Encyclopedia of Distributed Learning

Encyclopedia of Distributed Learning


Edited by: Anna Distefano, Kjell Erik Rudestam & Robert J. Silverman


In today’s fast-paced world, with multiple demands on time and resources as well as pressures for career advancement and productivity, self-directed learning is an increasingly popular and practical alternative in continuing education. The Encyclopedia of Distributed Learning defines and applies the best practices of contemporary continuing education designed for adults in corporate settings, Open University settings, graduate coursework, and in similar learning environments. Written for a wide audience in the distance and continuing education field, the Encyclopedia is a valuable resource for deans and administrators at universities and colleges, reference librarians in academic and public institutions, HR officials involved with continuing education/training programs in corporate settings, and those involved in the academic disciplines of Education, Psychology, Information Technology, and Library Science. Sponsored by The Fielding ...

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    • Administrative Processes
    • Policy, Finance, and Governance
    • Social and Cultural Perspectives
    • Student and Faculty Issues
    • Teaching and Learning Processes and Technologies
    • Technical Tools and Supports
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      Advisory Board

      Tony Bates

      University of British Columbia

      Gregory S. Blimling

      Appalachian State University

      Ellie Chambers

      Institute of Educational Technology, The Open University

      Paul Duguid

      University of California-Berkeley

      Kenneth C. Green

      The Campus Computing Project

      Linda Harasim

      Simon Fraser University

      Sally M. Johnstone

      Western Cooperative for Educational Telecommunications

      Sara Kiesler

      Carnegie Mellon University

      William H. Maehl

      President Emeritus, Fielding Graduate Institute

      Michael G. Moore

      Pennsylvania State University

      Jeremy J. Shapiro

      Fielding Graduate Institute

      Ralph A. Wolff

      Western Association of Schools and Colleges

      List of Entries

      Reader's Guide


      Agger-Gupta, Dorothy E.

      Fielding Graduate Institute

      Agger-Gupta, Niels

      Share Works Associates

      Aldridge, John W.

      aboutChange Solutions, Inc.

      Barrett, Frank

      Fielding Graduate Institute

      Bélanger, Marc

      International Labour Organization, Turin, Italy

      Beneker, Phil

      Fielding Graduate Institute

      Berg, Gary A.

      Chapman University

      Bertrand, Nicolas

      HEC-Montreal and University of Montreal

      Bishop, Karen

      Bishop-Futures High School

      Blimling, Gregory S.

      Appalachian State University

      Bock, Janice Safian

      Fielding Graduate Institute

      Brady, Bridget Lee

      Fielding Graduate Institute

      Brookfield, Stephen D.

      University of St. Thomas

      Brown, Barbara Mahone

      Elbow Room Consulting

      Bryant, Janet

      Old Dominion University

      Collins, Lynn H.

      LaSalle University

      Coombs, Norman

      Rochester Institute of Technology and CEO of Equal Access to Software and Information (EASI)

      Coulter, Xenia

      SUNY, Empire State College

      Cox, Geoffrey M.

      Cardean University

      Crafts, Linda F.

      Cumulus Resources LLC

      Dagavarian, Debra A.

      The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey

      Davis, Donald D.

      Old Dominion University

      Deegan, Marilyn

      University of Oxford

      Dennen, Vanessa

      San Diego State University

      DeWeese, Debra J.

      Fielding Graduate Institute

      DiGregorio, Gaye Golter

      Colorado State University

      DiStefano, Anna

      Fielding Graduate Institute

      Dominguez, Paula Szulc

      Hezel Associates

      Duguid, Paul

      University of California, Berkeley

      Duin, Ann Hill

      University of Minnesota

      Dussert, Alain

      Fielding Graduate Institute

      Edwards, Jenny

      Fielding Graduate Institute

      Farmer, Alain

      University of Quebec at Montreal

      Feenberg, Andrew

      San Diego State University

      Fels, Deborah

      Ryerson Polytechnic University

      Forsyth, Rachel

      Manchester Metropolitan University, UK

      Frayer, Dorothy A.

      Duquesne University

      Gergen, Kenneth J.

      Swarthmore College

      Gibbons, Tracy C.

      CoastWise Consulting, Inc.

      Goldstein, Jinny

      Goldstein Education Group

      Goldstein, Michael B.

      Dow, Lohnes & Albertson

      Goodwin, Shelley L.

      Fielding Graduate Institute

      Gourley, Don

      Washington Research Library Consortium

      Griffiths, José-Marie

      University of Pittsburgh

      Gullahorn, Jeanne

      SUNY, Albany

      Gurse, Cheri

      Fielding Graduate Institute

      Gyllenpalm, Bo

      Fielding Graduate Institute

      Hall, Brandon


      Hanna, Donald E.

      University of Wisconsin-Extension

      Hara, Noriko

      Indiana University-Bloomington

      Harasim, Linda

      Simon Fraser University

      Harvey, Pierre-Léonard

      University of Quebec at Montreal

      Hezel, Richard T.

      Hezel Associates

      Hiltz, Starr Roxanne

      New Jersey Institute of Technology

      Hitt, John C.

      University of Central Florida

      Hodgins, H. Wayne

      Autodesk. Inc.

      Hudson, Barclay

      Fielding Graduate Institute

      Hudson, Frederic M.

      The Hudson Institute of Santa Barbara

      Hughes, Shelley K.

      Fielding Graduate Institute

      Janoff, Dean S.

      Fielding Graduate Institute

      Johnstone, Sally M.


      Katz, Richard


      Keeton, Morris T.

      University of Maryland

      Kirkwood, Adrian

      The Open University

      Klein, Julie Thompson

      Wayne State University

      Kling, Rob [1945–2003]

      Indiana University-Bloomington

      Kramarae, Cheris

      University of Oregon

      Kramer, Stefan

      Fielding Graduate Institute

      Krebs, Arlene

      California State University-Monterey Bay

      Kroc, Rick

      University of Arizona

      Kuhne, Gary William

      The Pennsylvania State University

      Landon, Bruce

      Douglas College

      Lankes, R. David

      ERIC Clearinghouse on Information & Technology

      Lejeune, Albert

      University of Quebec at Montreal

      Levy, Suzanne

      Allan Hancock College

      Lindstrom, Phyllis Hendry

      San Jose State University

      Long, Phillip D.

      Massachusetts Institute of Technology

      Luskin, Bernard J.

      Fielding Graduate Institute

      Maehl, William H.

      Fielding Graduate Institute

      Magolda, Marcia B. Baxter

      Miami University at Ohio

      Mandell, Alan

      SUNY, Empire State College

      Marcum, James

      Farleigh Dickinson University

      Mason, Jeff J.


      Mason, Robin

      The Open University

      Mayadas, A. Frank

      Alfred P. Sloan Foundation

      McClean, Pamela D.

      The Hudson Institute of Santa Barbara

      McClintock, Charles

      Fielding Graduate Institute

      McDermott, Richard

      McDermott Consulting

      McFerran Virginia, A.

      W Technologies

      McGreal, Rory

      Athabasca University

      McRobbie, Michael

      Indiana University

      Meacham, Martha

      Austin Community College

      Metros, Susan E.

      The Ohio State University

      Mihalescz, Michael

      Old Dominion University

      Murphy, James C.

      Fielding Graduate Institute

      Nakasone, Kerry

      Colorado State University

      Olson, Christi A.

      Fielding Graduate Institute

      O'Neal, Mary L.

      University of North Florida

      Palloff, Rena M.

      Crossroads Consulting Group

      Paulson, Karen

      (NCHEMS) National Center for Higher Education Management Systems

      Peek, Robin

      Simmons College

      Perrin, Donald

      United States Distance Learning Association

      Pittman, Von

      University of Missouri-Columbia

      Poley, Janet

      American Distance Education Consortium (ADEC)

      Pratt, Keith

      Crossroads Consulting Group

      Ragan, Lawrence C.

      Penn State University

      Riel, Margaret

      Pepperdine University

      Robbins, David B.

      University of Pittsburgh

      Rosenblum, Don

      Nova Southeastern University

      Rudestam, Kjell Erik

      Fielding Graduate Institute

      Rudestam, Rolf C.

      The Rudestam Group

      Rupp, Rebecca

      Shaftsbury, Vermont

      Saba, Lynne

      Fielding Graduate Institute

      Salomon, Kenneth D.

      Dow, Lohnes & Albertson, PLLC

      Say, Rebecca

      Old Dominion University

      Scardamalia, Marlene

      Ontario Institute for the Study of Education, University of Toronto

      Scheid, Gibson

      Gibson Scheid Works

      Schoenholtz-Read, Judith

      Fielding Graduate Institute

      Schwartz, Larissa

      Fielding Graduate Institute

      Schwitzer, Alan M.

      Old Dominion University

      Sedlacek, William E.

      University of Maryland-College Park

      Seidman, Alan


      Shang, Paul

      Colorado State University

      Shapiro, Jeremy J.

      Fielding Graduate Institute

      Shaw, Margie Hodges

      University of Rochester

      Sheu, Hung-Bin

      University of Maryland-College Park

      Silverman, Charles

      Ryerson Polytechnic University

      Silverman, Robert J.

      Fielding Graduate Institute

      Snyder, Deborah

      The University of Michigan-Flint

      Sonwalker, Nishikant

      Massachusetts Institute of Technology

      Stamm, B. Hudnall

      Idaho State University

      Stevens-Long, Judith

      Fielding Graduate Institute

      Taylor, Richard E.

      University of Leeds

      Treichler, Shari Lamkin

      Hezel Associates

      Trujillo, Candido

      Fielding Graduate Institute

      Turner, Phillip

      University of North Texas

      Turoff, Murray

      New Jersey Institute of Technology

      Ubell, Robert

      Stevens Institute of Technology

      Vallee, Jason C.

      DeVry University

      Vigneault, Karine

      McGill University

      Volger, Barbara J.

      Fielding Graduate Institute

      von Lubtiz, Dag K. J. E.

      MedSMART, Inc.

      Wallis, Nancy C.

      Chapman University

      Wijekumar, Kay J.

      Pennsylvania State University-Beaver

      Wildflower, Leni

      Fielding Graduate Institute

      Williams, Mark S.

      The University of North Carolina at Wilmington

      Wolff, Ralph A.

      Western Association of Schools and Colleges

      Xin, Cindy

      San Diego State University

      Zemsky, Robert

      University of Pennsylvania

      Ziegler, Gene

      American Graduate School of Management


      With the increasing acceptance of distributed education in both the public and private sectors, it seems timely to publish an Encyclopedia of Distributed Learning to capture the concepts and methods that reflect this phenomenon. We came to this project with great passion and many years of experience working within a distributed model of higher education. We have spent several years of our professional careers with Fielding Graduate Institute, which, since 1974, has offered graduate degrees in clinical psychology, human and organizational development, and educational leadership. Fielding's mission has been to provide high-quality educational experiences for mid-life, mid-career professionals who, because of work, family, and financial commitments, are unable to move to a campus-based school for the duration of their educational preparations. Fielding's response to meet the needs of its students has been to create a distributed learning model that integrates face-to-face teaching with independent and interactive learning at a distance and a competency-based approach to assessing learning outcomes. During the early years of our programs there was no computer network connecting students and faculty and we relied on telephone and mail systems for communication. Today, as might be expected, our training model is facilitated by the presence of an active Internet-based electronic network.

      The same satisfactions and challenges that we experience in our academic world have played out in completing this encyclopedia. For the most part we have communicated with the administrative staff of Sage Publications, our board of editorial advisors, and our writers through our computer terminals. We enjoyed collaborating with people all over the world, some of whom we know well and others with whom we are working for the first time and have never met face-to-face. We have appreciated the benefits of technology-mediated collaboration, consisting of numerous e-mails and a Web site where editors and writers could post, organize, and review our tasks and our entries. At the same time we drew upon periodic face-to-face meetings as an Editorial Board to develop a vibrant, shared sense of purpose and direction. Throughout this endeavor we have appreciated being on the leading edge of an important societal and educational phenomenon while straining to keep up with the latest developments.

      A project of this magnitude relies on the participation, skills, and goodwill of many contributors. We are thankful to Sara Miller McCune, Chairman and Publisher of Sage Publications, who convened the conversation that led to the encyclopedia. Several colleagues at Sage, including Rolf Janke, Jim Brace-Thompson, Denise Simon, Vince Burns, Karen Ehrmann, Diane Foster, and Toni Zuccarini Ackley, worked side-by-side with us for all or part of the way. Susan Taira was an enthusiastic member of the Editorial Board until illness made her participation impossible. Our Advisory Board consists of many special people, with great talent and experience in the field of distributed learning. They helped generate the list of headwords and helped locate just the right contributors to write the entries. Our colleagues at Fielding, represented by faculty, staff, students, administration, and Board members, have served in the capacity of contributors, supporters, and cheer-leaders. In particular, we owe a debt of gratitude to Susan Street Sanchez, Fielding project manager for the encyclopedia, for keeping us organized and helping us maintain our momentum.

      As in any project of this scope, we apologize for our omissions and hope that we have produced a resource that accurately reflects the current scope of understanding in this rapidly changing field that has moved from the margins to the mainstream.

      Kjell ErikRudestam
      Robert J.Silverman

      About the Editors

      Anna DiStefano has served as Provost for Fielding Graduate Institute since 1996. She has been a part of the Fielding community since 1983, serving in several senior executive capacities including Vice President of Academic Planning & Program Development, and Dean, Human and Organization Development (HOD).

      Dr. DiStefano received her Ed.D. (1977) and her M.Ed. (1972), both in Counseling, from Boston University. Her undergraduate degree, A.B. (1969), was received from Trinity College, DC. She was also selected as an American Council of Education Fellow (1987–1988).

      Dr. DiStefano's specialized areas of interest are planning and leadership in higher education, especially distributed education; feminism; public schooling; moral development; and conflict resolution. Her most recent publications include co-editing with Jody Veroff a special issue of The American Behavioral Scientist titled, “Researching Across Difference.”

      Kjell Erik Rudestam is Associate Dean in the School of Psychology at Fielding Graduate Institute, where he has been a faculty member and administrator for almost 20 years. Prior to that, he was Professor of Psychology at York University in Toronto.

      Dr. Rudestam holds a Ph.D. in psychology (clinical) from the University of Oregon and an honorary doctorate from the Professional School of Psychology. He is the author of six books, including two Sage publications (Surviving Your Dissertation, 2nd ed., and Your Statistical Consultant, both with Rae Newton), and numerous published articles in the areas of clinical psychology (psychotherapy and change processes and suicide), research methodology, and online pedagogy. In addition, he is the co-editor of the recent Handbook of Online Learning, also published by Sage.

      Dr. Rudestam is a fellow of the American Psychological Association (Division 12) and a diplomate of the American Board of Examiners in Professional Psychology (clinical) and the American Academy of Experts in Traumatic Stress.

      Robert J. Silverman joined the faculty of the Human and Organization Program of the Fielding Graduate Institute in 1995, after becoming Professor Emeritus at Ohio State University, where he had taught since 1969 and where he had edited the Journal of Higher Education from 1970 to 1994. He works with adult learners, as scholar-practitioners, in developing an understanding of organizational theory and management, with a particular focus on organizational learning and change. He also works with students in the sociology of science and technology and in studies in the philosophy of knowledge.

      Dr. Silverman received an A.B. in English from Rutgers University in 1961; an M.A. in Higher Education and Student Affairs from Teachers College, Columbia University in 1963; and a Ph.D. focusing on organizational studies from Cornell University in 1969. His publications include two professionally oriented books, Getting Published in Education Journals and Organizational DNA: Diagnosing Your Organization for Increased Effectiveness, and numerous academically oriented articles on epistemological foundations of research integrity practices and other knowledge-production activities, such as peer review and editors' roles in a postmodern academic society.


      In the not-so-distant past, distributed education was a topic of limited interest to a relatively small number of educators. That is no longer the case. The tentacles of distributed education have spread to mainstream public and private education, from elementary school to graduate study and adult continuing education. It has become big business in the corporate world and an indispensable resource in the public sector. As such, this encyclopedia should be of interest to a large constituency of educators, students, managers, consultants, and policymakers.

      The notion of “place” is a primary but poorly understood dimension of educational practice. Most of us have vivid memories of our educational experiences and recall the settings in which they occurred—where other students sat, the scratching of a chalkboard, the aromas of a cafeteria, the crowded halls and walkways of a school building. For some, neo-Gothic architecture and oiled floors reflect the prestige of an old private university; for others, an open enrollment and entrepreneurial society are represented by residence halls and newly minted business colleges.

      The virtual world changes this scenario in a number of ways. The relationships among learners, teachers, resources, and places are put into new configurations in ways that challenge our notions of time and place. There are patterns of engagement that are not measurable by the traditional calendar and clock divisions. This new freedom forces us to rethink the relationship between learning and physical setting. It also requires recalibrations by other social institutions, whose policies are based on such divisions, such as banks for their loans and firms for their tuition reimbursement practices, as well as individuals whose life patterns regarding schooling are often regulated by the age of the learner. All this needs to be rethought and redefined. In the end, the practice of distributed education requires the revision of many traditionally held understandings and routines, with their associated emotional histories and commitments.

      This encyclopedia is a resource that provides descriptions, explanations, and institutional and social challenges related to distributed education. We have deliberately chosen the terms distributed education and distributed learning, because they are somewhat broader in scope than related terms such as distance education and online learning. This is a distinction that is clarified in the encyclopedia entry on “Distributed Learning/Distributed Education,” which might serve as a suitable entry point for the typical reader. The encyclopedia has been designed to describe the parameters and activities associated with distributed learning, recognizing that both the educational environment and the practices discussed in this work are experiencing continuous and sometimes nonincremental change. Given the social and cultural turbulence that extends to the field of education, the challenge for the editors and authors of this encyclopedia has been to shape a resource of enduring relevance. We trust that this encyclopedia has achieved this goal.

      We have had the additional challenge of delimiting the focus of this encyclopedia in light of the ubiquitous nature and impact of distributed learning at all educational levels and in so many venues.

      The encyclopedia consists of 174 entries of various lengths and 3 appendices. The scope of the topics is broad, ranging from historical predecessors of distributed education as we know it today to projections into the future, from classroom modifications to sophisticated technological devices, from infrastructure to ethics, from teaching skills to theories of pedagogy. At the same time we appreciate that our readers will engage this resource for particular and focused purposes and with an interest in efficient if not comprehensive “answers.” As editors, we wanted to ensure that a full range of information would be made available, but we also recognize that for practices that redefine virtually everything in traditional education, certain limits had to be imposed.

      At the beginning of this project, we assembled an advisory board of accomplished scholars and distinguished practitioners who helped us develop a list of relevant topics and identify knowledgeable authors for the entries. The authors themselves reflect the scope of the field of distributed education. It was important that the entries include practices associated with distributed learning, the experiences of those who engage in it, research that evokes deeper understanding of it, and challenges for the future. We invite our readers to serve as educational partners who can have a hand in shaping that future in distributed education.

      We have included a Reader's Guide, which organizes the entries around six primary themes, although each reader will undoubtedly approach the encyclopedia from the vantage point of his or her personal questions and interests. The themes are: Administrative Processes; Technical Tools and Supports; Policy, Finance, and Governance; Social and Cultural Perspectives; Student and Faculty Issues; and Teaching and Learning Processes and Technologies. Administrative Processes refers to the institutional resources and procedures that play a foundational role in implementing and administering successful distributed education programs. Technical Tools and Supports includes a host of technical terms, many of which refer to the software, hardware, and allied processes that link the learner to the world of the computer. These entries may be more easily negotiated by readers with a technical background, but, although challenging for the computer novice, they provide one of the most comprehensive and up-to-date categorizations of the machinery that fuels the distributed learning experience. Policy, Finance, and Governance refers to the regulations and standards that serve as legal and moral guidance for conducting learning programs at a distance. Social and Cultural Perspectives includes terms that address the social and philosophical context out of which the field of distributed education germinated and continues to grow. Student and Faculty Issues refers to needs and services that apply to faculty and/or students as they work to enhance the teaching and learning experience at a distance. Finally, Teaching and Learning Processes and Technologies includes a broad range of topics that generally focus on how distributed learning takes place and the pedagogical vehicles that are available to make it happen.

      The entries themselves differ significantly in terms of detail and sophistication. This is largely a function of the topics. In an effort to be comprehensive we have included entries that can easily be appreciated by the average young adult or high school student who is seeking to become more familiar with the field, as well as entries that are very relevant to the professional work of current scholars and practitioners. Faculty and instructors who are already active in teaching and facilitating courses online, or who envision doing so, may appreciate entries that focus on pedagogy and skill development. Administrators and information technology specialists may be drawn to entries that deal with infrastructure and computer topics. Policymakers may be most interested in issues of governance and educational philosophy.

      It should be said that the boundaries between individual entries are not always precise. Thus, some topics are approached from multiple perspectives, because different entries may overlap or make reference to other entries. We trust that there is sufficient guidance in the table of contents and index to provide direction, but we have supplemented these tools with cross-referencing so that the connections among the entries can be more fully appreciated. These cross-references come at the end of each entry in the form of a short list of other entries that relate to some key aspect of the topic or to the topic as a whole. Finally, a limited number of references and additional readings follow most entries for those who wish to pursue an area in greater depth.

      It has been a challenge to develop an encyclopedia around the dynamic and rapidly changing practice of distributed education. We believe that this volume will provide a foundation for the present and that its vision for the future will help shape the field for years to come.

    • Appendix A: Prominent Distributed Learning Programs

      Argosy University

      Argosy Online

      20 S. Clark, 3rd Floor

      Chicago, IL 60603

      Fax: 312-201-1907


      Overview: The American Schools of Professional Psychology, the Medical Institute of Minnesota, and the University of Sarasota merged in 2001 to create Argosy University. The merger was an effort to expand program offerings, offer more resources to students, and enrich the learning environment at each campus. The Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools accredits AU. Argosy University Online offers courses in the areas of psychology, business, education, and general education. Most courses are taught by faculty who also teach at one of the campuses. Faculty are said to be “experienced teachers and practitioners in their fields of expertise.” Although the courses do not make it possible to complete an entire degree online, they are designed to allow working professionals more options for obtaining a degree. It is possible to complete up to 50% of a degree program via online courses, once accepted by the program. One may enroll in online courses prior to acceptance into a program. Many of the in-residence courses are also offered in flexible course formats that allow degree completion without disrupting one's current personal schedule.

      California State University Monterey Bay

      100 Campus Center

      Seaside, CA 93955-8001

      Phone: 831-582-4500


      Overview: California State University Monterey Bay's (CSUMB) Office of Distributed Learning & Extended Education offers an online Liberal Studies Distributed Degree Completion program. Various courses are open to everyone on a fee per course basis. Registration dates are posted per term. Open University courses are regular CSUMB courses that are available to the general public for Fall and Spring semesters only, on a space-available basis with instructor approval.

      Capella University

      222 South 9th Street, 20th Floor

      Minneapolis, MN 55402

      Phone: 888-CAPELLA


      Overview: Capella University (CU), founded in 1993, offers more than 500 online courses, as well as undergraduate and graduate degree programs in 40 areas of specialization. Master's degrees, bachelor's degrees, and certificates are available in the School of Technology. Ph.D.s, master's degrees, and graduate certificates are available in the School of Psychology, School of Human Services, and School of Education. Ph.D.s, master's degrees, graduate certificates, bachelor's degrees, and M.B.A.s are available in the School of Business. CU courses are asynchronous, which means one can participate at any time from any Internet connection anywhere in the world. CU is accredited by The Higher Learning Commission, and is a member of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools. CU prides itself as having redefined adult education by removing “old school” barriers. Their mission “is to deliver the highest quality bachelor's, master's and doctoral programs through innovative forms of distance learning.”

      Cardean University

      Phone: 866-948-1289


      Overview: Created by Andrew Rosenfield, an economist, educator, and lawyer, and Gary Becker, a professor of economics at the University of Chicago, Cardean “blends Internet technology and progressive ideas in education, using content from five universities,” into its M.B.A. program. Cardean has formed an academic consortium with five institutions: Columbia Business School, Stanford University, University of Chicago Graduate School of Business, Carnegie Mellon, and the London School of Economics and Political Science. In 2000, Cardean gained accreditation from the Accrediting Commission of the Distance Education and Training Council. The Cardean M.B.A. “is built on the concept of active learning,” meaning that it provides both individual and corporate learning. Professional development courses are available in accounting, business communications, business law and policy, e-commerce, finance, management and organizational behavior, marketing, quantitative methods, and strategy. The M.B.A. stresses corporate finance, business communications, financial accounting, managing organizations, and principles of marketing. M.B.A. studies can lead to a concentration in leadership, finance, accounting and information systems, marketing, strategy and economics, or e-commerce.

      Central Michigan University

      Mount Pleasant, MI 48859

      Phone: 989-774-4000


      Overview: Founded more than a century ago as a teacher's college, Central Michigan University (CMU) is now a doctoral and research public university. Although CMU's main campus is located in Mount Pleasant, the College of Extended Learning delivers undergraduate and graduate programs to more than 8,000 students in more than 60 locations throughout the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Undergraduate programs are Bachelor of Science with Major in Administration, Bachelor of Applied Arts with Major in Administration, and Bachelor of Science with an option in Community Development. Graduate programs are Master of Science in Administration, Master of Science in Nutrition and Dietetics, and Doctorate in Audiology. CMU stresses that they offer “undergraduate and graduate degree programs through a variety of delivery methods” and that they “strive to provide convenient, timesaving services, without sacrificing high academic standards.”

      City University

      11900 N.E. First Street

      Bellevue, WA 98005

      Phone: 888-42CITYU


      Overview: City University (CU) offers distance education utilizing Internet courses and traditional correspondence-based courses. Faculty and students in online courses communicate and collaborate using threaded discussions, real-time chats, course e-mail, and online file exchanges. CU offers most of its degree programs through distance learning. This option allows students to earn degrees and certificates entirely by independent study. Students follow the lessons and assignments outlined in the study guide. As the term proceeds, students and instructors remain in contact via mail, phone, or e-mail. CU offers more than 50 programs at the undergraduate and graduate levels. These programs cover a variety of academic fields ranging from business management and technology to counseling and teacher preparation. In addition, CU offers specialized programs, such as the Intensive English Program (IEP) and a languageassisted M.B.A. program, for international students in the Seattle, Washington/Vancouver, British Columbia, area. CU's mission is “to provide educational opportunities world wide, primarily to segments of the population not being fully served.” It is based on three philosophical principles: “education is a lifelong process and must be relevant to students' aspirations; education should be affordable and offered, as much as possible, at the student's convenience; and the opportunity to learn should be open to anyone with the desire to achieve.” CU is fully accredited by the Commission on Colleges & Universities of the Northwest Association of Schools and Colleges, and the International Assembly for Collegiate Business Education.

      Colorado State University

      Division of Educational Outreach

      Fort Collins, CO 80523

      Phone: 970-491-5288


      Overview: Since 1967, Colorado State University has delivered instructional programs to students who are unable to attend classes on campus. Colorado State is accredited by The Higher Learning Commission and is a member of the North Central Association. Part of the Division of Educational Outreach's mission is: “We welcome the opportunity to share with you the University's research and educational resources in distance and traditional formats throughout your career and your lifetime.” The distance degrees and online learning programs offer bachelor of science, bachelor of arts, and master's degrees. The Independent Learning program offers academic credit courses in numerous subjects. Students do not need to be admitted to Colorado State University to register for courses in the Independent Learning program or in certificate programs. Independent Learning programs take place in Northern Colorado, in Denver, or at business sites, and they offer degrees and courses via distance education using online, videotape, and correspondence methods.

      Connecticut Distance Learning Consortium

      55 Paul Manafort Dr.

      New Britain, CT 06053

      Phone: 860-832-3888


      Overview: The Connecticut Distance Learning Consortium (CTDLC) is a Connecticut agency that provides services to Connecticut's colleges and universities that make it easier for them to offer online courses and degree programs. The CTDLC was created in October 1996 when over 30 public and independent collegiate institutions met and agreed that Connecticut needed to systematically mount distance deliverable education. Institutional members are “committed to providing the delivery of high quality online courses cost effectively and assuring that Connecticut is a national leader in distance education.” CTDLC members are accredited by the State of Connecticut and the New England Association of Schools and Colleges Commission on Institutions of Higher Education. Salient parts of the CTDLC mission are: “(1) provide a single point of presence for Distance Learning offered by Connecticut public and independent education institutions; (2) provide a high quality infrastructure by maintaining a state of the art web-based delivery system that is available to all members; and (3) market CTDLC member courses and programs in Connecticut, nationally, and internationally.”

      DePaul University

      School for New Learning

      25 E. Jackson

      Chicago, IL 60604

      Phone: 312-362-8001


      Overview: The School for New Learning (SNL) was established in 1972 as one of the nine colleges and schools of DePaul University. SNL classes are offered in over 130 academic majors in undergraduate, graduate, professional, and doctoral programs at various DePaul campuses in and around Chicago. Students can also take SNL courses over the Internet, by being monitored on a project conducted in the workplace, by phone and e-mail correspondence, by taking courses at a local college, by internship, or by working with an instructor on an independent research project. There are also online Bachelor of Arts degrees that can be designed with one's own focus area or concentration. DePaul University, the School for New Learning, and the online degree are fully accredited by the North Central Association. Overall, DePaul aims to build “strong relationships with students to assist them in developing their skills and abilities to advance their careers, lifelong learning skills and general knowledge.”

      Duke University

      Fuqua School of Business

      Box 90120

      Durham, NC 27708-0120

      Phone: 919-660-7700


      Overview: Fuqua, founded in 1970 with 12 students, now has an annual enrollment in its degree programs of approximately 1,000. Programs include an M.B.A. (daytime) program, the M.B.A.—Global Executive program, the M.B.A.—Weekend Executive program, the M.B.A.—Cross Continent program, and a Ph.D. program. The Cross Continent program maximizes flexibility by combining week-long residencies in either Durham, North Carolina, or Frankfurt, Germany, with Internet-enabled distance learning from anywhere in the world. The Global Executive program is designed for executives with an average of 14 years' experience and global responsibilities; it combines traditional teaching with Internet-enabled distance learning. It includes in-classroom residencies in Asia, South America, Europe, and the United States to enhance understanding of global business. Part of the overall Fuqua mission is “to provide the highest quality education for business and academic leaders, and promote the advancement of the understanding and practice of management through research.”

      Excelsior College

      7 Columbia Circle

      Albany, NY 12203-5159

      Phone: 888-647-2388


      Overview: Thirty years ago Regents College was founded to make college degrees more accessible to busy, working adults. Recently, it was renamed Excelsior College. Excelsior offers 30 different degree programs at the associate and baccalaureate level in business, liberal arts, nursing, and technology; two master's-level degree programs in liberal studies and nursing; and one certificate program in nursing. There is also a Master of Arts degree in Liberal Studies and a Master of Science in Nursing with a major in Clinical Systems Management. Excelsior is accredited by the Commission on Higher Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools. Associate and bachelor's degree programs in nursing are accredited by the National League for Nursing Accrediting Commission (NLNAC). Bachelor's degrees in electronics engineering technology and nuclear engineering technology are accredited by the Technology Accreditation Commission. Overall, Excelsior emphasizes “as a world leader in distance education, we do not insist that learning can take place only in the classroom. Instead, we know there are many avenues for earning college credit. We give our students access to more avenues than most traditional colleges and universities because we know it's not realistic to expect busy, active adults with family and career commitments to drop out of life to earn a degree.”

      Fielding Graduate Institute

      2112 Santa Barbara Street

      Santa Barbara, CA 93105

      Phone: 800-340-1099


      Overview: The Fielding Graduate Institute (FGI) was founded in 1974 by former higher education administrators and educators who “envisioned a nationally recognized graduate school, which would serve mid-career professionals who wanted to pursue an advanced degree but whose educational and professional objectives could not be met by traditional institutions of higher education.” FGI offers doctoral and master's degree programs in psychology, organizational studies, educational leadership and change, and the applied behavioral and social sciences. These programs are offered within three schools: Psychology, Human and Organization Development, and Educational Leadership and Change. The Ph.D. Program in Clinical Psychology is the only distributed learning program currently accredited by the American Psychological Association. Overall, FGI stresses a flexible education model designed to meet the needs of adult learners who have responsibilities beyond those of traditional students: study, work, family, and community. FGI is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges.

      Franklin University Community College Alliance

      201 S. Grant Avenue

      Columbus, OH 43215

      Phone: 888-341-6237


      Overview: The Community College Alliance (CCA) offers an online Bachelor of Science degree through an educational alliance with more than 180 community and technical colleges in the United States and Canada. A degree can be in one of seven major areas: Applied Management, Business Administration, Computer Science, Digital Communication, Health Care Management, Management Information Sciences, and Public Safety Management. CCA, which gives students at 2-year colleges the opportunity to complete their bachelor's degree online without leaving their community, began offering classes through a limited number of alliances in September 1998, after the Franklin University Board of Trustees committed $4.45 million for curriculum design meant to capitalize on the online learning approach, and established a technology center, among other things. The Franklin mission is to provide “student-centered lifelong higher education in a global context, in partnership with the community, accomplished through excellence in teaching appropriate technology and measurably effective learning.” Franklin University is accredited by The Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools.

      George Washington University

      Distance Learning Opportunities

      2121 Eye Street

      Washington, DC 20052

      Phone: 202-994-4949


      Overview: George Washington University uses a variety of distance learning techniques to reach students outside the traditional classroom. Students progress through courses on their own. Undergraduate degrees are Bachelor of Science in Health Sciences and the Navy College Program for Afloat College Education. Graduate degrees are Accelerated Master's Degree in Tourism Administration, Master's in Project Management, and a Master's in Health Sciences. Certificate programs are E-Learning and Distance Education, Event Management, International Public Health, and Clinical Research Administration. In addition, there is the Educational Technology Leadership Program, delivered entirely at a distance. Instruction is delivered using a number of technologies, depending on what is most appropriate for the subject and students interested in it. Audio technologies such as telephone conference calls or radio allow synchronous delivery of instruction to all students. Video technologies such as videotape, compressed digital video, cable, or satellite-delivered programming are used for more flexibility with instruction. Computer-based learning technologies such as CD-ROM, the Internet, and desktop videoconferencing are used to tailor individual instruction. Support technologies such as e-mail, fax, phone, and the Internet are used to facilitate interactivity. Combinations of these methods of instruction are also used. In addition, partnerships with other universities and organizations are designed to “facilitate tailoring degree and certification coursework to suit specialized audiences.”

      Georgia Institute of Technology

      Center for Distance Learning

      Atlanta, GA 30332

      Phone: 404-894-8572


      Overview: Center for Distance Learning (CDL) professional development programs are available via traditional classrooms at its Atlanta campus, or via videotape, satellite, interactive compressed video, or desktop technologies. The CDL's distance learning programs are available internationally and deliver graduate-level courses in the following fields: electrical and computer engineering, environmental engineering, health physics/radiological engineering, industrial engineering, and mechanical engineering. Video cameras record instructor presentations and student/instructor interactions during regular Georgia Tech graduate classes. The videotape and supporting materials are sent to off-campus students, who participate in classroom activities by watching the taped classes at their chosen location. Courses in mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, and environmental engineering are also offered over the Internet and via CD-ROM. Founded in 1885, “Georgia Tech has always focused its efforts on preparing students to use their innovative skills and strong work ethic to solve real-world problems and improve the lives of people around the globe.”

      Indiana Wesleyan University

      4301 South Washington St.

      Marion, IN 46953

      Phone: 800-895-0036


      Overview: Founded in 1920, Indiana Wesleyan University (IWU) is an evangelical Christian university with a vision “to prepare each student to become a world changer.” Over 8,300 students are enrolled in 70 remote locations and in online programs leading to undergraduate and graduate degrees. Numerous distance learning degrees include: Bachelor of Science in Business Information Systems, Bachelor of Science in Management, Master's in Business Administration (M.B.A.), Master of Science in Management, and Master's in Education. Other areas of study include: Business Administration Management, Business Information Systems, Education, Biblical Literature, English, and Music. A wide variety of credit courses are available only via IWU Online, which offers students a “virtual classroom” forum to interact with faculty and fellow working professionals on a broad range of issues. It combines Web page discussion forums, live chats, collaborative software, and e-mail to facilitate interaction. Other options for instruction include joining a “learning team” by taking one course at a time with other students. This includes interaction online with fellow classmates as well as professors for group learning.

      Jones International University

      30 North LaSalle Street, Suite 2400

      Chicago, IL 60602-2504

      Phone: 800-621-7440


      Overview: Founded in 1993 by Glenn R. Jones and launched in 1995, Jones International University (JIU) has United States regional accreditation. Faculty are from institutions in over 25 countries. JIU is a fully online school that develops and offers courses, executive and professional education programs, and degree programs to adult learners worldwide. Faculty, staff, and students interact via asynchronous online technologies such as e-mail and online forums. JIU does not have a traditional campus or satellite campus requirements. JIU offers bachelor's and master's degrees in more than 55 executive and professional education programs ranging from e-commerce and information technology to marketing and project management. To better serve its expanded global student base, JIU also offers its M.B.A. and M.Ed. degree programs in Spanish. Its mission statement stresses that it will “employ in instruction and student services new technologies, including computer-based instruction, the Internet, videotapes, and the World Wide Web, as well as long-established teaching techniques as appropriate for students and subject matter.”

      Michigan State University

      Virtual University

      East Lansing, MI 48824

      Phone: 517-355-2345


      Overview: Michigan State's Virtual University (VU) refers to courses and instructional programs offered via the Internet and other technologically enhanced media. In addition to offering courses within regular fields of study, VU also hosts a number of degree and certificate programs for students not seeking to become regular degree candidates. Such programs include Justice, the College of Education Teaching Series, Human Environment and Design Facility Management, Molecular Laboratory Diagnostics, and Packaging. Some VU courses are also offered through Michigan State's Evening College. The Evening College is a program of the MSU Alumni Association and offers numerous evening and weekend university-quality, noncredit courses with “no tests, no grades, no exams, no-stress-learning for personal enrichment.”

      Naval Postgraduate School

      589 Dyer Road, Room 103C

      Monterey, CA 93943-5100

      Phone: 831-656-3093


      Overview: In 1909, the Postgraduate Department of the U.S. Naval Academy was established at Annapolis. In 1919, it was renamed the United States Naval Postgraduate School (NPS). The school was officially established in California in December 1951. Currently, the student body includes officers of all five U.S. services, approximately 25 allied services, and civilians. NPS provides graduate degrees, continuous learning opportunities, and refresher and transition education programs. These programs are under the auspices of the four graduate schools: Graduate School of Business & Public Policy, Graduate School of Engineering & Applied Sciences, School of International Graduate Studies, and Graduate School of Operational & Information Sciences. All the schools place emphasis on education and research programs that are relevant to the Navy, defense, and national and international security interests. Graduate-level courses are faculty-led, interactive, and asynchronous, and require a bachelor's degree. Overall, NPS stresses an “intent is to make courses more accessible to the Naval Forces, via emerging technologies” meaning that programs can be completed “with minimal time away from your professional/operational pursuits.”

      New Jersey Institute of Technology

      University Heights

      Newark, NJ 07102

      Phone: 800-624-9850


      Overview: New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) is a public research university with over 8,000 undergraduate and doctoral students in 80 degree programs with another 10,000 professionals in continuing education programs. NJIT prides itself on providing “learning alternatives” such as courses taught at extension sites, or courses, certificates, and degrees offered via their online eLearning program. The eLearning program offers bachelor's degrees, master's degrees, or Ph.D.s in subject areas such as computer science, environmental science, information science, management, or transportation. There are also professional development short courses, certificates, and license reviews, along with continuing educational units, professional development hours, and certifications. Graduate certificates are also available in information technology. Of note is the eLearning program's motto, that it is “America's Perennially Most Wired University.”

      New School University

      New School Online University

      68 Fifth Avenue

      New York, NY 10011

      Phone: 212-229-5880


      Overview: The New School for Social Research was founded in 1919 as a center for “discussion, instruction and counseling for mature men and women.” In 1997, it was officially renamed New School University. In 1994, The New School launched its distance-learning program that became the New School Online University (NSOU), a completely asynchronous and interactive online learning environment. NSOU is an entirely separate online university for The New School, with its own courses, public events, programs, library, student services, and social venues for extracurricular discussions. Currently, more than 3,000 students from all 50 states and more than 60 foreign countries participate in more than 300 courses each year. Courses are offered for degree credit, general credit, and noncredit. They are offered in many areas including the social sciences, humanities, physical sciences, foreign languages, English language studies, fine arts, communication, business, computer applications, and culinary arts. All NSOU faculty teach in traditional classrooms, frequently alternating between online and campus environments each semester. NSOU is fully accredited by the Commission on Higher Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools. A privately supported institution, NSOU is chartered as a university by the Regents of the State of New York.

      New York Institute of Technology

      Manhattan Campus

      1855 Broadway

      New York, NY 10023-7692

      Phone: 631-348-3058


      Overview: The New York Institute of Technology (NYIT) was founded in 1955 as “a private, independent, nonsectarian, coeducational institution” and is accredited by the Commission on Higher Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools. As part of its mission “to offer access to opportunity to all qualified students,” NYIT has created several offsite programs for students outside the New York metropolitan area at cooperating institutions. Those provide facilities and management services, but NYIT faculty teach courses, and degrees are granted according to NYIT's academic policies. Cooperating institutions are in Florida, China, Egypt, Jordan, Taiwan, Canada, and in four Teachers Centers in New York State. NYIT's Online Campus, however, offers degrees and courses completely over the Internet, as well as Web-enhanced courses, where courses are taught in a traditional classroom setting, but include supplemental materials accessible online. The Online Campus offers Bachelor of Science degrees in Behavioral Sciences and in Business Administration. Bachelor of Arts degrees are offered in Professional Services in Hospitality and Management and in Interdisciplinary Studies. A Master of Science in Energy Management is also offered. And, in addition to entire degree programs, the Online Campus offers dozens of individual courses applicable toward an on-campus degree.

      New York University

      School of Continuing and Professional Studies

      145 4th Avenue, Room 201

      New York, NY 10003

      Phone: 212-998-7200


      Overview: Founded in 1831, New York University (NYU) includes 14 schools and colleges in 6 major centers in Manhattan. Since 1934, nearly 2 million people have studied in the School of Continuing and Professional Studies (SCPS), which operates an online campus called The Virtual College, provided via the Internet through a Web portal. Asynchronous lectures, synchronous lectures, readings, assignments, communication, collaboration, and other services are all available via the portal. Programs in The Virtual College include master's degrees in the following centers of study: Foreign Languages and Translation Studies; Hospitality, Tourism, and Sports Management; Instructional Design and Online Education; and Marketing and Management, which also includes a Graduate Certificate in Information Technology. Stressed is that at “the SCPS Virtual College, students from all over the U.S.—and all over the world—can come together to share their ideas and experiences while tapping into the wealth of knowledge and wisdom of our university.”

      Northern Arizona University

      College of Health Professions

      NAU Box 15015

      Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5015

      Phone: 928-523-4331


      Overview: Northern Arizona University's (NAU) College of Health Professions offers distributed learning programs delivered via the Internet and television. Programs include: Bachelor of Science Completion Program in Dental Hygiene; Bachelor of Science or Bachelor of Applied Science in Health Promotion, RN; Bachelor of Science in a Nursing Completion Program; and a Post-Professional Clinical Doctorate in Physical Therapy. NAU has been offering on-campus degree programs in health promotion-related areas for over 50 years. The College of Health Professions began offering the distributed learning degree in Health Promotion in 2000. By 2002, more than 80 students were enrolled in the program from 9 states and 11 different allied health areas. Overall, the College of Health Professions continues to place strong emphasis on its distributed learning programs; part of its mission statement is “to be recognized regionally and nationally as a leader in the use of distance learning and information technologies to provide training in health and human service professions to the rural and diverse populations of Arizona.”

      Nova Southeastern University

      Distance Education

      3301 College Avenue

      Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33314

      Phone: 800-541-6682


      Overview: Nova Southeastern University (NSU) is a nonprofit institution founded in 1964 as Nova University of Advanced Technology. In 1974, the Board of Trustees changed the university's name to Nova University. In 1994, Nova University merged with Southeastern University of the Health Sciences to form Nova Southeastern University. Now, NSU's programs are administered through academic centers that offer courses at Fort Lauderdale campuses. Distance education refers to courses taught at locations outside the Fort Lauderdale area, including selected international sites in the Caribbean, Canada, China, Dominican Republic, France, Greece, Panama, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela. Many of NSU's distance education courses use the traditional classroom setting. Others use telecommunication technologies exclusively, or in combination with a classroom setting. Bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees are available in numerous schools, including Allied Health, Business, Computer & Information Sciences, Criminal Justice, Education, Law, Optometry, Oceanography, Psychology, Humanities, and Social Sciences. Graduate degrees are also offered in Pharmacy. NSU is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, and emphasizes that its mission is to offer “academic programs at times convenient to students, employing innovative delivery systems and rich learning resources on campus and at distant sites.”

      Ohio University

      Lifelong Learning Programs

      Haning Hall, Ohio University

      Athens, OH 45701

      Phone: 877-OULEARN


      Overview: Established in 1804, Ohio University is the oldest public institution of higher learning in the state of Ohio. Its mission is “to extend learning opportunities beyond its classrooms.” The programs and services of the Division of Lifelong Learning thus offer several kinds of courses, including term-based and self-paced online courses. In both, lesson content is presented via the Internet and all course communication is by e-mail, including lesson submission and instructors' responses. Colleges and majors include Arts & Sciences, Business, Communication, Education, Engineering, Fine Arts, Health & Human Services, Honors Tutorial, and Osteopathic Medicine. An M.B.A. is also offered. Ohio University is fully accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools, as well as by a number of professional accrediting agencies.


      12975 Coral Tree Place

      Los Angeles, CA 90066

      Phone: 800-784-8436


      Overview:http://OnlineLearning.net is part of the Online Higher Education division of Sylvan Learning Systems, Inc., and has accepted more than 20,000 enrollments in 1,700 online courses since 1996. Accredited, graduate-level extension and graduate-credit courses are offered in teacher education. “By combining technological innovation with extraordinary customer service, the company is committed to bringing the best in educational resources to adult learners around the world—anytime, anywhere, at any stage in life.” Programs they offer are: Certificate in Character Education, Certificate in College Counseling, Cross-Cultural Language and Academic Development Program, Online Teaching Program, Teaching English as a Foreign Language Program, and Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages Program. http://OnlineLearning.net has also teamed with the University of San Diego and UCLA Extension to offer even more courses. In addition, the National Education Association has “selected http://OnlineLearning.net as its partner in online education for teachers.”

      The Open University

      Walton Hall

      Milton Keynes

      MK7 6AA, UK

      Phone: + 44 (0) 1908 274066


      Overview: The Open University (OU), founded in 1969, has over 200,000 students worldwide. Courses are available throughout Europe, and, by means of partnership agreements with other institutions, in other parts of the world as well. Two-thirds of students are between 25 and 44 years old, but students can enter starting at the age of 18. Undergraduate courses are available to anyone, regardless of qualifications. OU offers over 360 undergraduate and graduate courses in the arts, modern languages, social sciences, health and social welfare, mathematics, computing, business management, education, and law. Instruction is delivered online via a variety of methods such as electronic discussion groups, e-mail, and computer-mediated conferencing. Other instructional media include CD-ROMS, DVDs, textbooks, TV, and audio and videotapes. More than 150,000 OU students study via online methods, however. Personal instruction and support come from distributed tutors and a network of regional study centers and annual residential schools. Overall, OU stresses that it “continues to develop its e-learning activities” and that it “strongly believes the new media offer a more advanced and interactive form of learning than can be gained by using traditional audio-visual products or conventional teaching methods alone.” But OU also states that it “does not strive to become an online university” and that “the best outcomes for learning are usually achieved by striking a balance between using traditional and new media, individually selecting and developing the products that are best suited for each purpose.”

      Penn State World Campus

      World Campus Student Services

      The Pennsylvania State University

      207 Mitchell Building

      University Park, PA 16802-3601

      Phone: 800-252-3592


      Overview: In 1892, Penn State began its correspondence study “to meet the agricultural education needs of isolated farmers.” Today, its World Campus has students in all 50 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, 2 territories, and 20 countries including Argentina, Austria, Canada, Chile, China, Costa Rica, Japan, and Malaysia. The overall mission of Penn State's World Campus is “to provide learners worldwide with access to Penn State academic programs and resources in a sustainable, technology-based learning environment.” It offers more than 30 bachelor's and master's degrees, post-baccalaureate certificates, and noncredit professional development programs. Courses are offered in timeframes that are comparable to traditional semester schedules, meaning that they have fixed start and end dates. Contents and activities for most courses are available in electronic format, so access to the Internet is required. But instruction via a combination of methods, including the Internet, CD-ROM, e-mail, and printed materials, is given as well. Penn State is accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools and the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education.

      Portland State University

      School of Extended Studies

      Post Office Box 751

      Portland, OR 97207

      Phone: 503-725-3000


      Overview: Portland State University (PSU) was established as the Vanport Extension Center in 1946, and in 1952 moved to downtown Portland. In 1955, the Vanport Extension Center became Portland State College, a 4-year institution. Graduate studies were added in 1961, doctoral programs began in 1968, and the college was granted university status in 1969. Now, however, PSU's School of Extended Studies stresses, “distance delivery modes are customized to fit the specific needs of the faculty and students.” As a result, a wide variety of distance courses and programs are delivered, and correspondence accomplished, via a range of audio, video, and Web-based technologies. In addition, the School of Extended Studies offers degree programs in a number of disciplines at various locations in Oregon, including PSU's main campus.

      San Diego State University

      5500 Campanile Drive

      San Diego, CA 92182

      Phone: 619-594-5200


      Overview: San Diego State University's (SDSU's) distributed learning program relies on highly interactive online courses distributed through the Internet. It also offers compressed video (two-way video/audio) courses and televised courses on San Diego's local cable channels. Degree programs include Master of Science in Rehabilitation Counseling, Master of Science in Regulatory Affairs, and Master in Education Leadership. A certificate program is also available in Instructional Technology. SDSU also offers numerous for-credit courses via the Internet, compressed video, or television, all of which meet or exceed the Western Association of Schools and Colleges' guidelines for distance education.

      Thomas Edison State College

      Distance and Independent Adult Learning

      101 W. State St.

      Trenton, NJ 08608-1176

      Phone: 609-292-4000


      Overview: Thomas Edison State College (TESC) was created by the State of New Jersey to develop high-quality, accessible educational opportunities for adults. It originated from “the idea that mature adults needed high quality educational opportunities designed especially for their needs.” Students earn degrees through distance education by completing independent study courses or online courses. Each independent study course is designed for independent, distance learning and is structured around weekly readings, video, and/or audiotapes and written assignments. Interaction between students and faculty is via telephone, mail, or e-mail. Online courses are delivered via the Internet using the Blackboard platform. Students in these courses communicate with faculty, mentors, and fellow students using e-mail and submit assignments to faculty through the Web. TESC offers associate, bachelor's, and master's degrees in over 100 areas of study. These degrees can be earned through distance education methods by students in every state in the United States and 86 countries around the world. TESC is also accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools.

      Union Institute & University

      National Headquarters

      440 E. McMillan Street

      Cincinnati, OH 45206-1925

      Phone: 800-486-3116


      Overview: Union Institute & University was founded in 1964 as a consortium that included 10 liberal arts colleges such as Hofstra, Bard College, Antioch College, and Sarah Lawrence College. These institutions collaborated with “the goal of providing innovative higher education alternatives to working adults.” The consortium dissolved in 1982 but an independent, not-for-profit university offering baccalaureate and doctoral programs remained, now called Union Institute & University, accredited by the North Central Association. Union's mission is “to offer personalized bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degree programs designed for the lifelong learner.” Hence, the university offers undergraduate degrees in a learner's concentration of choice, and an array of master's and doctoral degrees in which one can concentrate on a variety of specialization areas. These can be earned via online distance learning methods or in a classroom setting from nearby academic centers.

      University Alliance

      9417 Princess Palm Ave.

      Tampa, FL 33619

      Phone: 800-404-7355


      Overview: University Alliance (UA) works with regionally accredited partner universities to provide, via the Internet, associate's, bachelor's, and master's degrees and continuing education certificate programs that require no classroom attendance. Partner universities are Jacksonville University, Regis University, Saint Leo University, University of South Florida, and Villanova University. Each university is solely responsible for all academic areas including admissions, academic advisement, program coordination, educational content, faculty, grades, transcripts, and the granting of degrees. UA is responsible for program delivery, technical development and support, student enrollment, and registration. Degrees offered are bachelor of arts, bachelor of science, master's degrees, associate of arts, project management certificate programs, and health care certificate programs in such areas as business, computer information systems, health care management, project management, and nursing. UA stresses that in its service to students, it “strives to provide each student with personal attention and service that begins before you apply and continues throughout your coursework.”

      University of California, Berkeley

      Extension Online

      2000 Center Street, Suite 400

      Berkeley, CA 94704

      Phone: 510-642-4124


      Overview: The University of California (UC) Extension program was established in 1913 “to expand the resources of the University throughout the community, the state, and the nation.” UC Berkeley Extension, however, is part of the Continuing Education department of UC Berkeley, with more than 3,000 courses offered annually to the public at locations around the San Francisco Bay area and through distance learning in the Extension Online program. Extension Online distance learning courses either are asynchronous, meaning one can enroll anytime and finish within 6 months or a year, depending on the type of course, or have fixed start and finish dates. Extension Online offers online courses that are accessed remotely over the Internet, and independent learning courses that use printed course materials. Interaction with instructors in either type of course includes regular mail, fax, or e-mail. Catalog listings include courses in Arts & Humanities, Business & Management, Computer Science & Engineering, Education, Health Sciences, High School Courses, E-Commerce, Mathematics & Statistics, Natural Sciences, and Social Sciences. UC Extension and Extension Online courses are open to the general public. Unless otherwise indicated, any interested adult may enroll.

      University of Central Florida

      UCF Virtual Campus–The Center for Distributed Learning

      Orlando, FL 32851

      Phone: 407-823-2000


      Overview: The University of Central Florida (UCF) was founded in 1963. Its Virtual Campus defines distributed learning as including “traditional delivery technologies such as video tape, interactive television and web-based instruction to provide services to students at a distance. However, Distributed Learning at UCF also encompasses the use of computer resources to extend and enhance traditional classroom instruction.” Part of its distributed learning program is the online program, Online@UCF, which consists of upper-division and graduate-level courses and programs offered via the Web. Undergraduate degrees in Online@UCF are: Bachelor of Science in Vocational Education and Industry Training, RN, Bachelor of Science in Nursing, Bachelor of Science in Health Services Administration, and Bachelor of Arts or Science in Liberal Studies. Graduate programs include: Educational Media Master's Degree, Master of Science in Forensic Science, Master of Arts or Education in Vocational Education and Industry Training, Master of Arts in Instructional/Educational Technology, Master of Science in Criminal Justice, and Master of Science in Nursing. Graduate certificate programs are offered as well. Overall, the distributed learning program at UCF strives, “through the use of technology to enhance and deliver programs, courses, and learning environments for all UCF students.”

      University of Colorado

      Online and Distance Education Programs

      35 SYS, 914 Broadway

      Boulder, CO 80309-0035

      Phone: 303-492-6201


      Overview: Founded in 1876 with a campus in Boulder, the University of Colorado (CU) now includes 4 campuses and offers 18 distance education degree programs and a large, growing number of certificate programs. Some programs are available completely online; others are available through a mix of different media. CU Online also offers a hybrid course, which “uses technology-delivered instruction (web, CD-ROM, etc.) as a substitute for a portion of the instruction that a student would otherwise receive in a campus classroom or lab.” In hybrid courses, students meet for approximately 50% of their normal classroom hours on campus, but they do the remainder of their work online. Distance learning is available from campuses in Boulder, Denver, and Colorado Springs. In addition, CU at Interlocken offers graduate, professional development certificate programs, and courses in classrooms located at the Interlocken Business Park in Broomfield, Colorado.

      University of Florida

      Distance Learning

      2209 NW 13th St., Suite D

      Gainesville, FL 32609

      Phone: 352-392-2137


      Overview: The University of Florida offers undergraduate and graduate degrees via online distance learning and credit via self-directed correspondence courses. These degree programs require formal admission. Most courses are Web-based, but some are delivered by other technologies. Online bachelor's degrees are offered in two schools, Business Administration and Fire and Emergency Services. Online master's degrees are offered in nine schools: Agriculture, Business Administration, Health Science in Occupational Therapy, International Construction Management, Engineering, Industrial & Systems Engineering, Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Soil and Water Science, and Veterinary Medical Sciences. Doctorate degrees are offered in two schools, Audiology and Pharmacy. Professional certificates in other areas that do not necessarily require formal admission are also offered. The Division of Continuing Education (DOCE), which distance learning is a part of, states that part of its overall mission is “to develop and offer continuing education programs designed to meet a wide range of personal and professional educational and learning needs.”

      University of Idaho

      Engineering Outreach

      Moscow, ID 83843

      Phone: 888-884-3246


      Overview: The University of Idaho (UI) College of Engineering's Engineering Outreach (EO) Program was founded in 1975. It uses a variety of media resources, including videotape, e-mail, the Internet, CD-ROM, DVD, and print materials, to deliver courses to more than 350 students worldwide each semester. EO offers more than 90 continually updated courses in 9 graduate programs for graduate degrees, certificates, and professional advancement. EO courses are semester-based, and all are professionally recorded in a studio classroom at UI. EO prepares DVD, CD-ROM, or VCR copies of lessons and printed course materials (if any), and ships them weekly to students. Graduate degree programs are available in Biological & Agricultural Engineering, Civil Engineering, Computer Engineering, Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Engineering Management, Mechanical Engineering, Teaching Mathematics, and Psychology. Certificates are available after completing a series of courses predetermined by the academic department in a specific emphasis area.

      University of Maryland University College

      3501 University Blvd. East

      Adelphi, MD 20783

      Phone: 800-888-UMUC


      Overview: University of Maryland University College (UMUC) offers online distance education programs. UMUC's decision to develop a virtual university for online programs “was driven by the needs of parttime, adult students who juggle many responsibilities and require the flexibility and convenience that online education provides.” Undergraduates can choose from 17 majors and 20 minors online or from 20 certificate programs available online. Graduate students can choose from a large number of online certificate programs and master's degrees. Some programs include proctored exams given at remote test sites. Online programs also use UMUC's own online delivery software that allows students to interact directly with instructors and each other. UMUC is accredited by the Commission on Higher Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools.

      University of Nebraska-Lincoln

      Department of Educational Administration

      Lincoln, NE 68588

      Phone: 402-472-7211


      Overview: The University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Department of Educational Administration offers online doctoral degrees, master's degrees, and nondegree graduate studies. The department stresses that it offers degrees of “benefit to many practitioners working in community colleges, technical institutes, four year colleges and universities throughout the United States and the world.” The following programs are offered: a Ph.D. or Ed.D. in Administration, Curriculum and Instruction; an M.A. or M.Ed. in Educational Administration; and nondegree studies in areas relating to higher education and leadership. Almost all coursework required for degrees is provided online, with Lotus Notes being the dominant delivery system. Instruction is based on a “collaborative learning-reflection on practice” approach “conducted through interactive computer-based communications and journalizing methodologies.” Distributed learning and collaboration take place through “virtual groups” whose members are widely distributed geographically.

      University of New England

      Distance Education

      11 Hills Beach Road

      Biddeford, ME 04005

      Phone: 207-283-0171


      Overview: University of New England (UNE) is an independent, coeducational university with two distinctive campuses in Maine—the University Campus and Westbrook College Campus. UNE offers a fourcourse sequence in Educational Law that is offered with collaboration of faculty from regional law schools. Distance education programs include a Certificate of Advanced Graduate Study in Educational Leadership and a master's degree in education. Both were designed for “providing knowledge, skills, and practice for future educational leaders of the world.” In the certificate program, students who wish to obtain basic administrative certification can take courses in School Law, School Finance, Organizational Theory & Strategic Planning, or Supervision & Evaluation of School Personnel. Students in the certificate program must complete a one-week residential integrating seminar, titled Professional Planning, Ethics, and Responsibilities, that brings together all students in the program for an intensive session each summer.

      University of North Texas

      Distributed Learning @ UNT

      P.O. Box 311277

      Denton, TX 76203

      Phone: 940-565-2000


      Overview: University of North Texas (UNT) was established in 1890 as a teacher education facility. UNT's distributed learning program emphasizes that its “distributed (or distance) learning is a type of education where students complete courses and programs at home or work, communicating with faculty and other students via e-mail, electronic forums, videoconferences and other forms of computer-based communication.” UNT offers accredited certificate, endorsement, and master's degree programs within six schools: School of Library and Information Sciences, School of Merchandising and Hospitality Management, College of Education, School of Community Service, Applied Gerontology, and Behavior Analysis. Overall, UNT emphasizes that its vision is to “be one of the state's top-tier universities—a premier educational, intellectual, research and cultural resource.” UNT also stresses that in order to achieve its vision, it will “lead in offering learners access to education through satellite locations, the Internet and other electronic resources, and partnerships with other institutions.”

      University of Phoenix

      Phone: 800-MY-SUCCESS


      Overview: Bachelor's, master's, or doctoral degrees can be earned on campus, online, or using a combination of both, in certain subjects. Founded in 1976, “University of Phoenix was among the first accredited universities to provide college degree programs via the Internet, starting in 1989.” Currently, the university's degree programs are in business, management, technology, education, and nursing. Although 100% of its curriculum can be completed via the Internet, the university does have over 125,000 students taking in-person courses at more than 116 campuses and learning centers in 23 states, as well as Puerto Rico and Vancouver, British Columbia. Overall, the university stresses that it is “a private, forprofit higher education institution whose mission is to provide high quality education to working adult students” and that it has a “commitment to educational excellence and unsurpassed student service.”

      University of Southern Colorado

      Division of Continuing Education

      2200 Bonforte Blvd.

      Pueblo, CO 81001-4901

      Phone: 719-549-2316


      Overview: University of Southern Colorado (USC) is a member of the Colorado State University System, accredited at the bachelor and master level by the Commission on Institutions of Higher Education of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools. External degree completion programs, such as a Bachelor of Science in Social Science, Sociology, or Sociology/Criminology, are offered via independent study or at USC extension sites. Independent study courses are available to those who are unable to attend classes on campus or who prefer this method. Working professionals in the field of education can obtain recertification credits through CD-ROM–based specialized education courses. Noncredit, online courses are offered for professional development or personal growth in a variety of topics, including computers, the Internet, personal enrichment, entrepreneur/business, business administration/management, writing, and Spanish.

      University of Southern Mississippi

      Department of Continuing Education and Distributed Learning

      Box 5136

      Hattiesburg, MS 39406-5136

      Phone: 601-266-4186


      Overview: Founded in 1913, the University of Southern Mississippi's Department of Continuing Education and Distance Learning (CEDL) has sought “to link individuals of all ages and stages of life to the resources of the University.” The CEDL currently provides conferences, seminars, training programs, workshops, and intensive weekend and extension courses for academic credit. Independent, self-paced high school and college courses are available via traditional correspondence or the Internet. Online semester-based college credit courses, in a large number of academic subjects, are also offered. CEDL also has a professional development program that consists of in-person seminars, workshops, and classes, and professional development courses that are entirely Web-based. CEDL also offers continuing education units garnered via traditional methods.

      University of Tennessee

      Distance Education & Independent Study

      1534 White Avenue

      Knoxville, TN 37996-1525

      Phone: 800-670-8657


      Overview: The University of Tennessee's Distance Education and Independent Study Department offers a range of M.B.A. offerings, and master of science degrees in Civil Engineering, Environmental Engineering, General Environmental Engineering, Information Sciences, Engineering Management, and Nuclear Engineering. Graduate certificates are available in Nuclear Criticality Safety, Maintenance and Reliability Engineering, and Applied Statistics. A Bachelor of University Studies is also available, as are professional certificates in information technology, and college courses in a variety of subjects. Instruction is delivered via the Internet (with some interaction via e-mail or a desktop delivery system), videotape, video-conference, correspondence, or enhanced courses, which have some online presence but also require substantial on-campus attendance and in-person participation. Overall, the Distance Education & Independent Study department emphasizes that “learning virtually anywhere is what UT's Distance Education and Independent Study programs and courses are all about.”

      University of Washington

      Distance Learning

      4311 11th Avenue Northeast

      Seattle, WA 98105

      Phone: 206-543-2320


      Overview: Founded in 1861, the University of Washington (UW) is composed of the Seattle, Bothell, and Tacoma campuses, all with the primary mission of “the preservation, advancement, and dissemination of knowledge.” UW Distance Learning currently offers 10 degrees, 27 certificates, and more than 300 courses via distance learning. Most programs rely on the Internet and e-mail for construction and communication with instructors and fellow students. Some courses start and finish at set times whereas others are self-directed independent study. Some degree programs can be taken entirely via distance learning, whereas others feature both distance learning and classroom meetings. Programs include master's degrees in Engineering, Health Sciences, Information Science, and Social Work. There are also certificate programs in Business and Management, Computing and Technology, Education, Health and Medical, Architectural and Environmental, and Arts and Humanities, as well as a graduate program in Construction Engineering. Overall, UW stresses that its distance learning courses “are more than just regular classes converted into a Web site” and that they “are academically rigorous, suitable for a distance format, and convenient.”

      University of Wisconsin Extension

      UW-Extension headquarters

      432 N. Lake Street

      Madison, WI 53706

      Phone: 608-262-3980


      Overview: Founded in 1907, the University of Wisconsin (UW) Extension Division was created “to extend the resources of the University to serve the needs of Wisconsin people” and “to address the relevant social, economic, environmental and cultural issues of its citizens.” Today, UW's Extension Division has collaborative relationships with 26 UW universities and colleges, 72 Wisconsin counties, and local, state, and federal agencies and groups. Students can participate in extension programs through a variety of delivery methods, such as workshops, one-on-one counseling, interactive networks, or correspondence study. Numerous associate's, bachelor's, and master's degree programs, along with certificate programs, are available via these instruction methods or through distance education, which includes instruction via audio conferencing, interactive video conferencing, the Internet, telecourses, Web conferencing, and the Wisconsin Regional Videoconference Networks. Overall, UW Extension stresses that its mission is “to provide, jointly with the UW institutions and the Wisconsin counties, an extension program designed to apply University research, knowledge, and resources to meet the educational needs of Wisconsin people, wherever they live and work.”

      Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

      Institute for Distance & Distributed Learning

      Blacksburg, VA 24061

      Phone: 540-231-6000


      Overview: The Institute for Distance & Distributed Learning (IDDL) was developed in 1997 to provide “a one-stop-shop for distance learning at the university” and to provide “leadership, management, coordination and support to Virginia Tech's eLearning activities and initiatives.” There are 24 degree, certificate, and licensure programs offered at a distance in the following areas: Business Administration, Career & Technical Education, Engineering, Health Promotion, Information Technology, Instructional Technology, Ocean Engineering, and Political Science. IDDL takes a holistic approach to distance learning because “all aspects of a student's educational experience are considered,” and because it “works hand-in-hand with faculty and other members of the university community to achieve an optimal experience for distance learners.”

      Walden University

      155 Fifth Avenue South

      Minneapolis, MN 55401

      Phone: 800-WALDEN-U


      Overview: Founded in 1970, Walden University's mission is to provide “adult learners broad access to the highest quality post-secondary education through a distance learning environment. Walden's learner centered programs prepare its graduates to achieve professional excellence and to effect positive social change.” Modes of instruction include Knowledge Area Modules, residencies, and online courses. The modules combine online activities and face-to-face meetings at Walden's Summer Session or other designated residencies. Academic residencies and face-to-face sessions are held throughout each year at locations around the United States. Generally, however, students pursue degrees through asynchronous courses via Walden's online classroom environment. Master's and Ph.D. degrees are available in the School of Education, School of Health & Human Services, and in the Dual Degrees program. Bachelor's, master's, and Ph.D. degrees are available in the School of Management and in the School of Psychology. Walden is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association.

      Washington State University

      Office of Distance Degree Programs

      Van Doren Hall 202/204

      PO Box 645220

      Pullman, WA 99164-5220

      Phone: 509-335-3557


      Overview: Washington State University's (WSU's) distance instruction is provided via the Internet or video, with in-person instruction on campus or at learning centers distributed throughout Washington. WSU's Office of Distance Degree Programs stresses “with the power of technology and the will to expand higher education, WSU now offers high quality, accredited programs to individuals no matter where they live.” Some degrees can be completed with no site-based participation, whereas others require participation delivered at specific locations and times. Bachelor of arts degrees requiring no site-based participation are in the schools of Social Sciences, Business Administration, Criminal Justice, Human Development, and Humanities. The Bachelor of Science in Agriculture also requires no site-based participation. The Bachelor of Arts in Education does require site-based participation. Graduate and professional degrees offered are: Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) for Registered Nurses, Master of Science in Agriculture, Master of Engineering Management, and External Doctor of Pharmacy. WSU is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Northwest Association of Schools and Colleges.

      Western Governors University

      2040 E. Murray Holladay Rd., Suite 106

      Salt Lake City, UT 84117

      Phone: 801-274-3280


      Overview: Western Governors University (WGU) was founded at a meeting of the Western Governors' Association in June 1995, when the governors appointed a team to create a western virtual university. WGU now offers distance-learning courses from approximately 50 education providers throughout the United States. Instruction is given in a myriad of ways, from the Internet to satellite to the Postal Service. WGU grants associate's degrees, bachelor's degrees, teaching endorsements, and master's degrees in Business, Information Technology, and Education. Degrees are awarded on completion of competencies, which include demonstrating skills and knowledge on a series of assessments carefully selected to measure students' knowledge of a field of study. Programs are not based on required courses. The vision of WGU overall “is to serve the needs of today's Information Age citizens. WGU does that through the use of technology to overcome barriers of time and distance.” WGU's accreditation has been approved by the Commission on Colleges and Universities of the Northwest Association of Schools and of Colleges and Universities, the Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools, the Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges of the Western Association of Schools and Colleges, and the Accrediting Commission for Senior Colleges and Universities of the Western Association of Schools and Colleges.


      Appendix B: Select Print and Nonprint Resources on Distributed Learning

      Periodicals and Web Sites
      American Journal of Distance Education: http://www.ajde.com
      Chronicle of Higher Education: http://chronicle.com
      Distance Education Clearinghouse: http://www.uwex.edu/disted/
      Distance Education Report: http://www.magnapubs.com/archive/der/
      Journal of Continuing Higher Education: http://www.acheinc.org/publicat.html#journal
      Journals in Distance Education: http://www-icdl.open.ac.uk/lit2k/journals.ihtml
      Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration: http://www.westga.edu/~distance/jmain11.html
      The Technology Source: http://ts.mivu.org
      United States Distance Learning Association Journal: http://www.usdla.org/html/membership/publications.htm
      Berge, Z. L. (Ed.). (2000). Sustaining distance training: Integrating learning technologies into the fabric of the enterprise. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
      Discenza, R., Howard, C., & Schenk, K. (Eds.). (2003). Design and management of effective distance learning programs. Hershey, PA: IRM Press.
      Gilbert, S. D.(2000). How to be a successful online student. New York: McGraw-Hill.
      Harry, K.(1999). Higher education through open and distance learning. New York: Routledge.
      Luskin, B. J.(2002). Casting the net over global learning: New developments in workforce and online psychologies. Irvine, CA: Griffin Publishing Group.
      Maddux, C. D., Ewing-Taylor, J., & Johnson, D. L. (Eds.). (2002). Distance education: Issues and concerns. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press.
      Mehrotra, C., Hollister, C. D., & McGahey, L.(2001). Distance learning: Principles for effective design, delivery, & evaluation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452232447.
      Melton, R. F.(2002). Planning and developing open and distance learning: A framework for quality. New York: Routledge.
      Moore, M. G., & Cozine, G. T. (Eds.). (2000). Web-based communications, the Internet and distance education. University Park, PA: American Center for the Study of Distance Education.
      Moore, M. G., & Shin, N. (Eds.). (2000). Speaking personally about distance education: Foundations of contemporary practice. University Park, PA: American Center for the Study of Distance Education.
      Oblinger, D. G., Barone, C. A., & Hawkins, B. L.(2001). Distributed education and its challenges: An overview. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
      Palloff, R. M., & Pratt, K.(1999). Building learning communities in cyberspace: Effective strategies for the online classroom. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
      Perraton, H. D.(2000). Open and distance learning in developing countries. New York: Routledge.
      Peters, O.(1999). Learning and teaching in distance education: Analyses and interpretations from an international perspective. London: Kogan Page.
      Simonson, M. R.(2002). Teaching and learning at a distance: Foundations of distance education. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
      Simpson, O.(2002). Supporting students in open and distance learning, 2nd Edition. London: Kogan Page.
      Von Phummer, C.(2000). Women and distance education: Challenges and opportunities. New York: Routledge.
      Vrasidas, C., & Glass, G. V. (Eds.). (2002). Distance education and distributed learning. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
      Williams, M. L., Paprock, K., & Covington, B.(1999). Distance learning: The essential guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452229140.
      Guides, Bibliographies, and Handbooks
      Baker, J. D.(2000). Baker's guide to Christian distance education: Online learning for all ages. Ada, MI: Baker Books.
      Bear, J., & Bear, M. P.(2003). Bears' guide to earning degrees by distance learning, 15th ed. Toronto, ON: Ten Speed Press.
      Bear, J., & Bear, M. P.(2001). Bears' Guide to the Best Computer Degrees by Distance Learning. Toronto, ON: Ten Speed Press.
      Bear, J., Bear, M. P., Head, T., & Nixon, T. C.(2001). Bears' guide to the best education degrees by distance learning. Toronto, ON: Ten Speed Press.
      Bellows, E. A.(2003). Education via long distance learning: Index and analysis of new information with guide book for consumers, reference and research. Annandale, VA: ABBE Publishers Association of Washington, D.C.
      Chute, A., Thompson, M., & Hancock, B.(1998). The McGraw-Hill handbook of distance learning. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional.
      Criscito, P.(2002). Barron's guide to distance learning: Degrees, certificates, courses. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's Educational Series, Inc.
      Fusco, M., & Ketcham, S. E.(2002). Distance learning for higher education: An annotated bibliography. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited.
      Game plan for distance learning: Complete introduction to the world of distance learning. (2001). Princeton, NJ: Peterson's.
      Guide to distance learning programs 2003. (2003). Princeton, NJ: Peterson's.
      Guide to distance learning programs in the U.S.A. 2001. (2001). Victoria, BC: EI Education International, Ltd.
      Guide to distance learning programs in Canada 2001. (2000). Victoria, BC: EI Education International, Ltd.
      Harrison, N.(1998). How to design self-directed and distance learning programs: A guide for creators of Web-based training, computer-based training and self-study materials. New York: McGraw-Hill Trade.
      Meyer, R. A.(2001). IDECC distance education standards and resource guide: Principles for designing and delivering quality distance education courses. Montgomery, AL: ARELLO.
      Mills, D. Q.(2001). Internet university, graduate studies: Your guide to online college courses. Anaheim, CA: Cyber Classics, Inc.
      Mood, T. A.(1995). Distance education: An annotated bibliography. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, Inc.
      Moore, G., Winograd, K., & Lange, D.(2001). You can teach online!: Guide to building creative learning environments. Burr Ridge, IL: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
      Moore, M. G., & Anderson, W. (Eds.). (2003). Handbook of distance education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
      Omoregie, M., & Farish-Jackson, J.(2003). A guide to distance education. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
      Rudestam, K. E., & Schoenholtz-Read, J. (Eds.). (2002). Handbook of online learning: Innovations in higher education and corporate training. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
      Safko, J. L.(2001). Astronomy study guide and exercises for distance education. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.
      Slade, A. L., & Kascus, M. A.(1996). Library services for off-campus and distance education: The second annotated bibliography. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, Inc.
      Slade, A. L., & Kascus, M. A.(2000). Library services for open and distance learning: The third annotated bibliography. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, Inc.
      Thorson, M. K.(2000). Campus-free college degrees: Thorson's guide to accredited college degrees through distance learning. Tulsa, OK: Thorson Guides.
      Wall, M.(2001). The Sunday Times guide to education online. North Pomfret, VT: Trafalgar Square.
      Walston, R. L.(1999). Walston's guide to Christian distance learning: Earning degrees nontraditionally. Longview, WA: Persuasion Press.
      Williams, M. L., Paprock, K., & Covington-Jones, B.(1998). Distance learning: The essential guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452229140
      Yates, J. M.(2003). Interactive distance learning in preK-12 settings: A handbook of possibilities. Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited, Inc.
      Anderson, T.The hidden curriculum in distance education. Change33(6)28–35(2001).http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00091380109601824
      Annison, J.Action research: Reviewing the implementation of a distance-learning degree programme utilizing communication and information technologies. Innovations in Education and Teaching International39(2)95–106(2002).http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14703290252934540
      Arnone, M.Ford and GM establish distance-education programs for employees. Chronicle of Higher Education48(34)A33(2002).
      Arnone, M.Historically black colleges grapple with online education. Chronicle of Higher Education48(30)A27-A28(2002).
      Arnone, M.Many students' favorite professors shun distance education. Chronicle of Higher Education48(35)A39-A40(2002).
      Baron, J. D.Designing and delivering an online course for K-12 educators. The Journal28(9)68(2001).
      Barron, B. B.Distant and distributed learners are two sides of the same coin. Computers in Libraries22(1)24–28(2002).
      Beard, L. A.Harper, C.Student perceptions of online versus on campus instruction. Education122(4)658–663(2002).
      Beaudoin, M. F.Distance education leadership: An essential role for the new century. Journal of Leadership Studies8(3)131–144(2002).http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107179190200800311
      Beck, J.Casino workers ripe for distance education: Atlantic Cape Community College targets the swing-shift population. Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education11(18)28(2001).
      Bennett, J. F.Bennett, L. B.Assessing the quality of distance education programs: The faculty's perspective. Journal of Computing in Higher Education13(2)71–86(2002).http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02940966
      Berge, Z. L.Obstacles to distance training and education in corporate organizations. Journal of Workplace Learning14(5)182–189(2002).http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13665620210433873
      Berge, Z. L.Mrozowski, S.Review of research in distance education, 1990 to 1999. American Journal of Distance Education15(3)5–19(2001).http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08923640109527090
      Bollag, B.Developing countries turn to distance education. Chronicle of Higher Education47(40)A29-A30(2001).
      Brotherton, P.eArmyU improves educational access for soldiers. Black Issues in Higher Education19(1)32–34(2002).
      Carnevale, D.Should distance students pay for campus-based services?Chronicle of Higher Education48(3)A35(2001).
      Carnevale, D.12-hour rule, viewed as limiting distance education, expires. Chronicle of Higher Education49(12)A36(2002).
      Carnevale, D.Distance education attracts older women who have families and jobs, study finds. Chronicle of Higher Education49(11)A33(2002).
      Carrell, L. J.Menzel, K. E.Variations in learning, motivation, and perceived immediacy between live and distance education classrooms. Communication Education50(3)230–240(2001).http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03634520109379250
      Cohen, D.Course-management software: Where's the library?EDUCAUSE Review37(3)12–13(2002).
      Cooke, J.Veach, I.Enhancing the learning outcome of university distance education: An Australian perspective. International Journal of Educational Management11(5)203–208(1997).http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09513549710174897
      Coombs, S. J.Rodd, J.Using the Internet to deliver higher education: A cautionary tale about achieving good practice. Computers in the Schools17(3–4)67–90(2001).http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J025v17n03_05
      DeBry, D. P.Globalizing instructional materials: Guidelines for higher education. TechTrends45(6)41–45(2001).http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02772021
      Distance education is harder on women than on men, study finds. Chronicle of Higher Education48(5)A48(2001).
      Distance education teachers work more, report says. Academe88(3)20(2002).
      Eastman, J. K.New horizons in distance education: The online learner-centered marketing class. Journal of Marketing Education23(1)25(2001).http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0273475301231004
      Ereaux, J.A literature guide: Forward into the past; Blending Native wisdom with technology for distance education. Tribal College Journal of American Indian Higher Education10(3)40(1999).
      Forinash, K.Wisman, R.The viability of distance education science laboratories. The Journal29(2)38–45(2001).
      Forman, D.Nyatanga, L.Rich, T.E-learning and educational diversity. Nurse Education Today22(1)76–84(2002).http://dx.doi.org/10.1054/nedt.2001.0740
      Foster, A.Colleges, fighting U.S. trade proposal, say it favors for-profit distance education. Chronicle of Higher Education48(19)A33-A35(2002).
      Furst-Bowe, J.Dittmann, W.Identifying the needs of adult women in distance learning programs. International Journal of Instructional Media28(4)405–413(2001).
      FYI: Distance education: On-line music education. Teaching Music9(1)59–61(2001).
      Gal-Ezer, J.Lupo, D.Integrating Internet tools into traditional CS distance education students' attitudes. Computers & Education38(4)319–329(2002).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0360-1315%2801%2900065-3
      Garifo, C.Learning across the miles: Distance education an increasingly prevalent choice for Jewish studies. Jewish News of Greater Phoenix52(10)10(1999).
      Geelan, D. R.Taylor, P. C.Embodying our values in our teaching practices: Building open and critical discourse through computer mediated communication. Journal of Interactive Learning Research12(4)375–401(2001).
      Graf, N. M.Stebnicki, M. A.Using e-mail for clinical supervision in practicum: A qualitative analysis. Journal of Rehabilitation68(3)41–49(2002).
      Group uses distance education to acclimate American students to study abroad. Chronicle of Higher Education48(2)A43(2001).
      Hartman, J.Lewis, J. S.Sterkel Powell, K.Inbox shock: A study of electronic message volume in a distance managerial communication course. Business Communication Quarterly65(3)9–28(2002).http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/108056990206500303
      Heerema, D. L.Rogers, R. L.Avoiding the quality/quantity trade-off in distance education. The Journal29(5)14–21(2001).
      Hirschbuhl, J.Zachariah, S.Bishop, D.Using knowledge management to deliver distance learning. British Journal of Educational Technology33(1)89–93(2002).http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8535.00241
      Hodgkinson, M.Holland, J.Collaborating on the development of technology enabled distance learning: A case study. Innovations in Education and Teaching International39(2)89–94(2002).http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14703290252934531
      Issing, L. J.Schaumburg, H.Educational technology as a key to educational innovation: State of the art report from Germany. TechTrends45(6)23–28(2001).http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02772017
      Kim-Rupnow, W. S.Dowrick, P. W.Burke, L. S.Implications for improving access and outcomes for individuals with disabilities in postsecondary distance education. American Journal of Distance Education15(1)25–40(2001).http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08923640109527072
      Kurtz, M. J.Holden, B. E.Analysis of a distance-education program in organic chemistry. Journal of Chemical Education78(8)1122–1125(2001).http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ed078p1122
      Latanich, G.Nonis, S. A.Hudson, G. I.A profile of today's distance learners: An investigation of demographic and individual difference variables of distance and non-distance learners. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education11(3)1–16(2001).http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J050v11n03_01
      Lee, J.Faculty and administrator perceptions of instructional support for distance education. International Journal of Instructional Media29(1)27–45(2002).
      Lefoe, G.Gunn, C.Hedberg, J.Recommendations for teaching in a distributed learning environment: The students' perspective. Australian Journal of Educational Technology18(1)40–56(2002).
      Locatis, C.Weisberg, M.Distributed learning and the Internet. Contemporary Education68(2)100–103(1997).
      Mangan, P.What is distance learning?Management Quarterly42(3)30–35(2001).
      Moore, M. G.Lockee, B.Burton, J.Measuring success: Evaluation strategies for distance education. Educause Quarterly25(1)20–26(2002).
      Nebraska researchers measure the extent of “link rot” in distance education. Chronicle of Higher Education48(34)A31(2002).
      Noble, D. F.Technology and the commodification of higher education. Monthly Review53(10)26–40(2002).
      Northrup, P. T.Rasmussen, K.Considerations for designing Web-based programs. Computers in the Schools17(3–4)33–46(2001).http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J025v17n03_03
      Novak, R. J.Benchmarking distance education. New Directions for Higher Education11879–92(2002).http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/he.57
      Olsen, F.Chinese institutions look toward distance education. Chronicle of Higher Education49(8)A38(2002).
      Osborn, V.Identifying at-risk students in videoconferencing and Web-based distance education. American Journal of Distance Education15(1)41–54(2001).http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08923640109527073
      Passig, D.Future online teachers' scaffolding: What kind of advanced technological innovations would teachers like to see in future distance training projects?Journal of Technology and Teacher Education9(4)599–605(2001).
      Petrides, L. A.Web-based technologies for distributed (or distance) learning: Creating learning-centered educational experiences in the higher education classroom. International Journal of Instructional Media29(1)69–77(2002).
      Ramirez, A. Y.A little change does me good: Incorporating Web-enhanced technology within multicultural education. Multicultural Education10(2)38–39(2002).
      Richardson, J. T. E.Woodley, A.Perceptions of academic quality among students with a hearing loss in distance education. Journal of Educational Psychology93(3)563–570(2001).http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.93.3.563
      Roach, R.Maryland community colleges push computer literacy among South African teachers. Black Issues in Higher Education18(14)50(2001).
      Rosenbaum, D. B.E-learning beckons busy professionals; Electronic education offers anywhere, anytime flexibility…but not without problems. ENR246(21)38–42(2001).
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      Appendix C: Conferences on Distributed Learning

      Entry Format

      • Conference name
      • Web site about conference series (or latest in series)
      • Organizer(s)/Sponsor(s)
      • Description

      Annual Conference on Distance Teaching and Learning


      University of Wisconsin-Madison

      This “event attracts more than 1000 distance educators, trainers, and executives from over 550 organizations nation wide and around the world.”

      Annual Distance Education Conference


      Center for Distance Learning Research

      This conference is held in Austin, Texas. “Presentations model and emphasize the use of communication technologies and exemplary teaching practices currently used in the field of Distance Education.”

      Cambridge International Conference on Open and Distance Education


      The Open University in the East of England

      This conference series, which began in 1983, “takes as its theme the future of open and distance teaching and learning.” Attendance is limited to ensure interactivity for the participants.

      Computer Support for Collaborative Learning (CSCL)


      InterMedia, University of Bergen and InterMedia, University of Oslo, Norway

      “CSCL is a genuinely interdisciplinary field which strives to create a better understanding of collaborative learning that is mediated by a diverse set of computational technologies.”

      Computers and Advanced Technology in Education (CATE), including the IASTED International Symposium on Web-Based Education (WBE)

      http://www.iasted.com/conference.htm (lists numerous IASTED conferences)

      International Association of Science and Technology for Development (IASTED)

      CATE-2003 and WBE-2003 provide “an excellent opportunity for faculty, scholars, administrators, and practitioners to meet well-known experts from all over the world and to discuss innovative ideas, research results, and best practices on various topics of technology-enhanced education, online education and training, new Web-based teaching and learning technologies, testing and assessment issues of online education…and many other related issues.”

      DETC Distance Education Workshop DETC Annual Conference


      Distance Education and Training Council (DETC)

      The DETC offers a Distance Education Workshop every fall. Every spring, the DETC holds its Annual Conference. Full reports of both events are available on the Web site.

      EDEN Annual Conference


      European Distance Education Network (EDEN)

      “The annual conferences of EDEN are held in different regions of Europe, supporting…in this way the collaboration of professional communities, enlargement of contacts of experts [among] the Northern, Central, or Southern part of the continent, and [helping] to enhance East/West cooperation.”

      ED-MEDIA World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia & Telecommunications


      Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education

      “This annual conference serves as a multi-disciplinary forum for the discussion and exchange of information on the research, development, and applications on all topics related to multimedia, hypermedia and telecommunications/distance education.”

      E-Learn World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education


      Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education

      “The E-Learn conference series is an international forum designed to facilitate the exchange of information and ideas on the research, issues, developments, and applications of a broad range of topics related to e-Learning. E-Learn is a…collaboration between the top public and private academic researchers, developers, education and business professionals, and end users from the Corporate, Healthcare, Government, and Higher Education sectors.”

      Information Technology and Distance Education


      University of Texas System

      “This annual conference serves as a multidisciplinary forum for the discussion and exchange of information on research and applications related to information technology and distance education in higher education.”

      Institute for Managing and Developing e-Learning (MDE)


      Western Cooperative for Educational Telecommunications (WCET)

      Intended for participants (limit: 60 for 2003) whose “job is concerned with managing distance learning or integrating technologies into instruction.”

      International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT)


      IEEE Computer Society Learning Technology Task Force (LTTF)

      This conference “intends to bring together academics, researchers and industry practitioners who are involved or interested in the design and development of advanced and emerging learning technologies with ultimate aim to empower individuals and organisations in building competencies for exploiting the opportunities of the knowledge society.”

      International Conference on New Educational Environments (ICNEE)


      Swiss Information and Communications Technologies Network and University of Applied Sciences of Central Switzerland

      “The 5th International Conference on New Educational Environments (5. ICNEE) focuses on results and experiences of international research in methodology and technology related to blended learning, teaching and distance collaboration. Further emphasis lies on the implementation, application and impacts of these learning concepts in educational institutions and on the identification of their future potential. International researchers, teachers and students present their experiences based on best practice and lessons learned.” Recent conference locations have included Lucerne, Lugano, and Fribourg in Switzerland.



      Karlsruher Messeund Kongress-GmbH

      This is an annual European conference and specialist trade fair for educational and information technology, held in Karlsruhe, Germany, every winter.

      Libraries Without Walls


      Centre for Research in Library & Information Management (CERLIM), Department of Information and Communications, Manchester Metropolitan University

      This biannual conference series brings “together international perspectives on the delivery of library and information services to users who are not in the physical library.”

      NAWeb: Annual Conference on Web-based Teaching and Learning


      University of New Brunswick, Canada

      The focus of this conference is “How do you make Web-based education even better than ‘traditional’ educational venues? How do you foster the sense of campus community online, with students and educators who may never meet face-to-face? How do you make Web technology work to support learning—and not the other way around?”

      ODLAA Forum


      Open and Distance Learning Association of Australia (ODLAA)

      “Every two years ODLAA arranges a Forum in a different Australian city…. [ODLAA] encourage people from all parts of the educational spectrum to be involved whether they be teachers, trainers, designers, managers or policy makers from the first years of school to post graduate; government, private or military; recreational, vocational, or lifelong learning.”

      Off-Campus Library Services Conference


      Central Michigan University Libraries and College of Extended Learning

      Attendees of these conferences, which are held every other year, “are dedicated to providing library services and instructional support to adult learners located at a distance from their main campuses, corporate or institutional headquarters, or primary training sites.”

      Online Educa Berlin

      Online Educa Barcelona



      ICWE (International Conferences, Workshops and Exhibitions) GmbH

      These two independent conferences on e-learning are aimed at participants from education, government, and industry. Online Educa Berlin claims to be “the world's largest international e-learning conference.” Forty percent of the Online Educa Barcelona 2002 participants came from Latin America.

      Sightings 20/20: CADE-ACED 2003 Conference


      Canadian Association for Distance Education (CADE/ACED)

      The conference goal is “to examine and discuss issues and accomplishments in: ongoing research, new content for new technology, learner services, global reach, workplace learning.”

      Sloan-C International Conference on Asynchronous Learning Networks


      Sloan Consortium

      This conference on online learning is co-sponsored by academic institutions such as New York University, the University of Maryland, and Pennsylvania State University, and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation–funded Sloan Consortium (Sloan-C), whose goal is “to make education a part of everyday life, accessible and affordable for anyone, anywhere, at any time, in a wide variety of disciplines.”

      Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (SITE)


      Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education

      “This annual conference offers opportunities to share ideas and expertise on all topics related to the use of information technology in teacher education and instruction about information technology for all disciplines in preservice, inservice, and graduate teacher education as well as faculty and staff development.”

      Virtual Educa


      Inter-American Agency for Cooperation and Development (OAS), European Commission, Inter-American Development Bank (INDES), Distance University of Spain (UNED), and others

      This is an international conference on education, training and new technologies with a “Latin American/ Hispanic Focus, Global Perspective.”

      World Conferences on Open and Distance Education


      International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE)

      The ICDE organizes the World Conferences on Open and Distance Education every other year.

      World Education Market


      Reed Midem, a division of Reed Exhibitions

      “WEM is the…international marketplace that brings buyers, government decision-makers and leading institutions together with…suppliers of…content, technology and expertise…. WEM puts…in touch with potential buyers, suppliers, producers, publishers, distributors or partners for sales, marketing and distribution, for product development, for technical support, localisation and successful market entry into new territories.”

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