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Frames of Mind

  • By: Beverly J. Irby, Genevieve Brown & Ling Ling Yang
  • In: Encyclopedia of Curriculum Studies
  • Edited by: Craig Kridel
  • Subject:Cultural Studies (general), Curriculum & Content (general), Curriculum Studies

In 1983, Howard Gardner, a Harvard University professor, authored Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences and introduced his theory of multiple intelligence (also called MI theory) by initially identifying seven types of intelligence: linguistic intelligence, musical intelligence, logical-mathematical intelligence, spatial intelligence, bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, and intrapersonal intelligence. In 1999, he noted three additional intelligences—naturalist, spiritual, and existential intelligence.

Gardner's theory of multiple intelligence challenged traditional beliefs that intelligence is one single construct, thus providing educators new ways of thinking about curriculum content and delivery as related to the intelligences. Curriculum based on the MI theory allows educators to promote students' success by focusing on students' unique intelligences and by developing those less prominent.

The nine intelligences in MI theory that can be incorporated ...

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