Handbook of Death & Dying
Publication Year: 2003
Dying is a social as well as physiological phenomenon. Each society characterizes and, consequently, treats death and dying in its own individual ways—ways that differ markedly. These particular patterns of death and dying engender modal cultural responses, and such institutionalized behavior has familiar, economical, educational, religious, and political implications. The Handbook of Death and Dying takes stock of the vast literature in the field.
- Front Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: Death in Cultural Context
- Chapter 1: The Universal Fear of Death and the Cultural Response
- Chapter 2: Historical Changes in the Meaning of Death in the Western Tradition
- Chapter 3: Dealing with Death: Western Philosophical Strategies
- Chapter 4: Death Denial: Hiding and Camouflaging Death
- Chapter 5: Death, Dying, and the Dead in Popular Culture
- Chapter 6: The Death Awareness Movement: Description, History, and Analysis
- Chapter 7: The Spiritualist Movement: Bringing the Dead Back
- Chapter 8: Reincarnation: The Technology of Death
- Chapter 9: Hosts and Ghosts: The Dead as Visitors in Cross-Cultural Perspective
- Chapter 10: Ghosts: The Dead among us
- Chapter 11: The Malevolent “Undead”: Cross-Cultural Perspectives
- Chapter 12: Spirituality
- Chapter 13: Religion and the Mediation of Death Fear
- Chapter 14: Christian Beliefs Concerning Death and Life after Death
- Chapter 15: Near-Death Experiences as Secular Eschatology
- Chapter 16: Life Insurance as Social Exchange Mechanism
- Chapter 17: “Full Military Honors”: Ceremonial Interment as Sacred Compact
- Chapter 18: Symbolic Immortality and Social Theory: The Relevance of an Underutilized Concept
Part II: Death in Social Context: Variants in Morality and Meaning
- Chapter 19: Historical and Epidemiological Trends in Mortality in the United States
- Chapter 20: Global Mortality Rates: Variations and their Consequences for the Experience of Dying
- Chapter 21: To Die, by Mistake: Accidental Deaths
- Chapter 22: Megadeaths: Individual Reactions and Social Responses to Massive Loss of Life
- Chapter 23: On the Role and Meaning of Death in Terrorism
- Chapter 24: Death Attributed to Medical Error
- Chapter 25: Homicidal Death
- Chapter 26: Pre-Personality Pregnancy Losses: Miscarriages, Stillbirths, and Abortions
- Chapter 27: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
- Chapter 28: The Evolution of the Legal Definition of Death
- Chapter 29: Death Education
- Chapter 30: The Postself in Social Context
Part III: Death and Social Controversy
- Chapter 31: Historical Suicide
- Chapter 32: Suicide and Suicide Trends in the United States, 1900–1999
- Chapter 33: Suicide Survivors: The Aftermath of Suicide and Suicidal Behavior
- Chapter 34: Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Suicide
- Chapter 35: A History of Execution Methods in the United States
- Chapter 36: Capital Punishment in the United States
- Chapter 37: Military Executions
- Chapter 38: The Abortion Issue in the United States
- Chapter 39: Dying of AIDs and Social Stigmatization
- Chapter 40: Medical Euthanasia
- Chapter 41: Physician-Assisted Death
Part IV: Passing Away: Dying as Social Process
- Chapter 42: Death Awareness and Adjustment Across the Life Span
- Chapter 43: Dying as Deviance: An Update on the Relationship between Terminal Patients and Medicine
- Chapter 44: The Dying Process
- Chapter 45: On Coming to Terms with Death and Dying: Neglected Dimensions of Identity Work
- Chapter 46: Death in Two Settings: The Acute Care Facility and Hospice
- Chapter 47: The History of the Hospice Approach
- Chapter 48: Dying in a Total Institution: The Case of Death in Prison
- Chapter 49: Formal and Informal Caregiving at the End of Life
Part V: Funeralization: The Social Ceremonies of Death
- Chapter 50: The Death Notification Process: Recommendations for Practice, Training, and Research
- Chapter 51: The Autopsy
- Chapter 52: A Social History of Embalming
- Chapter 53: Fallen Soldiers: Death and the U.S. Military
- Chapter 54: Death-Related Work Systems outside the Funeral Home
- Chapter 55: The American Family and the Processing of Death Prior to the 20th Century
- Chapter 56: The Evolution of the Funeral Home and the Occupation of Funeral Director
- Chapter 57: The American Funeral
- Chapter 58: Black Funeralization and Culturally Grounded Services
- Chapter 59: On the Economics of Death in the United States
- Chapter 60: The Funeral and the Funeral Industry in the United Kingdom
- Chapter 61: Practices Surrounding the Dead in French-Speaking Belgium: Rituals in Kitlike Form
- Chapter 62: The Native American Way of Death
- Chapter 63: The Hindu Way of Death
- Chapter 64: The Muslim Way of Death
- Chapter 65: The Japanese Way of Death
- Chapter 66: The Taoist (Chinese) Way of Death
- Chapter 67: The Jewish Way of Death
- Chapter 68: Obituaries
- Chapter 69: Gracing God's Acres: Some Notes on a Typology of Cemetery Visitation in Western Cultures
- Chapter 70: Impromptu Memorials to the Dead
- Chapter 71: Death and Community Responses: Comfort, Community, and Culture
- Chapter 72: Monuments in Motion: Gravemarkers, Cemeteries, and Memorials as Material Form and Context
Part VI: Body Disposition
- Chapter 73: The History of the American Cemetery and Some Reflections on the Meaning of Death
- Chapter 74: Pet Burial in the United States
- Chapter 75: Cremation
- Chapter 76: Body Recycling
- Chapter 77: The Iceman Cometh: The Cryonics Movement and Frozen Immortality
- Chapter 78: Disposing of the Dead: Minor Modes
- Chapter 79: The Social History of the European Cemetery
- Chapter 80: Body Disposition in Cross-Cultural Context: Prehistoric and Modern Non-Western Societies
- Chapter 81: Mummification and Mummies in Ancient Egypt
Part VII: Thanatological Aftermath
- Chapter 82: The Evolution of Mourning and the Bereavement Role in the United States: Middle- and Upper-Class European Americans
- Chapter 83: Social Dimensions of Grief
- Chapter 84: The Experience of Grief and Bereavement
- Chapter 85: Bereavement in Cross-Cultural Perspective
- Chapter 86: Widowhood and its Social Implications
- Chapter 87: Children and the Death of a Parent
- Chapter 88: Parents and the Death of a Child
Part VIII: The Legalities of Death
- Chapter 89: Living Wills and Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care
- Chapter 90: The Death Certificate: Civil Registration, Medical Certification, and Social Issues
- Chapter 91: Coroner and Medical Examiner
- Chapter 92: The Disposition of Property: Transfers between the Dead and the Living
- Chapter 93: The Last will and Testament: A Neglected Document in Sociological Research
- Chapter 94: The Legal Regulation of Mortuary Science Education
- Chapter 95: Cemetery Regulation in the United States
- Chapter 96: Death and Legal Blame: Wrongful Death
- Chapter 97: Negligent Death and Manslaughter
- Chapter 98: “Thanatological Crime”: Some Conceptual Notes on Offenses Against the Dead as a Neglected Form of Deviant Behavior
Part IX: The Creative Imagination and the Response to Death
- Chapter 99: Death in Art
- Chapter 100: Cultural Concern with Death in Literature
- Chapter 101: “Arise, Ye More than Dead!” Culture, Music, and Death
- Chapter 102: Dead Zoo Chic: Some Conceptual Notes on Taxidermy in American Social Life
Part X: The Future of Death
Clifton D. Bryant, Editor in Chief
Virginia Tech University
Patty M. Bryant, Managing Editor
Charles K. Edgley, Associate Editor
Oklahoma State University
Michael R. Leming, Associate Editor
St. Olaf College
Dennis L. Peck, Associate Editor
University of Alabama
Kent L. Sandstrom, Associate Editor
University of Northern Iowa
Watson F. Rogers II, Assistant Editor
Virginia Tech University
Copyright © 2003 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Handbook of death and dying / edited by Clifton D. Bryant.
A Sage Reference Publication.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Death—Social aspects. 2. Thanatology. I. Bryant, Clifton D., 1932-
03 04 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquiring Editor: Rolf A. Janke
Editorial Assistant: Sara Tauber
Production Editor: Diana E. Axelsen
Copy Editors: Judy Selhorst (Volume I)
Linda Gray (Volume II)
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Indexer: Rachel Rice
Cover Designer: Ravi Balasuriya
List of Entries
- The Universal Fear of Death and the Cultural Response
- Historical Changes in the Meaning of Death in the Western Tradition
- Dealing With Death: Western Philosophical Strategies
- Death Denial: Hiding and Camouflaging Death
- Death, Dying, and the Dead in Popular Culture
- The Death Awareness Movement: Description, History, and Analysis
Keeping the Dead Alive
- Bringing the Dead Back
- Reincarnation: The Technology of Death
- Hosts and Ghosts: The Dead as Visitors in Cross-Cultural Perspective
- Ghosts: The Dead Among Us
- The Malevolent “Undead”: Cross-Cultural Perspectives
- Religious After-Death Beliefs: Spirituality
- Religious After-Death Beliefs: Religion and the Mediation of Death Fear
- Religious After-Death Beliefs: Christian Beliefs Concerning Death and Life After Death
- Religious After-Death Beliefs: Near-Death Experiences as Secular Eschatology
Death and Social Exchange
- Life Insurance as Social Exchange Mechanism
- “Full Military Honors”: Ceremonial Interment as Sacred Compact
- Symbolic Immortality and Social Theory: The Relevance of an Underutilized Concept
The Social Modes of Death
- The Import of Context and Circumstance: Historical and Epidemiological Trends in Mortality in the United States
- The Import of Context and Circumstance: Global Mortality Rates: Variations and Their Consequences for the Experience of Dying
- The Import of Context and Circumstance: To Die, by Mistake: Accidental Deaths
- The Import of Context and Circumstance: Megadeaths: Individual Reactions and Social Responses to Massive Loss of Life
- The Import of Context and Circumstance: On the Role and Meaning of Death in Terrorism
- The Import of Context and Circumstance: Death Attributed to Medical Error
- The Import of Context and Circumstance: Homicidal Death
- Pre-Personality Pregnancy Losses: Miscarriages, Stillbirths, and Abortions
- Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
Death as Social Entity: The Social Construction of Death
- The Evolution of the Legal Definition of Death
- Death Education
Death as Intermission: The Continuation of Identity
- The Postself in Social Context
- Historical Suicide
- Suicide and Suicide Trends in the United States, 1900–1999
- Suicide Survivors: The Aftermath of Suicide and Suicidal Behavior
- Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Suicide
- A History of Execution Methods in the United States
- Capital Punishment in the United States
- Military Executions
The HIV/AIDS Epidemic
- Dying of AIDS and Social Stigmatization
Death as Social Process: The Approach of Death
- Death Awareness and Adjustment Across the Life Span
- Dying as Deviance: An Update on the Relationship Between Terminal Patients and Medicine
Death as Social Process: Dying
- The Dying Process
- On Coming to Terms With Death and Dying: Neglected Dimensions of Identity Work
The Institutional Context of Death
- Death in Two Settings: The Acute Care Facility and Hospice
- The History of the Hospice Approach
- Dying in a Total Institution: The Case of Death in Prison
- Formal and Informal Caregiving at the End of Life
Before the Funeral
- The Death Notification Process: Recommendations for Practice, Training, and Research
- The Autopsy
- A Social History of Embalming
The Organizational Response to Death
- Fallen Soldiers: Death and the U.S. Military
- Death-Related Work Systems Outside the Funeral Home
Funeralization in the United States
- The American Family and the Processing of Death Prior to the 20th Century
- The Evolution of the Funeral Home and the Occupation of Funeral Director
- The American Funeral
- Black Funeralization and Culturally Grounded Services
- On the Economics of Death in the United States
Funeralization in Cross-Cultural Perspective
- The Funeral and the Funeral Industry in the United Kingdom
- Practices Surrounding the Dead in French-Speaking Belgium: Rituals in Kitlike Form
- The Native American Way of Death
- The Hindu Way of Death
- The Muslim Way of Death
- The Japanese Way of Death
- The Taoist (Chinese) Way of Death
- The Jewish Way of Death
- Gracing God's Acres: Some Notes on a Typology of Cemetery Visitation in Western Cultures
- Impromptu Memorials to the Dead
- Death and Community Responses: Comfort, Community, and Culture
- Monuments in Motion: Gravemarkers, Cemeteries, and Memorials as Material Form and Context
Disposing of the Dead: Elysium as Real Estate
- The History of the American Cemetery and Some Reflections on the Meaning of Death
- Pet Burial in the United States
Disposing of the Dead: Options and Alternatives
- Body Recycling
- The Iceman Cometh: The Cryonics Movement and Frozen Immortality
- Disposing of the Dead: Minor Modes
Disposing of the Dead: Other Times, other Places
- The Social History of the European Cemetery
- Body Disposition in Cross-Cultural Context: Prehistoric and Modern Non-Western Societies
- Mummification and Mummies in Ancient Egypt
Grief and Bereavement
- The Evolution of Mourning and the Bereavement Role in the United States: Middle- and Upper-Class European Americans
- Social Dimensions of Grief
- The Experience of Grief and Bereavement
- Bereavement in Cross-Cultural Perspective
The Social Impact of Survivorhood
- Widowhood and Its Social Implications
- Children and the Death of a Parent
- Parents and the Death of a Child
Death in Legal Context
- Living Wills and Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care
- The Death Certificate: Civil Registration, Medical Certification, and Social Issues
- Coroner and Medical Examiner
Death, Succession, and Testamentory Inheritance
- The Disposition of Property: Transfers Between the Dead and the Living
- The Last Will and Testament: A Neglected Document in Sociological Research
The Legal Regulation of Death-Related Activities
- The Legal Regulation of Mortuary Science Education
- Cemetery Regulation in the United States
The Dead as Legal Entity
- “Thanatological Crime”: Some Conceptual Notes on Offenses Against the Dead as a Neglected Form of Deviant Behavior
- Death in Art
Death in the Future
- Prospects and Prognosis
Preface: A Thanatological Odyssey[Page xv]
My early encounters with death, like those of other youngsters in the United States, were sporadic and ephemeral. My first encounter with death occurred 63 years ago, when my beloved dog Scrappy was killed by a truck in front of my home. Scrappy was more than a dog, he was my pal. My grief was painful. The death of my dog and the later demises of other pets over time were traumatic experiences. With the help of playmates, I created a pet cemetery for deceased pets and other dead creatures that we found, and that served to foster notions of confronting death collectively and of ritualistic obligations to the dead. At one point, I considered converting a storage shed next to the pet cemetery into a “chapel” for funeral services. My interest in death had become more than casual.
One of my classmates in the third grade was the son of a mortician, and he often brought tombstone catalogs to school. I befriended him, and he let me look at the catalogs. They were imposing, with protective pages of tissue paper between the compelling photogravure pages of tombstone illustrations. I was fascinated by the images of marble and granite markers, and I remember them vividly even today.
The occasional deaths and subsequent funerals of family friends and distant relatives introduced me to human death. Early in my primary school years, my grandparents, over the objections of my parents, took me to the funeral of a family friend who had died. My parents were of the death-denial generation; they believed that children should be shielded from death and that the funeral experience would traumatize me. Those in my grandparents'generation, however, felt that people should confront death and learn to accept it as a natural and inevitable fact of life. I found the funeral experience, including viewing the body, to be informative and insight inspiring rather than traumatic. Like many individuals of my generation, I did not experience death in my immediate family until adulthood. However, while I was in high school the accidental deaths of several schoolmates gave death a very realistic presence for me.
Growing up during World War II gave me an even more sobering perspective on death, with the large numbers of combat deaths sustained by the U.S. armed forces. Family friends and neighbors received telegrams telling them of the deaths of sons or husbands with dreadful frequency. The ultimate tally of dead from the war, on both sides, especially as a result of massive bombing attacks such as those on German cities and the atomic bombing attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, demonstrated megadeath of almost unfathomable proportions.
My intellectual interest in death, however, was not piqued until I was in college. Early in my college career, I read Evelyn Waugh's novelThe Loved One, with its dark and biting, satirical but compellingly amusing account of a dog cemetery and a human cemetery. Some years later, I read other popular books on death, such as Leroy Bowman'sThe American Funeral(1959) and Jessica Mitford'sThe American Way of Death (1963), which proved to be informative, if not entertaining. After college, a tour of duty in the army as a military police officer provided me with training in the investigation of violent death, such as murder, and an assignment as company commander of a military police detachment (making me the de facto chief of police) at Camp Rucker, Alabama, gave me some firsthand exposure to violent deaths from automobile and airplane wrecks as well as suicides.
Early in my graduate school training, I encountered an article in a sociological journal that seized my attention. In 1958, William A. Faunce and Robert L. Fulton published an article titled “The Sociology of Death: A Neglected Area in Sociological Research” in the journalSocial Forces. Suddenly, I (and some fellow graduate students) realized that death and dying are proper topics for scholarly investigation. One of my professors whom I had told about the article dismissed it as having little in the way of professional promise because the topic was too “doleful.” One of my graduate student friends, however, shortly thereafter undertook to write a master's thesis on the funeral home as a work system.
By the time I had finished my graduate work, my scholarly inclinations led me to study and teach the sociology of work and occupations as a major specialty. But the study of work encompasses the study of death-related work, among other types of vocational endeavors. I ultimately [Page xvi]developed an interest in funerary work, and that interest has persisted for the remainder of my career.
In 1968, as a new department head at Western Kentucky University, I inaugurated a new professional journal titledSociological Symposium. As the name implies, each issue was to be a theme issue. The first issue of the journal was devoted entirely to the study of death and dying. It was very well received. Later in my career, when I came to Virginia Tech University, I had developed a more focused interest in the study of death and dying, and over a period of several years, I authored or coauthored a number of papers and articles on such topics as cryonics, last wills and testaments, taxidermy as a thanatological art form, thanatological crime, and symbolic communication between the living and the dead. As a result of my death-related scholarship, I developed a course called “The Sociology of Death,” which I have now taught for 25 years, invariably to very large classes of 130 to 300 students. The exploration of death and dying has come to occupy a place of significant centrality in my scholarly agenda, and I have addressed various death-related topics—such as military combat death and execution—in some of my books and articles.
A number of extended trips to various countries in Southeast Asia (including living in two such countries, the Philippines and Taiwan, on visiting teaching appointments) afforded me opportunities to observe and study death in other cultures. I arrived in Taiwan during Ghost Month, observed funerals and cemetery behavior, and conducted a detailed study of geomancers (feng shui practitioners) who select grave sites for deceased persons.
In the late 1970s, I founded the journalDeviant Behavior, for which I served as editor in chief for 13 years. During that time, the journal published many articles that addressed various types of death, including murder, suicide, and execution.
As I reached middle age, death began to take its inevitable toll on my family and friends. Within a few short years, I lost my grandfather and grandmother, two maternal uncles, and, in 1979, my father, who died unexpectedly after surgery. Within this general time period my wife lost her grandfather, her father and mother, and her older brother. In recent years, a number of my old friends, dating back to high school, have passed away, as have numerous professional colleagues. Even several of my former students have died. As we age, death ceases to be a stranger and increasingly intrudes in our lives.
A few years ago, I served as editor in chief of the fourvolume reference workThe Encyclopedia of Criminology and Deviant Behavior. My involvement in the development of that work led me to the belief that a new reference compendium in the area of thanatology would be both timely and useful to scholars. I also felt that, rather than an encyclopedia of short and concise entries, this compendium should take the form of a collection of detailed and comprehensive essays that provide suitably informative contexts for the topics being discussed. This two-volume handbook is the result of that inspiration.
This effort has consumed the better part of 2 years and is the product of a sizable group undertaking. In this regard, a number of individuals have played signal roles, and they must be recognized and acknowledged. Rolf Janke at Sage Publications shared my original vision for the development of this compendium and greatly facilitated the process of review and contractual acceptance of the handbook as a Sage publishing project. Much appreciation goes to Rolf for adding the handbook to the Sage agenda. Sara Tauber, Rolf's assistant, has been the liaison person at Sage throughout the development of this work and has provided invaluable assistance in handling and processing entry manuscripts, overseeing many of the attendant administrative details, and troubleshooting on various problematic details of the project. Many thanks go to Sara for her efforts.
The copy editors for this project, Judy Selhorst and Linda Gray, have done an outstanding job in smoothing out the lumps and bumps in the chapters, as well as polishing and perfecting the narratives presented. The entries reflect their careful attention to detail, and I am most appreciative of their fine efforts. Diana Axelsen has served as the production editor for the handbook and has been its guiding hand as it has moved through the final stages toward publication. She has energetically pushed the project along on schedule and has creatively ensured a finished product that is attractive in design, nicely crafted in format, and impressive in appearance. My gratitude and thanks go to Diana for producing such an excellent set of books.
My four associate editors—Charles Edgley, Michael Leming, Dennis Peck, and Kent Sandstrom—all signed on early, when the handbook was barely out of its conceptualization stage, and contributed to the final plan for, and outline of, the work, thereby lending their names and good offices to the effort. Once the project was under development, they served above and beyond the call of duty, reviewing, editing, and guiding the entry manuscripts to perfection, through multiple revisions in some instances. It was challenging and labor-intensive work, but they accomplished the task with professional aplomb, making no complaints or excuses while maintaining a cheerful mien in the face of my ongoing exhortations to accelerate their editing pace. The result is a set of outstanding essays that are interesting, informative, and insightful. I owe these colleagues a commodious supply of gratitude for their splendid effort.
My assistant editor, Watson Rogers, did unstinting duty in all sorts of capacities—library researcher, computer technician and consultant, editor, author, and chief cook and bottle washer, to mention but some of his many roles. His contribution to the project was very significant, and I thank him for his tireless and creative efforts.
The more than 100 contributing authors are to be especially commended for producing such fine essays in the face of very pressing time constraints. Their work invariably exceeded my expectations and forms a comprehensive body of thanatological knowledge that will serve scholars in the field for years to come.
[Page xvii]A number of individuals provided clerical assistance in the preparation of the handbook. Brenda Husser provided valuable computer and word-processing information and advice. Lou Henderson assisted with the computer processing of manuscripts. Barbara Townley typed some of the manuscripts and helped format some of the graphics that accompanied them. I thank them all for their invaluable services. Diane Hawk expended much time and effort in typing manuscripts, developing graphics, printing out finished entries, and discharging a wide array of clerical responsibilities in connection with the project. I am very much indebted to her for her extraordinarily helpful assistance.
Patty Bryant took on a prodigious workload as managing editor and labored mightily, sending and receiving thousands of e-mail messages, typing manuscripts, dealing with telephone traffic, proofreading, filing, developing lists and outlines, running the “mail room,” handling a vast array of administrative details, and coordinating interaction with more than a hundred contributing authors and associate editors, plus the editorial staff at Sage. She accomplished all of this within the context of a grueling work agenda and a very demanding time schedule, all the while maintaining a cheerful composure and an optimistic and encouraging outlook. In this regard, she very much served as a role model for me on the project. She made an enormous contribution to the handbook, and I am extraordinarily indebted to her and owe her much love and affection in repayment.[Page xviii]
Death, historically a topic of major social concern, has in recent decades become a phenomenon of even more relevance. Demographic trends portend a much-increased proportion of aged individuals in the U.S. population and an attendant increase in the number of terminal illnesses and death. Technological innovations such as organ transplants and life-support systems enhance the possibility of significantly extending life expectancy, but they also raise serious sociolegal and ethical questions concerning even the very definition of death itself. The corrosion of traditional religious beliefs and values, and the concomitant eschatological scenarios that they generate, renders more traumatic the prospect of death and the final annihilation of self.
Death constitutes crisis for society as well as for individuals and groups. Various patterns of behavior and social processes have been institutionalized as coping and response mechanisms for confronting the crisis of death. Death has social consequences for the larger social enterprise as well as for immediate survivors, and societal perceptions of, and ideological posture toward, death have a major influence on culture and social structure. Death is component to the process of life, in that dying is a social as well as a physiological phenomenon. The particular patterns of death and dying characteristic to a given society engender modal cultural responses, and such institutionalized behavior has familial, economic, educational, religious, and political implications.
Historically, death has been essentially a family matter, in that kin of the deceased handled the details of processing the dead and death. Death, human and animal, is a ubiquitous event in farming cultures and is assimilated into the fabric of social life and accepted as a matter of inevitability and the natural order. In the United States, various events of the 19th century, such as the advent of arterial embalming and increasing industrialization and urbanization, however, shifted the handling of death and the dead out of the home and into the commercial sphere. After death became a commercial commodity, intimate familiarity with it tended to fade and, in time, the United States became a death-denying society, to the extent of making death a taboo and, according to some, a “pornographic” topic, thereby effectively shielding death from public attention. After World War II—and, to some extent, because of the war—death was “rediscovered,” and a new “death awareness” movement surfaced. The public took an interest in death, and books, articles in periodicals, programs on television, and movies all provided material to satisfy public curiosity and dialogue concerning the topic. Best-selling books such as Mitford'sThe American Way of Death (1963) fueled disputatious debate about the ceremonies of death, and cases such as that of Karen Ann Quinlan generated discussion concerning the dilemmas that death sometimes precipitates. The expansion and enhancement of the mass media again brought death into the home, in the form of vivid accounts of homicide, disaster, war, plagues, executions, fatal accidents, and the burdens and trials of prolonged death due to chronic disease attendant to terminal illness. Death as a topic could not be denied or contained, and the body of public information about death grew and evolved into scholarly study and research. Death studies beyond medical studies became constituent to a number of academic disciplines, especially the behavioral sciences, such as sociology, anthropology, and psychology. Other applied fields, including social work, counseling, law, family development, and law enforcement, began to take a more expansive view of the social parameters of death. The literature of many disciplinary subfields began increasingly to focus on death studies and expanded accordingly.
Because the field of death studies is multidisciplinary and subsumes a variety of specialty interests, the literature in this subdiscipline has developed and proliferated in near exponential fashion. Multiple scholarly journals are devoted to the study of death, and extensive lists of new books are published annually in the different constituent specialty areas. The mass of research and theoretical information available has become almost intellectually unmanageable. Beyond the extensive size of the literature that has been generated in this area, there are also the problems of literature overlap, conflicting findings, theoretical and conceptual ambiguity, fugitive literature, overlooked or neglected paradigms, unsubstantiated hypotheses, methodological incongruity, and exploratory redundancy to the [Page xx]point of unproductivity. The corpus of knowledge in the field of death studies has, in effect, become increasingly unwieldy in terms of its parameters. What is needed at this time is an attempt to aggregate, consolidate, integrate, classify, organize, and better delineate and articulate the details of the information contained in the expansive body of literature that has been generated in this field. This, perhaps, can best be accomplished in the form of a concise but comprehensive compendium of the current state of knowledge in thanatology.
In terms of constituent contribution to the body of knowledge in a given field, articles tend to be fragmentary and books are often truncated and ephemeral, whereas reference works offer the advantages of definitive summary, meaningful assessment, and productive synthesis. Reference works offer the further advantage of durability. Some encyclopedic reference works have served as the definitive arbiters in certain disciplines for decades. With the new millennium under way, this would seem to be an opportune and compelling time to stop and take stock of the literature in the field of thanatology, to arrange and synthesize that body of knowledge in a way that will be useful for scholars in the future. A properly developed reference work at this point in time will, in effect, provide direction and momentum to the study of death-related behavior for many years to come.
An appropriate understanding of death and its attendant social processes can enable individuals to confront the prospect of death itself and their own mortality, and helps them to integrate the ongoing process of death more adequately into their total life experience. The primary focus of this reference work is to acquaint the user with the social consequences of death and the behavioral mechanisms, both individual and collective, through which death is experienced. It is my hope that this compendium will provide the user with a more sensitive insight into the social parameters of death and the various ways in which our behavior and our social institutions are affected by death and dying. Additionally, I hope that it will afford the user a refined perspective on the major death-related activities, such as funeralization, bereavement, and disposing of the dead.
Many vocations address death and dying in one fashion or another. In this regard, this reference work should prove to be valuable, as a sensitizing as well as an educational resource, for prelaw and premedical students; for students who intend to pursue careers as clergy, nurses, or counselors; and for practitioners in the fields of medicine, law, law enforcement, social work, and insurance (to name only a few). Scholars and students in the fields of philosophy, management, family development, theology, psychology, sociology, education, and various heath-related fields should also appreciate the utility of this work.
In developing comprehensive reference works, there are two basic strategies. One model of encyclopedia development involves the articulation of 500 to 1,000 basic concepts and intellectual notions, and then the generation of concise entry essays for each topic. Although this approach results in inclusiveness regarding the parameters of the field and breadth of coverage in terms of the array of topics, it also has disadvantages in that the relatively brief expositions presented often display limited perspectives, and sometimes the collected entries provide a fragmented overview of the field.
A second model addresses the task of coverage through the use of a smaller number of entries that take the form of essays that are more comprehensive in context and better integrate sets of individual concepts or topics. Often several basic concepts may be intimately linked or overlapping, and these may be understood most clearly within the framework of a more elaborate context. This purpose can best be served by a handbook such as this one. In the two volumes of this handbook, the contributors address approximately 100 pivotal topics, each of which subsumes and incorporates several more basic concepts and behaviors. The essays generated to discuss these topics direct special attention to the constituent concepts and social patterns within the exploration of the larger topical concern. Each chapter is of journal-article length and addresses its general topic with appropriate detail and elaboration.
The advantage of this literary venue is that, compared with reference works that present extensive lists of topics in fragmented fashion, this model of compendium presents various subtopics and concepts in a more contextually elaborate fashion, demonstrating concept linkages and evolution, and provides enough background to ensure understanding.
This work is, by intent and design, comprehensive and inclusive in content. Topics range from autopsies to vampires, from capital punishment to suicide, from abortion to physician-assisted death, from cryonics to the spiritualism movement. Major sections of these volumes focus on the cultural context of death (social means of transcending death), the various modes (causes) of death, death and social controversy (abortion, capital punishment, euthanasia, and suicide), dying as social process, funeralization, body disposition, grief and mourning, the legalities of death, and creative responses to death (art, literature, and music).
This handbook is multidisciplinary; the contributing authors represent a diverse array of disciplines, including anthropology, psychology, social work, sociology, philosophy, theology, medicine, law, family studies, mortuary science, and history. This work is also cross-cultural; it addresses death-related behavior within a number of different religious contexts (including Christian, Hindu, Jewish, Taoist, and Muslim) and also examines such behavior in different countries and cultures (including Belgian funerals, European cemeteries, ancient Egyptian mummies, Japanese death rituals, Chinese cultural views of death, the Native American way of death, bereavement in different cultures, and body disposition in cross-cultural perspective). Various chapters also examine death-related topics in historical perspective, such as the history of the [Page xxi]American cemetery, historical changes in the meaning of death in the Western world, the history of suicide, historical changes in body disposition for members of the military, and the processing of death in the American family prior to the 20th century.
The two volumes of this handbook offer 103 definitive essays covering almost every dimension of death-related behavior. Leading scholars and researchers in the field of thanatology have contributed chapters, and all of the authors represent authoritative expertise in their respective areas of knowledge and practice. The essays included here constitute an insightful and well-informed synthesis of the current state of understanding in the field of death studies. As a definitive exposition, these volumes should help shape, articulate, and direct the development of the corpus of knowledge in this field well into the 21st century. It is my hope that in this regard this handbook will be a signal advancement in the evolution of the social study of death.[Page xxii]
About the Editors[Page xxiii]Coeditors in Chief
Clifton D. Bryant, Ph.D., is Professor of Sociology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech) in Blacksburg, Virginia. He has been a faculty member there since 1972 and served as Department Chair from 1972 to 1982. Prior to coming to Virginia Tech, he held full-time faculty teaching appointments at Western Kentucky University (Department Head 1967–1972), Millsaps College (Department Head 1963–1967), and the University of Georgia (1960–1963). He was Visiting Professor at Mississippi State University (Summer 1985) and at the Pennsylvania State University (Summer 1958). His research appointments include Visiting Scientist at the U.S. Army Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences (Summer 1993), Visiting Research Scholar with the Mississippi Alcohol Safety Education Program (Mississippi State University; Summer 1985), and Visiting Research Scholar with Training and Technology Project operated by the Resource Development Office of Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc. (Summer 1987). His foreign teaching appointments include Visiting Fulbright Professor, Department and Graduate Institute of Sociology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China (1987–1988), and Visiting Professor in the Department of Sociology/Anthropology, Xavier University, The Ateneo, Cagayan de Oro City, Mindanao, Philippines (1984–1985). He was a participant in the U.S. Department of Education's 1998 Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program in the People's Republic of China (Summer 1998) and was also a participant in the U.S. Department of Education's 1993 Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program in Hungary (Summer, 1993).
Dr. Bryant served as President of the Southern Sociological Society (1978–1979) and as President of the Mid-South Sociological Association (1981–1982). He was the recipient of the Mid-South Sociological Association's Distinguished Career Award in 1991 and the Distinguished Book Award in 2001. He is also the recipient of the Southern Sociological Society's 2003 Distinguished Contributions to Teaching Award. He has been listed in
Who's Who in America since 1984 and inWho's Who in the World since 1991. He is a member of Omicron Delta Kappa, Phi Kappa Phi, Phi Beta Delta, Alpha Kappa Delta, Pi Kappa Alpha, and Alpha Phi Omega.
Dr. Bryant was founder and Chairman of the Editorial Board ofSociological Symposium (1968–1980). He was also the founder ofDeviant Behavior and served as Editor-in-Chief of that journal from 1978 to 1991. He continues to serve as Chair of the Editorial Policy Board for the journal. He was editor ofthe Southern Sociologist (1970–1974). He has served as a member of the editorial board ofCriminology (1978–1981), Associate Editor ofSociological Forum (1979–1980), Associate Editor ofSociological Spectrum(1981–1985), member of the Board of Advisory Editors ofSociological Inquiry (1981–1985) and also Associate Editor of that journal (1997–2000). He was a member of the Board of Editors ofSociety and Animals (1997–1999) and was Associate Editor for a special issue ofMarriage and Family Relations(Fall 1982).
He is the author ofSexual Deviancy and Social Proscription; Khaki-Collar Crime: Deviant Behavior in Military Context; andDeviant Behavior: Occupational and Organizational Bases; editor ofThe Encyclopedia of Criminology and Deviant Behavior (four volumes);Deviant Behavior: Readings in the Sociology of Norm Violations; The Rural Work Force: Nonagricultural Occupations in America; Sexual Deviance in Sexual Context; The Social Dimensions of Work; and coeditor ofSocial Problems Today: Dilemmas and Dimensions; Deviance and the Family; andIntroductory Sociology: Selected Readings for the College Scene. He has published articles in a number of professional journals, includingSocial Forces, Society, Sociological Inquiry, Sociology and Social Research, Rural Sociology, Sociological Forum, American Journal of Public Health, the Journal of Sex Research, Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, Journal of Leisure Sciences, Sociological Spectrum, The Rural Sociologist, Psychological Reports, Free Inquiry in Creative Sociology, World Leisure and Recreation, Hort Technology, Anthrozoos, Applied Behavioral Science[Page xxiv]Review, Man and Environmental Systems, The Southern Sociologist, andDeviant Behavior.
He received his B.A. and M.A. degrees from the University of Mississippi, did advanced graduate work at the University of North Carolina (Chapel Hill), and received his Ph.D. degree from Louisiana State University.Managing Editor
Patty M. Bryant has worked as an executive secretary for various corporations and agencies, including the law firm of Stennett and Stennett in Jackson, Mississippi; Orgill Brothers Hardware Corporation; Great Southern Box Corporation; Illinois Central Railroad; and the city of Blacksburg, Virginia. She has been involved in the editorial process of several journals, includingSociological Symposium, Southern Sociologist, andDeviant Behavior, for which she served as Assistant Editor and later as Managing Editor. She has traveled extensively in Asia and lived in both the Philippines and Taiwan, where she worked with Clifton D. Bryant in conducting research on Asian culture. She was involved in the editorial process (with Clifton D. Bryant) on several books, includingDeviant Behavior: Readings in the Sociology of Norm Violation, Deviant Behavior: Occupational and Organizational Bases, andThe Social Dimensions of Work. Most recently, she served as Managing Editor ofThe Encyclopedia of Criminology and Deviant Behavior (four volumes). She graduated from Draughon's Business College in Jackson, Mississippi, and did undergraduate work at Western Kentucky University, majoring in sociology.Associate Editors
Charles Edgley, Ph.D., is Professor and Chair of the Department of Sociology at Oklahoma State University. The author or coauthor of six books and numerous scholarly articles, he has been teaching courses on death and dying, social psychology, deviance, and sociological theory for more than 30 years. Working within the symbolic interactionist tradition, he coedited the widely acclaimedLife as Theater: A Dramaturgical Sourcebook as well as several articles with the late Dennis Brissett. That book represented a major contribution to dramaturgical analysis and brought together some of the first dramaturgical thinking applied to death and dying. He also coauthored (with Ronny Turner) “Death as Theater: A Dramaturgical Analysis of the American Funeral.”
Michael R. Leming, Ph.D., is Professor of Sociology and Anthropology and Asian Studies at St. Olaf College. He is the coauthor (with George E. Dickinson) ofUnderstanding Dying, Death, and Bereavement(1985, 1990, 1994, 1997, and 2000) andUnderstanding Families: Diversity, Continuity, and Change (1990, 1995). He is also the coeditor (with Raymond DeVries and Brendan Furnish) ofThe Sociological Perspective: A Value-Committed Introduction(1989) and (with George E. Dickinson and Alan C. Mermann)Annual Editions: Dying, Death, and Bereavement (1992, 1994, 1996, 1998, 2000, and 2002). He is the founder and former director of the St. Olaf College Social Research Center, former member of the Board of Directors of the Minnesota Coalition on Terminal Care, and steering committee member of the Northfield AIDS Response, and he serves a hospice educator, volunteer, and grief counselor. He currently directs the Spring Semester in Thailand program at Chiang Mai University. He holds degrees from Marquette University (M.A.) and the University of Utah (Ph.D.) and has done additional graduate study at the University of California at Santa Barbara.
Dennis L. Peck, Ph.D., is Professor of Sociology at the University of Alabama. He has served as a senior analyst with the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the U.S. Department of Education. He is a past President of the Mid-South Sociological Association, President-elect of the Alabama/Mississippi Sociological Association, and was honored as a Distinguished Alumnus by the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee. Other past professional involvement includes serving as editor ofSociological Inquiry, book review editor forDeviant Behavior, and thematic issue editor for theQuarterly Journal of Ideology, Sociology and Social Welfare, andSociological Inquiry. He was also associate editor forThe Encyclopedia of Criminology and Deviant Behavior and has served on the editorial boards of several journals. Included among his publications areFatalistic Suicide; Psychosocial Effects of Hazardous Toxic Waste Disposal on Communities; Open Institutions: The Hope for Democracy; Demographic and Structural Change: The Effects of the 1980s on American Society; andExtraordinary Behavior: A Case Study Approach to Understanding Social Problems. His research has been published in a wide range of professional journals, includingSociological Spectrum; Health and Social Work; Social Science; Omega: Journal of Death and Dying; Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare; Sociological Practice; Sociological Practice Review; Sociological Inquiry; Clinical Sociology Review; andInternational Quarterly of Community Health Education, among others. He earned his Ph.D. in sociology from Washington State University and M.S. degree in sociology from the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee.
Watson Rogers II, M.S., is a doctoral candidate in sociology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, where he also received a master's of science degree in sociology in fall 2000. His master's thesis is titled “A Theoretical Synthesis of Telecommuting and Family Violence,” and his current research interests include work, technology, the sociology of science, deviance, and thanatology.
[Page xxv]Kent L. Sandstrom, Ph.D., is Professor of Sociology at the University of Northern Iowa. He is also the Executive Officer of the Midwest Sociological Society. He received the Faculty Excellence Award from the Iowa Board of Regents in 2000, the Outstanding Teaching Award from the University of Northern Iowa in 1999, and the Herbert Blumer Award from the Society for the Study of Symbolic Interaction in 1989. His most recent journal publications focus on how people living with HIV/AIDS manage emotions and construct vital and enduring identities. He is the coauthor of two books: Symbols, Selves, and Social Reality: A Symbolic Interactionist Approach to Social Psychology andKnowing Children: Participant Observation With Minors (Sage, 1988).[Page xxvi]
About the Contributors[Page xxvii]
Monika Ardelt, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Sociology at the University of Florida. She is also a Core Faculty Member of the Institute on Aging and a Founding Faculty Member and Member of the Advisory Committee of the Center for Spirituality and Health at the University of Florida. In 1999, she was elected as a Brookdale National Fellow to study the similarities and differences between aging and dying well. Her research focuses on successful human development across the life course with particular emphasis on the relationships between wisdom, spirituality, aging well, and dying well. She has been published in several professional journals, such asJournal of Gerontology, Social Psychology Quarterly, Social Forces, Research on Aging, Journal of Aging Studies, andJournal of Religious Gerontolo gy. She received her M.A. in sociology from the Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University of Frankfurt/Main in Germany and her Ph.D. in sociology from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
John Baines, D.Phil., has been Professor of Egyptology at the University of Oxford since 1976. He has held visiting appointments in Egypt, France, Germany, and the United States. He has lectured in Egypt and Sudan, Europe, Japan, and the United States and has represented the field of Egyptology at interdisciplinary conferences and advanced seminars in archaeology, anthropology, art history, and literature, as well as publishing in journals and collected volumes over a similar spread of fields. He is coauthor with Jaromir Malek ofCultural Atlas of Ancient Egypt (2nd ed., 2000). He has research interests in ancient Egyptian art, religion, and literature; social theory; and anthropological approaches to ancient civilizations. He has directed epigraphic fieldwork at Abydos in Upper Egypt. His current research is on biography, elite self-presentation, and the enactment of an aesthetic high culture by the Egyptian elite.
David E. Balk, Ph.D., is Professor of Human Development and Family Science in the College of Human Environmental Sciences at Oklahoma State University. Most of his research efforts have been focused on adolescent bereavement, with some attention paid as well to program evaluation.
The National Institute of Mental Health and the William T. Grant Foundation funded some of his bereavement research proposals. He is associate editor for the journalDeath Studies and forOmega and the book review editor forDeath Studies. His professional memberships include the Association for Death Education and Counseling (ADEC); the International Work Group on Death, Dying, and Bereavement; the American Evaluation Association; and the American Psychological Association; he is a member of the Scientific Advisory Committee that the Center for the Advancement of Health formed to examine bereavement research issues. He also is a member of the ADEC Credentialing Council and Chair of the ADEC Test Committee working to develop a national exam to certify foundational knowledge in thanatology. He earned an M.A. in theology from Marquette University, an M.C. in counseling psychology from Arizona State University, and a Ph.D. in counseling psychology from the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.
Dwayne A. Banks, Ph.D., has been Country Director of the Partners for Health ReformPlus (PHRplus) project in Amman, Jordan, since March 1998. PHRplus is a USAIDfunded project providing long-term technical assistance to the government of Jordan in the areas of health insurance reform, hospital managerial reform, health policy training, and research, as well as the development of a system of national health accounts. Prior to his current assignment, he served as Assistant Professor of Public Policy at the Richard & Rhoda Goldman School of Public Policy at the University of California, Berkeley. In 1994, he was selected as an Atlantic Fellow in Public Policy, by the British government. He was a Visiting Scholar at the London School of Economics and the King's Fund Policy Institute. He has published extensively in prominent research journals such asHealth Economics, Journal of the American Medical Association, andHealth Matrix Journal of Law and Medicine and has authored numerous technical reports on health policy-related issues. He currently serves on the editorial board of theJournal of Anti-Aging Medicine. He received a Ph.D. in economics from the University of California at Berkeley, where he specialized [Page xxviii]in health care economics, industrial organization, and public finance.
Paul T. Bartone, Ph.D., teaches in the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Leadership and serves as Director of the Leader Development Research Center at the United States Military Academy, West Point. He joined the U.S. Army Medical Service Corps in 1985 as a research psychologist and has served continuously on active duty since then. He has conducted numerous field studies on psychosocial stress, health, and adaptation among military personnel and their families, covering deployments ranging from the Gulf War through Bosnia, as well as a number of peacetime disasters. A continuing focus of his research involves the search for factors, such as personality hardiness, that might account for individual and group resiliency under stress. Professional memberships include the Inter-University Seminar on Armed Forces and Society (IUS), the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, the American Psychological Society, the American Psychological Association (Divisions 1, 13, 19, 48, & 52), and RC01 of the International Sociological Association. He is also a member of ERGOMAS (European Research Group on Military and Society) and is the ERGOMAS coordinator for the Working Group on Morale, Cohesion, and Leadership. He has served as Division 19's Member-at-Large, representative to APA's CIRP (Committee on International Relations in Psychology), chair of the International Military Psychology Committee and is currently Division 19's Web site coordinator and liaison to the IUS. He received his Ph.D. in psychology/human development from the University of Chicago in 1984.
Ann Korologos Bazzarone, M.A., is a doctoral candidate in cultural studies at George Mason University. Her dissertation will be a study of Greek American cemeteries and their relevance in Greek American communities. She has an M.A. in archaeology from George Mason University and a B.A. in classics and ancient Greek from the College of William and Mary.
Felix M. Berardo, Ph.D., is Professor of Sociology, University of Florida. His teaching and research interests include family sociology, social gerontology, the sociology of death and survivorship, and the sociology of risk. He has published over 100 articles in professional journals and is the author, coauthor, or editor of over a dozen major book-length works. He is former editor of theJournal of Marriage & the Family, current editor of the monograph series onCurrent Perspectives in Family Research, and deputy editor of theJournal of Family Issues. He also has served as President of the Florida Council on Family Relations and as associate chair and chair of the Department of Sociology at the University of Florida. He was the recipient of the Arthur Peterson Award in Death Education and has been awarded the status of Fellow by the Gerontological Society of America and the National Council on Family Relations. His book (with F. Ivan Nye)Emerging Conceptual Frameworks in Family Analysis was included among a small, selected group of works considered “classics” in family sociology and has been recognized for its long-lasting impact on the field of family science.
Frances P. Bernat, Ph.D., is Associate Professor in the Administration of Justice at Arizona State University West. She received the Governor's Spirit of Excellence Award from the state of Arizona in 1998, the 1998 President's Medal for Team Excellence from Arizona State, and the Semi-finalist Award for Innovations in American Government from the Ford Foundation/JFK School of Government at Harvard University. She is a member of the editorial board forWomen and Criminal Justice, as well as serving as a guest editor. She has been published in over 10 professional journals.
Joseph E. Boyle, M.A., is currently finishing his doctorate in sociology from Virginia Tech, where he was awarded the graduate student teaching award in 1998. He is also an instructor of sociology and criminal justice at Brookdale Community College in Lincroft, New Jersey, specializing in criminological theory, social problems, and deviant behavior. A graduate of Rutgers University, he received his M.A. in community college education from Rowan University in New Jersey and his M.S. degree in sociology from Virginia Tech.
Sarah Brabant, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus of Sociology at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, is a Certified Sociological Practitioner and holds additional certifications in Thanatology: Death, Dying, and Bereavement, and Family Life Education. In 1981, she designed the first course on death and dying at her university, a course she still teaches each semester. She has served as a support person for Compassionate Friends, Acadiana Chapter, since 1983; counseled persons living with AIDS through Acadiana CARES since 1988; and was appointed to the faculty of the Delta Region AIDS Education and Training Center in 1990. She was one of the founders and serves on the Board of Directors of the Grief Center of Southwest Louisiana, a local program for bereaved children. She is the author of the bookMending the Torn Fabric: For Those Who Grieve and Those Who Want to Help Them and has contributed over 50 articles to professional journals. Her publications on death- and grief-related issues appear inOmega; theHospice Journal; ADEC Forum;Illness, Crisis & Loss; Teaching Sociology; International Journal of Addictions; Death Studies; Clinical Sociology Review; AIDS Patient Care; andJournal of Gerontological Social Work. She has presented numerous papers, workshops, and lectures on death and bereavement at the local, state, and national levels. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Georgia in 1973.
[Page xxix]Donald A. Cabana, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Criminal Justice at the University of Southern Mississippi, specializing in penology and capital punishment. He worked in corrections for 25 years as a warden and Commissioner of Corrections. He is the author of the book, Death at Midnight: Confessions of an Executioner. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Southern Mississippi.
Jack P. Carter, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Sociology at the University of New Orleans. His teaching duties include senior- and graduate-level courses in population dynamics and issues, and the sociology of aging. He has published more than 30 articles on topics including mortality, fertility, migration, and aging in professional journals such asFamily Life, Research on Aging, Review of Comparative Public Policy, Journal of Applied Gerontology, andAging, as well as refereed monographs and a book. He earned an M.A. degree in sociology at the University of Texas at Arlington and an M.S. in demography and Ph.D. in sociology at Florida State University, with social demography and the sociology of aging as areas of specialization.
Nancy K. Chaudoir, B.A., is a graduate student in rehabilitation counseling at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette and currently serves as managing editor ofSociological Spectrum, the official journal of the Mid-South Sociological Association. Her interest areas include gender, deviance, and mental health counseling. She received her B.A. in sociology at the University of Louisiana, Lafayette, in 2001.
Kyle Cole, Ph.D., is Associate Director of Religionsource (http://www.religionsource.org) at the American Academy of Religion at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia. Formerly, he was Assistant Professor of Journalism and directed the graduate journalism program at Baylor University. He received a Ph.D. in journalism from the University of Missouri with concentrations in mass media and society and in American political behavior. He also has 7 years of editing and reporting experience at city dailies.
Charles A. Corr, Ph.D., is Professor Emeritus, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, a member of the Board of Directors of the Hospice Institute of the Florida Suncoast (2000–present), a member since 2002 of the Executive Committee of the National Kidney Foundation's transAction Council, and a member (1979–present) and former Chairperson (1989–1993) of the International Work Group on Death, Dying, and Bereavement. His professional publications include 22 books and more than 80 articles and chapters on subjects such as death education, hospice care, and children/adolescents and death. His most recent book (coauthored with Clyde M. Nabe and Donna M. Corr) isDeath and Dying, Life and Living(4th ed., 2003). His professional work has been recognized by the Association for Death Education and Counseling in awards for Outstanding Personal Contributions to the Advancement of Knowledge in the Field of Death, Dying, and Bereavement (1988) and for Death Education (1996), and by Children's Hospice International in an award for Outstanding Contribution to the World of Hospice Support for Children (1989) and through the establishment of the Charles A. Corr Award for Lifetime Achievement [Literature] (1995). In addition, he has received Research Scholar (1990), Outstanding Scholar (1991), and the Kimmel Community Service Award (1994) from Southern Illinois University Edwardsville.
Donna M. Corr, R.N., M.S., took early retirement in 1977 from her position as Professor, Department of Nursing, St. Louis Community College at Forest Park, St. Louis, Missouri. She continues to write, give presentations, and offer workshops locally, regionally, nationally, and internationally. Her publications includeHospice Care: Principles and Practice (1983), Hospice Approaches to Pediatric Care (1985), Nursing Care in an Aging Society(1990), Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Who Can Help and How (1991), Handbook of Childhood Death and Bereavement(1996), andDeath and Dying, Life and Living (4th ed., 2003).
Gerry R. Cox, Ph.D., is Professor of Sociology and Director of the Center for Death Education and Bioethics at University of Wisconsin–La Crosse. His teaching focuses on theory/theory construction, deviance and criminology, death and dying, social psychology, and minority peoples. He has been publishing materials since 1973 in sociology and teaching-oriented professional journals and has published more than 50 articles, chapters, and books. He is a member of the International Work Group on Dying, Death, and Bereavement, the Midwest Sociological Society, the American Sociological Association, the International Sociological Association, Phi Kappa Phi, the Great Plains Sociological Society, and the Association of Death Education and Counseling. He studied at Ball State University, the University of Kansas, Texas A&M University, and St. Mary of the Plains College.
Linda Sun Crowder, Ph.D., is a cultural diversities consultant in Brea, California. She has published articles in theJournal of American Folklore, Chinese America: History and Perspectives, Cakalele (Maluku Research Journal), and others. Her research focuses on symbolism, public display, performance, identity, and death rituals. She an M.A. in theater arts from the University of Hawaii, an M.A. in anthropology from California State University, Fullerton, and a Ph.D. in anthropology from the University of Hawaii where she specialized in the culture areas of Southeast Asia and American Chinatowns.
Douglas J. Davies, Ph.D., is Professor in the Study of Religion and Head of the Department of Theology at the University of Durham, England. He is on the editorial board of the journalMortality. His recent books includeThe Mormon Culture of Salvation (2000), Anthropology[Page xxx]and Theology (2002), andDeath, Ritual and Belief (2002). He holds a master of letters research degree in anthropology from Oxford University and a Ph.D. from the University of Nottingham, where he also taught for many years and was Professor of Religious Studies. The University of Uppsala conferred on him their Honorary Degree of Doctor of Sacred Theology in 1998.
Jane Dillon, Ph.D., is a sociologist and independent research scientist currently conducting studies in the fields of alternative health, international religious freedom, and the science of subliminal influentiality. She is project coordinator of several double-blind clinical trials on the effect of subliminal influence technology in vivo and in vitro. She served as Visiting Professor at Whittier College in the Department of Sociology and Co-Director of the Human Science Program at the graduate school and research facility of the California Institute of Human Science. She has presented numerous papers at academic conferences for the past 18 years, including the Pacific Sociological Association, the Society for the Scientific Study of Religion, the University for Peace in Costa Rica, and the historic 1993 Parliament of World's Religions. In addition to her comprehensive work on the reincarnationist worldview, the Western yoga movement, and the Self-Realization Fellowship, she has published articles on environmental legislation, constitutive theory, and new social movements inSyzygy: Journal of Alternative Religions and Culture andThe California Coast. In 1999, she completed the groundbreaking pilot “Burn Study” in which children hospitalized with severe third-degree burns demonstrated full recovery, without grafting, in less than 30 days due to the spiritual intercession (subliminal influence) of the eminent European scientist and Celtic spiritual leader of Brittany (France). She received M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from the Department of Sociology at the University of California, San Diego.
Kenneth J. Doka, Ph.D., is Professor of Gerontology at the Graduate School of the College of New Rochelle and Senior Consultant to the Hospice Foundation of America. A prolific author, his books include several titles on living with grief in addition toDisenfranchised Grief: Recognizing Hidden Sorrow; Living With Life Threatening Illness; Children Mourning, Mourning Children; Death and Spirituality; Caregiving and Loss: Family Needs, Professional Responses; AIDS, Fear and Society; Aging and Developmental Disabilities; andDisenfranchised Grief: New Directions, Challenges, and Strategies for Practice. He has also published over 60 articles and book chapters and is editor of bothOmega andJourneys: A Newsletter for the Bereaved. He was elected President of the Association for Death Education and Counseling in 1993 and received its award for Outstanding Contributions in the Field of Death Education in 1998. In 1995, he was elected to the Board of Directors of the International Work Group on Death, Dying, and Bereavement and served as Chair from 1997 to 1999. In 2000, Scott and White presented him an award for Outstanding Contributions to Thanatology and Hospice. He participates in the annual Hospice Foundation of America Teleconference, hosted by Cokie Roberts, and has appeared onNightline. He has served as a consultant to medical, nursing, funeral service, and hospice organizations as well as businesses and educational and social service agencies. He is an ordained Lutheran minister.
James Claude Upshaw Downs, M.D., is coastal Georgia's first Regional Medical Examiner. He has served as a medical examiner since 1989 and was Alabama's State Forensics Director and Chief Medical Examiner from 1998 to 2002. He has lectured extensively in the field of forensic pathology and has presented at numerous national and international meetings in the fields of anatomic and forensic pathology. He is a consultant to the FBI Behavioral Science Unit in Quantico, Virginia, having authored four chapters in their manual onManaging Death Investigation, and was primary author of the FBI'sForensic Investigator's Trauma Atlas. His professional activities have included service on numerous professional boards and committees. He has testified in state and federal court, as well as before the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives. He is on the Board of Advisors for the National Forensic Academy and the Board of Directors of the National Association of Medical Examiners. He received his doctor of medicine degree, his residency training in anatomic and clinical pathology, and held a fellowship in forensic pathology from the Medical University of South Carolina (Charleston). He is board certified in anatomic, clinical, and forensic pathology.
Keith F. Durkin, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Sociology and Director of the Institute for Social Research at Ohio Northern University in Ada. He is a coauthor ofHow Chiropractors Think and Practice and author or coauthor of approximately two dozen research reports and monographs. His articles have appeared inDeviant Behavior, Federal Probation, theJournal of Alcohol and Drug Education, and theCollege Student Journal. He was a contributing author for theEncyclopedia of Criminology and Deviant Behavior and is a member of the editorial board forSociological Inquiry. He received his Ph.D. in sociology from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
Kim A. Egger, B.A., is planning to begin studies for her Ph.D. in 2003. She is coauthor, with Steven Egger, of a chapter on victims of serial murder in a monograph on victimology and is the author of “Motives for Murder” inThe Encyclopedia of Homicide and Violent Behavior and “Victims: The ‘Less-Dead’ inThe Killers Among Us: An Examination of Serial Murder and Its Investigation. For the past 12 years, she has been developing a database on serial killers that currently holds information on over 1,300 serial murderers. She has lectured at Purdue [Page xxxi]University; University of Illinois at Springfield; Brazosport College, Texas; and the University of Houston, Clear Lake. She is currently working on an encyclopedia of serial murder with Steven Egger. She received a B.A. in psychology from the University of Illinois at Springfield.
Steven A. Egger, Ph.D., is Professor Emeritus of Criminal Justice at the University of Illinois at Springfield and is Associate Professor of Criminology at the University of Houston, Clear Lake. He was formerly interim Dean at the University of Illinois and was Project Director of the Homicide Assessment and Lead Tracking System, the first statewide computerized system in the nation to track and identify serial killers. He has worked as a police officer, homicide investigator, police consultant, and law enforcement academy director. He is the author ofSerial Murder: An Elusive Phenomenon (1990) andThe Killers Among Us: An Examination of Serial Murder and Its Investigation (2nd ed., 2002) and was the editor for two different monograph series. He has written numerous articles, encyclopedia entries, and chapters and given many lectures and presented academic papers in the United States and in England, Spain, Canada, and the Netherlands. He has appeared on numerous national television networks and many local television and radio stations, in addition to giving numerous interviews in the print media around the world. He is currently coediting a book on police misconduct as well as continuing his research on serial murder. He holds an M.S. degree from Michigan State University and a Ph.D. from Sam Houston State University, where he completed the first dissertation in the world on serial murder.
Charles F. Emmons, Ph.D., is Professor of Sociology at Gettysburg College, Pennsylvania. Most of his publications have been in Chinese studies and in the sociology of religion and the paranormal. His books includeChinese Ghosts and ESP: A Study of Paranormal Beliefs and Experiences, Hong Kong Prepares for 1997, andAt the Threshold: UFOs, Science and the New Age. He has also been a consultant for and appeared in popular television programs on apparition experiences. His recent research examines the spiritualist and new age movements. He received an M.A. in anthropology from the University of Illinois, Urbana, and a Ph.D. in sociology (1971) from the University of Illinois at Chicago.
Graves E. Enck, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Sociology at the University of Memphis, where he has taught courses on medical sociology, sociology of mental illness, and sociology of aging since 1974. He served as Director of the Master of Arts in Liberal Studies Program from 1999 to 2002. He has published articles in professional journals and was a contributor to theEncyclopedia of Criminology and Deviant Behavior (2001). He serves on the editorial board ofSociological Inquiry. In his current research, he is conducting a long-term study of changes in rural health care and other community institutions as a result of the legalization of casino gambling in the Mississippi Delta. He earned his Ph.D. at Yale University in 1975, having attended as a U.S. Public Health Service trainee in medical sociology.
Morten G. Ender, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Sociology in the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Leadership at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, where he teaches introductory sociology, sociological theory, and courses on cinematic images of war and on the Armed Forces and society. Prior to teaching West Point, he taught in Norway, at the University of North Dakota, and at the University of Maryland. An awardwinning teacher at both the University of Maryland and at West Point, he has also taught a course on the sociology of death and dying through correspondence study for the past 8 years to over 200 undergraduate students. His research areas include military sociology, social psychology, and teaching sociology, with single and coauthored articles published inThe American Sociologist, Teaching Sociology, theJournal of Political and Military Sociology, andArmed Forces and Society. He is currently investigating the representations of children of military personnel in American films—follow-up research to his 2002 book, Military Brats and Other Global Nomads: Growing Up in Organization Families. He earned his M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of Maryland at College Park.
Rhonda D. Evans, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette. Her research interests are in the areas of crime, deviance, and gender. Her work has appeared in a number of journals, includingSociological Spectrum andSex Roles. She received her doctorate in sociology from Texas A&M University in 2002.
David P. Fauri, Ph.D., is Professor of Social Work at Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) where he teaches in the M.S.W. foundation, advanced concentration courses in administration and planning, the advanced standing M.S.W. program, doctoral program, and B.S.W. program. He has been at VCU for 20 years, having previously taught or served in administrative positions at the University of Tennessee, the University of Kentucky, and Southern Illinois University. He has served on the Board of the Council on Social Work Education, has been active in leadership for the National Association of Social Workers in Virginia and Tennessee, and has served and led mental health, public social services, Parents Anonymous, and United Way boards. His practice has included planning community programs for elders and staff work in training and management analysis. Topics of his recent writing include dying and caregiving by professionals, family, and volunteers; bereavement programming; and political participation of social workers. He is currently a member of the editorial board ofArete.
[Page xxxii]Robert M. “Bob” Fells, J.D., has worked on behalf of the cemetery and funeral services industry since 1975 and has served as General Counsel of the International Cemetery and Funeral Association (ICFA) for the past 20 years. Also for the past 4 years, he served as the Association's Chief Operating Officer, External Affairs. In addition to these duties, he serves as President and General Counsel of the ICFA Service Bureau, Inc., a for-profit subsidiary of the association, which administers the Credit Exchange Plan for prearranged cemetery lot purchases. He is also National Coordinator and Assistant Secretary of the Cemetery Consumer Service Council, an industry-sponsored consumer assistance organization. He is contributing editor for theICFA WIRELESS, a biweekly e-mail newsletter that reviews important legal and regulatory developments affecting the industry. His news column, “The Washington Report,” appears each month in the ICFA magazine, International Cemetery & Funeral Management. He is member of the Virginia State Bar and the U.S. Supreme Court Bar and has been listed inWho's Who in American Law and inWho's Who Among Emerging Leaders in America. He is a graduate of George Mason University School of Law.
Louis A. Gamino, Ph.D., ABPP, is a Diplomate in Clinical Psychology on staff with the Scott & White Clinic in Temple, Texas, since 1980. In addition to a clinical practice specializing in bereavement-related problems, he is an Associate Professor who teaches about death and dying at the Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine. Together with Ann Cooney, he is the author ofWhen Your Baby Dies Through Miscarriage or Stillbirth (2002). He is editor ofThe Forum, the official (quarterly) publication of the Association for Death Education and Counseling. He also conducts empirical research on the phenomenology of grieving, from which he is developing a model of adaptive bereavement. He received his doctorate from the University of Kansas.
DeAnn K. Gauthier, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor of Sociology in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette. She is also editor in chief ofSociological Spectrum, the official journal of the Mid-South Sociological Association. Her interest areas include deviance, gender, criminology, and death and dying. Her work appears in journals such asCriminology, Sex Roles, andDeviant Behavior.
Francis D. Glamser, Ph.D., is Professor of Sociology and a former department chair at the University of Southern Mississippi. His research areas are social gerontology and the sociology of sport, and he has published articles in various journals, including theJournal of Gerontology, The Gerontologist, Aging and Work, theJournal of Aging and Religion, and theJournal of Sport Behavior. He earned an M.S. degree from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and a Ph.D. in sociology from the Pennsylvania State University.
Donald E. Gowan, Ph.D., is Emeritus Robert Cleveland Holland Professor of Old Testament at Pittsburgh Theological Seminary, where he served from 1964 to 1999. He worked as a mathematician for the General Electric Co. at the Hanford Atomic Products Operation in Richland, Washington, from 1951 to 1954. He participated in the excavation of Tel Ashdod, in Israel, in 1965 and 1968, and was a visiting scholar at Mansfield College, Oxford, in 1971–1972. He has published 10 books in Old Testament studies, is the editor of the newWestminster Theological Wordbook of the Bible, and was coeditor of the journal, Horizons in Biblical Theology, from 1990 to 1998. He earned a Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1964 and is an ordained minister in the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.).
Robert O. Hansson, Ph.D., is Professor of Psychology at the University of Tulsa. His research interests focus on successful aging, aging families, and coping with bereavement and loss. With Margaret S. Stroebe and Wolfgang Stroebe, he coedited a special issue of theJournal of Social Issues on the topic of bereavement and widowhood (Fall 1988) andThe Handbook of Bereavement: Theory, Research, and Intervention (1993). He also coedited (with Margaret S. Stroebe, Wolfgang Stroebe, and Henk Schut)The Handbook of Bereavement Research: Consequences, Coping and Care (2001). He coauthored (with Bruce Carpenter)Relationships in Old Age (1994). He is a Fellow of the Gerontological Society of America and serves on the editorial boards ofThe International Journal of Aging & Human Development, Journal of Loss and Trauma, andJournal of Social & Personal Relationships. He earned his Ph.D. in social psychology from the University of Washington in 1973.
William J. (Bill) Hauser, Ph.D., is currently a research and business intelligence consultant. Prior to that, he was the Senior Vice President and Director of Market Research and Planning at KeyCorp in Cleveland, Ohio. Before going to Key in 1999, he was the Director of Business Development and Research at Rubbermaid and its toy subsidiary, Little Tikes. He is also an adjunct professor at the University of Akron, where he teaches courses in death and dying, applied sociology, and rock and roll. In 2001, he was named the University of Akron, Buchtel College of Arts and Sciences, Part-time Teacher of the Year. His current research focuses on the role that communities play in dealing with traumatic events, such as disasters. Along with AnneMarie Scarisbrick-Hauser, he is currently preparing a handbook that communities can use in responding to disasters and their aftereffects. He earned a Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Akron in 1979 and has taught at Washington University in St. Louis and at West Virginia University.
Bert Hayslip, Jr., Ph.D., is Regents Professor of Psychology at the University of North Texas. He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association, the [Page xxxiii]Gerontological Society of America, and the Association for Gerontology in Higher Education and has held research grants from the National Institute on Aging, the Hilgenfeld Foundation, and the National Endowment for the Humanities. He is currently associate editor ofExperimental Aging Research and editor of theInternational Journal of Aging and Human Development. His published research deals with cognitive processes in aging, interventions to enhance cognitive functioning in later life, personality-ability interrelationships in aged persons, grandparents who raise their grandchildren, grief and bereavement, hospice care, death anxiety, and mental health and aging. He is coauthor ofHospice Care (Sage, 1992): Psychology and Aging: An Annotated Bibliography (1995);Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Theoretical, Empirical, and Clinical Perspectives (2000);Adult Development and Aging, (3rd ed., 2002);Working With Custodial Grandparents (2002); andHistorical Shifts in Attitudes Toward Death, Dying, and Bereavement (in press). He received his doctorate in experimental developmental psychology from the University of Akron in 1975.
Keith P. Jacobi, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor of Physical Anthropology at the University of Alabama and Curator of Human Osteology at the Alabama Museum of Natural History at the University of Alabama. His work on human skeletal remains spans over 25 years. His academic interests include skeletal biology, paleopathology, forensic anthropology, dental anthropology, medical anthropology, history of disease and medicine, and dermatoglyphics. He has been a forensic consultant for the Alabama Department of Forensic Sciences since 1996 and on contract with the department since 2000. His research work currently involves archaic and Mississippian period warfare among Native Americans in northern Alabama, dental morphology, and dental metrics at the prehistoric site of Moundville, health in Alabama as seen through skeletal remains from early 19thcentury cemeteries, and the health of the historic Chickasaw. He has published articles on the health of Barbadian slaves at Newton Plantation and the historic Maya from Tipu, Belize. His bookLast Rites of the Tipu Maya (2000) is on the dental genetics of the historic Tipu Maya as well as prehistoric Maya. He was the recipient of the Indiana University Medical Sciences Teaching Award. He earned a Ph.D. in anthropology from Indiana University in 1996.
Kelly A. Joyce, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor in the Department of Sociology at the College of William and Mary. Her current research examines perceptions of medical imaging technologies in the United States, investigating why these techniques occupy a privileged space in contemporary medical practice. She publishes primarily in the fields of medical sociology and science and technology studies. She earned a Ph.D. in sociology from Boston College.
Jack Kamerman, Ph.D., is Professor of Sociology at Kean University in Union, New Jersey. He is the author of Death in the Midst of Life: Social and Cultural Influences on Death, Grief, and Mourning (currently being revised), coeditor ofPerformers and Performances: The Social Organization of Artistic Work, and editor ofNegotiating Responsibility in the Criminal Justice System. He has served as a consultant on suicide and occupational stress for New York City's Emergency Medical Services and was a member of a committee on suicide prevention at the New York City Police Department. He is currently working on a comparative study of the New York and Vienna Philharmonics during the directorship of Gustav Mahler. He received a Ph.D. in sociology from New York University.
Robert Kastenbaum, Ph.D., is a psychologist with a crossdisciplinary approach who has been active as a clinician, researcher, program developer, and educator with particular attention to gerontology, thanatology, and creativity, and Professor Emeritus at Arizona State University. He directed the first major study of the terminal phase of life in a geriatric hospital where he also introduced wine, beer, and relationship therapy programs that inspired other programs across the nation. A past President of the American Association of Suicidology, he served for many years as editor ofOmega: Journal of Death and Dying, andInternational Journal of Death and Dying. His books includeThe Psychology of Death; Death, Society, & Human Experience; Defining Acts: Aging as Drama; Dorian, Graying: Is Youth the Only Thing Worth Having? and the forthcomingOn Our Way: The Final Passage Through Life and Death. He and his wife Beatrice edited the first modernEncyclopedia of Death (1989/1993), and he served as editor of the newMacmillan Encyclopedia of Death and Dying (2002). His interest in music has been expressed in libretti and lyrics for the operasDorian, Closing Time, andAmerican Gothic and the musicalsOutlaw Heart, andParlor Game.
Michael C. Kearl, Ph.D., is Professor and Chair of the Department of Sociology & Anthropology at Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas. He publishes and teaches in the areas of social gerontology, thanatology, social psychology, family, the sociology of knowledge, and the sociology of time. His works feature titles such asEndings: A Sociology of Death and Dying, “You Never Have to Die! On Mormons, NDEs, Cryonics and the American Immortalist Ethos” (inThe Unknown Country: Experiences of Death in Australia, Britain and the USA, edited by Charmaz, Howarth, and Kellehear), and “Political Uses of the Dead as Symbols in Contemporary Civil Religions” (inSocial Forces). An early explorer of the pedagogical potential of the Internet, he is perhaps best known for his Web site “A Sociological Tour Through Cyberspace.” He holds a Ph.D. in sociology from Stanford University.
Thomas A. Kolditz, Ph.D., is Professor and Head of the Department of Behavioral Sciences and Leadership at the [Page xxxiv]U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York. An Army officer with more than 20 years of active service, his research and teaching activities span applied social psychology, personality, mentoring dynamics, and leadership development. He has published across a diverse array of academic and military journals, includingMilitary Review, theJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, Field Artillery Professional Journal, theJournal of Personality, andPerception and Psychophysics. He holds a master's degree and Ph.D. degree in social psychology from the University of Missouri. He has also received a master of military arts and science degree from the School of Advanced Military Studies at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, and a master's in strategic studies from the Army War College at Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania.
Pamela J. Kovacs, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Social Work at Virginia Commonwealth University where she teaches social work practice and research in the undergraduate, master's, and doctoral programs. She worked as a clinical social worker for 15 years in a variety of settings, including hospice, oncology, prenatal, and other health care positions, as well as community mental health, private practice, and a college counseling center. She joined the faculty at Virginia Commonwealth in 1996. Her scholarship and service have focused on chronic illness and end-of-life care, in particular, the hospice response to HIV/AIDS, hospice volunteers, the patient, family, and professional caregiver experience of living with chronic and terminal illness, as well as how best to prepare social workers to assist persons with these life challenges. Between 1997 and 2001, she served as an evaluation mentor for the Promoting Excellence in End-of-Life Care grantees, programs funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. She is a consulting editor forHealth and Social Work. She earns an M.S.W. from Boston College and a Ph.D. in social welfare from Florida International University.
Peter Lacovara, Ph.D., is Curator of Ancient Egyptian, Nubian, and Near Eastern Art at the Michael C. Carlos Museum of Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia. Previously, he was Assistant Curator in the Department of Ancient Egyptian, Nubian, and Near Eastern Art in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. He has excavated extensively in Egypt and has written on the mortuary archaeology of ancient Egypt and organized a number of exhibitions and symposia around that theme. He received his Ph.D. in Egyptian archaeology from the University of Chicago.
Vicki L. Lamb, Ph.D., is a Research Scientist at the Center for Demographic Studies, Duke University. Her former appointments were at Johnson C. Smith University and the University of South Carolina. She has numerous publications on measures of health and disability, particularly of older adults. The National Institute on Aging/National Institute of Health has funded her most recent research project on “Foods Programs and Nutritional Support of the Elderly.” She is an associate editor ofPopulation Research and Policy Review (Southern Demographic Association) and a member of the Scientific Review Board forDemographic Research (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research). She received her Ph.D. in sociology from Duke University in 1992, with concentrations in demography of aging and life course studies.
David Lester, Ph.D., is Professor of Psychology at the Richard Stockton College of New Jersey. He is a former President of the International Association for Suicide Prevention and has written 2,000 scholarly articles and notes, mostly on thanatology, with a special focus on suicide. His latest books areFixin' to Die: A Compassionate Guide to Committing Suicide or Staying Alive andKatie's Diary: Unlocking the Mystery of the Suicidal Mind. He has doctorates in psychology (Brandeis University) and social and political science (Cambridge University, UK).
Eric Lichten, Ph.D., is Professor of Sociology and chairs the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at Long Island University, C.W. Post Campus, where he has taught since 1981. He is a recipient of Long Island University's Trustee Award for Scholarly Achievement for his bookClass, Power & Austerity: The New York City Fiscal Crisis (1986) and has published numerous articles in professional journals and publications. He has also received Long Island University's David Newton Award for Teaching Excellence and an “award of excellence” for “his outstanding contribution to the training of pediatric residents and health care providers” from the Child Development Center at North Shore University Hospital (Long Island, New York) and Project D.O.C.C. (Delivery of Chronic Care). His current research concerns the social problems associated with children's chronic and terminal illnesses.
J. Robert Lilly, Ph.D., is Regents Professor of Sociology/Criminology and Adjunct Professor of Law at Northern Kentucky University. His research interests include the patterns of capital crimes committed by U.S. soldiers during World War II, the “commercial corrections complex,” juvenile delinquency, house arrest and electronic monitoring, criminal justice in the People's Republic of China, sociology of law, and criminological theory. He has published in a number of journals, includingCriminology, Crime & Delinquency, Journal of Drug Issues, Social Problems, Qualitative Sociology, and theBritish Journal of Criminology. He is coauthor (with Richard A. Ball and C. Ronald Huff) ofHouse Arrest and Correctional Policy: Doing Time at Home (Sage, 1988) and coauthor (with Francis T. Cullent and Richard A. Ball) ofCriminological Theory: Context and Consequences (3rd ed; Sage, 2002). In 2003, he publishedLa Face cachée des GI's: Les viòls commis par des soldats américains en France, en Angleterre et en Allemagne pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale[The Hidden Face of the GI's: The Rapes [Page xxxv]Committed by the American Soldiers in France, England and Germany During the Second World War]. In 1988, he was a visiting professor in the School of Law at DeMonfort University, Leister, England, and a visiting scholar at All Soul's College, Oxford University. Since 1992, he has been a visiting professor at the University of Durham, England. He received in Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Tennessee in 1975.
Janice Harris Lord, M.S.S.W., is a consultant for a number of crime victim organizations and serves as a media representative for victims. She is certified in thanatology (CT) by the Association of Death Education and Counseling and is a member of the International Association of Traumatic Stress Studies and the American Association of Pastoral Counselors. She has worked in the crime victims' movement since 1976 and was National Director of Victim Services for Mothers Against Drunk Driving for 14 years. She has written two books for the popular market—No Time for Goodbyes: Coping With Sorrow, Anger, and Injustice After a Tragic Death andBeyond Sympathy: How to Help Another Through Injury, Illness, or Loss—and has published many journal articles, curricula pieces, brochures, booklets, research reports, and other works. She served as editor ofMADDVOCATE, a magazine for victims and their advocates, for 11 years and is a founding Advisory Board member of the National Institute of Victim Studies at Sam Houston State University. In 1994, she received the U.S. Presidential Award for Outstanding Service on Behalf of Victims of Crime from President Bill Clinton and U.S. Attorney General, Janet Reno. She received her M.S.S.W. degree from University of Texas at Arlington and is a licensed social worker and professional counselor.
Vicky M. MacLean, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Sociology at Middle Tennessee State University where she teaches courses in social theory, qualitative research methods, community studies, and race/class/gender. She is currently researching the impact of innovative educational interventions on the development of health resiliency among adolescent African American, Latina, and Anglo females. Additional interests include neighborhood development and diversity issues, health care access, and the development of American sociology. She has taught sociology at Wake Forest University, Mary Washington College, and for the graduate federation of the North Texas University system. She has worked as an applied sociologist for the Federal Women's Program of the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences, the U.S. General Accounting Office, and the Texas Woman's University Institute for Women's Health. She has published on compensation, careers in science, and gender. She received her M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in sociology from Duke University.
Stephanie Picolo Manzi, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice in the School of Justice Studies at Roger Williams University. Her current research interests include policing and theories of crime causation. She has written several articles on women in policing and is serving as the research analyst for Project Safe Neighborhoods, a federally funded project designed to reduce gun violence. She is also an associate editor forCriminal Justice Policy Review. She received her M.A. and Ph.D. in criminology from the University of Maryland, College Park.
Alan H. Marks, Ph.D., is Professor and past Chair of the Department of Sociology, Anthropology and Gerontology at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock. He is cofounder and has served as Vice Chairman of the Arkansas Youth Suicide Prevention Commission since 1985. He also served as a scientific adviser to the National Lieutenant Governor's Association from 1985 to 1988, helping to create and participating in a video and educational materials distributed nationally. He created a high school curriculum on youth suicide prevention that has been used in Arkansas. In 1990, he won the University of Arkansas at Little Rock's Excellence Award in Public Service for his work in Youth Suicide Prevention and with the elderly. He received national news coverage when he assisted the police in Shreveport, Louisiana, in preventing a suicide by talking a man off a bridge, an event that occurred when he and the Lt. Governor of Arkansas were in Shreveport doing a radio show on suicide prevention. He and a former student, who was elected to the Arkansas Legislature, were responsible for the enactment of the Intergenerational Security Act of 1995.
John L. McIntosh, Ph.D., is Chair of and Professor in the Department of Psychology at Indiana University South Bend. He is the author, coauthor, or coeditor of six published books on suicide, includingSuicide and Its Aftermath: Understanding and Counseling the Survivors(1987) andElder Suicide: Research, Theory and Treatment (1994). He has contributed chapters to many books and articles to numerous professional journals and has made over 100 presentations at professional conferences. He also serves on the editorial boards ofSuicide & Life-Threatening Behavior, Gerontology and Geriatrics Education, andCrisis: The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention. He is also on the National Advisory Board of the Yellow Ribbon Suicide Prevention Program and is a past President of the American Association of Suicidology (AAS). He was the 1990 recipient of the AAS's prestigious Edwin Shneidman Award (awarded to a person below the age of 40 for scholarly contributions in research to the field of suicidology) and the 1999 recipient of AAS's Roger Tierney Award for Service. He has also been recognized by his university with awards for teaching, service, and research. His work has been reported in newspapers and magazines across the country. He received his doctorate degree from the University of Notre Dame.
Jerry T. McKnight, M.D., is Professor in the Department of Family Medicine at the University of Alabama School [Page xxxvi]of Medicine–Tuscaloosa. His primary interest is training physicians for service to underserved populations. After completing his National Health Service Scholarship obligation in Tennessee, he returned to the University of Alabama–Tuscaloosa Family Practice Residency where he has spent 12 years in the training of family medicine residents in minimizing medical errors. He has been published in 18 different professional journals, manuals, and books. He received his M.D. from the University of Tennessee College of Medicine–Memphis and completed his residency at the University of Alabama–Tuscaloosa Family Practice Residency.
Stephen J. McNamee, Ph.D., is Professor of Sociology at the University of North Carolina at Wilmington. He has served as Chair of the Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice at UNC Wilmington and is the recipient of the UNC Wilmington Distinguished Teaching Award and the UNC Board of Governors Award for Teaching Excellence. His research interests include stratification, theory, and organizations. He coeditedWealth and Inheritance in America with Robert K. Miller, Jr., and they are completing another book, The Meritocracy Myth. He received his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in sociology from the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.
Robert K. Miller, Jr., Ph.D., is Professor of Sociology at the University of North Carolina at Wilmington, where he serves as Assistant Chair of the Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice. His research interests include stratification and racial and ethnic group relations. He coeditedWealth and Inheritance in America with Stephen J. McNamee, and they are completing another book, The Meritocracy Myth. He received his M.A. and Ph.D. in sociology from Temple University.
Calvin Conzelus Moore, J.D., Ph.D., is Visiting Assistant Professor of Sociology and Anthropology at Bowdoin College. Prior to pursuing his Ph.D., he practiced criminal defense law in the District of Columbia. His current research focuses on determining structural correlates of violent crime. He earned his law degree from Harvard Law School and his Ph.D. from Boston College.
James L. Moore III, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor in Counselor Education in the School of Physical Activity and Educational Services at Ohio State University. His research agenda is centered on black male issues, academic persistence and achievement, cross-cultural counseling issues in schools, counseling student athletes, and using innovative technological approaches in counselor education. He is currently working to use his research and scholarship to shape state and national public policy as it relates to preparing highly competent school counselors, improving the overall quality of school counseling, developing interventions and programs for improving the academic persistence and achievement of African American students and other people of color in public schools and higher education, and advancing the mission of the academy in the areas of teaching, service, and scholarship/research.
Robin D. Moremen, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Sociology at Northern Illinois University. She is also a Faculty Associate in Gerontology and Women's Studies and has received numerous awards for excellence in undergraduate teaching. Her research interests include health and aging, complex organizations, HIV/AIDS, death and dying, women's health issues, and social inequality. She has published on Medicare admissions to nursing homes, the effects of third-party payers on clinical decision making, long-term care and AIDS, multicultural curriculum transformation, gender discrimination after death, and women's friendships and health. She is past Teaching Chair of the Medical Sociology Section of the American Sociological Association. Currently, she is a member of the Provost's Task Force on Multicultural Curriculum Transformation (Northern Illinois University), Undergraduate Director in the Department of Sociology (Northern Illinois University), and a nationally certified hospice volunteer. She received an M.A. degree in physical therapy from Stanford University, and M.A and Ph.D. degrees in sociology from Yale University.
John D. Morgan, Ph.D., a pioneer in the death awareness movement, brings to the podium a wide range of topics in the field of death and bereavement drawn from his work as educator, author, lecturer, and program organizer. He is presently the Program Manager of the London Ontario Grief Resource Centre, and Coordinating Secretary of Bereavement Ontario Network. In 1997, he received an award from the Association for Death Education and Counseling for his work in death education. He has spoken extensively throughout the world, has edited 18 books, and is series editor for the Death, Value, and Meaning Series, which now has over 50 volumes. His most recent project (with Dr. Pittu Laungani) isDeath and Bereavement Around the World (five volumes). He holds a Ph.D. in philosophy from the University of Southern California.
Harold Mytum, Ph.D., is Reader in the Department of Archaeology at the University of York and for 5 years was head of the department. A major research interest is that of mortuary archaeology, with particular emphasis on historic burials and monuments. He has carried out and published fieldwork on graveyard memorials from England, Wales, Ireland, and Gibraltar. Present graveyard research is concentrated in Ireland and Wales through his Castell Henllys Field School, which is open to international students. He has also developed the methodology of graveyard recording and publishedRecording and Analysing Graveyards in 2000. He serves as archaeologist on the York Diocesan Advisory Committee responsible for the care of over 600 churches and churchyards in the diocese.[Page xxxvii]
Robert A. Neimeyer, Ph.D., holds a Dunavant University Professorship in the Department of Psychology, University of Memphis, where he also maintains an active clinical practice. Since completing his doctoral training at the University of Nebraska in 1982, he has conducted extensive research on the topics of death, grief, loss, and suicide intervention. Neimeyer has published 18 books, includingMeaning Reconstruction and the Experience of Loss; Lessons of Loss: A Guide to Coping; andDying: Facing the Facts. The author of over 200 articles and book chapters, he is currently working to advance a more adequate theory of grieving as a meaning-making process. Neimeyer is the editor of the respected international journalDeath Studies and has served as President of the Association for Death Education and Counseling (1996–1997). In recognition of his scholarly contributions, he has been granted the Distinguished Research Award (1990), the Distinguished Teaching Award (1999), and the Eminent Faculty Award (2002) by the University of Memphis, elected Chair of the International Work Group on Death, Dying, and Bereavement (1993), designated Psychologist of the Year by the Tennessee Psychological Association (1996), made a Fellow of the Clinical Psychology Division of the American Psychological Association (1997), and been given the Research Recognition Award by the Association for Death Education and Counseling (1999).
Pat Norton, Ed.D., is Program Director for the Introduction to Clinical Medicine course at the University of Alabama School of Medicine in Birmingham, Alabama (UASOM). After completing a master's degree in library science, her position was the Medical Education Coordinator within the Department of Family Medicine in the University of Alabama School of Medicine–Tuscaloosa Program. In addition to curriculum development and grant writing with the Family Medicine Department, she was placed in charge of the Standardized Patient program and assisted in clinical skills assessment activities. In her current position, she continues to participate in curriculum development as well as serving as the Director of the UASOM Standardized Patient program, providing patients for teaching, assessment, and research activities within the School of Medicine.
Paul David Nygard, Ph.D., is Associate Professor and Chair of the Social and Behavioral Sciences Department at St. Louis Community College–Florissant Valley Campus. His writings have appeared in several publications, including theIllinois Historical Journal andThe Encyclopedia of New England Culture. He is President of the St. Louis Area Historical Association and a 2002 recipient of an Emerson Excellence in Teaching Award. He received an M.A. in history from Southern Illinois University Edwardsville and a Ph.D. from St. Louis University.
Ann M. Palkovich, Ph.D., is Krasnow Associate Professor at the Krasnow Institute of George Mason University. She is a biological anthropologist interested in the evolution of hominid cognition, prehistoric population dynamics, and the cultural dynamics of cemeteries. She holds an M.A. and Ph.D. from Northwestern University.
Brian Parsons, Ph.D., has worked in the funeral industry in London since 1982. His doctoral research focused on the impact of change during the 20th century on the funeral industry. He has contributed toThe Manual of Funeral Directing, to numerous industry periodicals, and to the journalMortality. He is the author ofThe London Way of Death(2000) and is active in funeral service education. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Westminster (London).
Carolyn Pevey, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor of Sociology at Auburn University–Montgomery. Her research and teaching interests include medical sociology, thanatology, gender, and religion. Currently, she is using a new faculty grant in aid to explore premenstrual syndrome among health care workers. An edited and greatly improved version of her master's thesis “Male God Imagery and Female Submission: Lessons From a Southern Baptist Ladies' Bible Class” was published with Christine Williams and Christopher Ellison inQualitative Sociology. She received an M.A. from the University of Texas at Austin in 1993 and a Ph.D. from the University of Texas at Austin in 2001.
Anantanand Rambachan, Ph.D., is Professor or Religion, Philosophy and Asian Studies at St. Olaf College in Northfield, Minnesota. He is the author of several books, book chapters, and numerous articles and reviews in scholarly journals. Among these areAccomplishing the Accomplished: The Vedas as a Source of Valid Knowledge in Shankara andThe Limits of Scripture: Vivekananda's Reinterpretation of the Authority of the Vedas, The Hindu Vision, Gitamrtam, andSimiles of the Bhagavadgita. He has been very active in the dialogue programs of the World Council of Churches and was Hindu guest and participant in the last three General Assemblies of the World Council of Churches in Vancouver, Canada; Canberra, Australia; and Harare, Zimbabwe. He is a regular participant in the meetings of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue at the Vatican. He is an associate editor for theEncyclopedia of Hinduism, a project that is working to produce the first, comprehensive, multivolume series treating the Hindu tradition. He is also a member of Consultation on Population and Ethics, a nongovernmental organization affiliated with the United Nations.
Jon K. Reid, Ph.D., is Professor and Chair of the Department of Behavioral Sciences at Southeastern Oklahoma State University in Durant, Oklahoma. He is a member of the 2002–2003 Outstanding Professor's Academy for Oklahoma Colleges and Universities and holds Texas licenses as a professional counselor, a marriage and family therapist, and a Certificate in Thanatology [Page xxxviii]from the Association for Death Education and Counseling. He is an ordained Unitarian Universalist minister. Previous professional experiences include serving as a minister of single adults and as an outpatient therapist. He has led grief support groups in public schools, churches, and hospitals and is the bereavement consultant for Camp Fire for Boys and Girls in his community. He has been published inDeath Studies; Illness, Crises, and Loss; School Psychology International; and theJournal of Personal and Interpersonal Loss. He completed a doctorate in family studies at Texas Woman's University in Denton, Texas, and a master's degree in religious education at Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary in Fort Worth, Texas.
Catherine H. Reilly, M.A., is Assistant Professor and Reference Librarian at St. Louis Community College–Florissant Valley campus. She has presented on the subject of death in America at several professional gatherings throughout the United States and is also a founding member of the St. Louis Chapter of the Jane Austen Society of North America. She received a B.A. in history from the University of Missouri–St. Louis and an M.A. in library science from the University of Missouri–Columbia and is in the American Culture Studies program at Washington University in St. Louis.
Russell B. Riddle, M.S., is a doctoral student in counseling psychology at the University of North Texas. His interests focus on determinants of adjustment to the funeral as a ritual. He currently serves as research director for the psychology unit at Scottish Rite Children's Hospital in Dallas, Texas.
Tillman Rodabough, Ph.D., is Professor and Graduate Program Director in the Department of Sociology at Baylor University. He is also the Research Director for the Baylor Center for Community Research and Development. Active in the field of sociology, he is past President of the Southwestern Sociological Association and is currently President-elect of the Society for Applied Sociology. For the past 25 years, he has conducted research and published in the area of death and dying as well as in applied sociology. His current work in developing a Ph.D. program with emphases in applied sociology and in sociology of religion allows him to integrate both interests. Currently, he is examining through survey research and focus groups the efficacy and changing attitudes toward capital punishment, as well as the impact of different aspects of religiosity on the fear of death specifically as it relates to war and the threat of terrorism.
Jerome Rosenberg, Ph.D., is Associate Professor in the Department of Psychology and the New College Program at the University of Alabama. He teaches and conducts research in the areas of the Holocaust and genocide, human destructiveness and dehumanization, traumatic stress, humane survival, and ethics. He is a charter member of the Association of Genocide Scholars. He has served as Chair of the Alabama Holocaust Advisory Council and is currently a member of the Alabama Holocaust Commission. He has worked with Holocaust survivors and has served on the Hospice of West Alabama Ethical Review Board. He teaches in the University of Alabama Thanatology Certificate Program and serves on its planning board. He has published on the issues of dehumanization and the Holocaust. He received his Ph.D. from Florida State University in clinical psychology.
Paul C. Rosenblatt, Ph.D., is Morse-Alumni Distinguished Teaching Professor of Family Social Science at the University of Minnesota. His writing on bereavement includes five books and dozens of articles. With Beverly Wallace, he is working on an interview project dealing with African American bereavement, and with Sungeun Yang he is working on a paper on how Korean families deal with terminal illness.
Jeffrey P. Rosenfeld, Ph.D., writes on the social dynamics of inheritance, disinheritance, and will contests. Apart from writing, he has consulted to the estate tax area, statistics of income, at the Internal Revenue Service, and to the estateplanning industry. In recent years, he has become interested in the financial abuse and exploitation of older people. He is currently funded by the Bar Foundation of the State of New York to develop an elder abuse resource center to facilitate the detection and prevention of elder abuse (including financial abuse).
Diana Royer, Ph.D., is Professor of English at Miami University. Her most recent book isA Critical Study of the Works of Nawal El Saadawi, Egyptian Writer and Activist(2001). She has coedited anthologies on the commercialization and appropriation of American Indian cultures and on regional women writers, and currently, she is coauthoring a volume of horror film criticism. She has written articles, book chapters, and conference papers on Virginia Woolf, horror cinema, and death in 19th-century American literature. She serves as a manuscript referee for theWoolf Studies Annual. She holds an M.A. and a Ph.D. in English from Temple University.
Jerome J. Salomone, Ph.D., is Dean Emeritus of the College of Arts and Sciences at Southeastern Louisiana University in Hammond, Louisiana. He presently serves as Professor of Sociology and Scholar-in-Residence. He has previously taught at Louisiana State University, Nicholls State University, and the University of New Orleans, and he has held research appointments at Ohio State University. His professional involvements, among many others, have included serving as President of the Mid-South Sociological Association, editor ofSociological Spectrum, and member of the board of the Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities, which he chaired for 2 years. The Mid-South Sociological Association has honored him with its Career Achievement Award. His written work appears widely in a variety of sources, [Page xxxix]includingPhylon, Rural Sociology, Sociological Spectrum, andPhilosophy and Social Science. His book Bread and Respect: The Italians of Louisiana was published in 2002. He did his graduate work at Louisiana State University where he received his master's and doctorate degrees in sociology.
AnneMarie Scarisbrick-Hauser, Ph.D., is Senior Vice President of Client Information and Relationship Management at KeyCorp in Cleveland, Ohio. Prior to coming to KeyCorp in 1999, Anne was the Associate Director of the Survey Research Center at the University of Akron. She is also an adjunct professor at the University of Akron, where she teaches courses in collective behavior and emergency management. Her current research focuses on the role of human factors in dealing with traumatic events, such as disasters. In 2001, Anne was part of a select team sent to Somerset, Pennsylvania, immediately after the September 11 tragedy to observe how emergency workers responded to the traumatic situation. Along with Bill Hauser, she is currently preparing a handbook that communities can use in responding to disasters and their aftereffects. She earned a Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Akron in 1991, along with degrees from the University of Limerick (Ireland) and Purdue University.
Ruben Schindler, Ph.D., is the Dean of Ashkelon College, associated with Bar Ilan University in Israel. Previously, he served as Dean of Students at Bar Ilan University. He is a founding member of the School of Social Work at Bar Ilan and served as Dean of the school for almost a decade. His research in social work education has taken him to India, where together with Alan Brawley, he wrote the bookSocial Care at the Front Line (1987). Over the years, he has published widely, exploring the interface between the secular and the sacred and Jewish and social science literature in assisting people facing crises and trauma. Prior to his current post, he spent his sabbatical at the Rutgers School of Social Work. He was raised and educated in New York and attended the City College of New York and Columbia University School of Social Work. He earned his doctorate from the Wurzwelier School of Work, Yeshiva University. He was ordained for the rabbinate by Rabbi Moshe Feinstein, a leading 20th-century scholar known for his seminal Talmudic responsa and piety.
Clive Seale, Ph.D., is Professor of Sociology in the Department of Human Sciences, Brunel University, London. His research focuses on topics in medical sociology, including work on the experience of dying and the popular media representation of illness, health, and health care. He is author or editor of numerous books, includingThe Year Before Death(1994); Researching Society and Culture (Sage, 1998);Constructing Death: The Sociology of Dying and Bereavement (1998);Health and Disease: A Reader (2001);The Quality of Qualitative Research (Sage, 1999);Media and Health (Sage, 2002);Social Research Methods: A Reader (in press);Qualitative Research Practice (Sage, in press).
Trina N. Seitz, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor of Sociology at Appalachian State University in Boone, North Carolina. Her professional experience includes having served 9 years as a patrol officer with the Wake County Sheriff's Department and as a death row correctional officer at the North Carolina Correctional Institution for Women. Her research interests are in the areas of the death penalty as well as extralegal social control, specifically throughout North Carolina's history. She recently submitted an article to theNorth Carolina Historical Review that examined the social and political factors that affected the state's shift in execution methods during the first three decades of the 20th century. She is a member of the North Carolina Criminal Justice Association, the American Correctional Association, the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, and the North Carolina Literary and Historical Society. She received her Ph.D. in sociology from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, where she specialized in criminology and deviant behavior.
Kenneth W. Sewell, Ph.D., is Professor of Psychology and Director of Clinical Training at the University of North Texas. He has authored dozens of journal articles and book chapters in the areas of posttraumatic stress, psychotherapy, constructivism, bereavement, and forensic assessment. He has studied posttraumatic stress in combat veterans, sexual assault survivors, mass murder witnesses, and women diagnosed with HIV. Stemming from his work with trauma survivors, he was a collaborator in the development of the Scott & White Grief Project. This multiphase program of research is dedicated to understanding how some bereaved persons struggle with distressing symptoms for years following a loss and others seem to undergo transformative personal growth. He received his Ph.D. in clinical psychology from the University of Kansas in 1991, which included an internship with the Department of Veterans Affairs.
Donald J. Shoemaker, Ph.D., is Professor of Sociology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. His research interests include international studies of delinquency, theoretical studies of delinquency, Philippine studies, and evaluation research. In 1990, he received a Fulbright grant to study patterns of juvenile justice in the Philippines. His publications includeTheories of Delinquency (a 5th edition is in preparation), International Handbook on Juvenile Justice (editor), and numerous article and book chapters on crime and delinquency. He is currently on the editorial board of thePhilippine Journal of Law and Justice and theJournal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. He received a Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Georgia in 1970.
Sangeeta Singg, Ph.D., is Professor of Psychology and Director of the Graduate Counseling Psychology Program at the Angelo State University, San Angelo, Texas. She is also a licensed psychologist in the State of Texas and has practiced and taught psychology for over 20 years. She has [Page xl]published in the areas of counseling training, student personal responsibility, childhood sexual abuse, self-esteem, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, color preference and color therapy, memory, alternative methods of healing, grief, and suicide. She received an M.A. in sociology from Mississippi State University and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in psychology from Texas A&M University–Commerce.
William E. Snizek, Ph.D., is Distinguished Professor of Sociology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Prior to coming to Virginia Tech in 1972, he taught at the University of South Florida and Western Kentucky University. During his tenure at Virginia Tech, he has won over 25 departmental, college, university, state, national, and international teaching awards. These include 10 Certificates of Teaching Excellence from the College of Arts and Sciences, the university's W. E. Wine Award, Alumni Teaching Award, Diggs Teaching Scholar Award, and the Commonwealth of Virginia's 1991 Outstanding Faculty Award. In 2001, he received the Delta Gamma Foundation Award for University Excellence in Teaching. He has been a Visiting Professor and Senior Research Fulbright Fellow at the University of Leiden, The Netherlands and has been employed as a consultant by numerous government business and labor groups. He has coedited five books and published over 75 refereed articles and notes in journals such as theAmerican Sociological Review, Social Forces, Academy of Management Review, Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, Human Relations, andOrganizational Studies. He received his master's and doctoral degrees from The Pennsylvania State University.
Alan E. Stewart, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor in the Department of Counseling and Human Development at the University of Georgia. From 1997 to 2002, he was Assistant Professor of psychology at the University of Florida. He has established his line of research in the areas of death, loss, and trauma. Specific interests within these areas involve death notification following fatal vehicular crashes, death notification training, and the psychological effects of surviving serious crashes. He also has interests in measurement and evaluation and has created several scales for use with people who have experienced crashes: the Driving and Riding Avoidance Scale and the Driving and Riding Cautiousness Scale. Finally, he has research interests in family emotional processes and the ways in which language can be used to characterize one's family of origin experiences or to construct healing narratives in the aftermath of a trauma. He received his Ph.D. in counseling psychology from the University of Georgia in 1994 and has since completed postdoctoral training in counseling and psychotherapy at the HUB Counseling Center in Tucker, Georgia. He also completed research postdoctoral training in psychology at the University of Memphis.
Dawood H. Sultan, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor of Sociology in the Department of Sociology, Anthropology, Social Work and Criminal Justice at the University of Tennessee at Martin. From August 1998 to June 2003, he served as an instructor in the Department of Sociology at Louisiana State University (LSU). From August 2001 to May 2003, he also served as Assistant Director of International Development in the Office of International Programs at LSU. In 1999, he was selected by the University of Nebraska–Lincoln (UNL) as the recipient of its Multicultural Teaching Fellowship Award and, subsequently, spent part of the summer teaching at UNL's Department of Sociology. He is fluent in Arabic, has traveled extensively, and is published in a number of professional journals. He was born and raised in Sudan and received a B.Sc. (Hon.) in economics from the University of Gezira (Sudan) and an M.A. in development studies from the University of East Anglia (England). In 1996, he received a doctorate degree in sociology from LSU.
Hikaru Suzuki, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor of Anthropology at the School of Economics and Social Sciences at Singapore Management University. She is the author ofThe Price of Death: The Funeral Industry in Contemporary Japan (2001). This work investigates the transformation and professionalization of funeral practices in Japan. Her future research interests include the impact of globalization and marketing on everyday practices, medical institutions and professionals, the expansion of Internet recruitment systems, and the professionalization/transformation of working culture. Prior to her appointment at Singapore Management University, she was a Freeman postdoctoral student at Wittenberg University. She received a B.A. from Beijing University, M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from Harvard University, and an M.B.A. from the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
Michael R. Taylor, Ph.D., is Associate Professor in the Department of Philosophy at Oklahoma State University, where he teaches Death and Dying, Holocaust Studies, Metaphysics and Epistemology, and Philosophy of Life. Before coming to Oklahoma State University, he held a temporary appointment as an Adjunct Assistant Professor in the Department of Philosophy at Bowling Green State University, where he taught Death and Dying and Philosophy of the Development of Persons. He has also held positions as a counselor, as coordinator of a tri-county mental health emergency service, and as Associate Director of the George F. Linn Center, a public mental health center in Ohio. His primary areas of research are social and political philosophy and ethics. He has publications inSouthwestern Philosophical Review, Proteus: A Journal of Ideas, andPublic Affairs Quarterly. He is a member of the American Philosophical Association, the Southwestern Philosophical Society, and the Society for the Philosophical Study of Genocide and the Holocaust. He has an, M.A. in philosophy from Bowling Green State [Page xli]University and a Ph.D. in philosophy from Florida State University.
Todd W. Van Beck is President and CEO of the Commonwealth Institute of Funeral Service Education in Houston, Texas. He is an internationally known speaker and writer in the funeral service profession. He sits on the Board of Trustees of the Academy of Professional Funeral Service Practice and on the Board of Directors of the National Funeral Service Museum.
Florence Vandendorpe, Diplo me d'Etudes Approfondies, is an assistant teacher at the Institute for the Study of Family and Sexuality at the université Catholique de Louvain-LaNeuve (UCL) in Belgium. She is a sociologist whose research interests focus on symbolism and cultural representations. She carried out research at UCL for a few years, notably in the field of sociology of religion. She received her master's degree from UCL in 1994 and a postgraduate diploma at École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) Paris in 1995.
María I. Vera, Ph.D., is Associate Professor in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Florida. In 1974, she joined the faculty of the College of Medicine at the University of Florida, where she has taught in various programs of the medical school curriculum. She has specialized in teaching and training psychiatric residents in various modalities of psychotherapy, and she has been the Director of the Family Therapy and Group Therapy Programs in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Florida. She practices psychotherapy as a licensed Marriage and Family Therapist and Clinical Social Worker. She has extensive clinical experience in individual, family, and group psychotherapy. Her clinical interests and expertise include treatment of depression, adjustment disorders, and anxiety disorders; stress management; grief resolution; conflict and anger management; infertility counseling, couples and family conflict; divorce and stepfamily issues; domestic violence; sexual victimization; and career- and work-related issues. She has published her research in professional journals in her areas of specialty. Her undergraduate work was in sociology at Universidad Católica in Santiago, Chile. Her master's degree in social work is from the University of Kansas, and her Ph.D. is from Florida State University.
Thomas J. Vesper, J.D., is a Certified Civil Trial Attorney admitted to the bar of New Jersey in 1973. A senior partner in the Atlantic City law firm of Westmoreland, Vesper & Schwartz, he concentrates on personal injury and wrongful death cases. He served with the U.S. Marine Corps Reserve from 1969 to 1991 and was certified as a UCMJ 27(b) Trial Counsel and Defense Counsel by the Secretary of the Navy. Past President of the New Jersey Chapter of the Association of Trial Lawyers of America, he is a Diplomate and Sustaining Member of the Association of Trial Lawyers of America (ATLA), Fellow of the International Academy of Trial Lawyers, a founding member of Trial Lawyers for Public Justice, and was selected by his peers to be listed inThe Best Lawyers in America. His litigation experience includes products liability, commercial trucking and bus crashes, negligence, professional negligence, and consumer fraud cases. He is a frequent guest lecturer for ATLA, state trial lawyer associations, bar associations, and law schools. A faculty member and past trustee of the National College of Advocacy, he has published articles and lectured on wrongful death, products liability, truck and bus accident reconstruction, discovery, case evaluation, settlement, and trial techniques. He received his legal education at Rutgers University (J.D., 1973) where he was a writer and member of theRutgers-Camden Law Review.
Lee Garth Vigilant, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor of Sociology at Minnesota State University, Moorhead, where he teaches courses in social thanatology, sociological theory, and qualitative methods in social research. He has been the recipient of teaching awards at both Boston College and Tufts University, receiving in 2000 the Donald J. White Teaching Excellence Award in Sociology at Boston College and in 2001, the TCU Senate Professor of the Year Award at Tufts University. His current research is in the area of illness recovery. His past publications, in the area of race and ethnic relations, appear in the journalGryo Colloquium Papers(Boston College). He received his Ph.D. in sociology from Boston College in 2001.
Gail C. Walker, Ph.D., is Professor of Psychology at Alfred University, where she has been a member of the faculty since 1981. Prior to coming to Alfred University, she was on the staff of the Cook County Office of Special Education in Chicago. She had previously been Assistant Professor of Psychology at Marian College in Fond-du-Lac, Wisconsin. Her honors include Phi Kappa Phi, Honor Scholastic Fraternity; Phi Delta Kappa, Honor Education Fraternity; nine Bi-annual Excellence in Teaching Awards (1984–2001); Citizen Ambassador to the U.S.S.R. (1989); Sears Foundation Excellence in Teaching and Campus Leadership Award (1991); Independent College Fund of New York Teaching Excellence Award (1993–1999); and the Omicron Delta Kappa leadership Award (2001). She is listed in the International Directory of Distinguished leadership (1990), Who's Who Among America's Teachers (1996, 1998, and 2000), Outstanding Americans (1998), and Directory of American Scholars (10th ed.). She has published extensively on the topic of death and dying in journals such asOmega andJournal of Death Studies. She is a member of the Foundation of Thanatology and the Association for Death Education and Counseling. She received her M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Oklahoma State University.
Charles Walton, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor of Sociology at Lynchburg College in Lynchburg, Virginia. He has previously taught at Radford University, Virginia Tech, Roanoke College, and Mary Baldwin College. He specializes in cultural theory, deviance, and popular [Page xlii]culture. He has published in theEncyclopedia of Criminology and Deviant Behavior and theJournal of Higher Education and contributed a chapter on contemporary theory to Shifflett and Everett'sFundamentals of Sociology (2003). He earned an M.S. in sociology from Virginia Commonwealth University and a Ph.D. in sociology from Virginia Tech.
Joyce E. Williams, Ph.D., is Professor of Sociology at Texas Woman's University, Denton, Texas, where she has been since 1980, serving as Department Chair for more than half that time. She is the author of three books and articles in more than a dozen journals, includingOmega, Teaching Sociology, Victimology, and theJournal of Marriage and the Family. She has held faculty positions at the University of Mary Hardin-Baylor, the University of Texas at Arlington, and Trinity University. She is currently working on a history of early sociology in the United States. She holds a Ph.D. degree in sociology from Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri.
Melissa Johnson Williams is a licensed funeral director and embalmer with over 30 years practical experience. Her presentations have included practical embalming demonstrations and talks on restorative art, history of embalming, infectious disease and medical technology, and shipping of human remains. She has over 75 published articles in theDirector(National Funeral Directors Association publication), theAmerican Funeral Director, and medical journals. She is the editor of theInternational Shipping Section in the Blue Book (American Funeral Director), has contributed several new chapters to the third revised edition of the textbookEmbalming: History, Theory, and Practice, and was a chapter contributor to the newTextbook of Thanatology. She serves on the Ethical Practice Committee of the Illinois Funeral Directors Association and the Board of Trustees of the Academy of Professional Funeral Service Practice and is a board member of the Funeral Directors Services Association of Greater Chicago and Autopsy Committee member of the Institute of Medicine of Chicago. She is also the founder and Executive Director of the Midwest Forensic & Mortuary Support Foundation and is a cofounder of the American Society of Embalmers. She is a graduate of Governors State University in Governors Park, Illinois, and Worsham College of Mortuary Science.
John B. Williamson, Ph.D., is Professor of Sociology at Boston College. He is coeditor (with Edwin Shneidman) of the fourth edition ofDeath: Current Perspectives. In the area of death studies, he has published articles dealing with hospice, euthanasia, suicide, and homicide. He is the author of 15 books and more than 100 journal articles and book chapters. He has written extensively in the areas of aging and aging policy, including Social Security reform, the politics of aging, the debate over generational equity and justice between generations in connection with public policy, the proposed privatization of Social Security, and the comparative study of Social Security policy. He has been elected Chair of the Youth, Aging, and Life Course Division of the Society for the Study of Social Problems and secretary/treasurer of the Aging and the Life Course Section of the American Sociological Association. He is currently on the editorial board of four journals. His books and articles have been translated into Chinese, Hungarian, Italian, German, French, and Spanish. He holds a Ph.D. from Harvard University in social psychology.
David D. Witt, Ph.D., is Professor in the School of Family and Consumer Sciences at the University of Akron. His published work includes articles in theJournal of Marriage and the Family, Social Forces, Sociological Spectrum, American Journal of Dietetics, and theProfessional Journal for Primary Education. He holds M.A. (1978) and Ph.D. (1983) degrees from Texas Tech University, where his emphasis was on social theory and research in family studies.
Timothy W. Wolfe, Ph.D., is Associate Professor of Sociology and Director of Criminal Justice at Mount Saint Mary's College in Emmitsburg, Maryland. His research interests include juvenile drug dealing, chronic and violent delinquency, college student binge drinking, and social thanatology. His work has appeared in theAmerican Journal of Criminal Justice, Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, andThe College Student Journal. He received his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in sociology from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
William Wood, M.Div, is currently finishing his Ph.D. in sociology at Boston College. He also has an M.Div. from Union Theological seminary in New York City, where he studied religious history and philosophy.
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