What is a standardized test? People often think about #2 pencils, stuffy classrooms, and high-stakes tests when they think about standardized testing. We see in the media that standardized tests are a hallmark of the No Child Left Behind (2001) era. As such, much of the coverage of standardized tests involves accusations of bias or arguments that tests take time away from teaching. We refer the reader to Section XVI of Volume 2 (Federal, State, and Community Policies) for arguments for and against these views. Our purpose is to focus on the nature of standardized tests. We hope that in learning about standardized testing, readers can become critical consumers of testing-based statistics and arguments. For further insight into common misperceptions about tests ...