21st Century Education: A Reference Handbook

21st Century Education: A Reference Handbook

Handbooks

Edited by: Thomas L. Good

Abstract

21st Century Education: A Reference Handbook offers 100 chapters written by leading experts in the field that highlight the most important topics, issues, questions, and debates facing educators today. This comprehensive and authoritative two-volume work provides undergraduate education majors with insight into the rich array of issues inherent in education—issues informing debates that involve all Americans.Key Features:· Provides undergraduate majors with an authoritative reference source ideal for their classroom research needs, preparation for GREs, and research into directions to take in pursuing a graduate degree or career· Offers more detailed information than encyclopedia entries, but not as much jargon, detail, or density as journal articles or research handbook chapters· Explores educational policy and reform, teacher education and certification, educational administration, curriculum, and instruction· Offers a ...

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    Preface

    American education is the cornerstone to the maintenance of our society—its safety, prosperity, health, and social good. More than 50 million students are enrolled in K-12 public education (U.S. Department of Education, 2007). The typical student spends approximately 1,000 hours in school every year, equating to almost 7,000 hours of school before entry into junior high school (Jackson, 1990). Students spend even more hours preparing homework, studying for tests, and participating in school activities. Public schools are now assuming various forms. One particular variation—charter schools—makes up 4 percent of all public schools (U.S. Department of Education, 2007). Another 11 percent of students eligible for K-12 enrollment—more than 5.1 million—are enrolled in private schools (U.S. Department of Education, 2007) and yet another 1.2 million do not attend formal, institutional schools at all but rather are home-schooled (Templeton & Johnson, this volume). At the college level and in assorted professional schools at the undergraduate and graduate levels, we have an all-time record enrollment of roughly 17.5 million students (U.S. Department of Education, 2007). In addition to the students enrolled in our schools, teachers, professors, administrators, service personnel, and others are employed in educational institutions. Parents and citizens pay large amounts of money for tuition, books, room, and board. Further, parents spend considerable time visiting schools and participating in fundraising activities. Clearly, education directly involves vast numbers of students, teachers, and educators, and—through the media, foundations, and other institutions—still more Americans are involved in the debate about our schools: What should be taught, and to what standards should students and schools be held accountable?

    Purpose and Audience

    With its many constituents, education has many faces. To some, it is their second-grade teacher. To others, it is an economic indicator (property values are increased on the perceived quality of nearby schools). At a micro level, schools transcend teacher-student relationships and become complex institutions around which important policy decisions and vast investments are made. Taken as a whole, the chapters contained in this book present and interpret these many faces of education. The two-volume work provides undergraduate majors and those currently in education an authoritative reference source that will serve their research needs with more information than encyclopedia entries, but not as much detail or density as journal articles or research handbook chapters. Thorough and comprehensive, these volumes offer readers a general understanding of the issues of utmost importance in education in the 21st century. The text is a combination of historical reviews, current debates, and pending issues of concern at the classroom, state, and federal levels, with sections devoted to students, their teachers, professional staff, the educational context of curriculum and learning, and current and future issues.

    Students

    In this collection of chapters, we provide readers with insight into a rich array of issues inherent in American education. Among those stories is an analysis of students. Who are they, how do they vary, and how can they best be educated? What percent of our students come from affluent homes or poor ones? What various languages do our students speak in their homes, and what is the general range of cultural and ethnic groups represented in our schools? Central to the thinking of many Americans is the performance level of our students. Questions abound regarding the quality of student learning. Can they calculate, think, find and solve problems, write persuasively, and work cooperatively with others on complex tasks? Are today's students better than those of a decade ago? How does student performance vary with factors such as school quality, community involvement, and the amount of money schools receive from their communities and their state?

    Teachers

    A second series of chapters provides an analysis of teachers. Teachers represent more than 3.2 million members of the American workforce. Their service is invaluable, with elementary teachers and high school teachers serving 650 and 6,000 students, respectively, over a typical 30-year career (Smylie, Miller, & Westbrook, this volume). We ask: Who are our teachers and what practices are representative of high-quality teaching? How and where are teachers prepared? How do teachers improve on practices? What are their perceptions of their own teaching? What are their perceptions of the profession? How do the teachers of today compare to those of the past? To what extent do teachers decide what they teach and how to measure it? To what extent are teachers viewed as professionals by the broader society?

    Professional Staff

    Readers are also provided with an analysis of school personnel. Who are our psychologists, school counselors, superintendents, and principals? What daily tasks and challenges do they face in the 21st century? How do they interact with teachers, students, and staff? How is leadership negotiated between superintendents and principals, and how is it negotiated between teachers and principals? How accessible are these staff members? What roles do school personnel play with parents or community leaders? What are the career opportunities for those interested in becoming a professional counselor or principal?

    Context, Curriculum, and Learning

    In addition to discussing the people involved in the educational enterprise, we explore the contextual factors that are important to the ways in which students and teachers interact around and within a learning environment. How do peer relationships play a role in child development? How do urban and rural schools differ from a student's, a teacher's, and an administrator's perspectives? What are the school experiences of gifted and at-risk students? Increased diversity across the nation raises questions about ways in which English language learners, immigrants, and minority students engage in educational opportunities. How do the curriculum and learning environments incorporate these contextual factors? To what extent does motivation vary within and across contexts? What topics are included in today's curriculum? How is student learning assessed?

    Current Issues

    Finally, we explore the considerable debate about the purpose of American schools. Some citizens, especially parents, believe schools should promote the social growth of students, as well as their academic competencies. Such citizens want students to develop leadership and cooperative skills through music, sports, and extracurricular activities. Fueled by national comparisons suggesting that students in many other countries outperform American students, policy makers tend to argue for and allocate resources toward promoting academic growth. For more than 30 years, policy reports (e.g., Nation at Risk, the Governor's Summit, and so forth) have strongly argued the need to improve American schools and students' scores on achievement tests if the United States is to avoid economic peril.

    Beyond the debates on the relative amount of time and resources that should be placed on the formal curriculum versus the informal curriculum and various types of non-subject learning in school is the issue of testing. Debates at the forefront of current educational policy are exacerbated by concern over testing and accountability. Currently, $104.1 million is being allocated annually to fund the National Assessment of Educational Progress and its governing board—a figure that is expected to increase over time to extend testing to more grades and subjects (U.S. Department of Education, 2008). On just one test, states spend vast amounts of money developing, administering, scoring, and analyzing. Chapters in this volume will tackle issues related to the increase in assessment. How has the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act shaped the past? In what ways will it shape the future of education? In what ways does testing influence the educational experiences of students, teachers, administrators, and the nation at large? The volumes conclude with an evaluation of current issues, providing readers with insight into the 22nd century: Where are we going? What is the future of education?

    Acknowledgments

    We thank our editorial board: Carole Ames, David Berliner, Jere Brophy, Lyn Corno, and Mary McCaslin, who helped to conceptualize the content of these volumes. Given the importance and diversity in American education, this is no easy task. Board members gave cogent advice about which issues were most important and how best to organize the topics in ways to maximize coverage and the understanding of American education. They were also helpful in identifying authors who could write both authoritatively and clearly. We thank the authors who undertook topic assignments and made important knowledge accessible and interesting.

    Thomas L. Good, Editor University of Arizona Alyson Lavigne Dolan, Managing Editor University of Arizona
    References and Further Readings
    Jackson, P. W. (1990). Life in classrooms. New York: Teachers College Press.
    U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2007). Fast facts. Retrieved February 3, 2008, from http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/
    U.S. Department of Education. (2008). Fiscal year 2009 budget summary and background information. Retrieved February 3, 2008, from http://www.ed.gov/

    About the Editors

    Editor-in-Chief

    Thomas L. Good is professor and department head of the Department of Educational Psychology at the University of Arizona. He received his PhD from Indiana University, and his previous appointments were at the University of Texas at Austin and the University of Missouri, Columbia. His policy interests include school and classroom improvement and youth socialization. His research interests include the communication of performance expectations in classroom settings and the analysis of effective instruction, especially in schools that serve children who reside in poverty. His teaching specialty areas are analysis of instructional behavior, theories of instruction, and the informal curriculum. His work has been supported by numerous agencies, including the National Science Foundation and the National Institute of Mental Health. He has been a Fulbright Fellow in Australia and has long served as editor of the Elementary School Journal (published by the University of Chicago Press). He has published numerous books, including Looking in Classrooms, coauthored with Jere Brophy.

    Editorial Board

    Carole Ames is a professor of educational psychology and dean of the College of Education at Michigan State University. She is interested in the development of social and academic motivation in children and youth. Her research focuses on the effects of classroom structure, competition, and teaching practices on children's motivation to learn. Other research interests include disadvantaged and urban children and youth, school and family relationships, and strategies for increasing parental involvement in children's learning.

    David C. Berliner is Regents' Professor of Education at Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona. He is past president of the American Educational Research Association and of the Division of Educational Psychology of the American Psychological Association and is member of the National Academy of Education. He is the author of more than 200 articles, book chapters, and books in education and psychology.

    Jere Brophy is university distinguished professor of teacher education and educational psychology at Michigan State University. A clinical and developmental psychologist by training, he has conducted research on teachers' achievement expectations and related self-fulfilling prophecy effects; teachers' attitudes toward individual students and the dynamics of teacher-student relationships; students' personal characteristics and their effects on teachers; relationships between classroom processes and student achievement; teachers' strategies for managing classrooms and coping with problem students; and teachers' strategies for motivating students to learn. Recently, he has focused on curricular content and instructional method issues involved in teaching social studies for understanding, appreciation, and life application.

    Lyn Corno is adjunct professor (formerly professor) at Teachers College, Columbia University, where she is also coeditor of Teachers College Record. She has been an active contributor to the field of educational psychology since receiving her doctorate from Stanford University in 1978. Professor Corno has been coeditor of the American Educational Research Journal and the Educational Psychologist and is Board Member Emeritus of the National Society for the Study of Education. She just completed a term as President of the American Psychological Association's Division of Educational Psychology (Division 15).

    Mary McCaslin, PhD, Michigan State University (1981), is a professor of educational psychology at the University of Arizona. McCaslin's scholarship focuses on the relationships among cultural, social, and personal sources of influence that coregulate student adaptive learning, motivational dynamics, and emergent identity.

    Managing Editor

    Alyson Lavigne Dolan is a doctoral student in the Department of Educational Psychology at the University of Arizona. She received her BA in psychology at Mount Holyoke College. Prior to attending the University of Arizona she worked in the Department of Psychiatry at the Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, researching prenatal alcohol consumption and concentration and memory in cancer patients. Her current research interests are teacher retention, student and teacher motivational dynamics, and early childhood and elementary education.

    About the Contributors

    Maureen E. Babineau is a visiting lecturer at Mount Holyoke College. She earned her master's in psychology at Mount Holyoke College. She teaches courses in adolescent development, conducts research on development from adolescence through adulthood, and she has professional experience with residential treatment centers specializing in addiction services for adolescents and adults.

    Sheri Bauman, PhD, associate professor, Department of Educational Psychology, University of Arizona, is director of the master's program in school counseling and editor of the Journal for Specialists in Group Work.

    Thelma B. Baxter is an assistant professor of education at Manhattan College in Riverdale, New York, and a former superintendent of District 5, Central Harlem, in New York. She is the widely acclaimed former principal of Theodore Roosevelt High School in the Bronx. Under her leadership, the school was removed from New York State's failing school list (SURR) as a result of three years of positive improvement in student attendance, dropout prevention, and more positive results on Regents testing in Math and English.

    Anne S. Beauchamp is a doctoral student in educational psychology at the University of Kansas. Her research foci are achievement motivation and stereotypes in the classroom. Currently, she is investigating implicit achievement goals.

    Laurie Behringer is a doctoral candidate in the Higher Education Program at the Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development at New York University. Her interests include postsecondary access and equity issues, and literacy development and practices for both youth and adults. She is currently working on a dissertation exploring remedial reading and writing education in urban community colleges.

    David C. Berliner is Regents' Professor of Education at Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona. He is past president of the American Educational Research Association, and of the Division of Educational Psychology of the American Psychological Association, and is member of the National Academy of Education. He is the author of more than 200 articles, book chapters, and books on education and psychology.

    Phyllis Blumenfeld (PhD, University of California, Los Angeles) is a professor of education at the University of Michigan. Her research focuses on how teacher behavior and classroom tasks influence student motivation and learning. She engages in interdisciplinary work with education researchers and practitioners to create motivating and conceptually rich environments in both urban and suburban schools.

    Cheryl Mason Bolick is an assistant professor of technology integration in the School of Education at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Her area of interest and research is the integration of technology into social studies education, specifically with digital history resources.

    James H. Borland is a professor of education at Teachers College, Columbia University, where he coordinates graduate programs in gifted education. He is the author of the book Planning and Implementing Programs for the Gifted, edited Rethinking Gifted Education, and has written numerous journal articles and book chapters. He is also editor of the Education and Psychology of the Gifted series of books from Teachers College Press and is past coeditor of the Section on Teaching, Learning, and Human Development of the American Educational Research Journal. He has lectured on the education of gifted students across the United States and abroad, and he has consulted with numerous school districts, primarily as an evaluator of programs for gifted students.

    Andrew M. Brantlinger is the senior research associate for MetroMath at the CUNY Graduate Center. He received his doctorate in the Learning Sciences from Northwestern University. His research interests are in the areas of mathematics education, urban education, and critical theory.

    Ellen Brantlinger is Professor Emeritus of Special Education in the Curriculum and Instruction Department at Indiana University, Bloomington. She has written on social class and schooling issues and disability studies in education.

    Kimberly Brenneman (PhD, University of California, Los Angeles) is an assistant research professor of psychology at Rutgers University. She is currently associated with the Cognitive Development and Learning Lab at the Rutgers Center for Cognitive Science, where she works on the development, implementation, and assessment of a research-based science program for preschoolers. Her research interests include young children's comprehension and production of notations, their understanding of the animate-inanimate distinction, and various aspects of their science learning.

    Susan M. Brookhart, PhD, is an independent educational consultant and a senior research associate at the Center for Advancing the Study of Teaching and Learning (CASTL) at Duquesne University. She is the editor of the journal Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, and is the author or coauthor of books and articles on classroom assessment, educational measurement, program evaluation, and teacher professional development in assessment.

    Jere Brophy is University Distinguished Professor of Teacher Education and Educational Psychology at Michigan State University. A clinical and developmental psychologist by training, he has conducted research on teachers' achievement expectations and related self-fulfilling prophecy effects; teachers' attitudes toward individual students and the dynamics of teacher-student relationships; students' personal characteristics and their effects on teachers; relationships between classroom processes and student achievement; teachers' strategies for managing classrooms and coping with problem students; and teachers' strategies for motivating students to learn. His recent focus has been on curricular content and instructional method issues involved in teaching social studies for understanding, appreciation, and life application.

    Jonathan E. Brown is an eight-year public schools educator and is currently a doctoral student in the Department of Educational Psychology at the University of Illinois at Chicago. His program emphasis is in measurement, evaluation, statistics, and assessment.

    Heidi Legg Burross is an associate adjunct professor at the University of Arizona and research consultant on projects funded by grants from OERI and Carnegie. She earned her PhD in educational psychology in 2001. Her research interests include students' self-perceptions of performance and changes in student performances over time.

    Susanna Calkins is the associate director at the Searle Center for Teaching Excellence at Northwestern University (Evanston, Illinois). She received her PhD in European History at Purdue University (West Lafayette, Indiana) in 2001. Her recent publications have focused on faculty conceptions of teaching, learning, and mentoring, and student learning in the history classroom.

    Prudence L. Carter is an associate professor in the School of Education and (by courtesy) the Department of Sociology at Stanford University. She received her MA in Sociology and Education from Columbia University, Teachers College and her MPhil and PhD in Sociology from Columbia University. Dr. Carter's primary research agenda focuses on cultural explanations of academic and mobility differences among various racial and ethnic groups. She is the author of the award-winning book Keepin' It Real: School Success beyond Black and White (Oxford University Press, 2005), which examines the connections among achievement, culture, and identity for low-income African American and Latino students. Other publications by Dr. Carter have appeared in several journals and book volumes, including Sociology of Education, Social Problems, Ethnic and Racial Studies, African American Research Perspectives, and Sociological Studies of Children and Youth. Currently, Dr. Carter is conducting an international, comparative study of schools in South Africa and the United States, which examines strains between mobility and ethno-racial culture for disadvan-taged and socially marginalized students.

    Jess Castle is a graduate student in political science at Boston College and holds a BA in liberal arts from St. John's College. He has previously worked on teacher quality issues at the National Council on Teacher Quality.

    Bruce S. Cooper is professor of educational leadership at the Fordham University Graduate School of Education and editor of the Private School Monitor, his latest book is Better Policies, Better Schools.

    Elizabeth Covay is a sociology graduate student at the University of Notre Dame and a researcher at the Center for Research on Educational Opportunity. Her research interests include curriculum tracking, early childhood education, achievement gaps, and school community.

    George Crawford is an associate professor in the Department of Teaching and Leadership at the University of Kansas, Lawrence. He holds a PhD in Education Administration from The Ohio State University and has scholarly interests in planning, leadership, the ethics of practice, and organizational behavior. Dr. Crawford is a veteran school leader in both the public schools and university.

    Hugh Crethar, PhD, assistant professor, Department of Educational Psychology, University of Arizona, is the 2007–08 president of Counselors for Social Justice, a division of the American Counseling Association.

    Dionne Danns is an assistant professor at Indiana University, Bloomington. She earned her PhD at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Her research interests include African American educational history in the 20th century with special emphasis on the civil rights and Black power eras.

    Linda Darling-Hammond is Charles E. Ducommun Professor of Education at Stanford University, where her research, teaching, and policy work focus on issues of teaching quality, educational equity, and school reform. She is a member of the National Academy of Education and a former president of the American Educational Research Association. Among her recent books on teacher quality are Preparing Teachers for a Changing World (co-edited with John Bransford) and Powerful Teacher Education: Lessons from Exemplary Programs.

    Heather Davis is an assistant professor at North Carolina State University in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction, where she teaches applied child and adolescent development classes for students preparing to teach in P-12 settings. In 2001, she received her PhD from the University of Georgia in applied cognition and development and has served on the faculties of University of Florida and Ohio State University. Her research interests center on the role of student-teacher relationships in promoting students' motivation, learning, and achievement.

    Rheta DeVries is professor of early childhood education at the University of Northern Iowa. She was a public school teacher before studying at the University of Chicago, where she received a PhD in psychology with a specialization in developmental psychology. During subsequent faculty positions at the University of Illinois at Chicago, the Merrill-Palmer Institute, the University of Houston, and her current position, she has worked with teachers and children in classrooms to develop a construc-tivist approach to early education that is informed and inspired by Piaget's research and theory. Dr. DeVries has authored or coauthored eight books, three monographs, and many book chapters and journal articles. She is most well-known for her articulation of constructivist theory and practice with regard to physical-knowledge activities, group games, and the sociomoral atmosphere necessary for children's construction of knowledge/intelligence, personality, and morality.

    Alyson Lavigne Dolan is a doctoral student in the Department of Educational Psychology at the University of Arizona. She received her BA in Psychology at Mount Holyoke College. Prior to attending the University of Arizona she worked in the Department of Psychiatry at the Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, researching prenatal alcohol consumption and concentration and memory in cancer patients. Her current research interests are teacher retention, student and teacher motivational dynamics, and early childhood and elementary education.

    Karen L. Drill (MA, Northwestern University, 1999) is a doctoral student in the Department of Educational Psychology at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC). Her research interests include moral development, adolescent development, gender, and social and emotional learning. Additionally, Drill teaches a variety of courses for current and future educators at UIC. Prior to enrolling at UIC, she worked as a program coordinator for Northwestern University's Center for Talent Development, where she oversaw a rigorous academic program for gifted youth.

    Howard Ebmeier is an associate professor in the Department of Educational Leadership and Policy Studies at the University of Kansas. He holds a PhD in curriculum and instruction from the University of Missouri and has been a school administrator in several school districts. His research interests focus on employment interviews and human resource management.

    Jacquelynne Eccles is the Wilbert McKeachie Collegiate Professor of Psychology, Women's Studies and Education, as well as a research scientist at the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. Over the last 30 years, she has conducted research on a wide variety of topics including gender-role socialization, teacher expectancies, classroom influences on student motivation and afterschool activities. Much of this work has focused on the adolescent periods of life when health-compromising behaviors such as smoking dramatically increase. She received her PhD in developmental psychology from the University of California, Los Angeles. Dr. Eccles has served on the faculty at Smith College, the University of Colorado, and the University of Michigan.

    Edmund T. Emmer is professor and chair of the Department of Educational Psychology at the University of Texas. His research career in the area of classroom management has spanned nearly 30 years. He has taught preservice teachers, teacher trainers, and educational psychologists at the university level. He has also taught at the middle school and high school levels.

    Carolyn M. Evertson, PhD, is Professor of Education Emerita, Peabody College, Vanderbilt University, and director of COMP: Creating Conditions for Learning, a national program for classroom management. She has authored two textbooks on classroom management based on her research on creating supportive classrooms for students. She is the coeditor with Carol Weinstein of the Handbook of Classroom Management: Research Practice and Contemporary Issues (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2006).

    Daniel Fallon is Professor Emeritus of Psychology and Professor Emeritus of Public Policy at the University of Maryland at College Park. He was chair of the Education Division of Carnegie Corporation of New York from 2000 to 2008, and designed and directed the teacher education reform initiative, Teachers for a New Era. An experimental psychologist, he served as Dean of Arts and Sciences at the University of Colorado and Texas A&M University and as provost and academic vice president at the University of Maryland at College Park. He is the author of articles on learning, motivation, animal behavior, and education and of The German University: A Heroic Ideal in Conflict with the Modern World, which won the Eugene M. Kayden book prize for excellence in humanities. Fallon holds a BA from Antioch College and a PhD from the University of Virginia.

    Joyce Fienberg is a research specialist at the Learning Research and Development Center, University of Pittsburgh, where she has engaged in a variety of educational research projects for more than 20 years, including the Museum Learning Collaborative. She has collaborated with Gaea Leinhardt in the design and write-up of numerous studies, including a chapter in Learning Conversations in Museums.

    J. D. Fletcher is a member of the senior research staff at the Institute for Defense Analyses. His research interests include “intelligent” tutoring systems, instructional simulations, wearable performance aids, analyses of skill acquisition and maintenance, and the cost-effectiveness of different instructional approaches. He has designed computer-based instruction programs used in public schools and training devices used in military training.

    Ida Rose Florez, MS, NCSP, is a graduate associate at the University of Arizona, where she is completing a PhD in educational psychology. Florez teaches undergraduate child development and early childhood assessment courses. She earned a master's degree and completed requirements for certification in school psychology at Millersville University in Millersville, Pennsylvania. Florez has led preschool special education assessment teams in three states and served as clinical faculty with Penn State University's College of Medicine on the pediatrie rehabilitation and child psychiatric units at the Hershey Medical Center. She currently conducts research in the areas of early childhood teacher beliefs and preparation, and early childhood assessment.

    David L. Fortus, a senior scientist at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel and an assistant professor at Michigan State University, specializes in developing learning environments that foster the construction of scientific knowledge that can be readily applied in real-world situations. He investigates which supports teachers need to maximize the effectiveness of these environments and the ways in which learning one topic can facilitate the learning of other topics. He has received awards from the National Association for Research in Science Teaching and from the American Psychological Association for his research on the use of design in science classrooms. His publications range from science education to theoretical physics to legal economics. Before receiving a PhD in science education, he was a high school physics teacher and a project director in the aerospace industry.

    Tony Frank (MA, Northwestern University, 1990; Northeastern Illinois University, 1994) is a doctoral student in educational psychology at the University of Illinois at Chicago, and has worked as an administrator and middle school teacher in private schools since 1990. He has also taught courses in adolescent development to pre- and inservice middle school teachers at the University of Illinois at Chicago. His area of research interest is adolescent identity development, particularly within the context of Jewish education.

    Judith K. Franzak is an assistant professor in literacy education at New Mexico State University. A former middle and high school teacher of English language arts, she earned her PhD in language, literacy, and sociocul-tural studies at the University of New Mexico. Her research is in adolescent literacy policy, young adult literature, and the classroom context of secondary language arts education.

    James W. Fraser is professor of history and education at New York University's Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development. His most recent book is Preparing America's Teachers: A History (Teachers College Press, 2007). Earlier works include A History of Hope: When Americans Have Dared to Dream of a Better Future (Palgrave-Macmillan, 2002), Between Church and State: Religion and Public Education in a Multicultural America (Palgrave-Macmillan, 1999), and Reading, Writing, and Justice: School Reform As If Democracy Matters (State University of New York Press, 1997) as well as articles in several journals. Prior to coming to NYU he was professor of history and education and founding dean of the School of Education at Northeastern University in Boston, Massachusetts. Fraser holds a PhD from Columbia University.

    H. Jerome Freiberg is a John and Rebecca Moores University Professor at the University of Houston in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction. His is the editor of the Journal of Classroom Interaction and the founder of Consistency Management and Cooperative Discipline Program. He is author or coauthor of eight books and over 100 scholarly works including: Universal Teaching Strategies (4th ed.), with Amy Driscoll, and Freedom to Learn, (3rd ed.), with psychologist Carl Rogers, which was translated into six languages and selected by the Russian Academy of Education and the Soros Foundation for translation and distribution throughout Russia.

    Marilyn Friend, PhD, is professor of education in the Department of Specialized Education Services at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, where she teaches coursework on inclusive practices and collaboration among service providers. She is the author of Special Education: Contemporary Perspectives for School Professionals (2nd ed., 2008), Interactions: Collaboration Skills for School Professionals (5th ed., 2007; with Dr. Lynne Cook), Including Students With Special Needs: A Practical Guide for Classroom Teachers (4th edition, 2006; with Dr. William Bursuck), and Co-Teach! A Manual for Creating and Sustaining Classroom Partnerships (2008). In addition, she is the coproducer on a series of videotapes about collaboration, coteaching, and inclusion, including The Power of Two (2nd ed., 2005), and the author of more than 50 articles on collaboration, inclusive practices, and related topics.

    Douglas Fuchs is the Nicholas Hobbs Professor of Special Education and Human Development at Vanderbilt University, where he also directs the Kennedy Center Reading Clinic. Doug has conducted programmatic research on response-to-intervention as a method for preventing and identifying children with learning disabilities and on reading instructional methods for improving outcomes for students with learning disabilities. Dr. Fuchs has published more than 200 empirical studies in peer-review journals. He sits on the editorial boards of 10 journals including the American Educational Research Journal, Journal of Educational Psychology, Elementary School Journal, Journal of Learning Disabilities, and Exceptional Children.

    Lynn Fuchs is the Nicholas Hobbs Professor of Special Education and Human Development at Vanderbilt University, where she also codirects the Kennedy Center Reading Clinic. She has conducted programmatic research on assessment methods for enhancing instructional planning and on instructional methods for improving reading and math outcomes for students with learning disabilities. Dr. Fuchs has published more than 200 empirical studies in peer-review journals. She sits on the editorial boards of 10 journals including the Journal of Educational Psychology, Scientific Studies of Reading, Elementary School Journal, Journal of Learning Disabilities, and Exceptional Children.

    Michael Giromini is a PhD candidate at Michigan State University in K-12 educational administration exploring effective high school reform. He teaches physics and mathematics in the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme at the International Academy in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan.

    Yetta M. Goodman is Regents Professor Emerita in the Department of Language, Reading, and Culture in the College of Education at the University of Arizona. She consults with education departments and speaks at conferences throughout the United States and in many nations of the world regarding issues of language, teaching, and learning with implications for language arts curricula. In addition to her research in early literacy, miscue analysis, and in exploring reading and writing processes, she has popularized the term kidwatching, encouraging teachers to be professional observers of the language and learning development of their students. She is a major spokesperson for whole language and in her extensive writing shows concern for the role of democracy and social justice in the curriculum. She is past president of The National Council of Teachers of English and the Center for the Expansion of Language and Thinking. She is a member of the Reading Hall of Fame and has received numerous awards for her research, scholarship, and teaching.

    A. Lin Goodwin is professor of education and associate dean for teacher education at Teachers College, Columbia University. Her research focuses on connections between teachers' identities and their development; on multicultural understandings and curriculum enactments; and on the issues facing Asian Americans in U.S. schools.

    Elizabeth Graue is a professor of early childhood education in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. A former kindergarten teacher, her research addresses kindergarten policy and practice, homeschool relations, and, most currently, class size reduction programs.

    Teresa Greene is a doctoral student in developmental psychology/systems science at Portland State University. Her dissertation research explores the developmental progression of the dynamic relationships among perceptions of control, engagement, and coping strategies, and the contextual contributions of social partners. She also designs evaluative studies of educational programs and manages all data collection and reporting processes for the Office of Educational Improvement and Innovation at the Oregon Department of Education.

    James G. Greeno is a visiting professor of education at the University of Pittsburgh and Margaret Jacks Professor of Education Emeritus at Stanford University. His research advances a situative theory of learning in classroom settings, with a particular focus on the agency and identity of students as they participate in classroom discourse and activity. Greeno is a member of the National Academy of Education and has received the Edward Lee Thorndike Award, a John Simon Guggenheim Foundation fellowship, and a fellowship from the Center for Advanced Study in Behavioral Sciences.

    Douglas A. Grouws is research professor of mathematics education and William T Kemper Fellow at the University of Missouri. His current research project, Comparing Options in School Mathematics: Investigating Curriculum (COSMIC), is funded by the National Science Foundation. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics recently presented him with its Lifetime Achievement Award.

    Thomas R. Guskey is Distinguished Service Professor and Codirector of the Center for the Advanced Study of Assessment at Georgetown College in Georgetown, Kentucky. His research focuses on educational reform, teacher change, professional development, and student assessment and grading. Dr. Guskey's publications include 14 books, 30 book chapters, and more than 100 journal articles. His most recent books include Benjamin S. Bloom: Portraits of an Educator (Rowman & Littlefield, 2006), How's My Kid Doing? A Parents' Guide to Grades, Marks, and Report Cards (Jossey-Bass, 2002), Developing Grading and Reporting Systems for Student Learning (Corwin Press, 2001), Evaluating Professional Development (Corwin Press, 2000), ma Implementing Mastery Learning, 2nd edition (Wadsworth, 1997).

    AUyson Fiona Hadwin received her PhD in psychology of education from Simon Fraser University in 2000. She is now an associate professor in educational psychology, and codirector of the Technology Integration and Evaluation Lab at the University of Victoria, Canada. Hadwin's program of research examines the design and delivery of instruction and technologies that promote self- and co-regulated learning. Hadwin is a coauthor of the g Study software for supporting and researching SRL in solo and collaborative eLearning activities.

    Rogers Hall is professor in the Department of Teaching and Learning, Vanderbilt University. His research interests include: the learning and teaching of mathematics, both as a school topic and as a resource for modeling and inference in scientific inquiry; studies of learning in and out of school; comparative studies of mathematical activity in school and work settings; and (most generally) the organization and development of representational practices in technical and scientific work.

    Dwayne E. Ham, Sr., MSEd, is a graduate student at the University of Maryland and works as an elementary school counselor in Prince George's County (Maryland) Public Schools. He earned his master's degree from North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University in Greensboro, North Carolina, and is interested in educational leadership/policy and counselor education.

    Robert D. Hannafin is an associate professor at the University of Connecticut. His research interests include open learning environments and issues surrounding technology integration in K-12 and teacher education.

    Christopher Harris (PhD, University of Michigan) is an assistant professor in the College of Education at the University of Arizona. His research focuses on science education and on designing innovative environments for science learning. Of particular interest to him is integrating science education and the learning sciences to transform classrooms into environments that promote meaningful learning for all students.

    Margaret Hawkins is an associate professor of ESL and bilingual education in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Research interests include language and literacy development of young English learners in schools, homeschool relations, and community-based learning sites for immigrant and refugee youth.

    Willis D. Hawley is Professor Emeritus of Education and Public Policy at the University of Maryland and Scholar-in-Residence at the American Association of School Administrators. He has been executive director of the National Partnership for Excellence and Accountability in Teaching and served as dean of the College of Education at the University of Maryland and Peabody College of Vanderbilt University. He taught at Yale and Duke Universities before going to Vanderbilt. Hawley has published numerous books, articles, and chapters dealing with the education of teachers, teacher quality, school reform, urban politics, political learning, organizational change, race relations, school desegregation, and educational policy. In 1977–78, he served as director of Education Studies, President's Reorganization Project, Executive Office of the President of the United States. He organized and directed the Common Destiny Alliance, a national consortium of organizations and scholars committed to improving inter-group relations.

    Justin Heinze (MA, University of Michigan, 2004) has worked in higher education and is currently pursuing a PhD in educational psychology. His research interests include belonging and exclusion, first year transitions to college, and moral judgments of companies and organizations.

    Joan L. Herman is with the National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing. Herman is director of the National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST), headquartered at UCLA's Graduate School of Education and Information Studies. Her research interests focus on the design and use of assessment to improve schools and student learning, teachers' formative assessment practices, and validity in new forms of testing.

    Frederick M. Hess is a resident scholar and director of Education Policy Studies at the American Enterprise Institute and executive editor of Education Next. His work on issues related to teacher quality has appeared in publications including Journal of Teacher Education, Teachers College Record, Phi Delta Kappan, Policy Review, Educational Policy, Urban Affairs Review, Trusteeship, American School Board Journal, and Boston Globe. Dr. Hess is a former public high school teacher in Louisiana and professor of education and politics at the University of Virginia. He holds an MEd in education and an MA and PhD in government from Harvard University.

    Scott R. Hinze has a master's degree in psychology and is currently pursuing his doctorate in cognitive psychology at the University of Illinois at Chicago. His research interests include the dynamic processes involved in learning and memory and the implications of cognitive science for education.

    Stephanie A. Hirsh is the executive director of the National Staff Development Council. Hirsh has been recognized by the Texas Staff Development Council with a Lifetime Achievement Award; by the University of North Texas as a Distinguished Alumnae; and by the Texas Association of School Boards as Master Trustee. She serves on a number of advisory boards including Learning First Alliance, Microsoft Partners in Learning, and the National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems. Dr. Hirsh's articles have appeared in most education magazines including Educational Leadership, Phi Delta Kappan, American School Board Journal, Education Week, and the Journal of Staff Development. She has coauthored more than five books including The Learning Educator (2008) with Joellen Killion. Dr. Hirsh spent 15 years in school district leadership positions. In 2005, she completed three terms as a school board trustee in the Richardson Independent School District.

    Marcy J. Hochberg (MA, Northeastern Illinois University, 1999) is a doctoral student in educational psycholgoy at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) and has worked in higher education and student affairs for a number of years. Hochberg is interested in how individuals coordinate competing types of information (scientific, religious) in making moral decisions. She also teaches courses in child and adolescent development at UIC, as well as Triton College.

    John D. Hoge has taught elementary and middle school social studies in rural, urban, and suburban schools. His career in teacher education extends over 40 years and encompasses work at a variety of institutions from the South, West, and Midwest. For the past 20 years, Dr. Hoge has worked at the University of Georgia preparing graduate and undergraduate social studies educators for a variety of professional roles.

    Linda Hoke-Sinex is a grants writer and adjunct instructor in the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences at Indiana University. She received her doctorate in educational psychology from Indiana University. Dr. Hoke-Sinex's research interests include the social construction of gender and the psychological influences of gender roles on human development. Her most recent research examined the influence of college level gender studies courses on gender roles and feminist identity development.

    Kathleen V. Hoover-Dempsey (PhD and MA, Michigan State University; AB, University of California, Berkeley) is associate professor of psychology and human development and education, Peabody College, Vanderbilt University. Her research focuses on parental involvement in child and adolescent education, especially parents' motivations for becoming involved and the processes through which their involvement influences student learning. She and her colleagues have also developed school-based interventions designed to increase the effectiveness of parental involvement.

    Shirley M. Hord is Scholar Laureate at NSDC, the National Staff Development Council, in Boeme, Texas. She authors articles and books on school-based professional development, school change and improvement, and professional learning communities; her current publications are Learning Together, Leading Together: Changing Schools Through Professional Learning Communities (2004) and Leading Professional Learning Communities: Voices from Research and Practice (2008). She monitors and supports the Leadership for Change Networks and the Concerns-Based Adoption Model constituencies, and designs and delivers professional development that nurtures school leadership. Her research, development, and training efforts have taken her across the United States, Canada, Mexico, Europe, Asia, Australia, and Africa.

    Stacey S. Horn (PhD, University of Maryland, 2000) is an associate professor in the Department of Educational Psychology and program coordinator for the MEd in youth development at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Dr. Horn investigates how adolescents reason about issues of peer harassment and social exclusion. She has published numerous journal articles and book chapters on adolescents' social cognition and peer relationships, prejudice related to sexual orientation and gender expression, and safe schools for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth. She teaches a course in adolescent development to pre- and inservice middle school and high school teachers. Dr. Horn is a former high school English teacher and has been a youth advocate for more than 20 years.

    Brian Hughes (EdD, Teachers College, Columbia University) is the director of the Design Center at the Gottesman Libraries at Teachers College, where he leads the development of media and production resources. His research focuses on creativity and education.

    Ju Hur, MA, is a doctoral student in educational policy and administration at the University of Minnesota. Hur is currently exploring research interests in the area of school leadership and sustainability of educational innovations.

    Marsha Ing is a postdoctoral fellow at Stanford University School of Education's Institute for Research on Education Policy and Practice. Her research interests focus on methods of measuring student learning ranging from large-scale surveys to teacher assessment practices.

    Charles E. Jenks received his MEd from the University of South Carolina and his PhD from the University of Georgia, writing his dissertation on school desegregation in the South. He taught high school social studies for 10 years prior to completing his PhD. He taught at Penn State for 4 years and Augusta State University for the past 9 years.

    Elisabeth M. Jerome, MEd, is a doctoral candidate in clinical and school psychology at the University of Virginia and a research assistant at the Center for Advanced Study of Teaching and Learning in Charlottesville, Virginia. Her research interests include child development, the role of teacher-child relationships in early developmental success, and identifying factors that promote success for ELL, refugee, and immigrant youth.

    Celia E. Johnson, coordinator of special education programs, has taught in teacher education and special education programs for 36 years. The focus of her research is in the area of learning environments, particularly in the home, school, and community settings. She teaches early childhood, literacy, and special education courses. Johnson has published approximately 26 books, chapters, and articles.

    Lauri Johnson is an associate professor in the Department of Educational Leadership and Policy at the University at Buffalo, where she teaches courses in multicultural education, urban education, and school leadership. She completed her PhD in multicultural education at the University of Washington in 1999. Before joining the faculty at the University at Buffalo, she was an administrator in the New York City Public Schools for many years, where she specialized in the professional development of teachers in issues of diversity. Her research interests include examining how White educators conceptualize race, multicultural policy implementation in the United States and Canada, historical and contemporary studies of community activism in urban school reform, and culturally responsive urban school leadership.

    James M. Kauffman is Professor Emeritus of Education at the University of Virginia and a former classroom teacher. He received the 2002 Outstanding Leadership Award from the Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders and the 2006 Award for Effective Presentation of Behavior Analysis in the Mass Media from the Society for Applied Behavior Analysis. His primary research and publication interests are emotional and behavioral disorders, learning disabilities, and the history of special education.

    Paul Kelleher is Norme R. Murchison Distinguished Professor of Education and chair of the Department of Education at Trinity University, San Antonio, Texas. Previously, he served for 35 years in public schools as a teacher, principal, and superintendent of schools. Kelleher holds a bachelor's and master's degrees from Harvard University and a doctorate from Teachers College at Columbia. He is the author of many articles and several books.

    Sean Kelly is an assistant professor of sociology at the University of Notre Dame and the Center for Research on Educational Opportunity. His research has focused on several educational issues facing America's schools, including problems of student engagement, the process of matching teachers to classrooms, the assignment of diverse students to course sequences in high school, and the causes of teacher attrition.

    Mary M. Kennedy is a professor at Michigan State University. Her scholarship focuses on the relationship between knowledge and teaching practice, the nature of knowledge used in teaching practice, and on how research knowledge and policy initiatives can improve practice. She has published three books addressing the relationship between knowledge and teaching and has won five awards for her work, the most recent being the Margaret B. Lindsey Award for Distinguished Research in Teacher Education.

    Alesha L. Kientzler, PhD, is the principal of Re-Create Strategies, LLC, a consulting firm designed to assist businesses, schools, and youth-based organizations with the process of creating sustainable cultures of Wellness. Her mission is to provide an authentic spirit of support for people to make the most out of their lives—physically, intellectually, emotionally, socially, and spiritually— through lasting improvements within and across communities.

    Paul A. Kirschner is professor of educational sciences at the Department of Pedagogical and Educational Sciences at Utrecht University (as well as head of the Research Centre Interaction and Learning and dean of the research master program Educational Sciences: Learning in Interaction). He holds a master's degree in educational psychology from University of Amsterdam and a PhD from the Open University of the Netherlands. He is an internationally recognized expert in his field, having coauthored the Ten Steps to Complex Learning (Taylor & Francis, 2007) and edited two other recent and very successful books (Visualizing Argumentation [Springer Verlag, 2003] and What We Know About CSCL [Kluwer, 2004]).

    Michael B. Krapes has been teaching art and psychology at the secondary school level since 1984. Currently teaching at Rubidoux High School in Riverside, California, he received his BA (studio art) and teaching credentials from the University of California, Irvine, his MA (psychology) from United States International University, and PhD (clinical psychology) from Alliant International University.

    Timothy J. Landrum, PhD, is an associate professor and senior scientist in the Curry School of Education at University of Virginia. He serves as a member of the executive board of the Division for Research in the Council for Exceptional Children. He has been a teacher of students with emotional and behavioral disorders, and recently a teacher educator and researcher. His work focuses on classroom and behavior management and the translation of research into practice.

    Suzanne Lane is a professor in the research methodology program at the University of Pittsburgh. She obtained her PhD in research methodology, measurement, and statistics at the University of Arizona. Her research has involved the design and validation of performance assessments for education reform projects as well as for state assessment programs. She has published numerous articles and chapters on technical and validity issues related to performance assessments. She was the president of the National Council on Measurement in Education.

    Gaea Leinhardt, senior scientist, Learning Research and Development Center, and professor, School of Education, University of Pittsburgh, earned her PhD in educational research from the University of Pittsburgh. Her research has focused on the teaching and learning of specific subject matter, modeling instructional explanations, understanding the nature of expertise in teaching, teacher assessment, program evaluation, and recently the exploration of learning in non school settings such as museums and online initiatives. As director of the Museum Learning Collaborative, she authored journal articles and coauthored and coedited two volumes on learning in museums: Learning Conversations in Museums and Listening in on Museum Conversations.

    Nonie K. Lesaux is Marie and Max Kargman Assistant Professor in Human Development and Urban Education at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. Lesaux leads a research program that focuses on reading development and difficulties of children from linguistically diverse backgrounds. Lesaux conducts developmental and instructional research that has implications for practitioners, researchers, and policy makers.

    Ashley E. Lewis is a research associate at the Education Development Center's Center for Children and Technology. She currently manages a large-scale randomized controlled trial of the “Big Math for Little Kids” curriculum. Her master's degree from the University of Minnesota focused on children's comprehension within various media formats and she received her PhD in educational psychology from the same institution in 2007. In addition to her work at CCT, her diverse interests have allowed her to research a wide variety of topics, including the moral development of gifted students, the evaluation of after-school programs, the impact of domestic violence on children's development, and the symbolic understanding of young children. In addition to her research experience, Lewis has extensive teaching experience that includes both enriching student learning with online resources and designing and implementing online courses.

    John S. Levin is the Bank of America Professor of Education Leadership and the director and principal investigator of the California Community College Collaborative (C4). His books in this decade include Globalizing the Community College (Palgrave, 2001), Community College Faculty: At Work in the New Economy (Palgrave MacMillan, 2006; with Susan Kater and Richard Wagoner), and Non-Traditional Students and Community Colleges: The Conflict of Justice and Neo-Liberalism (Palgrave MacMillan, 2007).

    Guofang Li is an associate professor of literacy education in Teacher Education Department of College of Education at Michigan State University. Her research interests include second language and literacy education, family and community literacy practices of immigrant and minority groups, and the interrelationship between minority literacy practices and mainstream schooling. Li's major publications include three sole-authored books, Culturally Contested Literacies: America's “Rainbow Underclass” and Urban Schools (Routledge, 2008). Culturally Contested Pedagogy: Battles of Literacy and Schooling between Mainstream Teachers and Asian Immigrant Parents (SUNY Press, 2006, winner of 2006 Ed Fry Book Award, National Reading Conference), “East is East, West is West”? Home Literacy, Culture, and Schooling (Peter Lang, 2002), and a coedited volume, “Strangers” of the Academy: Asian Women Scholars in Higher Education (Stylus, 2006).

    Greg Light is director of the Searle Center for Teaching Excellence at Northwestern University. He received his PhD in education from the University of London. His research and his publications are focused on student learning and the professional development of teaching in higher education. He is author of the book Learning and Teaching in Higher Education: The Reflective Professional (2001).

    Francesca A. Lopez is a former elementary teacher, and is now a doctoral candidate in the educational psychology program at the University of Arizona. Her research interests include policy influences on academic proficiency among English Language Learners, and student perceptions of academic competence.

    Mary Lundeberg is a professor in the Teacher Education and Educational Psychology Departments at Michigan State University, and codirector, Literacy Achievement Research Center. Dr. Lundeberg received her PhD in educational psychology from the University of Minnesota in 1985 and joined the MSU faculty in 2003. Her research interests include cultural and gender influences in confidence, problem-based pedagogy in teacher education and science, interactive multimedia learning environments, and scientific literacy.

    Douglas J. Mac Iver is principal research scientist and codirector of the Center for Social Organization of Schools at Johns Hopkins University. He directs the Talent Development Middle Grades Program and conducts research on the impact of reform efforts on middle grades student achievement. His recent articles have appeared in Educational Psychologist, Journal of Research in Mathematics Education, Journal of Curriculum and Instruction, and Review of Policy Research.

    Martha Abele Mac Iver is associate research scientist at the Center for Social Organization of Schools at Johns Hopkins University. Her recent articles deal with such educational reform issues as vouchers, educational privatization, alternative certification, new teacher retention, high school reform, and other comprehensive school reform issues.

    Ellen B. Mandinach is a senior research analyst at the CNA Corporation in Alexandria, VA. Previously Dr. Mandinach was the associate director for research at the Education Development Center's Center for Children and Technology and the director for research for the Northeast and Islands Regional Education Laboratory. She holds a PhD in educational psychology from Stanford University. Dr. Mandinach's research has focused on the impact of technology on teaching, learning, and social organizations. She has spent over 25 years conducting research in the area of educational technology, writing extensively on the topic. Dr. Mandinach is a member of AERA, NCME, and APA and will serve as president of APA's division of educational psychology in 2008–09.

    Ronald W. Marx (PhD, Stanford University) is professor of educational psychology and dean of education at the University of Arizona. His interdisciplinary research focuses on how classrooms can be sites for learning that are highly motivating and cognitively engaging by enhancing science education and developing teacher professional development models to sustain long-term change. This work is highly collaborative with urban teachers and education leaders in order to create useable research findings that can support educational reform.

    DeWayne A. Mason, after 10 years as a principal, 10 years in higher education, and 6 years as a district assistant superintendent, has returned to his roots—teaching visual arts. Currently in his fifth year at Patriot High School (Riverside, California), he received his BA (studio art), MA and educational specialist (educational administration), and PhD (curriculum and instruction) at University of Missouri, Columbia.

    Christine Massey is the director of research and education at the Institute for Research in Cognitive Science at the University of Pennsylvania, where she also received her PhD in psychology. Her research interests connect basic research in developmental cognitive science with mathematics and science learning in educational settings. She has directed a number of funded projects involving research, development, and evaluation related to student learning and curriculum and instruction for PreK through high school.

    Richard E. Mayer is professor of psychology at the University of California, Santa Barbara, where he has served since 1975. He received a PhD in psychology from the University of Michigan in 1973 and served as visiting assistant professor of psychology at Indiana University from 1973 to 1975. His research interests are in educational and cognitive psychology. His current research focuses on multimedia learning and computer-supported learning, with the goal of developing evidence-based principles for the design of multimedia instruction. He is the author or editor of 23 books and more than 280 journal articles and chapters, including The Promise of Educational Psychology: Vols. 1 and 2 (1999, 2002), Multimedia Learning (2001), Cambridge Handbook of Multimedia Learning (editor, 2005), e-Learning and the Science of Instruction (with R. Clark, 2003, 2008), and Learning and Instruction (2003, 2008).

    Sarah McCarthey is professor of language and literacy studies in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Her research interests include children's writing, students' literacy identities, and teachers' writing practices. She has published two books and many articles in journals including Reading Research Quarterly, Research in the Teaching of English, Journal of Literacy Research, and Written Communication. She is currently coeditor of Research in the Teaching of English with Mark Dressman and Paul Prior.

    Mary McCaslin, PhD, Michigan State University (1981), is a professor of educational psychology at the University of Arizona. McCaslin's scholarship focuses on the relationships among cultural, social, and personal sources of influence that coregulate student adaptive learning, motivational dynamics, and emergent identity.

    Kimberly A. McDuffle, PhD, is an assistant professor in the Eugene Moore School of Education at Clemson University. She was formerly a special education teacher and taught students with learning disabilities and emotional/ behavioral disorders. Her research interests include instructional strategies for effective inclusive education, coteaching and collaboration, and the translation of research into practice.

    Keisha Mclntosh is a doctoral student in the Department of Curriculum and Teaching at Teachers College, Columbia University. She is interested in how cultural identity models may scaffold learning experiences that prepare teachers to work with culturally diverse students. She received a BA in English and an MAT from Hampton University.

    Melissa D. McNaught is a PhD student in mathematics education at the University of Missouri. She is a fellow with the Center for the Study of Mathematics Curriculum, and her dissertation research focuses on mathematics curriculum implementation in high school classrooms.

    Susan L. Melnick serves as assistant dean for academic outreach programs in the College of Education at Michigan State University. She teaches education policy-related courses.

    Christopher L. Miller is assistant professor in the Department of Educational Policy Studies in the College of Education at the University of Illinois at Chicago. His research focuses on on how science teaching is supported at the school-district level.

    Linda A. Mitchell taught social studies, language arts, and reading at the middle school level for 10 years. She received her PhD from Auburn University in Auburn, Alabama, and currently teaches secondary social studies education at Jacksonville State University in Jacksonville, Alabama.

    Lindsey Mohan is a doctoral student in the educational psychology program at Michigan State University. She holds a BA from the University of Notre Dame. She taught eighth-grade science and more recently has taught undergraduate courses in the teacher education program at Michigan State University. She has worked in elementary and middle school classrooms documenting highly engaging and effective literacy and science instruction. Her research interests include teaching, learning, and motivation in science and literacy classrooms, with a special interest in the engagement and discourse practices used by exemplary teachers.

    Tamera B. Murdock is an associate professor and associate chair of the Department of Psychology at University of Missouri-Kansas City, where she teaches course in motivation, educational psychology, and statistics. Her research focuses on contextual sources of motivation and behavior in classroom settings and the application of statistical models to studying context. Most recently, she has been theoretical models from achievement motivation to understanding cheating. Her work in this area has been published in the Journal of Educational Psychology, the Educational Psychologist, Contemporary Education, and the Social Psychology of Education. She recently completed an edited book, Psychology of Academic Cheating, with Eric M. Anderman, which was published by Elsevier Press.

    Gary Natriello (PhD, Stanford University) is the Ruth L. Gottesman Professor in Educational Research and professor of sociology and education at Teachers College, Columbia University. Natriello is the director of the Gottesman Libraries at Teachers College and the executive editor of the Teachers College Record. His research focuses on the social organization of educational systems.

    Sharon L. Nichols received her PhD in educational psychology from the University of Arizona and is currently an assistant professor at the University of Texas at San Antonio. Her research interests merge student motivation and development, teacher-student relationships, and educational policy. Her most recent work focuses on the role and impact of high-stakes testing on teacher practice and student motivation and development. She is an editorial board member for the journal Educational Policy Analysis Archives and is the current chair of the Adolescence and Youth Development Special Interest Group of AERA.

    Thomas Oakland is professor of educational psychology at the University of Florida. He is president of the International Foundation for Children's Education, president elect of the International Association of Applied Psychologists' Division of Psychological Assessment and Evaluation, and past president of the International School Psychology Association and the International Test Commission. He has worked in more than 40 countries. Dr. Oakland holds an honorary status of professor of psychology at the rberoamerican University in San Jose, Costa Rica, and The University of Hong Kong.

    Bridget N. O'Connor (PhD, Indiana University) is professor of higher education and business education in the Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development at New York University, where she coordinates the MA program in business education. She has experience teaching business subjects at the high school level in Morocco, Indiana, and Brussels, Belgium. As a Peace Corps volunteer in Afghanistan (mid-1970s), she initiated a cooperative work program at Kabul University. She has served as a member of the PCBEE. Her research is centered on curriculum development and the transfer of learning. Her most recent coauthored book is Learning at Work: How to Support Individual and Group Learning (HRD Press, 2007).

    Amy M. Olson is a graduate research associate in the Department of Educational Psychology at the University of Arizona. Olson's area of interest and research brings a measurement perspective to understanding the high school to college transition, especially for first-generation students, their families, and the social support structures available on college campuses.

    Becky Wai-Ling Packard is an associate professor at Mount Holyoke College. She earned her PhD in educational psychology at Michigan State University. Her research and teaching focuses on motivation and identity development during adolescence and young adulthood with a focus on low-income, first-generation college students and women. She has worked closely with adolescent mentoring and leadership programs.

    Laura Paige is a doctoral student in Teacher Education at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Her research focuses on supporting teachers' implementation of mathematics curricula. She also works as a math specialist in a public elementary school.

    Anthony D. Pellegrini is a professor of psychological foundations of education in the Department of Educational Psychology, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities Campus. He has research interests in methodological issues in the general area of human development, with specific interests in direct observations. His substantive interests are in the development of play and dominance. He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association and has been awarded a Fellowship from the British Psychological Society.

    James W. Pellegrino is Liberal Arts and Sciences Distinguished Professor of Cognitive Psychology and Distinguished Professor of Education at the University of Illinois at Chicago. He also serves as codirector of UIC's interdisciplinary Learning Sciences Research Institute. Dr. Pellegrino's research and development interests focus on children's and adult's thinking and learning and the implications of cognitive research and theory for assessment and instructional practice.

    Robert C. Pianta is the dean of the Curry School of Education at the University of Virginia, as well as the Novartis U.S. Foundation Professor of Education and a professor in the Department of Psychology. He also serves as the director for both the National Center for Research in Early Childhood Education and the Center for Advanced Study of Teaching and Learning. Dr. Pianta's work has focused on the predictors of child outcomes and school readiness, particularly adult-child relationships, and the transition to kindergarten. His recent work has focused on better understanding the nature of teacher-child interactions, classroom quality, and child competence, through standardized observational assessment. Dr. Pianta has conducted research on professional development, both at the preservice and inservice levels. He has published more than 300 scholarly papers and is lead author on several influential books related to early childhood and elementary education. He has recently begun work to develop a preschool mathematics curriculum, incorporating a Web-based teacher support component. Dr. Pianta received a BS and a MA in special education from the University of Connecticut, and a PhD in psychology from the University of Minnesota, and began his career as a special education teacher.

    Morgan S. Polikoff is an Institute of Education Sciences (IES)-supported doctoral fellow at the University of Pennsylvania. He is currently part of a Wallace Foundation-supported project to develop and test an education leadership performance assessment and a National Science Foundation-supported project to study middle school mathematics teacher induction. His primary research interests center on the effects of state and national policies on mathematics teaching and achievement.

    Lisa S. Ponti (PhD candidate, business education, New York University) is presently at work on her dissertation, which is related to the effective learning of economics. She has an MBA from NYU's Stern School of Business and is an adjunct professor at Ramapo College in New Jersey, where she teaches macro- and microeconomics as well as personal and corporate finance. Prior to her career in academe, Lisa worked in the financial services industry as an analyst as well as a commercial lending officer.

    Inge R. Poole, PhD, is an educational consultant based at Peabody College, Vanderbilt University. Her primary interest is teacher education. As a COMP National Trainer, she provides training for other workshop leaders to help teachers develop proactive classroom management.

    Andrew C. Porter is dean of the Graduate School of Education at the University of Pennsylvania and George and Diane Weiss Professor of Education. He is an elected member and vice president of the National Academy of Education, member of the National Assessment Governing Board, Lifetime National Associate of the National Academies, and past president of the American Educational Research Association.

    Diana C. Pullin is an attorney and educator. She teaches education law and public policy at The Lynch School of Education and the School of Law at Boston College.

    Augustina Reyes, a professor at the University of Houston, has served as associate superintendent for bilingual programs at the Houston Independent School District. As an associate professor, Dr. Reyes directed the Principals' Institute at Texas A&M University. Her most current book is Discipline, Achievement, and Race: Is Zero Tolerance the Answer? (Rowman & Littlefield, 2006). She has published in several journals including the Fordham University School of Law Urban Law Journal and St. John's School of Law Journal of Legal Commentary.

    Barak Rosenshine is an emeritus professor in the College of Education at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. His specialities are classroom instruction and cognitive strategy instruction.

    Christine Rubie-Davies is currently a senior lecturer in the faculty of education at The University of Auckland in New Zealand. An elementary school teacher for more than 20 years, she was seconded into the university in 1998 to set up elementary school teacher education programs. Rubie-Davies recently received a National Tertiary Teaching Excellence Award in recognition of her teaching skills.

    Frances O'Connell Rust is senior vice president for academic affairs and dean of faculty at the Erikson Institute. Between 1991 and 2007, Rust was professor of education in Steinhardt School of New York University. Her research and teaching focus on teacher education and teacher research. Rust's most recent books are How to Do Action Research in Your Classroom: Lessons From the Teachers Network Leadership Institute (Rust & Clark, Teachers Network, 2006), Taking Action Through Teacher Research (Meyers & Rust, Heinemann, 2003), and Guiding School Change: New Understandings of the Role and Work of Change Agents (Rust & Freidus, Teachers College Press, 2001). She was one of the contributing authors to Darling-Hammond and Bransford's Preparing Teachers for a Changing World (National Academies Press, 2005).

    Darrell Sabers, PhD, from Iowa, is a professor of educational psychology at the University of Arizona. His research specialty is applied psychometrics, especially focused on educational testing and research.

    Lawrence J. Saha is professor in the School of Social Sciences at the Australian National University (ANU). He received his PhD from the University of Texas, Austin, in sociology. He is former dean of the faculty of arts, ANU, and is currently editor of Social Psychology of Education: An International Journal. He has published in the fields of comparative education, education and national development, and political socialization among youth. He was editor of The International Encyclopedia of the Sociology of Education (Pergamon Press, 1997) and recently coau-thored The Untested Accusation: Principals, Research Knowledge, and Policy Making in Schools (Ablex, 2002; Scarecrow Press, 2005). His teaching and research interests are in sociology of education, the sociology of social movements, and social psychology.

    Susan T. Schertzer, EdD, is an educational consultant and doctoral dissertation advisor. She is a former assistant director of Diversity and Multicultural Affairs at Bowie State University, where she earned her doctorate in educational leadership.

    Jill Shackelford is currently the fourth superintendent to lead the First Things First initiative in the Kansas City, Kansas, Public Schools. During the planning and beginning stages and first seven years of district-wide implementation of FTF, she was the assistant superintendent of curriculum and instruction, and instrumental in supporting the systemic change. Dr. Shackelford's knowledge is based upon 18 years as an elementary teacher and reading specialist, 5 years as an elementary principal, and 18 years in the central office working in all areas of curriculum and instruction. In addition to her elementary degree, she has a master's degree in curriculum and instruction and a doctorate in education administration—all from Oklahoma State University.

    Cynthia Thrasher Shamberger, MEd, is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Specialized Education Services at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. Her research focuses on collaboration among professional educators. She is passionate about facilitating inclusive practices which promote access to the general education curriculum for students with disabilities and other special needs. Her experience includes seven years teaching middle school students with behavioral and emotional disabilities as well as elementary students with learning disabilities.

    Dorothy Shipps is associate professor of public policy and education at Baruch College, City University of New York, where she teaches urban education policy analysis to students of public affairs and prepares principals for New York City schools.

    Sandra Simpkins is an assistant professor at the School of Social and Family Dynamics at Arizona State University. Her research focuses on children's participation in organized and informal afterschool activities. She was recently awarded the William T. Grant Scholar award to investigate the predictors of Mexican-origin adolescents' participation in a variety of organized afterschool activities. In addition to her empirical research, she has translated her and others' research in several articles for practitioners and policy makers in the afterschool field. She received her PhD in developmental psychology from the University of California, Riverside.

    John F. Siskar is assistant to the dean of arts and humanities at Buffalo State, and recently stepped down as the interim director of the Center for Urban and Rural Education at Buffalo State. His recent research explores art education, urban education, rural education, and the role of technology in education. A former high school art teacher, he strongly believes that the best teaching takes place when sound educational theory informs effective classroom practices. He regards the public school and college partnerships he has participated in as some of his most rewarding work. He has been projector director or principal investigator on a number of grants, including work with rural schools. He has presented at national and international conferences as well as published chapters and articles on rural education.

    Ellen Skinner is a professor of psychology and human development at Portland State University in Portland, Oregon. Her work focuses the development of motivation and coping in children and adolescents, with particular attention to the role of self-system processes and close relationships with parents and teachers; she has a special interest in theory development and measure construction. Trained as a life-span developmental psychologist, Dr. Skinner has also worked with the Motivation Research Group at the University of Rochester and at the Max Plank Institute for Human Development and Education in Berlin, Germany.

    Robert E. Slavin is director of the Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education at Johns Hopkins University and director of the Institute for Effective Education at the University of York, England. He is also the chairman of the Success for All Foundation. Dr. Slavin's research focuses on comprehensive school reform, cooperative learning, school and classroom organization, and research review.

    BetsAnn Smith is associate professor of educational administration at Michigan State University. Her research addresses school reform, urban school development, relationships between school organization and learning opportunity, and the influences of policy on school improvement.

    Mark A. Smylie is professor of education at the University of Illinois at Chicago and chair of the Department of Educational Policy Studies in the College of Education. His research focuses on education organizational change, teacher and administrative leadership, and urban school improvement.

    Jennifer Sommerness, MA, is a doctoral student in educational policy and administration at the University of Minnesota. She has extensive direct service and professional development experience in the area of inclusive education. She has coauthored several articles and monographs on teacher leadership in the context of inclusive education.

    Christopher Span is an assistant professor at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He is a historian of education in the department of educational policy studies. His research interests pertain to the educational history of African Americans in the 19th and 20th century.

    Robert J. Sternberg is dean of the School of Arts and Sciences and professor of psychology at Tufts University, as well as honorary professor at the University of Heidelberg. His PhD is from Stanford and he also has eight honorary doctorates. His research is primarily on human abilities, including intelligence, creativity, and wisdom.

    Zollie Stevenson, Jr., PhD, has managed Title I programs at the school district, state and federal education levels. In addition to serving as a Title I program manager he serves as an Adjunct Graduate Faculty member and dissertation chairman/advisor for the Educational Leadership doctoral program at Bowie State University in Maryland. He earned the PhD at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

    Laura M. Stough is associate professor at Texas A&M University. Her area of research focuses on the application of educational psychology theory on individuals with disabilities. She has taught classroom management classes at the university level and currently directs a training program for special education teachers obtaining their master's degrees. She began her educational career teaching students with intellectual disabilities and autism in public schools over two decades ago.

    Jessica J. Summers is an assistant professor of educational psychology at the University of Arizona. Dr. Summers earned her degree from the University of Texas at Austin in 2002 and has developed a program of research in academic motivation concerning the influence of peers and collaborative/cooperative learning methods.

    Janice Templeton received her MA in general experimental psychology from Wake Forest University and is recent PhD graduate in the Combined Program in Education and Psychology at the University of Michigan. She is now an assistant professor at Fort Lewis College. Her research interests include social, emotional, and psychological factors that promote positive development in adolescence and in the transition to adulthood with an emphasis on spiritual development.

    Rosalyn Anstine Templeton, executive dean of the College of Education and Human Services, has taught in teacher education and special education programs for the past 23 years. Her area of research is in learning environments, especially in the school, home and community arena. Templeton has published approximately 40 articles and book chapters and is coauthor of How to Talk So Kids Can Learn At Home and in School.

    Robert Teranishi is assistant professor of education in the Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development at New York University and a faculty affiliate in the Steinhardt Institute for Higher Education Policy and the Alliance for International Higher Education Policy. Prior to coming to NYU, Teranishi was a National Institute of Mental Health postdoctoral fellow at the University of Pennsylvania and received his MA and PhD from the University of California, Los Angeles.

    Paul Theobald currently holds the Woods-Beals Endowed Chair in Urban and Rural Education at Buffalo State College. He is an educational historian whose work frequently crosses disciplinary boundaries and has appeared in such journals as Educational Theory, American Journal of Education, Journal of Educational Studies, Journal of Educational Thought, Journal of Agricultural and Envi-ronmental Ethics, American Historical Review, Educational Foundations, History of Education Quarterly and many others. His first book, Call School: Rural Education in the Midwest to 1918, is a comprehensive study of the history of rural education in this country. His second book, Teaching the Commons: Place, Pride, and the Renewal of Community, is an intellectual history that weaves in philosophical themes in an attempt to build a new vision for educational ends.

    Sean T. Tierney is a doctoral student in the research methodology program at the University of Pittsburgh. He obtained a BA in mathematics and a BS in secondary education with a mathematics concentration at Duquesne University. His research interests are in the areas of educational measurement and statistics.

    Sigmund Tobias is distinguished research scientist at the Institute for Urban and Minority Education, Teachers College, Columbia University. His research interests include metacognition, applications of technology to instruction, and adapting instruction to students' characteristics.

    Vivian Tseng is program officer at the William T Grant Foundation. She has worked to develop the Foundation's research interests in youth's everyday settings and in how research influences the policies and practices that affect youth's settings. Her theoretical and empirical work focuses on frameworks for social change and the role of immigration, race, and culture in youths' and their families' experiences in U.S. society.

    Jeroen J. G. van Merriënboer is professor of educational technology and scientific director of the Netherlands Laboratory for Lifelong Learning at the Open University of the Netherlands. He holds a master's degree in experimental psychology from the Free University of Amsterdam and a PhD from the University of Twente. His prize-winning monograph Training Complex Cognitive Skills (1997), describes his four-component instructional design model for complex skills training and is the basis of his new book Ten Steps to Complex Learning (Taylor & Francis, 2007). He was declared world leader in educational technology by Training Magazine and received the international contributions award from the international council of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology.

    Mark J. Van Ryzin is a PhD candidate at the University of Minnesota in the College of Education and Human Development. His research focuses on motivational and developmental processes in education and the potential for innovative educational environments to address the diverse range of student needs and interests that are found among today's youth. Mark received his MA in educational psychology from the University of Minnesota in 2006. Mark's work has appeared in the Journal of Comparative Psychology, the Journal of School Psychology, and the Journal of Youth and Adolescence, which recently accepted his master's thesis for publication. He has presented at a number of conferences, including the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AREA), the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development (SRCD), and the Gates Foundation's Emerging Research Symposium.

    Michael Vavrus is a professor at the Evergreen State College in Olympia, Washington, and author of Transforming the Multicultural Education of Teachers: Theory, Research, and Practice. He is a past president of the Association of Independent Liberal Arts Colleges for Teacher Education and the Washington state chapter of American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. His current research focuses on the teacher autoethnographies on multicultural topics.

    Jennifer R. Vermillion is an educational technologist at Springside School in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and has taught middle school in both private and public schools.

    Joan M. T. Walker is assistant professor in the School of Education at Long Island University. Grounded in her work as a school-age child-care provider, her research examines the psychological foundations of parent-teacher interactions, and parent and teacher contributions to child development. She is also interested in teachers' attitudes toward student autonomy and family participation in children's schooling. She received her MS and PhD in developmental psychology from Vanderbilt University. She also holds undergraduate and graduate degrees in music education.

    Wenxia Wang is a doctoral student in the Teacher Education Department of the College of Education at Michigan State University. Her interests include EFL/ESL pedagogies, literacy education, and teacher preparation in international and U.S. settings.

    Andrew Wayne is a senior research analyst at the American Institutes for Research, where he focuses on policies affecting teachers. He currently serves as the deputy director of the Mathematics Professional Development Impact Study, a large-scale randomized field trial. He has coau-thored numerous articles and reports, including two recent reports on federal programs affecting teacher quality. He holds an MA in curriculum and instruction and earned a PhD in public policy. He began his career as a middle and high school computer science teacher.

    Noreen M. Webb is a professor in the Social Research Methodology Division in the Graduate School of Education and Information Studies at the University of California, Los Angeles, with a joint appointment in the Department of Applied Linguistics and Teaching English as a Second Language. She is interested in learning and instruction, and measurement theory and applications. Her current research activities focus on classroom processes related to learning outcomes, small-group problem solving, achievement testing in mathematics and science, the role of teacher practices in student participation and learning in mathematics, and generalizability theory. She received her PhD from Stanford University.

    Kyle P. Westbook is a PhD student in social foundations in the Department of Educational Policy Studies in the College of Education at the University of Illinois at Chicago. His research interests are in teacher unions and their relationship to federal authority.

    Caroline R. H. Wiley is a PhD student at the University of Arizona. Her research interests are primarily classroom research, comparative research, and educational evaluation within the context of educational policy. Also of interest to her is classroom assessment and grading practices. She has served as a data analyst for various research projects, including ones sponsored by the Carnegie Foundation and the Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

    Jennifer York-Barr, PhD, is a professor of educational policy and administration at the University of Minnesota. Her teaching, school development, and research interests focus on professional learning, teacher collaboration, and teacher leadership to advance student learning. Dr. York-Barr has authored more than 200 published works and is the recipient of two distinguished teaching awards.

    Ken Zeichner is Hoefs-Bascom Professor of Teacher Education at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He has published widely on issues related to teacher education and practitioner research. His books include Reflective Teaching, Teacher Education and the Social Conditions of Schooling, Issues and Practices in Inquiry-Oriented Teacher Education, Currents of Reform in Pre-Service Teacher Education, and Teacher Education and the Struggle for Social Justice.

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