergency preparedness and response capabilities and strengthen the state's infrastructure to withstand natural disasters. Previously, while with Chemonics International in Washington, D.C., Mr. Penuel consulted on initiatives for the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the World Bank. He has also served as an environmental engineer for Gresham, Smith and Partners, in Nashville, Tennessee. Mr. Penuel received a B.S. in civil engineering from Auburn University and a Master's degree in urban planning from New York University's Wagner School of Public Service. He is also the co-editor of the Encyclopedia of Disaster Relief (2010, with Dr. Matthew Statler).
Matt Statler is the Richman Family Director of Business Ethics and Social Impact Programming and clinical assistant professor of management and organizations at New York University (NYU) Stern School of Business. Previously, Statler served NYU's Center for Catastrophe Preparedness and Response as the director of research, and as associate director of the International Center for Enterprise Preparedness. He worked as director of research and as a research fellow at the Imagination Lab Foundation in Lausanne, Switzerland, following several years as a management consultant in New York City. His research has been published in journals such as Leadership, the Journal of Business Ethics, and Long Range Planning, and he is the co-editor of the Encyclopedia of Disaster Relief (with K. Bradley Penuel) and Learning From the Global Financial Crisis: Creatively, Reliably, Sustainably (with Paul Shrivastava).
Ryan Hagen is a Paul F. Lazarsfeld doctoral fellow in the Department of Sociology at Columbia University, where his research interests focus on the organizational perception and management of catastrophic risk. He has served as a research associate for New York University's Center for Catastrophe Preparedness and Response, and worked as a journalist, with articles appearing in Slate and the New York Times. He received his B.A. in English and American literature from New York University. Born and raised in Wauwatosa, Wisconsin, he now lives in New York City.
List of Contributors[Page xix]
Cal Poly State University
Global Risk Forum, Davos
David J. Alexander
George Mason University
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev
Raphael M. Barishansky
Prince George County (MD) Health Department
John H. Barnhill
University of South Florida
Mohammed Salah Basha
Bircham International University
University of Gdansk, Poland and SISSA, Italy
Kennesaw State University
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Douglas Allen Brown
Arkansas State University
Lisa M. Brown
University of South Florida
Nottingham Trent University
Jennifer A. Burke
Lucien G. Canton
Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health
Sara Estes Cohen
John B. Coles
State University of New York, Buffalo
Independent Scholar[Page xx]
University of Victoria
Diane L. Douglas
Emma E. H. Doyle
Joint Centre for Disaster Research
Thompson Rivers University
University of Pennyslvania
University of South Florida
Christopher Todd Emrich
Hazards and Vulnerability Research Institute
University of Glasgow
Stephen C. Fortier
George Washington University
Medical College of Wisconsin
George R. Franks, Jr.
Stephen F. Austin State University
A. Alex Fullick
New York University
Dawn R. Gilpin
Arizona State University
University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Nottingham Trent University
Kay Collett Goss
University of Nevada, Las Vegas, ITU, University of Ulster
Dana M. Greene
University of North Carolina
East Tennessee State University
John R. Griffin
Embry Riddle Aeronautical University
Nicole Alison Gross
Surya Parkash Gupta
National Institute of Disaster Management, Delhi
San Jose State University
University of Delaware
Lindsey Wilson College
University of Florida
Jason A. Helfer
NOAA-CREST/City University of New York
Taiwan Centers for Disease Control
Augustine Osamor Ifelebuegu
Brian David Jacobs
Erike Hayes James
University of Virginia
David M. Johnston
Joint Centre for Disaster Research
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich
Walt Disney Company
University of Southern Mississippi[Page xxi]
NOAA-CREST, City University of New York
Želimir M. Kešetovic
University of Belgrade
NOAA-CREST/City University of New York
Kenneth A. Lachlan
University of Massachusetts, Boston
Allen Yu-Hung Lai
National University of Singapore
William R. Lang
University of Wisconsin-La Crosse
Western Michigao University
Yale New Haven Hospital
NOAA-CREST/City University of New York
Jeffrey Shaun Majors
Pepperdine University School of Law
Dan Ioan Manastireanu
Titu Maiorescu University
Western Illinois University
Christopher E. Marrion
George Washington University
St. Cloud State University
Business Continuity Institute
University of Central Arkansas
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Alyssa Grace Millner
Prafulla Kumar Mishra
International Rescue Committee, Somalia
Jamie D. Mitchem
Gainesville State College
University of the South Pacific
Institute of Civil Protection and Emergency Management
Mitchell L. Moss
New York University
University for Foreigners of Perugia
City University of New York
University of California, Los Angeles
Istanbul Technical University
M. Pilar Opazo
University of Tasmania
Michael J. Palenchar
University of Tennessee, Knoxville
New York University
Oxford Brookes University
University of Tasmania
World Food Program
Cher N. Peterson
Independent Scholar[Page xxii]
International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology
Thomas E. Poulin
University of Hawaii, West Oahu
University of Belgrade
Carson Y. Qing
New York University
Muhammad Tauhidur Rahman
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals
Paul Patrick Rega
University of Toledo
Wayne State University
Tabatha L. Roberts
Western Michigan University
Diego Portales University
University of North Carolina Health Care System
Stephen T. Schroth
Ilmenau University of Technology
Timothy L. Sellnow
University of Kentucky
State University of New York, Buffalo
University of Southern Mississippi Gulf Coast Research Laboratory
Nishamarie Bose Sherry
University of Maryland School of Law Center for Health and Homeland Security
Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University
Richard K. Snow
Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University
University of Tennessee
Patric R. Spence
University of Kentucky
Kristin L. Stevens
New York University Langone Medical Center
University of British Columbia
Natural Resources Canada
Oklahoma State University
University of Florida
University of Central Florida
Ken B. Taylor
New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary
Bruce A. Thompson
Joint Task Force National Capital Region Medical
Western Michigan University
Marcella Bush Trevino
University of Iowa
University of North Texas
Shari R. Veil
University of Kentucky
University of Delaware
University of British Columbia[Page xxiii]
Beijing Academy of Science and Technology
State University of New York, Buffalo
New York University[Page xxiv]
Whenever systems break down unexpectedly, crises can arise. If the initial breakdown is not managed effectively, crises can spread over space and time to threaten not only the effective function but also the existence of the system itself. In this sense, “crisis management” involves planning for, coping with, and recovering from the impacts of unexpected events. As the scope, scale, and complexity of the systems that organize contemporary society increase, crisis management becomes increasingly critical in order to sustain everyday life.
Crisis management is relatively young, having emerged as a field of practice and a field of academic research in the late 1980s following a succession of high-profile and deadly system breakdowns (including the Bhopal gas leak, the nuclear accident in Chernobyl, the explosion of the Challenger space shuttle, and the Exxon Valdez oil spill). More recently, the crises associated with events as diverse as rogue traders, disease outbreaks, computer malfunctions, and terrorist attacks have led to the establishment of variety of subdisciplines, including business continuity management, disaster recovery, operational risk management, and enterprise risk management. In all of these cases, and in everyday personal situations, crises are “associated with urgent, high-stakes challenges in which the outcomes can vary widely … [depending] on the actions taken by those involved,” as stated in the Encyclopedia of Leadership.
As of this writing, the most prominent high-stakes challenges currently include the financial and economic crisis that originated in the real estate market in the United States in 2008, continues to have dramatic impacts in the Eurozone, and has recently snared JPMorganChase in scandal; the political crises associated with the Arab Spring, including most recently the tragic civil unrest in Syria; and the looming ecological crisis associated with climate change, which amplified the damage done to coastal cities and towns in the northeastern United States by recent weather events, typified by Hurricane Sandy.
Effective action in response to crisis situations such as these requires art as well as science. Perhaps the most iconic image of the scientific management of crisis is the control center with digital screens along the walls displaying maps, graphs, and charts, with analysts sitting at computer terminals and commanding officers barking out orders. Such settings do exist, and they depend on a variety of networks and embedded technological systems, including everything from the information-gathering and surveillance systems that feed data into the system, to the IT infrastructures that provide a platform for those systems, to the dashboard-style decision support systems that enable leaders to make individual and collective decisions.
In addition to these concepts and resources, creativity and imagination are required in order [Page xxvi]to deal with unexpected events. Within large businesses, the military, and civil defense organizations, it has become standard practice to include artists, writers, and other creative professionals in scenario planning and war-gaming exercises for the purely tactical reason that they are able to view systems holistically, imagine alternative causal chains, and thereby identify previously unseen sources of vulnerability as well as resilience.
In order to describe and understand why some systems—and indeed, some people—appear more resilient to unexpected events than others, scholars draw on a range of academic disciplines. Computer scientists are developing ever more robust network architecture and backup systems. Natural scientists are working to better understand Earth systems to mitigate natural hazards. Social scientists are developing new ways to model risk and to understand how and why social systems break down in ways that lead to crises, as well as how to avoid these breakdowns or mitigate their consequences. Business management disciplines have formalized new approaches to maintaining operational continuity in the face of disruptions, whether they affect a single enterprise or threaten an entire industry sector, city, or region.
Within this context, the concept of “global risk management” signals a recognition that some potential crises can be addressed only through engagement across the boundaries of individual firms or industrial sectors, and across the divides between governments and the private sector. To this end, in 2006, the World Economic Forum (WEF) began issuing an annual Global Risk Report, outlining potential sources of common risk. For example, the WEF's 2007 report highlighted 23 global risks arranged in five categories: economic (e.g., “oil price shock,” “excessive indebtedness,” etc.), environmental (e.g., climate change or natural disasters), geopolitical (e.g., international terrorism), societal (e.g., pandemics or “liability regimes”) and technological (e.g., failure of “critical information infrastructure,” and nanotechnology). In 2011, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) released its Future Global Shocks report, addressing the risk of extreme events that produce continent spanning disruptions. The authors note that, especially in the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, risk management has come to focus on “drivers of vulnerability that tightly weave interconnections between commercial supply chains, technological systems and investment vehicles underlying the global economy,” and that “unanticipated events such as natural disasters, failures in key technical systems or malicious attacks could disrupt these complex systems and produce shocks that propagate around the world.” Furthermore, the report argues that “knowledge management tools, modeling and data arrays” are making it easier to anticipate and respond to these new cascading risks.
There have been attempts to manage global risk first hand, including efforts through the Global Risk Network (GRN), a project that emerged out of recommendations in the 9/11 Commission Report and which ultimately found a home through New York University's Center for Catastrophe Preparedness and Response and International Center for Enterprise Preparedness. The GRN now meets regularly, bringing together crisis managers from global companies, nongovernmental organizations, and governments from around the world to build trusted networks and address shared risks.
Ultimately, we see the distinction between natural disasters and social crisis blurring. Within the last decade, there have been at least two cases during which significant natural disasters have cascaded into crises within different social and organizational systems. Hurricane Katrina in 2005 left the city of New Orleans with a local government crippled by a shrunken tax base and substantial infrastructural damage from which the city has yet to fully recover. The storm and its aftermath also triggered crises in the coordination between the Louisiana state government and various U.S. federal agencies. In 2011, the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami that devastated northeast Japan also triggered a nuclear crisis at the stricken Fukushima power station, which led to a crisis of confidence in the leadership of the Japanese government. The radiological accident also wounded the reputation of TEPCO, the company that operated the Fukushima plant, and led to a previously unthinkable shutdown of all of the country's nuclear reactors.
To some extent, the factors that contributed to these crises were well, if not also widely, known. And yet, key actors were surprised by how these [Page xxvii]systems suffered from crisis, and they were forced to take unplanned actions in hopes of reducing their negative impacts.
The 2008 financial crisis provides an excellent illustration of how the breakdown of one system can precipitate a crisis that spreads over time and throughout other interdependent systems. If a single event could be assigned causal precedence, it would perhaps be at the level of Lehman Brothers’ risk management system. Their model—like the models used by many other investment firms at the time—did not adequately hedge the risks associated with mortgage-backed securities, and so when other market participants began to retreat, the firm was in too deep, overly leveraged, and without recourse. At a basic, ethical level, this event could be framed as a breakdown of trust between counterparties. It also represents a crisis of governance and oversight, both in terms of the banks’ own boards of directors and in terms of government regulation of the financial markets; a crisis of professionalism, involving mortgage brokers who knowingly duped and defrauded clients; and an identity crisis within business schools, questioning the meaning and purpose of business education.
Given the complex and dynamic nature of the field, we seek in this Encyclopedia of Crisis Management to provide an overview of how the practices and the concepts associated with crisis management are currently evolving. In this editorial endeavor, we have presented coverage of 15 categories of articles. These articles include descriptions of agencies within the United Nations and the federal and U.S. state governments, explanations of crises in the engineering and technological sectors, financial and business groups, and natural disasters. We also delve into the crises of politics, international relations, and civil violence, as well as population and demographics. Disaster information databases are covered as well as major nongovernmental organizations, such as religious groups, the United Way, Red Cross/Red Crescent, and the Paul G. Allen Foundation. Risk management standards are included, and also numerous articles on theory, issues, and techniques—presented in civil, corporate, general, public health, and social sciences contexts. In all, some 352 articles explore crisis management in an A-to-Z format, from “Agency Notification and Mobilization” to the “Y2K Bug.”
The two volumes should serve practitioners, scholars, and students as a reference, source-book, and gateway into the constellation of resources, theories, and practices that make up contemporary crisis management. It should additionally serve to inform journalists about the material conditions and theoretical assumptions that underpin crises, so that as events unfold, the media may more accurately inform and usefully guide the public.
Crisis managers face a paradox—in the words of Swiss playwright Friedrich Dürrenmatt, “The more human beings proceed by plan, the more effectively they may be hit by accident.” To some degree, this paradox may be generic to the human condition because anytime people seek to secure their own well-being through mastery of the environment, their intentions may be frustrated by fate and the limits of their knowledge, and because this frustration has emotional as well as material consequences. However, as sociologist Ulrich Beck has pointed out, the paradox has intensified within our contemporary society because “the social production of wealth is systematically accompanied by the social production of risks.” In this light, as modern society has created wealth and opportunity for the citizens of the world to a greater extent than ever before, it has become increasingly fragile and susceptible to crisis.
We present this volume with the hope that it may help reduce the economic costs, environmental damages, and human suffering associated with the crises that can arise whenever unexpected events disrupt our organized world.K.BradleyPenuelMattStatlerRyanHagenEditors[Page xxviii]
Accountability: Having a responsibility to someone or for some activity, or being in a position of having to show proof or an account of something to a superior party. Assumption and acknowledgment of specific responsibility, especially in regard to a relationship between entities. For instance, a corporation is thought to be accountable to its shareholders, and an elected official should be accountable to his or her constituents.
Acute: Having a sharp point or tip and commonly used to describe a sharp angle or triangle. In medical use, having a sharp or rapid onset and following a short but severe course, such as an acute disease.
Adrenaline effect: The phenomenon of increased strength, senses, or reaction speed caused by the release of adrenaline as a response to fear, especially as experienced by people in jeopardy or protecting others in jeopardy (as with the textbook example of a mother accomplishing a superhuman feat of strength to save her children from imminent danger).
After action review: A debriefing process developed in the military but now applied throughout the public and private sectors. An after action review is a specifically structured debriefing analyzing an event and its handling, conducted by the participants and other responsible parties, and is a detailed after-the-fact analysis, the point of which is to create appropriate actions in future similar situations and understand which mistakes were made in order not to repeat them.
Agency: The condition of being in action or operation. In legal use, refers to a person or entity having agency or the prearranged and signed upon full power and authority to act on behalf of another person or other entity. It refers to legal sameness in authority given to an agent, agency, or representative of the principal person or entity being represented, or a representative who has the same power as the represented.
Alternate site: An alternate, secondary, additional, or backup location. A separate physical location employees can work from, for example, in the event that a primary workspace is damaged. Critical for the military and emergency services, alternate sites are also used in the private sector or may be developed as needed.
American Society of Civil Engineers: The oldest national engineering society in the United States, founded in 1852 by 12 founders who had gathered at the Croton Aqueduct in New York.[Page 1012]
Anthropogenic: Human-made or that which results from human activity.
Arms control: Restrictions on the production, proliferation, and use of weapons, including but not limited to nuclear proliferation and other weapons of mass destruction. Generally, these are restrictions and controls among and upon national governments by others in regard to major weaponry.
Avalanche: The sudden flow of snow down a slope, which may include rocks, ice, and debris caught up in the flow. The stability of accumulated snow on a slope may be fragile enough that an avalanche may be set off as snow at the lowest layer begins to thaw, when new precipitation lands and creates an additional weight, or when a vibration disrupts the unstable balance.
Backdoor: A rear entrance; sometimes a reference to an unknown or a little-known entrance. In hacking, a method of bypassing normal authentication or authorization processes, whether it originated with the initial programming or was installed by a hacker.
Backup: An additional, redundant copy. For instance, a backup power generator may be used to provide substitute power if a primary power source fails; or a copy of data (a backup copy) may be stored separate from the original, especially for the purposes of restoring it, should something happen to the primary data storage source.
Best practices: The observation of different methods and/or procedures that are used to produce results or an end product. Of these practices, those judged to be the most productive or efficient might then become a new standard or method, which is then considered the best approach. The development of best practices may be looked upon as critical in crisis management, where every new crisis may provide illustrations of the efficacy of methods.
Bifurcation point: The point at which bifurcating occurs; bifurcation is the action of division into two branches or parts. The point at which a small change made to the parameters of a system causes a sudden topological change in its behavior. The bifurcation points that result in avalanches and landslides are two examples of phenomena studied by catastrophe theory, a branch of bifurcation theory.
Biotechnology: The use of living organisms and biological processes in engineering and technology. Creating human-designed mechanisms that might construct a desired result out of cells or on a genetic level.
Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents such as toxins or bacteria for terrorist ends.
Blizzard: A severe snowstorm. As with hurricanes, blizzards are defined not by the volume of their precipitation but by their wind speed: a blizzard is a prolonged snowstorm with sustained gusts of at least 35 miles per hour (mph). Severe blizzards are characterized by stronger winds (45 mph), temperatures below 11 degrees F, and near-zero visibility.
Botnet: Referring to the Internet, it is a network of compromised computers (“bots”) directed by an attacker, especially to run malicious software or devote their resources to an orchestrated attack elsewhere. These could also consist of hijacked and remotely controlled computers and networks.
Brain drain: Emigration (the exiting migration) from an area, region, or nation, especially the ongoing emigration, of skilled intellectual and technical labor (e.g., engineers, scientists, technologists, or academics), for better pay, equipment, or conditions in a more favorable geographic, economic, or professional environment.
Bunker: A bunker is a military fortification that protects the inhabitants from falling bombs and artillery. The word can be used to define any protective positioning, method, or style. The term is also used figuratively to refer to a fortified protected area, such as a data bunker where critical data is stored offsite.
Business continuity planning: Also called resilience or resilience planning, the term refers to the [Page 1013]construction of a plan to preserve business operations during a crisis. Specifics can range from operating a backup power generator in the event of a blackout to the handling of ongoing business processes in the event of a physical disaster damaging or destroying the workplace, to the unplanned departure of key executives or team members. An important element of business continuity planning is identifying the contingencies for which to plan. Literally, the term refers to the planning to provide for methods to allow a smooth continuance of business during unforeseen problems.
Business impact analysis: Part of business continuity planning, a business impact analysis (BIA) determines the impact of each component's function or activity on the business in order to separate them by criticality (or importance to the whole of the business) and to determine which functions are most important to the continuity of the business.
Butterfly effect: The classic theoretical example of chaos theory, in which the movement of the wings of a butterfly might eventually result in the formation of a hurricane, though it is a tiny change to the system of wind patterns. Considers the altering and amplification of patterns.
Carrying capacity: The total amount that can be carried by any type of vehicle. The maximum population size of a species that can be sustained by the environment.
Catastrophe: An event causing great and usually sudden damage or suffering. A large-scale disaster.
Catastrophe theory: The mathematical study of the phenomenon whereby small changes to a system result in dramatic changes in behavior, such as the sudden occurrence of a landslide after a small alteration.
Catastrophism: The theory that the surface of the Earth has been shaped primarily not by incremental change but by sudden violent events such as eruptions and earthquakes.
Chaos theory: The mathematical study of dynamic systems that, though deterministic, yield a wide variety of outcomes from small differences, making it impossible to make long-term predictions. Weather is one such system.
Chemical weapons: Weapons of mass destruction that use toxic chemicals to kill or injure.
Cholera: A small intestine infection caused by the Vibrio cholerae bacterium, spread by ingestion of fecal matter from an infected person. Epidemics are most likely in parts of the world with water quality issues.
Chronic: Marked by long duration, by frequent recurrence over a long time span, and often by slowly progressing seriousness. Not acute.
Citizen Corps: A U.S. Department of Homeland Security service program designed to mobilize citizens in the event of disaster, terrorist attacks, or threats to national security.
Civil engineering: The engineering discipline focused on nonmilitary construction and design, such as buildings, canals, roads, and bridges.
Civil war: An organized, prolonged armed conflict between groups in the same country. A civil war may be fought for control of the country or because one side seeks independence. The term is also used to refer to wars between states that originated as parts of the same state, particularly if war breaks out shortly before or after that division. Wars that originate as civil wars but draw other countries into the conflict are generally considered internationalized civil wars, rather than interstate wars. Since the 20th century, civil wars have dramatically outnumbered interstate wars.
Cloud: In computing, “the cloud” is a metaphor for the infrastructure used to store and handle data on remote servers rather than saving the data locally on the user's computer. Cloud computing has a number of advantages, but it particularly appeals to users who use multiple devices, some of which may be mobile, with which they want to have access to the same data and software.
Cognitive novelty: Cognitive novelty is the newness of a situation to the mind. In most people, [Page 1014]the stress response is strongest the first time the person deals with a new source of stress or threatening situation; stress response decreases with repeated exposure even if the severity of the threat does not.
Cold site: The cheapest form of alternate site, a cold site is a facility from which an organization can operate in the event of a disaster, but does not include backups of data or files, nor equipment prepared to resume business operations.
Containment: The act of restricting something to a well-defined area. In disasters, this includes the effort to contain damage or hazards to the area already affected, whether that means preventing a fire from spreading or stopping a hazardous waste spill from entering an area. Containment buildings are used to enclose nuclear reactors as a safety measure. Cold War foreign policy, especially U.S.-sponsored proxy wars, was driven by the idea of the containment of communism to the countries that had already adopted it.
Contamination: To soil, stain, corrupt, infect, or make impure or unclean by contact, exposure, or admixture. The introduction or presence of a harmful substance, such as the contamination of food or medicine by toxins or bacteria.
Contingency: Something incidental to or dependent upon something else. An event or situation that may or could occur, but that is not likely or intended. Having an outcome that is neither impossible nor inevitable, a contingency plan is a plan for the response to an outcome that is possible but not expected.
Continuity: The state or quality of being continuous. Uninterrupted operations; for a business, continuity of operations means ability of the business to continue operating with minimal interruption or alteration regardless of circumstances.
Continuity management: Having the ability or a plan to continue to manage uninterrupted to some degree and/or to be able to continue the flow of a management system with some amount of capable management personnel in place. Business continuity management (BCM) is used to describe or realize components or necessities that are key elements for a continued management and operation, as an integrated and enterprise-wide process.
Continuity of government: The state or quality of being continuous, as in a government remaining stable and reasonably functional without regard to any influences or circumstances (e.g., elections or disasters). The continued performance of essential government functions. Continuity of government plans became especially important in the Cold War under the threat of nuclear war, but it originated with the British government during the bombing attacks of the Battle of Britain.
Cosmology episode: An event that challenges people's assumptions and causes them to question their own capacity to act. An entirely new situation or circumstance wherein one is left without foundation, or with any comprehension or understanding, any applicable prior experience, or any relevant data that might be applied or relied upon.
Creep: An almost imperceptible alteration or change or a gradual shift in direction. For instance, “scope creep” jeopardizes success as the scope of a project gradually increases beyond what was planned. “Feature creep,” typically used to describe the addition of features to software, can also describe the negative impact of a project's parameters being extensively tinkered with, especially if the desire of each person involved to add a feature for which he or she can be credited leads to an overabundance of unnecessary tweaks. In emergency management, “instruction creep” is a pitfall to be avoided, because adding more and more phraseology to emergency instructions in an attempt to clarify can actually lead to ambiguity.
Crisis communication: The communication of information related to a crisis instance. Having the communication ability in place required to manage and coordinate the most appropriate response to a crisis and having moment-by-moment information from field personnel communicated to management or operations personnel for more effective and coordinated action.
Criticality: The state of being critical, consisting of or involving criticism. Relating to the judgment of [Page 1015]critics, or being a turning point or an important juncture. A point at which some quality, property, or phenomenon will suffer a definite change. Can refer to a state of urgency or a condition involving the danger of death, such as reaching sufficient size to sustain a nuclear chain reaction.
Criticality assessment: An appraisal based on careful analytical evaluation, studied assessment as to what is most critically important—assets or other items or necessities—to the particular purpose or circumstance. An examination of an event to determine its urgency.
Crown fire: A wildfire affecting the crowns of trees. A forest fire that advances first by jumping from treetop to treetop, or jumping from crown to crown, with great speed, ahead of a ground fire. A dependent crown fire is propagated through the undergrowth, while a running crown fire is propagated through the crowns.
Cyber crime: Crime committed with and/or targeting a computer, especially a networked computer. Although popularly associated with theft, robbery, fraud, pornography, and piracy, cybe crime is increasingly relevant in drug trafficking, terrorism, and cyber warfare. The anonymity of the Internet and the physical distance it places between criminal and victim has made it attractive not just for the stereotypical basement hacker but also for organized crime groups such as the Russian mafia, alleged to be responsible for widespread financial, credit, and identity data theft. The increasing relevance of the Internet to the economy and to bureaucracies has also led to a greater danger of distributed denial-of-service attacks. Can involve a shutdown of the general public's access to a Web site resulting from a created overdemand for access.
Cyber warfare: Cyber warfare is typically defined as hacking motivated by politics, though this definition intersects, perhaps misleadingly, with cybe crime as an act of terrorism and with hacktivism. Cyber warfare is perhaps best understood as a hostile action undertaken by a state or its direct agents upon or against another state or other entity.
Cyclone: A system of spiraling winds, which includes hurricanes, typhoons, and tropical storms (all of which are tropical cyclones), polar cyclones, and other storms.
Data recovery: The reconstruction of lost or damaged data, especially electronic data. It is a common misconception that computer data or information is lost or erased. In general, computers do not function in this manner. Software can be used to find “lost data” or, more precisely, to find the starting point of those data. Damage to data is a different case: If data are damaged, software can attempt to logically fill in gaps caused by the damage, and thereby “restore” the data.
De novo: A Latin expression meaning “from the beginning.”
Debriefing: A method of gathering information about an event through interviewing the participants in that event; sometimes, as in the military, accompanied by instruction (such as which parts of the information are restricted).
Decision support tools: Tools used to support, inform, or guide the decision-making process, which may be as simple as a list of priorities or decision-guiding maxims, or as complicated as a software package. Similarly, the underlying process may range from an attempt to quantify outcomes and risks to a softer “creativity-unlocking” approach that guides decision makers to a decision that comforts or energizes them.
Defusing: Literally, the removal of a fuse from an explosive device, and by extension the process of rendering safe an explosive device; figuratively, the process of creating safety in a volatile scenario. To relieve the pressure or intensity of a situation or circumstance as if to disarm it.
Department of Homeland Security: A cabinet-level department in the U.S. federal government, created during the year following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in order to create a unified department charged with national security in the civilian sphere.
Destabilize: The process of removing stability from a system; an area may be politically and socially destabilized as the result of physical crisis.[Page 1016]
Disaster management: Also known as emergency management. The interdisciplinary field of overseeing, organizing, and formulating strategy for the entities that respond to disasters.
Disaster recovery testing: The process of testing and otherwise evaluating a business or other organization's plan for business continuity in the event of a disaster.
DoS and DDoS: A denial-of-service (DoS) attack is made against a computer, network, or other network resource in an attempt to make it unavailable for its intended use. Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks use multiple systems to overcome the bandwidth of the target, overwhelming it; DDoSes are difficult to protect against and can be accomplished using cheap computers and a fairly low skill level. Simply put, a network or a Web site server can only accommodate a maximum of visitors. When you view a Web site hosted by a server, your computer is said to be “requesting service” from that server. The server responds to each separate “requesting” computer doing what each one needs, or “service” the computer. A DoS response occurs when the computer server software is overwhelmed by too many service requests.
Drift: To be carried along with the prevailing currents of air or water, not necessarily on course. To slowly deviate or to be directionless.
Drill: An exercise performed to test a planned response to a circumstance, such as a fire drill. To practice or to repeatedly rehearse a method or procedure. To fix something in the mind or in habit by a pattern of repetitive instruction or action. Alternately, “drill” can refer to the action of bearing down with great pressure or weight on a shaft-like tool, especially one that is rotating and having two or more cutting edges for the purpose of making holes in a firm material, like wood, metal, concrete, or the Earth.
Drought: A lack of rain and thus a lack of water. An extended period of precipitation being significantly below average. A region can experience drought even during or shortly after a rainfall: many systems impacted by drought (including human water supply, river ecosystems, and most plant life native to nonarid regions) require periodic precipitation and cannot easily adapt when that period is interrupted or delayed. Extended drought damages an ecosystem's ability to make use of what rain does fall. Dried-out soil develops a layer of dust that rainfall is more likely to run off without being absorbed.
Drug resistance: The reduced effectiveness of a drug that is intended to kill a pathogen. The development of antibiotic resistance in harmful bacteria is a serious cause of concern within public health. Pathogens that develop resistance to multiple drugs are called multidrug-resistant; methicillin-resistant Staphyloccoccus aureus (MRSA), for instance, is a strain of staph infection of serious concern to hospital patients and health care workers, athletes, and prison inmates, all of whom encounter it frequently.
Early warning system: A system, technological or social, intended to provide warnings in advance of various types of possible crises. These range from those concerning possible natural disasters to those that are on watch for nuclear missiles. Any system developed for the purpose of any kind of advance warning.
Electronic vaulting: The storage of data in an off-site facility that is frequently backed up for protection, particularly if the actual site is fireproof, secured under lock and key, or bomb and/or radiation proof.
Emergency alert system or emergency broadcast system: The Emergency Alert System replaced the Emergency Broadcast System in 1997. Both are systems established to provide a method for the American government to communicate emergency information to the public through radio and television. Never used for a national emergency, it is frequently used to communicate information about local and regional emergencies.
Emergency medicine: The treatment of health conditions requiring immediate attention, as a medical specialty; and the provision of services for that treatment, as in a hospital's emergency room, or on-site at disasters.[Page 1017]
Emergency operations center: A central command center for carrying out emergency management functions. An emergency situation headquarters.
Emergency powers: Special powers granted to the government or an office or department thereof, under special periods of emergency; such powers may relate principally to expenditures, as when local and state governments are empowered in a state of emergency to spend money not previously budgeted in order to respond to the emergency, or may include the suspension of normal limitations on actions, as when habeas corpus was suspended by the federal government during the Civil War. (This would refer to the power to impose martial law and to disband any constitutional government.)
EMS: Emergency medical services; the provision of out-of-hospital (including pre-hospital) medical care for acute conditions. EMS includes ambulances and other services. In the United States, an ambulance typically focuses on stabilizing the patient on-site and providing pre-hospital care while en route to a hospital; in other countries, ambulances may provide the bulk of emergency medicine.
Enactment: The action of making something into an act or a statute, as in a law. The action of representing or performing something in, or as if in a play: to act out. The idea, introduced by organizational theorist Karl Weick, that a phenomenon is created by being talked about—organizations, their norms, procedures, and rules, for instance, are brought into being through verbalization by management.
Endemic: More normal or natural to a locality or a specific regional group of people. From the Greek word en, meaning in or within, and the Greek word demos, meaning people, or in the case of a crisis, referring to a population. In medical usage, a specific disease may be normal in one population within one climate or region and abnormal in a population within another climate or region. Unique to a specific ecological region; a pathogen endemic to a region may not respond to vaccines or treatments designed for pathogens from other regions.
Epidemic: Any disease that is spreading throughout a population to a major degree. An occurrence of disease in a population beyond a certain threshold. An epidemic that spreads to many people in multiple countries or continents is considered or referred to as a pandemic.
Ethnic cleansing: The killing or driving away of populations of people based on ethnicity or religious affiliation, when carried out as a matter of policy by another people, population, or government.
Experiential learning: The process of gaining understanding and building knowledge from experience.
Extinction event: A sharp decrease in the diversity of species as many die at once, especially with the implication that there is a shared cause in these extinctions. The classic example to cite is the extinction of dinosaurs, though this may have involved multiple extinction events and included the extinction of many non-dinosaur species.
FAA: The Federal Aviation Administration, the American government agency with jurisdiction over civilian aviation.
FAO: The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, an agency leading efforts against hunger and malnutrition.
FEMA: The Federal Emergency Management Agency, the principal federal agency responding to emergencies, now under the Department of Homeland Security.
Fight or flight response: An aspect of the system of stress responses among many animals, in which threats are responded to with biological processes that prepare the animal to either fight or flee. First described by physiologist Walter Bradford Cannon and later confirmed by numerous studies of organisms including humans and most vertebrates and the specific physiological phenomena observed (such as an accelerated heart rate).
Flood: The overflow of water (whether from a body of water or as a result of precipitation) onto [Page 1018]land, typically excluding tidal action except when it is unusually high.
Food desert: An area in the developed world where it is difficult to obtain food that is healthy and affordable, such as urban areas where fast food and convenience stores are the norm and fresh produce and healthy proteins are difficult to find. Food deserts are of increasing concern in addressing the obesity epidemic and other public health concerns, as well as in the context of food and agricultural policy and the intergenerational effects of poverty.
Food security: The availability of nutritious food to a population and one's access to it. Food security is regularly jeopardized by natural disasters, armed conflict, political unrest, poverty, and crop failures. The 2010 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations study shows that more than one-quarter of the world lacks food security at some point during the year. Jeopardy to food security is both an effect of some crises and a contributing cause to others.
Ground fire: The combustion of roots and undergrowth without flames. In forestry, a forest fire that burns the humus and may not be visible on the surface. Peat and decayed leaves may burn deep below the ground surface and may smolder invisibly for days.
Groupthink: An overprioritization of harmony and sameness among members of a decision-making group that leads to expending most of the group's energy on finding a consensus rather than finding the best solution. In management, a group that is by nature in complete agreement with its leader as the norm. This operational mode is cited as overriding better alternatives, moral judgment, efficiency, and reality testing.
H1N1: H1N1 is a type of influenza virus that includes what is popularly known as swine flu. Notably, there was an epidemic in 2009. It is a human respiratory infection caused by the influenza virus H1N1.
H5N1: A subtype of the influenza A virus that includes the “bird flu.” Bird flu was a pandemic.
Hacktivism: The use of hacking, or breaking into computer systems. This is generally done illegally and sometimes for political purposes or to pursue political ends.
Hard power: The use of some sort of force. The use of coercion, whether military, economic, or other, to obtain political power and influence, generally between nation states. States have historically relied on hard power more often than alternatives.
Hazardous materials: Substances harmful to people, other organisms, or the environment; often abbreviated as “hazmat.”
Hazardous waste: Hazardous materials produced as the waste by-product of a process or industry.
Hijacking: The illegal seizure, usually by force, of a vehicle.
Hostage: A kidnapped person who is held captive for money, especially for the purposes of being used as leverage to force the actions of a third party, whereupon that the hostage might be released by the captors.
Hot site: A backup site consisting of a complete duplication of the organization's worksite, including data backups (ideally synchronized with the original site) and all the equipment necessary for business continuity.
Hurricane: A tropical cyclone consisting of a low-pressure center, strong winds, and heavy rain. To qualify as a hurricane, winds must be equal to or exceeding 74 miles per hour or 64 knots. The name hurricane is used in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic Ocean, and western Pacific Ocean. Eastern Pacific Ocean storms of this magnitude and storms elsewhere are referred to as typhoons.
Hyogo Framework for Action: A list of action priorities produced by the 2005 World Conference on Disaster Reduction, held by the United Nations in Kobe, Hyogo, Japan. The Hyogo Framework for Action is a 10-year action plan to make the world safer from natural hazards.[Page 1019]
Improvised explosive device: A homemade bomb, also referred to as an IED. Improvised explosive devices are generally constructed as either antipersonnel or anti-vehicular and are most commonly used in the form of a land mine. Rather that having a triggering device, these are commonly set off by a human using remote wires or controls.
Incident Command System: A system and structure designed to improve emergency response operations in multiple types of circumstances and complexities; it coordinates and integrates personnel, policies, procedures, facilities, and equipment. The system used by the Federal Highway Administration to coordinate emergency response, FEMA, and other national agencies, as well as most states and some major cities.
Information assurance: The protection and defense of information to ensure its availability, integrity, authenticity, and privacy, including backups, encryption, and protection from alteration, theft, or hacking. “Assurance” is the confidence one can have in the validity of the information being protected or relied upon, as defined by the National Security Agency.
Infrastructure: The physical and organizational structures necessarily for the basic operations of a community or business, such as the roads, waterways, and structures necessary to provide water, electricity, and telecommunications.
Interdependence: A relationship of mutual dependence among elements. Reliance in a mutual fashion or a cooperative manner for functionality.
Interoperability: The ability of organizations to work together, or to interoperate. Interoperability is key to ensuring rapid response to crisis and minimizing friction from a clash of different operational approaches.
Interstate war: A war waged between two countries, often with the aim of one of them gaining control over some or all of the other's territory. In the 21st century, interstate war has become a rarity, and intrastate wars (civil wars and revolts) have become more common.
Invasive species: A non-native species that, once introduced to a region, disrupts it by threatening biodiversity. The new species may become the dominant species, and some native species may diminish. The dangers invasive species represent to the health of an existing ecosystem—and the economic, cultural, and public health institutions dependent on that ecosystem—are one of the reasons for the controls placed on the import and export of living organisms (the other is the possible spread of pathogens present on or in that organism).
Kidnap insurance: Kidnap insurance reimburses for the cost of ransom in the event of a kidnapping.
Loose coupling: A term originally conceived in computing and systems design. Coupling refers to how much or how little knowledge, information, or data that a functionality can use or receive from another functionality. A loosely coupled system is one in which each of its components has, or makes use of, little or no knowledge of the definitions of other separate components. The term can also be applied to intelligence agencies, police agencies, or other organizations.
Martial law: The rule of an area by the military, sometimes for the stated purpose of dealing with an emergency situation. The suspension of civil rule of law and the imposition of absolute rule. The posit is that normal civil institutions are disrupted and perhaps incapable of dealing with the circumstances or responding quickly and efficiently.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs: Abraham Maslow proposed in 1942 that humans are driven by the pursuit of needs he placed in a hierarchy and categorized as physiological, safety, belongingness and love, esteem, and self-actualization.
Mitigation: To moderate something, like a circumstance, condition, or quality, in some aspect such as force or intensity, or to alleviate or make milder in some way. The reduction of harmful effects. Risk mitigation and hazard mitigation are strategies intended for reducing the risk an endeavor incurs or of reducing the damage of a hazard encountered.[Page 1020]
Mobilization: Put into movement or circulation, or the action of assembling and putting into readiness for war or some other emergency. The process of assembling and putting in motion, such as the mobilization of a team of emergency response personnel.
Moral hazard: The idea that if a decision maker is protected from the effects of risk by a third party, the decision-making will be affected. For instance, a driver who is insured against the cost of an accident is in a position of moral hazard in which he or she may be less motivated to drive carefully. Moral hazard can arise when an individual or institution does not have to take the full consequences and responsibilities of its actions, and therefore has a tendency to act less carefully and with greater risk than it normally would, possibly leaving another party to hold some responsibility for the consequences of those actions.
Mutual aid: A promise, agreement, or contract to aid one another. This can be between persons, groups, cities, or nations. In emergency services, mutual aid is the agreement between such services to assist each other regardless of jurisdiction; such agreements are a practical necessity because of the possibility of a disaster that may exceed the jurisdiction's resources. Fire departments often have formal agreements in place to lend assistance automatically, in order to contain a fire emergency as quickly as possible.
Natural reservoir: The natural reservoir is an organism that can be a host for a pathogen of an infectious disease, typically an organism that is asymptomatic. For instance, cats are the natural reservoir of “cat scratch fever,” the Bartonella bacterium that does not affect cats but can infect humans scratched or bitten by them.
Near-line: The term near-line is a foreshortening of the term near-online. It is used in reference to computer data storage and retrieval and the access speed thereof. The term near-online would refer to a method that is nearly as fast as online, meaning not as fast or slower than. Online would mean wired directly to the computer, for instance, having an external hard drive connected. Near-line storage of data is not online storage, which is accessed near-instantly, but is not as slow as off-line storage in backups or long-term storage media. Near-line storage systems vary but typically involve types of storage media that can be placed into a drive to facilitate requested data access.
Nongovernmental organization: Though most organizations are nongovernmental organizations, the term coined by the United Nations is specifically used for organizations that operate independently of any government, but that are not part of the for-profit private sector.
Non-state actors: Non-state actors refers to any group or entity that is not a nation-state. Although the term is typically used to describe groups such as Al Qaeda, other terrorist groups, or international drug cartels such as those in Colombia or Mexico, the same term is technically applied to multinational corporations, nongovernmental organizations, and international media groups, among others.
Nuclear football: A briefcase containing the nuclear launch codes needed by the president of the United States to authorize a nuclear attack, as well as other critical information.
Nuclear proliferation: The spread of nuclear weapons and weapons-applicable nuclear technology, whether the physical elements themselves or key information pertaining to their construction.
Outbreak: An occurrence of disease in excess of the expected norm. Although it is expected that a number of people will have the flu at any given time, a massive increase in flu in a given area would be an outbreak.
Panic: Fear strong enough to interfere with rational thought, moral reasoning, and decision making. Fear itself is not panic; panic is characterized by the effect it has on decision making and acting. Predetermining responses to crises is one way to mitigate the effect of panic on decisions.
Post-traumatic stress disorder: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that develops after psychological trauma. First identified in soldiers and originally conflated with [Page 1021]combat stress reaction (also known as shellshock in World War I, or soldier's heart in the Civil War), which is notably different in that it is acute, whereas PTSD is chronic.
Preparedness: Readiness; the state of being ready to respond to events.
Prodrome: An early symptom that might signal the imminent onset of a disease. Early intervention may mitigate the severity of the disease.
Public health: The health of the community at large. Public health professionals are especially concerned with promoting practices that limit the spread of disease or mitigate the risk of injury, as well as with environmental health, nutrition, and public safety.
Quarantine: The isolation of an infected population in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Reputational risk: The risk of loss of reputation by a business. The trustworthiness or public image of a business.
Resilience: The capacity to respond quickly to changes in circumstances or to resist damage caused by such changes. The ability to recover quickly from illness, change, or misfortune.
Risk aversion: To choose a course that will most likely avoid loss. A tendency to avoid risk when there is a low-risk, low-reward alternative available. Risk aversion is relevant in everything from economics to interpersonal relationships.
Risk communication: The improvement of decision making by making comprehensible the risks related to the decision. In public health, risk communication is an interactive process of exchange of information and opinion among groups for the discussion of risk types and levels and concerning methods for managing risks.
Robustness: Hardiness, being strong and healthy in constitution. The quality, in a decision or plan, of having eliminated all possible uncertainty and representing an approach with a well-understood level of risk and reward.
Routine emergency: An incident threatening life, health, property, or the environment, and requiring a fast response to prevent further damage, but that is sufficiently within the realm of normal activity that it is a scenario or variation on a scenario for which the relevant personnel have planned and prepared. A crisis, in contrast, is non-routine and unpredictable in its occurrence, scale, or complexity, and the threat it poses may have vast, long-term effects.
Sabotage: Intentional subversive damage caused to a building or machine. The deliberate destruction of, or interference with, a process, structure, or other entity for political ends.
Sensemaking: The process of assigning meaning to experience.
Social distance: The figurative distance between social groups, affecting their ability to work together.
Soft power: A strategy for obtaining power and influence by co-opting entities rather than coercing them. Economic agreements, civic action, and foreign assistance are among a nation's soft power tools, or a persuasive approach to international relations.
Spot fire: A localized, concentrated wildfire, a spot fire is one or more small fires started by flying sparks or embers at a distance from a main fire.
Succession plan: A plan for filling leadership roles as they are vacated; originally, this referred to heads of state and government, but succession plans are expected in businesses, and large organizations are expected to prepare internal players for the possibility of filling a leadership role.
Surface fire: Wildfire occurring in rangelands, bushes, and plant litter.
Swiss cheese model: In the fields of risk analysis and risk management, the Swiss cheese model of accident causation is used to find and assess “holes” in a system. A model of accident causation popularized in the health care, emergency service, and aviation industries, in which systems [Page 1022]are considered like slices of Swiss cheese stacked together, each hole represents a weakness, and when holes in different slices align, the opportunity for disaster is created.
SWOT analysis: SWOT is an acronym for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. A strategic planning technique developed in the 1960s by Albert Humphrey. The analysis evaluates a project's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.
Systems accident: The crisis that emerges when multiple failures in a system interact in an unexpected way.
Systems approach: An approach that considers the way the parts and processes of a whole influence one another and thus the entire system. In management, a systems approach emphasizes the interdependence and interactive nature of elements both within and external to an organization. Systems thinking is the process of understanding how things influence one another within a whole.
Terrorism: The use of fear, violence, and threats to intimidate or coerce, especially for political purposes. The term terrorism first came into usage during the French Revolution to describe a period that became known as the Reign of Terror. Terrorism generally refers to acts and actions committed by nongovernment groups as opposed to acts of war that are committed by nation-states.
Triage: Resource allocation based on severity of need. Various models of triage are used in emergency medical services, but the term is used metaphorically in many crisis management situations.
Virus: A virus may be either an infectious biological agent that replicates inside the living cells of an organism and can cause disease or, figuratively named for the former, a computer program that is sent to infect a computer or a computer system, which then replicates itself and sends itself out to other computers and computer systems, usually with the goal of doing damage. This generally involves an executable file that a human must start or run and is not automatic. A virus program functions and propagates by inserting a copy of itself into another program and becoming part of that program.
Worm: Self-replicating malicious software, often delivered through a computer network. A worm may travel unassisted to other computers and networks by making use of file-transport or information-transport features within a computer or computer system. Worms often exploit a vulnerability on the target system that allows them to execute themselves and operate. Worms are stand-alone programs and do not require a host program or human help to propagate.
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Sebastopol: O'Reilly Media, 2010..Simple Tools and Techniques for Enterprise Risk Management. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons, 2011.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118467206Cyber War. New York: HarperCollins, 2010.http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ISIAS.2011.6122794and .Ebola: Through the Eyes of the People. Marbelton, WY: Meadowlark Springs Productions, 2001..The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries Are Failing and What Can Be Done About It. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470670590.wbeog051.Ongoing Crisis Communication: Planning, Managing, and Responding. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2007.Crisis Management in the New Strategy Landscape. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2010.., , & .Losing Our Minds: Skills Migration and the South African Brain Drain. Cape Town, South Africa: Idasa, 2000., , and .Managing a Crisis: A Practical Guide. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.., et al.Damage Control: The Essential Lessons of Crisis Management. New York: Portfolio Books, 2007.., and .Organized Behavior in Disaster. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath, 1970.Dynes, RussellR. and KathleenJ.Tierney, eds. Disasters, Collective Behavior, and Social Organization. Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press, 1994.Terrorist Suicide Bombings: Attack Interdiction, Mitigation, and Response. London: Taylor & Francis, 2012.http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/b11263, , and .Staffing the ATM System. The Selection of Air Traffic Controllers. Burlington VT: Ashgate Publishing, 2002.., , and .Cruel Creeds, Virtuous Violence. Religious Violence Across Culture and History. New York: Prometheus Books, 2010..Business Continuity Management. New York: Routledge, 2010.http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.rm.8240038, , and .Everything in Its Path. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1976..A New Species of Trouble. New York: Norton, 1994.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/e676482011-013.The Little Ice Age: How Climate Made History, 1300–1850. New York: Basic Books, 2001.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0309133308089501.The Long Summer: How Climate Changed Civilization. New York: Basic Books, 2004..Principles of Emergency Management and Emergency Operations Centers. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2011.http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/b10405.Fagin, James, ed. When Terrorism Strikes Home: Defending the United States. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2006.Falchin, IreneM., ed. Earthquake in Haiti: Aftermath Conditions and Crisis Response. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers, 2012.Handbook of Crisis and Emergency Management: Public Administration and Public Policy. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2011..Policing Dissent: Social Control and the Anti-Globalization Movement. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2008.Crisis Management: Planning for the Inevitable. New York: American Management Association, 2002.. [Page 1025]Getting to YES. Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In. New York: Penguin, 1991.., , and .Sitting in the Hot Seat: Leaders and Teams for Critical Incident Management. Chichester, UK: Wiley, 1996..Incident Command: Tales From the Hot Seat. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2002.and .Flin, Rhona, MichaelStrub, EduardoSalas, and LynneMartin, eds. Decision Making Under Stress: Emerging Themes and Applications. Aldershot, UK: Avebury, 1997.Effective Treatments for PTSD: Practice Guidelines From the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. New York: Guilford Press, 2010.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/e517322011-216, et al.Too Few Fish: A Regional Assessment of the World's Fisheries. Washington, DC: Oceana, 2008.., , , , and .Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: Acute and Long-Term Responses to Trauma and Disaster. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1997., et al.Response to Disaster: Psychosocial, Community, and Ecological Approaches. London: Taylor & Francis, 1999.http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/e533302007-001and .Law in Times of Crisis: Emergency Powers in Theory and Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511493997and .Introduction to Emergency Management. Burlington, VT: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2003.and .Hagar, C., ed. Crisis Information Management: Communication and Technologies. Oxford: Chandos Publishing, 2012.http://dx.doi.org/10.1533/9781780632872Large Scale Incident Management. Independence, KY: Cengage, 2008..Life as a Weapon: The Global Rise of Suicide Bombings. London: Taylor & Francis, 2010..Crisis Management by Apology: Corporate Response to Allegations of Wrongdoing. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2006..Strategic Issues Management: Organizations and Public Policy Challenges. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2009., and .Ebola, Culture and Politics: The Anthropology of an Emerging Disease. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing, 2007..Business Continuity: Best Practices—World-Class Business Continuity Management. Brookfield, CO: Rothstein Associates, 2005.Extreme Stress and Communities: Impact and Intervention. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2010.and .Coping With Catastrophe: A Handbook of Post-Disaster Psychological Aftercare. London: Routledge, 1998.http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203270172and .Howitt, ArnoldM. and HermanB.Leonard, eds. Managing Crises: Responses to Large-Scale Emergencies. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2009.Hutter, B. and M.Power, eds. Organizational Encounters with Risk. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.Mirrors of Work: Work Simulations in Schools. New York: Falmer Press, 1988.., , and .Janczewski, Lech and AndrewColarik, eds. Cyber Warfare and Cyber Terrorism. Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2007.http://dx.doi.org/10.4018/978-1-59140-991-5The Ghost Map: The Story of London's Most Terrifying Epidemic—and How It Changed Science, Cities, and the Modern World. New York: Penguin, 2006..Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction. New York: Routledge, 2006.http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203347447.Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence. Berekely: University of California Press, 2000..Karatzogianni, Athina, ed. Cyber Conflict and Global Politics. New York: Routledge, 2006.http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203890769The Heavens Are Falling: The Scientific Prediction of Catastrophes in Our Time. New York: Plenum Press, 1992.Elements of Community Resilience in the World Trade Center Attack. Newark: University of Delaware, 2001and . [Page 1026]Human Factors Impacts in Air Traffic Management. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, 2005.., , and .The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2007.http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/d2604ks.Heat Wave: A Social Autopsy of Disaster in Chicago. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/bflr.2002.15.65.Public Health Management of Disasters. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, 2005.http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/9780875530048Fly by Wire: The Geese, the Glide, the “Miracle” on the Hudson. New York: Penguin, 2010..Posttraumatic Nightmares, Psychodynamic Explorations. London: Routledge, 1995.Emergency Medical Responder: First on Scene. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 2012., , , and .Touched by Fire: Doctors Without Borders in a Third World Crisis. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1998.. and .The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide. New York: Basic Books, 2000.http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-2820-3_1.Introduction to Emergency Management. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons, 2007., , and .Emergency Management. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons, 2006.http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dia.2006.8.417.The Negotiator: My Life at the Heart of the Hostage Trade. London: Sphere, 2011.http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1082473.1082698.Lumpe, L., ed. Small Arms Control: Old Weapons, New Issues. Farnham, UK: Ashgate Publishing, 1999.1493: Uncovering the New World Columbus Created. New York: Knopf, 2011.Climate Change: The Science of Global Warming and Our Energy Future. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009.http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9701.2011.01417.xWar Crimes and Just War. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007..Dimensions of Brain Drain in Nigeria. Ibadan, Nigeria: Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research, 1992..Disaster Response and Recovery. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2006.On Treating Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Handbook and Practice Manual for Therapy. 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Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2008.War Crimes: Brutality, Genocide, Terror, and the Struggle for Justice. New York: Times Books, 1998..Stalling for Time: My Life as an FBI Hostage Negotiator. New York: Random House, 2010..The Handbook for Effective Emergency and Crisis Management. Lexington, KY: Lexington Books, 1988.. and .Essentials of Comparative Politics. New York: W. W. Norton, 2010..An Imperfect Offering: Humanitarian Action for the Twenty-First Century. New York: Walker & Company, 2008.. [Page 1027]Disaster Resilience: An Integrated Approach. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 2006.http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/b10269-7and .Managing Traumatic Stress Risk: A Proactive Approach. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas, 2004.http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1534765606294990, , , and .Complex Organizations: A Critical Essay. New York: Random House, 1986..Normal Accidents: Living With High-Risk Technologies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B0-08-043076-7/04509-5.Perry, R.W. and E.L.Quarantelli, eds. What Is a Disaster? New Answers to Old Questions. Newark, DE: International Research Committee on Disasters, 2005.Porta, DonatellaDella and HerbertReiter, eds. Policing Protest: The Control of Mass Demonstrations in Western Democracies. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1998.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00020189708707862Fire: Nature and Culture. London: Reaktion Books, 2012.http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781444323610.ch4Introduction to Wildland Fire: Fire Management in the United States. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 1996., , and .Quarantelli, E.L., ed. What Is a Disaster? Perspectives on the Question. London: Routledge, 1998.Rachman, S. and JackD.Maser, eds. Panic: Psychological Perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1988.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967%2889%2990160-5Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: The Fate of the Oil. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 2010..Crisis Management: Planning and Media Relations for the Design and Construction Industry. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons, 2000.Pandemic Influenza: Emergency Planning and Community Preparedness. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2009.http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/9781420060881The Limits of Safety: Organizations, Accidents, and Nuclear Weapons. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993.High Availability and Disaster Recovery: Frankfurt, Germany: Springer, 2006..Cloud and Virtual Data Storage Networking: Your Journey to Efficient and Effective Information Services. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2012.http://dx.doi.org/10.1201/b11111.Sacred Fury. Understanding Religious Violence. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2008..Effective Crisis Management: Worldwide Principles and Practice. London: Cassell, 2000.. and .The Resilient Enterprise: Overcoming Vulnerability for Competitive Advantage. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007..Human Trafficking: A Global Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511760433.Short, J.F. and L.Clarke, eds. Organizations, Uncertainties, and Risk. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1992.It Can't Happen Here: All Hazards Crisis Management Planning. Tulsa, OK: PennWell Books, 1993.Global Warming and Climate Change Demystified. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008..Ebola and Marburg Viruses. New York: Chelsea House, 2010..Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery Planning for IT Professionals. Burlington, MA: Elsevier, 2007..Pride Against Prejudice: Haitians in the United States. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Allyn & Bacon, 1998..Tapsoba, J.M. S., ed. Brain Drain and Capacity Building in Africa. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, 2000.Facing the Unexpected: Disaster Preparedness and Response in the United States. Washington, DC: John Henry Press, 2001., , and .Man-Made Disasters. 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London: Addison Wesley Educational Publishers, 1999., and .JournalsAdministrative Science QuarterlyAggression and Violent BehaviorAmerican Behavioral ScientistAmerican Journal of Public HealthAmerican Political Science ReviewArchives of General PsychiatryBulletin of the American Meteorological SocietyBusiness Communication QuarterlyCalifornia Management ReviewComputers, Environment, and Urban SystemsConflict, Security, and DevelopmentCorporate Reputation ReviewCritical HorizonsDisaster Medicine and Public Health PreparednessDisaster Prevention and ManagementDisaster Recovery JournalDisastersEnvironmental Biosafety ResearchEnvironmental Science and TechnologyErgonomicsFood PolicyGovernment Finance ReviewThe HoloceneHuman FactorsHuman RelationsInternal AuditorInternational Journal of Emergency ManagementInternational Journal of Emergency Mental HealthInternational Journal of Mass Emergencies and DisastersInternational MigrationInternational Studies QuarterlyISN Security WatchJournal of Applied Behavioral ScienceJournal of Applied CommunicationJournal of Behavioral Decision MakingJournal of Business Continuity and Emergency PlanningJournal of Business EthicsJournal of Business ResearchJournal of Computer SecurityJournal of Conflict StudiesJournal of Contingencies and Crisis ManagementJournal of Emergency ManagementJournal of Hazardous MaterialsJournal of Homeland Security and Emergency ManagementJournal of Information Technology Theory and ApplicationJournal of Insurance RegulationJournal of Management StudiesJournal of Medical Internet ResearchJournal of Performance of Constructed FacilitiesJournal of Population EconomicsJournal of Structural EngineeringJournal of Transportation SecurityJournal of Traumatic StressThe LanceLandslidesNatural Hazards Review[Page 1029]Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector QuarterlyOrganization ScienceOrganizational DynamicsPersonnel PsychologyPrehospital and Disaster MedicinePublic Administration ReviewPublic IntegrityPublic Opinion QuarterlyPublic Relations ReviewPublic Works Management and PolicyQuality ProgressResearch on Organizational BehaviorReview of Policy ResearchReview of Public Personnel AdministrationRisk, Hazards, and Crisis in Public PolicyRisk AnalysisSecurity Planning and Disaster RecoverySocial and Legal StudiesSocial Behavior and PersonalitySocial ResearchSocial Studies of ScienceSpace PolicyUrban Affairs ReviewInternet SourcesAdministrative Science Quarterlyhttp://www2.johnson.cornell.edu/publications/asqBerkeley-Haas Case Series (California Management Review)http://cmr.berkeley.edu/berkeley_haas_cases.htmlBiomonitoring Infohttp://biomonitoringinfo.orgThe Center for Regulatory Effectivenesshttp://www.thecre.comEnvironmental Protection Agency's Emergency Managementhttp://www.epa.gov/oem/index.htmGlobal Association of Risk Professionalshttp://www.garp.orgInstitute for Public Relationshttp://www.instituteforpr.orgInstitute of Risk Managementhttp://www.theirm.orgInternational Journal of Emergency Managementhttp://www.inderscience.com/browse/index.php?journalID=8Investopediahttp://www.investopedia.comJournal of Applied Communication Researchhttp://www.tandfonline.com/toc/rjac20/currentJournal of Contingencies and Crisis Managementhttp://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0966-0879National Center for Crisis Managementhttp://www.nc-cm.orgThe National Council for Science and the Environmenthttp://www.ncseonline.orgNational Incident Management Systemhttp://www.fema.gov/emergency/nimsOccupational Safety and Health Administrationhttp://www.osha.govCrisis in Public Policyhttp://www.psocommons.org/rhcpp, andRisk Management Magazinehttp://www.rmmag.com Risk Management Monitor (Risk ManagementMagazine's blog)http://www.riskmanagementmonitor.comSecurity Analysis and Risk Management Associationhttp://sarma.orgSociety for Risk Analysishttp://www.sra.orgSociety for Risk Analysis Speaker's Bureauhttp://www.sra.org/resources.phpToxicology Excellence for Risk Assessmenthttp://www.tera.orgUSDA Risk Management Agencyhttp://www.rma.usda.govVital Records and Records Disaster Mitigation and Recovery 1999 Web Editionhttp://www.archives.gov/records-mgmt/vital-records[Page 1030]
2010 Annual Report
Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery United Nations Development Programme[Page 1032]Table of Contents
[Page 1033]ForewordEmpowered lives. Resilient nations.
- Foreword by Helen Clark 1033
- Introduction by Jordan Ryan 1034
- Achievements in Disaster Risk Reduction and Recovery 1037
- Achievements in Early Recovery 1045
- Achievements in Conflict Prevention and Recovery 1053
- Achievements in Gender Equality in Crisis Prevention and Recovery 1063
- Global Partnerships 1069
- Conclusion 1075
- Acronyms 1080
A more just and equitable world is one which will be more stable and secure. Recent events in the Arab states remind us that economic and political exclusion can be a combustible combination.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) works with countries to reduce poverty, promote democratic governance, prevent and recover from crises, and protect the environment and combat climate change.
Our Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery (BCPR) has a critical role in supporting all of UNDP to meet these responsibilities by strengthening the capacities of countries to prevent and recover from crises. It assists countries to move from immediate recovery to longer-term development, as early as possible during and after crises, thus providing the essential foundation for sustained rapid human development.
Crises, whether generated by conflict or disaster, cause trauma and suffering. They impose human, social and economic costs which can last for generations, and set back hard won development goals. BCPR supports countries to build the capacity for recovery through the formulation of disaster risk reduction and crisis response strategies, and promoting early recovery. This support is instrumental in providing hope to the poorest, isolated, and most vulnerable population groups, who are often the most at risk from violence and the most seriously affected by disasters.
BCPR's role in crisis settings, its partnerships on behalf of UNDP with other UN agencies, and its ability to engage the development community more broadly, ensure that assistance can be provided rapidly, in the appropriate places, and with the maximum impact for those most in need. In that context, the Thematic Trust Fund for Crisis Prevention and Recovery, if adequately resourced, provides for a rapid and effective response at the country level, where time is of the essence and where other funding mechanisms can take time to be put in place.
At the end of last year, I approved a transformation plan for BCPR designed to strengthen the Bureau to respond even more effectively to the increasing demand for its services from Country Offices. As part of an overall UNDP effort, the Bureau will work especially hard to scale up our prevention work—helping governments, communities, and civil society to find solutions to tensions and conflict on the basis of consensus, and strengthening readiness for disaster. As was proved time and again in 2010, modest investments in prevention and preparedness do save lives.
Looking ahead, BCPR will be instrumental in UNDP's efforts to improve the security, rebuild the livelihoods, and restore the hope and dignity of the disrupted and displaced. This enables UNDP to fulfil its mandate to empower lives and build resilient nations.UNDP Administrator[Page 1034]Introduction
As part of UNDP, and working through the UN system as a whole, BCPR is responsible for advancing peace and development by strengthening capacities of countries to prevent and recover from crisis and regenerating the well-being and livelihoods of those affected by natural disaster and armed violence. In our work, we are guided by a concept of ‘HOPE’, which seeks to restore ‘healthy’ societies after crisis; provide ‘opportunities’ for the poorest and most vulnerable; ‘protect’ communities from violence; and ‘empower’ women to contribute to their country's recovery. This annual report of BCPR describes our progress in meeting these responsibilities during 2010.
Our principal task at BCPR is to respond effectively and efficiently to requests for crisis prevention and recovery services by UNDP Country Offices. Their requirements during 2010 were many and varied. BCPR and its partners provided experts and programmatic support on rule of law, justice and security; small arms and mine action; disarmament, demobilization and reintegration; women's empowerment in crisis; disaster risk reduction; and livelihoods and employment creation.
In Burundi, for example, BCPR support led to increased political participation of women. In Kenya, efforts by UNDP Kenya, with assistance from BCPR, recovered and destroyed small arms and developed mechanisms to identify and defuse violence in advance of the referendum on the Constitution. UNDP's support for national and local dialogue and conflict management efforts in Kenya, Kyrgyzstan and Solomon Islands helped create the conditions for a non-violent outcome following elections. BCPR assisted 21 countries to create safe, stable settings as part of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programmes. In Colombia and Sri Lanka, women's organizations were engaged to plan, implement and monitor community-based projects, and Peace and Development Advisors and similar specialists were deployed in 35 countries to support national actors in addressing emerging tensions, and building consensus around critical priorities.
Natural disasters often dramatically reverse development gains. Accordingly, BCPR made a major effort during 2010 to help reduce and mitigate the risks of disasters. It is difficult to anticipate disasters, such as the impact of the earthquake in Haiti (with over 300,000 killed) or floods in Pakistan (with more than 18 million people affected). Yet, the preparations made by BCPR and other partners in the UN system with respect to the Fast Track Policies and Procedures (FTP) proved to be extremely valuable. Within hours of both disasters the FTP mechanism had been activated and SURGE teams, composed of UNDP staff members redeployed to help UNDP country offices foster better recovery and development opportunities for people affected by crisis, were responding. BCPR mobilized 58 experts during January and May to support disaster mitigation and recovery in Haiti. In addition to expertise, BCPR also provided funding and programmatic support to the UNDP Country Office. An especially noteworthy outcome was the Fast Track support provided for cash-for-work and other emergency employment schemes. These initiatives served the displaced, helped resettle those affected, with women and youth specifically targeted for assistance.
Crisis and post-crisis situations are especially dangerous for women and girls and place special demands on prevention and recovery actors such as BCPR. Several achievements in 2010 made notable contributions to reducing sexual assault and holding accountable those responsible for sexual and gender-based [Page 1035]violence (SGBV). They included the provision of legal aid services, the extension of mobile courts, the referral of SGBV cases to formal courts, gender-sensitive training of police, and the provision of special security to protect internally displaced persons, especially women and children. Disaster risk reduction planning is now gender-sensitive, and women's organizations are directly involved in crisis prevention activities and community-based development projects.
The strategic review of BCPR was completed in early 2010. The review emphasized the need to better integrate Crisis Prevention and Recovery within UNDP and the UN system, to be more strategic, results-oriented, and to provide more thorough and timely analysis and technical support in the areas of conflict prevention, disaster risk reduction, and early recovery. We now have a new operational structure, with most BCPR support organized in New York and a strong Liaison Office in Geneva. Work continues to better align BCPR's activities with the priorities of UNDP's regional bureaus. The reorganization of human resources is proceeding, senior managers have been appointed, and the operations of the Liaison Office in Geneva have been streamlined. A key dimension of the transformation has been the adoption of a Multi-year Results Framework that is supported by comprehensive agency-wide monitoring and evaluation of our activities. The transformation will continue into 2011 and early 2012 with the development of a monitoring and evaluation strategy, special emphasis on improving financial performance, expanding and deepening our partnerships, and further upgrading our information and knowledge management. Each of these will be boosted by additional support for senior management and leadership training.
A fundamental feature of BCPR's operations is cooperation and collaboration through a range of partnerships both within the UN system and with other development agencies. Several new partnerships emerged in 2010 and many of the existing partnerships were strengthened. Our relationship with the European Commission continued to evolve in constructive ways. BCPR has also deepened its cooperation with the World Bank. Current efforts involve a pilot study to improve governance and administration in post-conflict societies. The 2011 World Development Report on Conflict, Security, and Development provides a number of entry points through which UNDP can expand its cooperation with the World Bank. BCPR is actively supporting this effort.
Our work in BCPR confirms on a daily basis the harsh toll that disaster and crises take on regions and countries, and their people. All too frequently, it is the poorest and most vulnerable, particularly women, children and youth, who suffer the most. It is also these groups who tend to have the fewest capacities for recovery from crises. This is why we place so much emphasis on disaster risk reduction, being prepared to respond immediately when disasters or crises occur, and creating the partnerships and connections that ensure that early recovery efforts are well-organized and well-funded and deliver results. Through our partnerships both within and outside the UN system, we have accomplished a great deal over the last year, and indeed, in the decade since the Bureau's formation. Many challenges remain and I am confident that BCPR's transformation is taking the Bureau in the right direction to ensure we are better placed within UNDP to meet them.Assistant Administrator and Director, BCPR, UNDP[Page 1036][Page 1037]Achievements in: Disaster Risk Reduction and Recovery
2010 was a devastating year for some of the world's most vulnerable. There were 373 earthquakes, floods, cyclones, volcanic eruptions, and droughts affecting 208 million people. The natural disasters of 2010 led to 300,000 deaths and, according to the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, involved losses of US$ 110 billion, making it one of the most expensive years on record.
Hazards are natural but disasters are not inevitable. Human losses and economic damage can be limited through comprehensive preparedness and risk reduction measures.
UNDP's work in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) has a high payoff. Building national capacities to manage risks significantly decreases mortality and recurrent disaster losses, accelerating post-disaster recovery and protecting development investmentsUNDP in Action: Fulfilling Commitments on the Ground
During 2010, UNDP provided support to 78 countries to strengthen their capacity for DRR, Prevention and Recovery. As a member of the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR), UNDP leads specific technical areas guided by priorities set out in the Hyogo Framework for Action.
UNDP helped governments in 15 high-risk countries create a solid institutional and legal basis to reduce disaster risks. With UNDP support, four high-risk provinces of Papua New Guinea now have fully functioning disaster management offices with well-staffed and appropriately equipped emergency operations centres. Disaster management committees include representatives from Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), women's and[Page 1038][Page 1039]How can disasters affect progress towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)?
youth groups, and religious and civil society organizations. In Kyrgyzstan, UNDP provided technical assistance to incorporate DRR into the ongoing decentralization process. In Syria, UNDP successfully advocated for inclusion of DRR in the 11th National Five Year Plan while providing technical assistance in drafting the chapter on DRR. In Georgia, UNDP successfully advocated for incorporating DRR in the five-year regional development strategy for the Shida Kartli region. Indonesia also included DRR as a national priority in its National Mid-term Development Plan 2010–2014.
In Ethiopia, UNDP helped the Ministry of Agriculture to formally approve a comprehensive, integrated DRR programme in May 2010 and implementation began in June 2010. Since its adoption, the programme, along with other actors, has supported the integration of DRR issues into the new national development strategy and the establishment of the new Federal Disaster Risk Management Council (chaired by the Prime Minister) as an institutional mechanism for DRR. Creation of this top decision-making body signifies a shift from stand-alone emergency management to an integrated risk management approach. In support, the Government has initiated multiple programmes to mitigate food insecurity and climate risk through safety nets, weather and risk insurance, public works and cash transfer.
UNDP helps governments respond to a disaster by assessing needs, formulating plans, and implementing early recovery and longer-term programmes. As part of its support for rebuilding capacities, UNDP helps countries integrate risk reduction considerations into national plans and programmes. In 2010, UNDP's technical support and policy advice included:Capacity Assessments for Risk Reduction and Recovery Planning
Capacity assessments identify institutional gaps and technical skills that need to be improved for disaster risk management. They also engage key stakeholders by clarifying institutional mandates and improving planning. For example, in Armenia UNDP supported the Ministry of Emergency Situations to produce a Capacity Development Action Plan. This now guides the national DRR framework. The Disaster Prevention and Preparedness Programme in Dominican Republic aims to improve the country's prevention and recovery capacities in light of the disaster in Haiti, in close partnership with five governmental and non-governmental organizations. The UNDP Country Office and the Regional Capacity Development Cluster supported a capacity assessment and provided training on results-based management. A workshop reviewed the findings leading to the creation of plans of action for each organization in the programme. In Lebanon, the Capacity Assessment exercise by UNDP produced an analysis on the institutional weaknesses of the High Relief Committee and prepared a blueprint for its revamping in order to make it a fully functional institution that has capacity to undertake disaster risk reduction initiatives.Risk assessments
Improved risk assessment is a basic part of effective long-term disaster risk reduction and prevention. In 2010, UNDP's Global Risk Identification Programme (GRIP) provided technical support to 20 high-risk countries to assess their disaster risks by identifying and mapping factors that cause disasters. National Disaster Observatories were started in four countries: Armenia, Bosnia, Moldova and Mozambique where a historical disaster loss database is already operational with data for the last 30 years. National Risk Assessment was completed in Lao PDR and similar assessments were initiated in six countries: Bosnia, Lebanon, Liberia, Mozambique, Syria and Tajikistan. [Page 1040]UNDP Egypt and Syria also supported the national authorities in developing disaster impact databases for a 30-year period, providing a historical analysis of risks.
In addition, three assessments on the status of disaster risk were developed in Chile, Dominican Republic and Uruguay during 2010 in collaboration with UN agencies, the Economic Commission for Latin America, the International Federation of the Red Cross and the Organization of American States. These assessments represent a real and widespread effort of these countries to integrate DRR in the management of public policies and their political will to advance disaster risk reduction according to the Hyogo Framework for Action.Urban Risk Management
With fast-rising world population levels, and with the world's urban population now exceeding its rural population, reducing urban risk is another growing key priority for disaster risk reduction. Reducing disaster risks in urban settings is closely linked to urban planning and governance. With UNDP support, earthquake risk, vulnerability and capacity assessments for selected urban areas were conducted in Bangladesh, India, Jordan, Nepal, and Pakistan. With support from GRIP, urban risk assessments were implemented in cities in Mexico, Mozambique, Nepal and Peru. UNDP promoted South-South regional alliances and exchange of knowledge among municipalities. For example, in collaboration with the European Commission, UNDP supported the local and metropolitan governments of five capitals of the Andean Region—Bogotá, Caracas, La Paz, Lima, and Quito—to collectively promote DRR and preparedness through sharing of best practices.How does UNDP Support Capacities of Local Authorities and Communities to Achieve Disaster-Resilient Urban Environments?
A Regional Urban Risk Programme for Central America was implemented in Costa Rica, [Page 1041]El Salvador and Guatemala. The interest expressed by other countries led to the inclusion of Bolivia, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, and Honduras. The programme allowed these countries to share urban risk reduction experiences, practices and tools.Local Risk Management Committee volunteers in a UNDP-supported training exercise transferring injured people to a tent offering first aid in Mozambique.Climate risk management
The Climate Risk Management Technical Assistance Support Project encompasses 20 high-risk countries worldwide in which UNDP promotes sustainable human development while accounting for impacts of climate related hazards and variability—droughts, floods, sea-level rise and extreme temperatures—in areas such as agriculture, water management, food security and health. Reflecting the regional dimension of climate change, UNDP launched in 2010 the Central Asia Multi-country Programme on Climate Risk Management (involving Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan), to pilot and scale up innovative approaches to climate risk management at the local level, while working at the national and regional levels to assess risks, elaborate strategies, and develop capacities.Work with the Private Sector
By engaging with the private sector, UNDP increases the coverage and effectiveness of its risk reduction programmes. UNDP collaborates with Deutsche Post DHL to develop a disaster preparedness capacity building programme, Get Airports Ready for Disaster (GARD). The GARD Programme prepares airports and relevant staff to better respond to disaster relief surges, to train local people, and to assist local disaster relief agencies to plan and coordinate recovery efforts. In Nepal, the assessment and training at four regional and one international airports were completed in September 2010. [Page 1042]The effort was supported by the Government and other humanitarian agencies. The results of the assessment and the training have been integrated within the airport emergency plans and adopted by the Civil Aviation Authority of Nepal as part of its regular emergency preparedness plan.Supporting Post-Disaster Needs Assessment and Sustainable Recovery
A Post Disaster Needs Assessment (PDNA) is a government-led exercise, with integrated support from the United Nations, the European Commission, the World Bank and other national and international actors, that pulls together information into a single, consolidated report, on the physical impacts of a disaster, the economic value of the damages and losses, the human impacts as experienced by the affected population, and the resulting early and long-term recovery needs and priorities. It is the basis for identifying, ranking, and implementing options for humanitarian and development responses. A key focus is reducing disaster risks so as to promote resilience. UNDP is the coordinator of the UN system for post-disaster recovery planning. In this role, it has been collaborating with the World Bank and the European Commission to integrate tangible risk reduction commitments into PDNAs and Recovery Frameworks.
The largest and most complex PDNA in 2010 was organized in the aftermath of the earthquake in Haiti. It was essential in formulating the Government of Haiti's recovery and reconstruction strategy. Following Chile's 8.8 magnitude earthquake, UNDP supported an assessment of that disaster's impact on the nation's MDGs. Post-disaster assessments in Pakistan focused on the effect of the floods on MDG achievement as well as physical damage and economic losses. PDNAs were also conducted in Indonesia in response to a volcanic eruption, tsunami and earthquake, and in Benin and Moldova in response to floods.[Page 1043]DRR and recovery
While it is difficult to anticipate the full nature and scope of disasters, DRR sets the stage for recovery by creating or identifying the required national capacities. UNDP implemented recovery programmes in 25 countries in 2010, as part of immediate response or pre-disaster recovery planning—Bangladesh, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Lesotho, the Former Yugoslav Republic (FYR) of Macedonia, Mexico, Montenegro, Pakistan, Serbia, Suriname, Tajikistan and Yemen. To illustrate, UNDP helped Ecuador establish a National Meteorological Service station and equip situation rooms in four flood-prone districts with back-up high frequency radio systems to safeguard the uninterrupted transmission of data, monitoring of information and early warnings on flood risk. Together with other legislative and institutional developments, this ensures that disaster risk reduction is addressed comprehensively as a key development issue and not as a standalone emergency management effort. In the past four years more than 400,000 people, or 5 percent of the population in Honduras has been directly affected by disasters, including two earthquakes (2007 and 2009), two tropical storms (2008 and 2010) and a drought (caused by la Niña in 2009). Already the third poorest country in Latin America, these disasters intensify poverty. Supported by UNDP in 2010, the national government has now approved a legal framework to promote recovery from disaster and the Ministry of Planning includes recovery and risk reduction into regular development planning.
To improve recovery efforts worldwide, UNDP supported the International Recovery Platform (http://www.recoveryplatform.org). This is a virtual workspace for recovery planning. The Platform and its partner organizations have developed sector-specific recovery tools and guidance notes emphasizing lessons learned and good practices from global recovery operations.[Page 1045]Achievements in: Early Recovery
Early recovery is a collaborative effort that seeks to close the gap between humanitarian relief and longer-term development. The early recovery approach helps people become self-reliant and resume their livelihoods, allowing families to feel safe and return home, rebuild local infrastructure, and regain a sense of normalcy—a first step towards full recovery and development.UNDP in Action: Fulfilling Commitments on the Ground
UNDP is the lead UN agency for early recovery within the UN system. At the country level, UNDP engages with national and international leaders to articulate and coordinate early recovery efforts guided largely by the post-crisis needs assessment. At the same time, UNDP helps national and local authorities formulate and implement programmes that effectively respond to assessed needs.
In 2010, UNDP provided early recovery support to 33 countries. These activities covered a broad spectrum in the following areas:
Generating livelihoods and economic opportunities with a special focus on youth and women's groups.
UNDP created emergency jobs and employment in viable enterprises or self-employment for more than 125,000 people in Burundi, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Honduras, Indonesia, Kenya, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Takijistan and Uganda. UNDP-sponsored cash for work and other productive employment initiatives have helped affected men and women from these countries with swift access to secure income, food security, money for small business start-up and access to key basic social services.
Continuing tension and unrest in Côte d'Ivoire stemming from the 2002 political and military [Page 1046]crisis have created massive unemployment and limited economic opportunities. Young members of the population have been seriously affected. During 2010, UNDP focused on providing young people at risk with meaningful training and income-generating activities. 4,326 unemployed youth (of whom 1,841 were women) received professional training in simplified accounting and management, cooperative work and marketing, and technical training on activities including carpentry, sewing, trade, or soap making. An additional 3,900 (of whom 932 were women) were assisted with livelihood initiatives such as farming and fishing. The project directly created employment, helped increase food availability and local retail trade, and has brought fresh capital into local markets. The project also engaged community members whose assistance enabled young people to rehabilitate 10 health clinics and 13 primary and secondary schools, latrines and nurseries. The outcome is that formerly jobless and frustrated youth at risk, ex-combatants and ex-militia members are now busy running their own small businesses. An independent evaluation of the programme noted a decline in violent demonstrations, crime and violence against women.Early Recovery: development opportunities maximized even during humanitarian response
In Honduras, UNDP-supported employment-creation initiatives benefited almost 21,000 persons who were affected by the tropical storm Agatha. An emergency jobs programme enabled families to start rebuilding their houses, businesses and public infrastructure such as schools, child care facilities, roads, and health clinics. Local economies have recovered rapidly, businesses are up and running, 100 houses have been repaired, 14 water systems are in place and four health clinics, five schools and five rural roads are again fully functional. The project provides innovative training in child care and nutrition to enhance the participation of women in cash-for-work activities.[Page 1047]
Restoring community infrastructure in Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Myanmar, Nepal, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan and Uganda.
In 2008 Tajikistan experienced the worst winter in 44 years. The frigid conditions overwhelmed the country's aging energy infrastructure and water supply systems. Essential services were affected and many health facilities and schools closed. Global food and fuel price increases aggravated the recovery—2.2 million people were food insecure; 800,000 severely so. The damage has been estimated at $850 million (23% of the country's gross domestic product). UNDP has assisted Tajikistan to recover from this ‘compound crisis’ by working with the Tajik Committee of Emergencies during 2010 on a comprehensive early recovery rollout programme. Costing $3.2 million ($2.97 million came from BCPR and $230,000 from UNDP Tajikistan), the programme emphasizes community level activities and the integration of early recovery into national disaster reduction policies. 144,000 inhabitants of 39 rural settlements have been supported to rehabilitate social infrastructure such as schools, hospitals, irrigation channels, roads and bridges. Local authorities and community representatives jointly identified the activities, responded to priority needs, and mediated disputes over resource distribution and access to livelihoods. Community members provided the labor and assets such as construction materials, machinery and tools. Cash-for-work clean-up of flood debris created temporary employment and the provision of livestock and food commodities helped 125 female-headed households re-start their bread and milk production businesses.
Supporting local governments for rehabilitation of socio-economic community infrastructure in Colombia, Dominican Republic, Kosovo1, Somalia and Sri Lanka.
These initiatives contributed to the socio-economic recovery of over 250,000 people through improved access to water, enhanced quality of education, and the increased production of food and cash crops.UNDP helps countries in their efforts to restore community infrastructure. In Tajikistan, 144,000 inhabitants of 39 rural settlements have been supported to rehabilitate social infrastructure, such as with this electrical transformer in Rasht district.[Page 1048]In Focus: Post Disaster Early Recovery[Page 1053]Achievements in: Conflict Prevention and Recovery
Conflict prevention and recovery requires initiatives in diverse but related areas: Conflict Prevention; Rule of Law, Justice and Security; Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration; Armed Violence, Small Arms and Mine Action; and Crisis Governance. BCPR and its partners were active in all areas during 2010.UNDP in Action: Fulfilling Commitments on the GroundConflict Prevention
Lasting peace requires that key actors possess the skills and have the forums and institutions that allow them to cooperate across political or sectarian lines. Demand from partner countries for UNDP assistance has grown over the past few years reflecting a growing realization that prevention is the best means of safeguarding developmental gains and avoiding the human suffering associated with disasters. Requests increased by almost 50 percent in 2009, as the number of countries requiring support to strengthen their own capacities for conflict prevention and management increased from 20 to 30. Even so, this reflected only half of an estimated 60 countries that are already receiving, or are likely to request, this assistance over the next two years.
UNDP's focus in conflict prevention is designed to assist national and local actors in addressing emerging tensions themselves, and to acquire lasting capabilities for managing recurring conflicts such as those around land, natural resources, and governance.
In 2010, UNDP contributed to mitigating ongoing tensions and fostering breakthroughs in political deadlocks at national and local levels in [Page 1054]10 countries. The focus was to establish credible platforms for dialogue, support cross-community confidence-building, and empower civil society groups. In Guinea-Bissau local tensions were defused and conflicts resolved through a UNDP-supported platform that included 20 youth organizations that encouraged inter-ethnic dialogue in their respective communities. A longstanding violent conflict in Benue state in Nigeria was resolved through mediation efforts conducted by a local women's organization with financial and technical support from UNDP. In August 2010, UNDP assistance in Fiji helped form an autonomous platform for dialogue, thereby enabling key stakeholders to develop priorities for actively engaging around selected themes. UNDP also assisted governmental and non-governmental actors in Honduras to explore a roadmap for dialogue and reconciliation, drawing from recent dialogue experiences between Ecuador and Colombia as well as conflict prevention efforts in Bolivia.What UNDP does to support National Capacities for Managing Conflict
As part of its broader engagement, UNDP assisted with conflict resolution processes and electoral violence prevention mechanisms in 20 countries. The experiences in Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, and Solomon Islands are reviewed below (see box). Similar efforts contributed to peaceful elections in Togo and a referendum in Zanzibar in 2010.Rule of Law, Justice and Security
During or after a crisis, national governments often do not have the capacities to protect citizens from impunity and respond to their justice[Page 1055][Page 1056]
and security needs. UNDP's Global Programme on Strengthening the Rule of Law in Conflict and Post-Conflict Situations enhances physical and legal protection of people and communities, ensuring adequate legal representation, access to justice, developing accountable institutions, and empowering communities.
In 2010 UNDP's Rule of Law Programme offered operational, technical and financial support to: Afghanistan, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Iraq, Kosovo, Liberia, Nepal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Timor-Leste and Uganda, as well as to the occupied Palestinian territory.
The Global Programme developed multi-year country projects for a programming value of over $230 million. At the request of 21 different UNDP country offices, seven Global Programme technical staff spent a total of 346 days during 2010 providing field support. A key focus was helping citizens gain open access to rule of law institutions and improving the legitimacy of these institutions so that these fragile societies can prevent relapses into violence.
This was especially important in Sri Lanka where UNDP support enabled the Legal Aid Commission to establish five new offices in 2010, dealing specifically with criminal cases. This activity directly enhanced the access to justice by women and the displaced. This Commission undertook 1,684 consultations, 1,014 court appearances, 123 police visits, and 187 bail applications through 58 centres across the country. Community-based paralegal programmes in Nepal were expanded to 70 villages, significantly extending the reach of the law, especially for women. Mobile legal aid clinics provided free legal services and legal information to 1,524 people (80 percent of whom were women); and community mediation centres successfully resolved 60 percent of the 230 cases registered.UNDP has organised a series of trainings to public prosecutors, magistrates, judges and police officers in order to improve their capacity to deliver better services to Haitians.
As a result of its support to ministries, the police, the judiciary and correctional centres in 18 conflict-affected countries, UNDP enabled these agencies to improve their service delivery. Citizens gained access to legal services that were formerly unavailable to them. UNDP invested in court and police facility infrastructure (Haiti, Liberia); provided technical and operational [Page 1057]support to increase the capacity to deliver justice and security services (Burundi, Colombia, Somalia); and boosted the numbers of legal and security professionals trained and deployed in-country (Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo).
In Kosovo, support by UNDP to the Parliamentary Oversight Commission for Internal Affairs and Security allowed its members to effectively review legislation designed to improve oversight and accountability mechanisms for security institutions. With improved accountability, impunity and neglect of the law have diminished. In Timor-Leste, UNDP supported the Office of the President's efforts to strengthen the security sector through the review and control of legislation related to security institutions.
A core aspect of UNDP's work on rule of law is responding to sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). Through UNDP's assistance in Nepal, Sierra Leone, and Somalia, over 3,000 survivors of SGBV received access to justice services in 2010. In Democratic Republic of the Congo, six UNDP supported paralegal centers have assisted more than 183 cases on SGBV, while a partnership between UNDP and Avocats Sans Frontieres helped the South Kivu Bar Association to launch a pro bono office that provides legal aid.[Page 1058]Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) of ex-combatants
UNDP's DDR activities supported through BCPR provide ex-combatants with access to employment and income-generation opportunities. Sustained support is critical especially during the period from conflict to peace and early recovery.
Throughout 2010, UNDP provided technical assistance to DDR of ex-combatants initiatives in: Afghanistan, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Comoros, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Iraq, Kosovo, Nepal, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, and Uganda.
UNDP helped generate emergency jobs and longer-term employment for 224,000 male and 72,000 female ex-combatants in Burundi, Colombia, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kosovo, Nepal, Republic of Congo, Sudan and Uganda. These represented roughly 10 percent of the estimated total of 224,000 male and 72,000 female ex-combatants in these places and, in the process, made a major contribution to the consolidation of peace and stability.
Preparations began in 2010 on eight additional DDR programmes (Afghanistan, Chad, Comoros, Guinea-Bissau, Indonesia, Iraq, Somalia, and Sri Lanka). Operations commence there in 2011.[Page 1059]Armed Violence, Small Arms Control and Mine ActionA man participating in a reintegration programme held at the National Service Camp in Nyala (South Darfur) shows his registration card.
In 21 of the 31 national-led programmes against armed violence and small arms proliferation supported by UNDP in 2010, the focus was the reduction of the supply of weapons. Measures included the collection and destruction of firearms (Angola, Croatia, Panama and Uganda), the implementation of conflict-sensitive export controls, formulation of laws and regulations against illicit supply (Kosovo, Costa Rica, Democratic Republic of the Congo, El Salvador and Honduras). In Angola, for example, UNDP supported a civilian weapons-collection campaign that resulted in the collection of 76,000 illegally held weapons by mid-2010, while in Burundi more than 12,400 explosives and 2,000 firearms were destroyed and 9,000 police arms marked.
In 12 of those 31 UNDP-supported programmes, UNDP emphasized measures that reduce the demand for weapons and drivers of violence. In 2010, UNDP assisted local communities in the participatory development and implementation of community security plans, which resulted in people-centred solutions ranging from the construction of Youth Community Centres (Liberia) to pastoralist resource management schemes (Kenya). UNDP also supported national level Violence Observatories (Burundi, Haiti, Honduras and Jamaica) to identify crime hot spots, [Page 1060]pects for financial independence for 150 persons with disabilities. UNDP assistance enabled the Iraqi NGO Rafidain Demining Organisation to clear 494,545 square metres and the Danish Demining Group to clear 8,388,122 sqm and 3,865 unexploded ordnance (UXO). UNDP provided educational activities and training aimed at reducing the risk of injury from mines and UXO to 1,431 men, 1,432 women, 1,510 boys, and 1,484 girls.
In Mozambique, UNDP is supporting the Government to fulfil its obligations under the Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Treaty to clear all known mined areas by 2014 and to address residual threats posed by other ERW. In 2010 alone, 136 areas previously blocked to economic development because of landmines and ERW were cleared with UNDP's support. A total of 883 mines and 531 unexploded devices were removed and destroyed, and 37 districts in Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Maputo, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, and Zambezia, Provinces, were completely freed of mines.
The Government of Lao PDR sought UNDP assistance with the organization, administration, and funding to prepare for the First Meeting of States Parties (1MSP) to the Convention on Cluster Munitions, held in Vientiane in November 2010. Together with the Government, UNDP established a Multi-donor Trust Fund for UXO activities in Lao PDR. UNDP is helping Lao PDR meet its obligations under the Convention. At the 1MSP, States Parties entrusted UNDP/BCPR with the executive coordination of work under the Lao PDR Presidency. In Lebanon, UNDP strongly advocated for the ratification of the [Page 1061]Convention on Cluster Munitions, which was completed on 5 November 2010.Crisis Governance
Fragile states and societies tend to be locked in vicious cycles of political, social and economic turmoil with governments often unable to respond to social expectations, manage the economy, or deliver essential services.
During 2010 BCPR worked with 12 countries to strengthen their institutions and reestablish governance processes. In Sri Lanka, Kosovo and Sudan, UNDP assistance enhanced local and national government capacities for planning so that recovery efforts reflected community-based priorities. UNDP provided technical expertise and seed funding for the Government of Southern Sudan (GoSS) to complete an assessment of core functions of statehood. This assessment was critical in preparing for the 9 January 2011 referendum on independence. The results as the assessment were endorsed by GoSS and presented to a High-level Technical Meeting on Capacity Development for South Sudan in Brussels on 17 September 2010. UNDP is charged with supporting follow-up and the development of a mid-term capacity development strategy. In Somalia, UNDP has assisted with extensive community consultations to draft district development frameworks and annual work plans. Monitored closely by recipient communities, these plans have led to improved service delivery. By July 2010, a total of 145,173 people were benefiting from these projects. Women participated actively with a 33 percent representation and are now part of monitoring groups during project implementation.Somali Police training on communication equipment in Galkayo, Somalia.
In Colombia UNDP supported the finalization of Peace and Development Action Plans in six conflict-affected regions. The Plans bring local governments together with victims of conflict, including representatives of 15 women's [Page 1062]organizations, to devise activities that reduce risks to human security. UNDP assisted the consultations that enabled the local governments to develop Plans. Based on these Plans, government funding has been allocated to support victim's rights, reconciliation, economic reintegration of displaced groups, and to reduce the marginalization of indigenous and Afro-Colombian populations. These consultations enhance social cohesion in conflict-affected regions.[Page 1063]Achievements in: Gender Equality in Crisis Prevention and Recovery
Guided by the priorities outlined in the Eight-Point Agenda for Women's Empowerment and Gender Equality in Crisis Prevention and Recovery, BCPR made progress in protecting, empowering and improving the prospects of women and girls in crisis settings during 2010.
For its part, BCPR continued to implement its gender-sensitive resource allocation policy to ensure that at least 15 percent of all BCPR-supported project budgets were assigned to gender-related activities. For 2010, 29 percent of BCPR expenditure fit this category.
Senior Gender Advisors (SGAs) supported by seed funding provided high-level technical and strategic capacity in Burundi, Iraq, Kosovo, Liberia, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, Sierra Leone, Sudan and Timor-Leste. Their activities helped UNDP Country Offices programme gender-responsive results-oriented initiatives designed to increase gender equality and women's participation.UNDP in Action: Fulfilling Commitments on the Ground
BCPR stimulated tangible progress on the Women, Peace and Security agenda in global and national programming and policy and made a significant contribution to policy shifts. Key achievements in 2010 included:Increased Women's Civic Engagement, Participation and Leadership in Peacebuilding
In 2010 UNDP produced tangible results in improving the political participation of women and their ability to play a leading role in the consolidation of peace. Improved support by UN/UNDP to national authorities in Burundi contributed to a historic female voter registration and turnout in the country's 2010 elections. As a result of the elections, the 30 percent quota for women in elected public office was exceeded. Burundi currently has the highest level of women representation in the Senate among African countries and second in the world.[Page 1064]Timor-Leste public defender Laura Lay is sworn in by Public Defender General, Sergio Hornai, with the President of the Court of Appeal, Claudio Ximenes, looking on.
With UNDP support women now constitute 50 percent of the Government's established cadre of mediators in Timor-Leste, under the newly created Department of Peacebuilding. These women assist with local land conflicts and other issues in communities targeted for the resettlement of IDPs.
In Nepal, women now have an increasingly important leadership role in the country's on-going political transition and constitutional design. Assisted by UNDP, women comprised 33 percent of the total of 601 delegates who participated in the country's constitutional process. The UNDP-supported Center for Constitutional Dialogue has trained 100 Constituent Assembly members, including women, on effective communication and negotiation.Increased Local and National Capacity to Respond to Sexual and Gender-based Violence (SGBV)
SGBV devastates human lives, shatters communities and seriously deters human development in conflict and post-conflict contexts. UNDP's priority and added value is the strengthening of national capacities to provide justice and security to women, in order to create enabling environments where they can eventually participate in the economic, social and political spheres and where a culture of impunity, stigma and silence is eroded over time.
BCPR has developed programmes addressing SGBV in over 14 countries, enhancing women's security and access to justice. During 2010, over 4,000 survivors of SGBV received legal aid and assistance services primarily in Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kosovo, Nepal, Sierra Leone, as well as in Somaliland. An important part of this success has been the premium placed by UNDP on working through national justice and security sector actors, NGOS, paralegals and other service providers, as well as on strong partnerships with other international actors.
In Sierra Leone, UNDP supported six local NGOs to provide legal assistance to survivors of SGBV addressing the complaints of 1,879 women to date, resulting in 45 convictions. In 2009, before the programme began, there were no convictions.
In Haiti, UNDP supported communities affected by the earthquake to take preventive measures against SGBV. UNDP and the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) assisted the Haitian[Page 1066]
National Police to establish special police groups for surveillance in sites for IDPs. This activity reduced the number of cases of SGBV.
The UN Task Force on Gender-Based Violence in Kosovo, led by UNDP, improves coordination to prevent and respond to SGBV. UNDP supported the development of the draft law on domestic violence. It provided technical assistance in Timor-Leste for the same purpose. In Iraq, the shelter policy for the Kurdistan Regional Government for SGBV survivors was drafted and has undergone consultations, while a Domestic Violence Bill draft is awaiting approval.
In Central America, UNDP contributed to the integration of gender related issues in all regional initiatives on violence reduction that have been endorsed by national authorities.Increased Gender-responsive Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration
UNDP helped create viable job opportunities for 7,340 female ex-combatants and women associated with armed forces and groups in Burundi, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kosovo, Nepal, the Republic of Congo, Sudan and Uganda.
In the Republic of Congo, UNDP supported the economic integration of 1,056 female ex-combatants (out of 3,000 estimated in the country). This was done using a community-based approach to reintegration that identified market opportunities, used revolving microcredit, and included monitoring and counselling services.Increased Support to Gender-responsive DRR Programming
Women are often affected more seriously by disasters than men. UNDP promotes the use of gender analysis to differentiate women's risks, impacts and needs from those of men and encourages women's participation and leadership. In Pakistan, a UNDP-led consultation conducted in the aftermath of the floods utilized gender disaggregated data including specific MDG indicators. These data are currently being used in the national recovery programme. In addition, as a result of the consultation, more than 50 female governmental, non-governmental, and private sector representatives participated in the planning and delivery of road construction and protection of slopes to avoid landslides.[Page 1067]Women's Empowerment in CrisisFadwa (left), is enjoying an education for the first time in 26 years. The wood crafting skills she is being taught as part of a UNDP-supported initiative in Rafah in the southern Gaza Strip, will allow her to earn money to support her husband and seven children.
In the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, UNDP supported the Crisis Management Centre (CMC), which established a Gender Team mandated to promote and ensure gender equality and to address the needs of vulnerable groups (including women) before, during and after crises.Increased Gender-responsive Economic Recovery and Reintegration
UNDP supports initiatives that bridge the gap between women's immediate assistance needs and longer term economic recovery by increasing the number of emergency jobs and employment made available to them.
The Programme of Assistance to the Palestinian People (PAPP) in the occupied Palestinian territory has enabled UNDP to assist 18,652 people become wage-earners in agricultural enterprises and community based organizations. Over 200 new graduates (60 percent female) received skills training in management, community development and livelihood recovery and were placed in various NGOs, community-based organizations and government departments for periods up to 15 months.[Page 1068][Page 1069]Global Partnerships
BCPR's focus in 2010 was to promote inter-agency cooperation by building stronger connections among UN entities and with other key institutional partners, including the World Bank and the European Commission. These efforts build out from each partner's strengths to boost country-level support for crisis prevention and recovery. UN Resident Coordinators enhance the collaboration through focused strategic planning, broader dialogue with national authorities and development partners, and effective resource mobilization. BCPR's relationships with donors also bring much more than funds—with many engaged on policy and practical issues. This level of partnership is highly appreciated by BCPR and UNDP in general. Details on the financial contributions received through donor partnerships are referred to in the Financial Annex to this report.UN partnerships
BCPR coordinates and leads UNDP's overall contribution to the consolidation of the UN peacebuilding architecture and to a more coherent UN effort on the ground as directed by the UN Secretary-General. This includes the Peacebuilding Commission, the Peacebuilding Fund (PBF) and the Peacebuilding Support Office (PBSO). BCPR supported PBF-funded peacebuilding initiatives in Guatemala, Kyrgyzstan and Uganda. Overall, PBF allocated more than $40 million for 32 UNDP projects in 2010—twice as much as in 2009. BCPR's cooperation with PBSO in the design of PBF projects improved implementation and provided for systematic follow-up and trouble shooting.
Partnerships with the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the [Page 1070]Department for Field Support, the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and Department of Political Affairs (DPA) are critical for UNDP's efforts to prevent conflict and promote recovery. Complex political conditions in many countries tend to compound the development difficulties. In countries without a Security Council mandated mission, UNDP worked with DPA to help reduce and resolve escalating tensions. In countries with a DKPO-led integrated peace operation, UNDP worked closely with mission partners to consolidate peace and played a key role in promoting and implementing an integrated approach in areas such as rule of law, transitional governance, conflict prevention, reintegration, mine action and security-sector reform. In order to ensure coherence UNDP was an active partner in developing Integrated Strategic Frameworks in 2010 in Kosovo, Haiti, Timor-Leste, Côte d'Ivoire and the occupied Palestinian territory. Other key results for 2010 included new joint programmes with DPKO-led peacekeeping missions in Democratic Republic of the Congo, Haiti, Liberia, Timor-Leste and southern Sudan.A school pupil from Mohlanapeng Primary school in Lesotho with the assistance of a facilitator helping her group to prepare a seasonal calendar for her community, as part of a community-based capacity assessment on disaster risks carried out by UNDP.
UNDP cooperated with the UN Development Operations Coordination Office (DOCO) to strengthen UN leadership through planning and support capacities in seven priority countries: Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Nepal and Pakistan. 19 new positions were approved as part of this initiative and all recruitment was finalized in 2010. DOCO and BCPR jointly devised a method to measure performance.
UNDP and WFP signed a Cooperation Framework Agreement on September 24, 2010. The agreement identifies five substantive areas of partnership where both organizations can perform collaboratively, based on their comparative strengths: Livelihoods and Economic [Page 1071]Recovery; Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration; Mine Action; Climate Change/Disaster Risk Reduction; and the Cluster System. UNDP and the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) are also progressing with joint programming on a Transitional Support Initiative in several countries to support durable solutions to long-term displacement issues through development initiatives.The World Bank
During 2010, BCPR broadened UNDP's engagement with the World Bank in crisis and conflict countries. BCPR held two rounds of high-level consultations with the World Bank and other UN partners to help focus the dialogue. BCPR consulted closely with the World Bank team producing the 2011 World Development Report on Conflict, Security and Development. With a grant from Switzerland, country-level cooperation between the UN and the World Bank will begin in 2011 in four pilot countries, Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea-Bissau and Liberia. Opportunities to work more with the World Bank on the Transitional Support Initiative will also be pursued in 2011.The European Commission
UNDP's strong partnership with the European Commission (EC) continued in 2010. The EC provided $140 million for crisis prevention and recovery programmes and governance interventions in post-crisis countries. This was roughly the same EC portfolio share as in 2009. UNDP signed 11 contracts for rapid response for a total of $35 million with the EC's Instrument for Stability.
Policy interaction with the EC in 2010 was extensive. UNDP/BCPR staff members were trainers or guest speakers at 13 different EC events. There were five joint workshops as well. Looking ahead, UNDP will strongly engage with the new European External Action Service, particularly in the areas of peacebuilding and crisis management.Partnerships in DRR
UNDP has encouraged the integration of a risk perspective in UN Development Assistance Frameworks (UNDAFs) that define development priorities for five-year periods. To assist Country Offices, a global mechanism for the deployment of experts has been set up with support from UNDP, DOCO, the UN International Strategy for Disaster Redution (UNISDR), and the UN System Staff College. DRR is already integrated as an UNDAF priority in Georgia and Indonesia, and support for DRR integration has been provided to Barbados, Ghana and the member states of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) as well as São Tomé and Principe.
UNDP is strengthening its partnership and collaboration with OCHA and UNISDR to support disaster reduction in Southern Africa and Latin America. Namibia is being used as a pilot case. In 2010, the Capacity for Disaster Reduction Initiative conducted a training workshop in DRR, and facilitated by BCPR, OCHA and UNISDR staff supported the establishment of a national platform. The three institutions will collaborate further in 2011 to strengthen regional-level DRR capabilities.Partnerships in Early Recovery
UNDP leads the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Cluster Working Group on Early Recovery, which includes 31 members from the humanitarian and development communities. Early recovery advisory and coordination mechanisms have been established in 32 of the 41 countries where the humanitarian cluster approach has been introduced. Supported by the deployment of 43 short- and long-term staff, 30 early recovery clusters or networks were [Page 1072]active in 2010. UNDP deploys teams of advisors to Humanitarian and Resident Coordinators to ensure that early recovery is part of the work of all humanitarian clusters. The outcome is that responses by Country Offices are now more rapid, predictable and consistent with country-level strategy.
In 2010, UNDP became the co-chair of several important inter-agency sub-working groups. These include working groups on Needs Assessment and Capacities, Inter-Cluster Coordination, Transition, and on Preparedness to address improvements recommended by the IASC Principals.Partnerships in Conflict Prevention
BCPR hosts the UN Inter-agency Framework Team for Preventive Action and manages the Joint UNDP-DPA Programme on Building National Capacities for Conflict Prevention. The UN Framework Team, an internal UN support mechanism, develops inter-agency conflict prevention strategies and UN-wide conflict-sensitive initiatives. The Joint UNDP-DPA Programme supports concrete initial steps to implement inter-agency conflict prevention strategies. It also supports the deployment of Peace and Development Advisors (PDAs). In 2010, PDAs and similar specialists worked to support conflict prevention and mitigation initiatives in more than 35 countries globally.A child walks through the Bangboka airport near a mined area in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In 2010 UNDP continued to work with nationally-led programmes in 40 countries aimed at supporting mine action linked to broader sustainable development efforts.Partnerships in Rule of Law
BCPR engages closely with the broader UN system, including Member States, the PBSO, DPKO and the IASC. UNDP is a member of the Rule of Law Resource and Coordination Group, composed of nine UN entities attached to the Deputy Secretary-General's office.
In 2010, UNDP reassumed its role as co-chair with DPKO of the Inter-agency Security-sector Reform Task Force. UNDP is co-leading the roll-out of the ‘Team of Experts’ envisioned under UN Security Council Resolution 1888 for rapid deployment ‘to [Page 1073]situations of particular concern with respect to sexual violence in armed conflict.’Partnerships in DDR
With EC funding, UNDP develops and applies integrated and more efficient DDR approaches at headquarters and field levels. UNDP cooperated with ILO to revise and validate the Integrated Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Standards Reintegration Module, which has been used in DDR training globally.
In 2010 UNDP initiated a joint study with the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) on DDR and natural resource management to identify opportunities for linking reintegration and natural resource management. Case studies have been completed for Democratic Republic of the Congo, Indonesia and Rwanda.Partnerships in Armed Violence, Small Arms Control and Mine Action
UNDP, through BCPR, leads much of the UN's work on small arms control and collaborates with 16 agencies and departments through the Coordinating Action on Small Arms mechanism. The Armed Violence Prevention Programme (AVPP), a multi-agency initiative involving UNDP, the World Health Organization, UNICEF, UN Habitat, the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs (UNODA) and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, develops joint policy guidance, strategies and partnerships for armed violence prevention. The first AVPP mission was in September 2010 to Jamaica. Other priority countries are Bosnia and Herzegovina, Burundi, El Salvador, Kenya and Papua New Guinea.
UNDP, along with UNICEF and the UN Mine Action Service, forms the core of the Inter-agency Coordination Group on Mine Action (IACG-MA). UNODA and OCHA cooperate with this Group. During 2010, UNDP and the IACG-MA explored means of cooperating with the World Bank to research the linkages between mine action and the alleviation of poverty.Partnerships in Crisis Governance
BCPR collaborated with the World Bank in 2010 to develop a joint strategy for supporting capacity development efforts in Liberia on crisis governance. The outcome was the establishment of an expert panel to provide on-demand advice to selected Country Teams.
In 2010 UNDP engaged actively in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) International Network on Conflict and Fragility work on state-building, peacebuilding and security.Partnerships in Gender Equality in Crisis Prevention and Recovery
To mark the tenth anniversary in October 2010 of the UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (on women's meaningful participation in peace processes), UNDP, DPKO, DPA and UNIFEM joined together in 25 conflict-affected countries to organize ‘Open Days on Women, Peace and Security’—enabling more than 1,500 women to share their priorities and concerns for peacebuilding practice with high-level UN officials.
Through its partnerships with other UN agencies, UNDP helped address the marginalization of women and girls in institutional responses in the areas of DDR, small arms control and IDPs. In collaboration with DPKO, UN-Women, UNFPA and The Norwegian Defense University College, UNDP/BCPR contributed to the design and delivery of the first-ever training course on gender for UN senior-level DDR managers.[Page 1074][Page 1075]Conclusion
The events and accomplishments of 2010 challenged and strengthened BCPR and overall highlighted the importance of the crisis prevention and recovery practice within UNDP. As this Annual Report has shown, BCPR has in large part stepped up to the challenges of supporting UNDP Country Offices, preventing and mitigating the effects of crises around the globe, and developing the partnerships and approaches that enhance UNDP's effectiveness and efficiency overall.
BCPR's noteworthy achievements during 2010 include:
A fisherman prepares his boat for a night of fishing on Lake Tanganyika in the northern Zambian town of Mpulungu. UNDP supports livelihoods and economic opportunities for people living in post-conflict situations.[Page 1077]Looking AheadCrisis Prevention and Recovery Results are Development Results
- Deploying SURGE teams in more than 20 countries, the most challenging being Haiti where 58 experts were mobilized.
- Ensuring UNDP internal Fast Track Policies and Procedures reduced response times in crisis countries. First used in Haiti, 21 Country Offices applied FTP in 2010.
- Supporting 1,800ex-combatantstobe discharged under DDR arrangements in Nepal with livelihood packages and training.
- Facilitating the establishment of a system in Somaliland to refer sexual assault cases to formal courts.
- Expanding legal-aid services and enabling Sri Lanka to repair six court houses, strengthening village-level paralegal capacities, and training 700 village heads in legal issues including SGBV.
- Supporting the Government of Southern Sudan to assess the core functions of statehood as part of the preparations for the January 2011 referendum.
- Mobilizing a team of 50facilitators to conduct household surveys and conduct focus-group discussions to assess impacts on people and recovery needs as part of a Human Needs Recovery Assessment in response to the eruption of the Merapi Volcano (Indonesia). [Page 1076]
- Providing relief assistance to 19,500 families of IDPs in the Philippines and, working with local authorities, devising programmes to assist recovery efforts in 42 communities of return.
- Enabling over 24,000 people to gain self-employment through establishment of viable small and micro-enterprises in crisis and post-crisis countries;
- Supporting national actors to take concrete steps to ensure peaceful referendums in Kenya and Tanzania, and violence-free elections in Kyrgyzstan, Solomon Islands, and Togo.
- Supporting cash-for-work initiatives to restore community infrastructure schemes and clear rubble and debris in the wake of disasters in Pakistan and Haiti.
- Facilitating gender-responsive DRR in the Democratic Republic of the Congo through the economic integration of 1,056 female ex-combatants/formerly associated members.
- Helping create emergency jobs and longer-term employment for 25,000 male and more than 7,300 female ex-combatants in nine countries.
- Preparing for DDR programmes in eight additional countries.
- Assisting governments in 31 countries to work on reducing both the demand for and supply of small arms.
- Strengthening collaboration across the UN for implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1888 (conflict-related sexual violence) to enhance gender-inclusive and sustainable peace, security and development.
- Stepping up action in 31 countries to implement armed violence-prevention programmes and supporting a further 40 states with national mine action initiatives.
- Promoting efforts in several countries to work with young people to defuse tensions created by economic rivalry, lack of employment opportunities, and inter-ethnic tensions.
- Building upon BCPR's leadership role in the Cluster Working Group on Early Recovery to promote the activation of early recovery co-ordination mechanisms in 32 countries.
- Working with the UN System, the World Bank and European Commission to assist governments develop the institutional agreements on the formulation of Post Disaster Needs Assessments.
BCPR has existed within UNDP as a dedicated bureau for one decade. In this time more than 100 countries have been supported throughout numerous crises with the fielding of staff, programmatic advice and a total budget of approximately $1.3 billion. As a direct result, UNDP has managed to keep focused on its mandate—promoting human development—when stronger humanitarian and security agendas often prevail. Moreover, the skills, experience and resources that BCPR brings to UNDP have ensured much closer partnerships within the UN at large—promoting the organization's overall effectiveness in preventing and responding to violent conflicts and natural disasters.
These achievements have been possible with the dedicated, specialized capacity that BCPR brings to UNDP. In response to the Strategic Review, as BCPR's new structure, capacities and systems continue to take shape throughout 2011, operations will become increasingly strategic and results-oriented. Targeted Crisis Prevention and Recovery support will better align with ongoing UNDP and UN development actions in response to national priorities. Increasing the capacity of BCPR Technical Teams in New York will help ensure coherence within UNDP and the UN on policy and programming. Working more closely with UNDP's regional and substantive bureaus will also ensure much more efficient and strategic alignment of Crisis Prevention and Recovery inputs into country programmes and links to longer-term development policy.
The World Bank's 2011 World Development Report on Conflict, Security and Development highlights the challenges organized violence poses to the advancement of less-developed societies. This important policy piece, along with the UN's ongoing work on defining ‘Civilian Capacity’ requirements in post-conflict and peacekeeping settings, will guide much of the formulation of UNDP's Crisis Prevention and Recovery response into the near future. The vision of BCPR into 2011 and beyond also aligns well with UNDP's overall ‘Agenda for Change’—working to promote the increasing incorporation of Crisis Prevention and Recovery within UNDP country programmes as a fundamental foundation empowering people and ensuring resilience in nations.Early Warning and Analytical Programming
UNDP's preparedness and response capacity will be bolstered in 2011 with early warning systems—which will help BCPR and UNDP Country Offices provide timely assistance to UNDP programme countries facing crises. An increasing frequency of disasters involving natural hazards also underscores the need to combine response with preventative action for natural disasters—as climate change combines with the effects of growing urbanization and natural resource depletion to enhance the vulnerability of many. Growing disparities between the rich and poor, accompanied with the rise of access to information through social media, points towards much of UNDP's work this decade being driven by opportunities to accompany national transitions to democracy.Immediate Crisis Response
Although crisis risks may persist over years and decades, the exact timing of crisis events cannot always be anticipated. Haiti's earthquake in January 2010 was one such notable disaster from a little-known, natural hazard. Although not a humanitarian agency per se, UNDP must maintain a certain capacity for immediate response to ensure Country Offices receive capacity support and can, thus, remain during crises as an advocate for human development and as a competent partner with humanitarian and security-driven actors. BCPR in 2011 will move ahead with UNDP's overall ability to respond, including through the [Page 1078]development of ‘signature products’ that can be quickly rolled out through UNDP Country Offices in a post-crisis environment. Some products, such as community-based recovery, will bolster UNDP's role as an actor in early recovery. UNDP's official role as coordinator of the ‘Early Recovery’ humanitarian cluster will also be strengthened by clarifying UNDP's policy in this regard and tightening links with UN Resident and Humanitarian Coordinators globally. The extension of collaborative agreements and partnerships will be looked into, along with in-house capacity, aiming to ensure early recovery support is appropriately focused and timely.A woman at her home near Rupandehi, Nepal. UNDP made progress in protecting, empowering and improving the prospects of women and girls in crisis and post-crisis settings in 2010.Women in Crisis and Post-Crisis Response
In crisis, the needs and potential contributions of women are taken seriously. Whether crisis is triggered by armed conflict or natural disaster, women bear the brunt of it. UNDP's gender policy and BCPR's specific ‘Eight-Point Gender Action Plan’ help ensure UNDP's actions in crisis serve to maximize the protection of women and their empowerment through the vital role they play in prevention and recovery. Throughout 2011 these efforts will be continued and strengthened—including through collaboration with UN Women to identify strategies and formulate options for creating mechanisms that empower women, especially in the aftermath of disasters and violence.Conflict Prevention
As a core part of the ‘Prevention Agenda’, UNDP's support to national and local initiatives to build resilience to threats of violent conflict or potentially violent tensions will remain a key focus for BCPR. BCPR's transformation throughout 2011 will see additional capacity built in this area, with partnerships strengthened with PBSO on conflict analysis to support better peacebuilding strategies, and with DPA through the Joint Programme on Building National Capacities for Conflict Prevention, and the Inter-agency Framework Team on Preventive Action.[Page 1079]Climate Risk Management and Disaster Risk Reduction
BCPR will continue to promote detailed analysis of the implications for DRR strategies relating to a projected impact of environmental threats in the short term and climate change over the longer term. A priority will be determining what capacity needs to be developed to institutionalize DRR and build in-country capacity to analyse, prevent and manage risks related to climate variability and climate change and to identify climate risk-management solutions. Overall the DRR team will also be strengthened with rededicated capacity in New York and more robust linkages to the World Bank's Global Facility for Disaster Risk Reduction.Post-Crisis Governance and the Rule of Law
As experience in much of the Middle East from late 2010 showed, the need to support national development priorities with improved democratic governance systems and capacities is likely to gain ground this decade. Immediate support to governance in the post-crisis context will be a key area of BCPR delivery into the future—teamed up with the experts on ‘Democratic Governance’ in the longer term through UNDP's Bureau for Development Policy. Rule of Law, Justice and Security needs will equally be important with UNDP building capacity on this front throughout 2011, and likewise has many links to the larger UN system such as DPKO and other security-related actors.Livelihoods and Economic Recovery
As many post-crisis responses show, and further highlighted by ongoing events in the Middle East, the need to engage youth in recovery and preventative action is paramount. ‘Emergency Employment’ as a key UNDP signature product in crisis will be a fitting complement to UNDP's already-established work in reintegration and community-based, small-scale economic recovery.
BCPR will be building up significant capacity in this area throughout 2011 and beyond, as well as strengthening partnerships such as with the ILO and the World Bank.Monitoring, Evaluation and Knowledge Management
BCPR is committed to substantial improvements in both the design overview and reporting of results achieved with a major thrust planned in this area over the next two years. Requisite monitoring and evaluation capacity will be bolstered—as well as the ‘consciousness of results’ being mainstreamed throughout.
BCPR is fully cognizant of the fact that output level results—such as the number of workshops held or people trained—are of little real interest when evaluating the impact of interventions. BCPR is seized with the need to work with UNDP Country Offices overall to ensure accountability and make the absolutely best of scarce resources. A specific independent portfolio review of many BCPR-supported interventions will be undertaken in 2011—shedding light on approaches that are proving effective or otherwise. Partnerships and communities of practice will be fortified throughout with a proactive approach to knowledge management as lessons are learnt and these successes built upon.[Page 1080]List of Acronyms
BCPR Bureau for Crisis Prevention and Recovery CPR TTF Thematic Trust Fund for Crisis Prevention and Recovery CSOs Civil society organizations DDR disarmament, demobilization and reintegration DOCO Development Operations Coordination Office DPA Department of Political Affairs DPKO Department of Peacekeeping Operations DRR disaster risk reduction EC European Commission ERW Explosive remnants of war IASC Inter-agency Standing Committee IDPs internally displaced persons ILO International Labour Organization ISDR International Strategy for Disaster Reduction MDGs Millennium Development Goals MINUSTAH UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti NGO Non-governmental organization OCHA Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs PAPP Programme of Assistance to the Palestinian People PBF Peacebuilding Fund PBSO Peacebuilding Support Office PDNA post-disaster needs assessment SGBV Sexual and gender-based violence UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNFPA United Nations Population Fund UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund UNIFEM United Nations Development Fund for Women UNISDR United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction UNODA UN Office for Disarmament Affairs UXO unexploded ordnance WFP World Food Programme
Photo Credits[Page 1136]
VOLUME 1: David E. Alexander: 277; Stephanie Larson: 522; Library of Congress: 55, 125; U.S. Department of Defense: 2, 164, 237 (left), 479, 542; Federal Emergency Management Agency: 9, 88, 265, 328, 335, 347, 358, 372, 424, 443, 457, 472, 502, 531; U.S. Air Force: 494; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: 29, 133, 437; U.S. Geological Services: 157; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 115, 179, 194; National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health: 44 (Randy Montoya); U.S. Navy: 79, 100, 383; Sandia National Laboratory: 18, 286; Wikimedia Commons: 37, 63 (emijrp), 106, 142, 228 (Jean Chris Andersen), 237 (right), 259, 429, 551; Cate Turton/Department for International Development, UK: 295; New Zealand Civil Defence Emergency Management: 309; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: 313; U.S. Chemical Safety Board: 411; Small Business Administration: 209; Department of Homeland Security: 216; Oxfam: 397 (Anna Ridout), 486 (Andy Hall); National Aeronautics and Space Administration: 250; National Institutes of Health: 303.
VOLUME 2: David E. Alexander: 576; Library of Congress: 906; U.S. Department of Defense: 562, 571, 600, 653, 777, 918; Emergency Management Agency: 634, 660, 672, 793, 812, 43, 874, 931, 977, 1001; White House: 729, 897; U.S. Air Force: 647, 736, 940; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: 702; U.S. Geological Services: 965; U.S. Navy: 722, 821, 850, 951; USAID: 958, 970, 988; Wikimedia Commons: 623, 710, 764, 830, 863, 883; New York State Division of Military and Naval Affairs: 745; Oregon Military Department: 679; U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission: 757; Chase A. Fountain/Public Domain: 801; Iowa State University Library: 558; Eric Porterfield/UN Foundation, via USAID: 608; USAID: 958, 970, 988.