21st Century Criminology: A Reference Handbook

21st Century Criminology: A Reference Handbook

Handbooks

Edited by: J. Mitchell Miller

Abstract

Criminology has experienced tremendous growth over the last few decades, evident, in part, by the widespread popularity and increased enrollment in criminology and criminal justice departments at the undergraduate and graduate levels across the U.S. and internationally. Evolutionary paradigmatic shift has accompanied this surge in definitional, disciplinary and pragmatic terms. Though long identified as a leading sociological specialty area, criminology has emerged as a stand-alone discipline in its own right, one that continues to grow and is clearly here to stay. Criminology, today, remains inherently theoretical but is also far more applied in focus and thus more connected to the academic and practitioner concerns of criminal justice and related professional service fields. Contemporary criminology is also increasingly interdisciplinary and thus features a broad variety of ...

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  • Part I: The Discipline of Criminology

    Part II: Correlates of Crime and Victimization

    Part III: Theories of Crime and Justice

    Part IV: Measurement and Research in Criminology

    Part V: Types of Crime

    Part VI: Criminology and the Justice System

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    Preface

    Criminology has experienced tremendous growth over the last few decades, which is evident, in part, by the widespread popularity and increased enrollment in criminology and criminal justice departments at the undergraduate and graduate levels, both across the United States and internationally. An evolutionary paradigmatic shift has accompanied this criminological surge in definitional, disciplinary, and pragmatic terms. Though long identified as a leading sociological specialty area, criminology has emerged as a stand-alone discipline in its own right, one that continues to grow and is clearly here to stay. Today, criminology remains inherently theoretical but is also far more applied in focus and thus more connected to the academic and practitioner concerns of criminal justice and related professional service fields. Contemporary criminology is also increasingly interdisciplinary and thus features a broad variety of ideological orientations to and perspectives on the causes, effects, and responses to crime.

    21st Century Criminology provides straightforward and definitive overviews of nearly 100 key topics comprising traditional criminology and its more modern outgrowths. The individual chapters have been designed to serve as a “first-look” reference source for most criminological inquires. The contributor group is composed of several well-known discipline figures and emerging younger scholars who provide authoritative overviews coupled with insightful discussion that will quickly familiarize researchers, students, and general readers alike with fundamental and detailed information for each topic.

    This two-volume set begins by defining the discipline of criminology and observing its historical development to date (“Part I: The Discipline of Criminology”). The various social (e.g., poverty, neighborhood, and peer/family influences), personal (e.g., intelligence, mental illness), and demographic (e.g., age, race, gender, and immigration) realities that cause, confound, and mitigate crime and crime control are featured in “Part II: Correlates of Crime and Victimization.” The chapters in this section consider each correlate's impact, both independently and in a broader social ecological context. The sociological origins of theoretical criminology are observed across several chapters that stress classical, environmental, and cultural influences on crime and highlight peer group, social support, and learning processes. Examination of these criminological theory chapters quickly confirms the aforementioned interdisciplinary nature of the field, with chapters presenting biological, psychological, and biosocial explanations and solutions for crime (“Part III: Theories of Crime and Justice”).

    Part IV (“Measurement and Research in Criminology”) provides sound introductory overviews of the various quantitative and qualitative designs and techniques employed in criminological research. Comparison of the purposes and application of these research methods across various crime and justice topics illustrates the role of criminologists as social scientists engaged in research enterprises wherein single studies fluctuate in focus along a pure–applied research continuum. This section also addresses the measurement of crimes with attention to major crime reporting and recording systems.

    Having established a theoretical–methodological symmetry as the scientific foundation of criminology, and increasingly the field of criminal justice, Part V (“Types of Crime”) considers a wide range of criminal offenses. Each chapter in this section thoroughly defines its focal offense and considers the related theories that frame practices and policies used to address various leading violent, property, and morality crimes. These chapters also present and critically evaluate the varying level of empirical evidence, that is, research confirmation, for competing theoretical explanations and justice system response alternatives that are conventionally identified as best practices.

    Ostensibly, an accurate and thorough social science knowledge base—theoretically driven and empirically validated—stands to render social betterment in terms of reduced crime and victimization through the development of research–based practices. This science–practitioner relationship is featured, advocated, and critiqued in the final section, Part VI (“Criminology and the Justice System”). Here, the central components of the American juvenile and criminal justice systems (law enforcement, courts, and corrections) are presented from a criminology – criminal justice outlook that increasingly purports to leverage theory and research (in particular, program evaluation results) toward realizing criminal justice and related social policy objectives. Beyond the main system, several chapters consider the role and effectiveness of several popular justice system and wrap-around component initiatives (e.g., specialty courts, restorative justice, and victim services).

    Acknowledgments

    The content of 21st Century Criminology was designed in collaboration with Advisory Board members (Robert Brame, Nicole Leeper Piquero, Travis C. Pratt, Jeffery T. Walker, and John L. Worrall) who also assisted in securing leading scholars as contributors. The professionalism of the Sage folks kept the project on track. Jim BraceThompson and Sanford Robinson facilitated development, Carla Freeman oversaw production, and Laura Notton and Leticia M. Gutierrez addressed a plethora of issues concerning the online contracting and submission system. Equally vital to the project's completion, managing editor Alison Routh was in the trenches interacting with the authors and troubleshooting problems that unavoidably arise with an undertaking of this size. A special acknowledgement of appreciation is due to Holly Ventura Miller for unswerving loyalty and moral support.

    Connected to both the sociological origins of criminology (i.e., theory and research methods) and the justice systems' response to crime and related social problems, as well as coverage of major crime types, this two-volume set offers a comprehensive overview of the current state of criminology. From student term papers and master's theses to researchers commencing literature reviews, 21st Century Criminology is a ready source by which to quickly access authoritative knowledge on a range of key issues and topics central to contemporary criminology.

    J. Mitchell Miller University of Texas at San Antonio

    About the Editors

    J. Mitchell Miller is professor and chair of the Department of Criminal Justice at the University of Texas at San Antonio. He received his PhD in sociology, with a specialization in criminology, from the University of Tennessee in 1996. While he was a doctoral student, he served as graduate research associate for the Society for the Study of Social Problems and participated in the American Sociological Association Honors Program. From 1996 through 2006, he served on the faculty of the former College of Criminal Justice and then the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice at the University of South Carolina, where he held affiliate appointments with the College of Social Work and the School of Environmental Studies. While at the University of South Carolina, Dr. Miller also served as director of graduate studies in Drugs and Addictions, as lead evaluator of the Moscow Police Command College (a U.S. State Department democratization initiative), and as interim director of the Southern Violence and Substance Abuse Prevention Center.

    Dr. Miller's generalist research agenda involves mixedmethodological criminological theory testing and criminal and juvenile justice program evaluation as well as drug ethnography. He has conducted funded research for various state and federal agencies, including the National Institute of Justice, the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, and the U.S. Department of Education. His publications have appeared in a range of social science outlets, including Justice Quarterly, the Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Crime & Delinquency, The American Sociologist, Humanity & Society, the Journal of Drug Issues, and the Journal of Criminal Justice. His recent books include Criminology: A Brief Introduction (2nd ed., 2008), with Chris Schreck and Rick Tewksbury; Crime & Criminals (2nd ed., 2009), with Frank Scarpetti and Amie Nielsen; and Criminology (2nd ed., 2008), with Leonard Glick.

    Dr. Miller is the former editor of the Journal of Crime and Justice, the Journal of Criminal Justice Education, and The Encyclopedia of Criminology (Vols. I–III, 2005). Currently, he is immediate president of the Southern Criminal Justice Association. His active research includes evaluation of a cognitive restructuring initiative for serial inebriates incarcerated in the Texas Department of Criminal Justice East Texas Treatment Facility and development of a bioterrorist prevention plan for the San Antonio River Authority.

    About the Contributors

    Robert S. Agnew is Samuel Candler Dobbs Professor of Sociology and chair of the Sociology Department at Emory University. He has published four books and approximately 70 articles on the causes of crime and delinquency, with his most recent books being Juvenile Delinquency: Causes and Control (2009), Why Do They Do It? A General Theory of Crime and Delinquency (2005), and Pressured Into Crime: An Overview of General Strain Theory (2006). He is best known for his development of general strain theory, one of the leading theories of crime and delinquency. He has served as associate editor of Theoretical Criminology and on the editorial boards of Criminology, Social Forces, and other journals. A Fellow of the American Society of Criminology, he has been active in many professional organizations and groups dealing with crime and delinquency.

    Ronald L. Akers, PhD, is a professor of criminology and sociology at the University of Florida. He is former chair of the Department of Sociology and Director of the Center for Studies in Criminology and Law. He is past president of the American Society of Criminology, a Fellow of that society, and recipient of its prestigious Sutherland Award. He is also past president of the Southern Sociological Society and has held various other influential leadership positions in criminology and sociology. Dr. Akers has authored more than 100 journal articles and book chapters. He is the author of Criminological Theories: Introduction, Evaluation, and Application; Law and Control in Society; Drugs, Alcohol and Society; Deviant Behavior: A Social Learning Approach; and Social Learning and Social Structure: A General Theory of Crime and Deviance, and was coeditor of Social Learning Theory and the Explanation of Crime: A Guide for the New Century. His extensive scholarly history has involved developing and testing social learning theory of crime and deviant behavior and analyzing and conducting research on theory and policy in criminology, criminal justice, law, and deviance.

    Leanne Fiftal Alarid is an associate professor in the Criminal Justice Department at the University of Texas at San Antonio. She was previously at the University of Missouri—Kansas City after she earned her PhD from Sam Houston State University. Dr. Alarid has authored/coauthored journal articles in the area of corrections, gender and crime, and policing in journals such as Justice Quarterly, the Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, and the Journal of Criminal Justice. She has authored/edited six books, including Community-Based Corrections and Corrections: A Contemporary Introduction.

    Geoffrey P. Alpert is a professor of criminology and criminal justice at the University of South Carolina. For the past 25 years, his research interests have included policing strategies, behaviors, management and decision making. He has been the principal investigator on research funded by the National Institute of Justice on the use of force, emergency driving, and police officer behavior. His recent books include Managing Accountability Systems for Police Conduct: Internal Affairs and External Oversight (with J. Noble), and Understanding Police Use of Force: Officers, Suspects and Reciprocity (with R. Dunham).

    Tammy L. Anderson is an associate professor in the University of Delaware's Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice. She has published many articles and an edited volume (Neither Villain nor Victim, 2008) on drug abuse, identity, gender, race, and stigma. Her forthcoming book Rave Culture: The Alteration and Decline of a Philadelphia Music Scene (2009), is a comparative ethnographic study about the social, cultural, and economic forces that alter youth-based music scenes. Her work has been sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute of Justice.

    Robert Apel received his PhD from the University of Maryland in 2004 and is currently an assistant professor in the School of Criminal Justice at the University at Albany, State University of New York. His research interests include the relationship between employment and crime, the long-term impact of incarceration during the transition to adulthood, and situational determinants of injury from violent victimization. His research has appeared in Criminology, Crime & Delinquency, the Journal of Quantitative Criminology, and Social Forces.

    J. C. Barnes is a doctoral student in the College of Criminology & Criminal Justice at Florida State University. He was named Graduate Student Of The Year by the Southern Criminal Justice Association for 2008. His research interests include the etiology of delinquency and policy evaluation. His work has appeared in Crime and Delinquency, Criminal Justice and Behavior, Criminal Justice Policy Review, American Journal of Criminal Justice, and the Journal of Criminal Justice Education.

    Vidisha Barua, PhD, Esq., is an assistant professor of criminal justice at The Pennsylvania State University Altoona. She received her PhD in criminal justice from Sam Houston State University. She also holds a master's degree in criminal law from the State University of New York at Buffalo. Her book-length publications include the Press and Media Law Manual (2002) and Terrorism in India (2006). She also has served as executive editor of the Buffalo Criminal Law Review. Her research areas include police and prison officers' civil liabilities for the use of Tasers and stun guns, ethical issues in criminal justice, forced medication of death row inmates to induce synthetic sanity, the federal judiciary, and terrorism. She is a licensed attorney in New York.

    Gordon Bazemore is currently professor and director of the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice, and director of the Community Justice Institute, at Florida Atlantic University. His research has focused on juvenile justice and youth policy, restorative justice, crime victims, corrections, and community policing. Dr. Bazemore is the author of 68 peer-reviewed articles, 34 book chapters, 25 monographs and technical reports, and numerous other publications. He is first author of three books on juvenile justice reform: Juvenile Justice Reform and Restorative Justice: Building Theory and Policy From Practice (with Mara Schiff), Restorative Juvenile Justice: Repairing the Harm of Youth Crime (with Lode Walgrave), and Restorative and Community Justice: Cultivating Common Ground for Victims, Communities and Offenders (with Mara Schiff). He was recipient of Florida Atlantic University's Researcher of the Year Award in both 1995 and 1999.

    Kevin M. Beaver earned his PhD from the University of Cincinnati and is an assistant professor in the College of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Florida State University. His current research examines the biosocial and genetic underpinnings to antisocial behavior.

    Michael L. Benson is a professor of criminal justice at the University of Cincinnati. Writing mainly in the areas of white-collar and corporate crime, he has published in numerous journals, including Criminology, Justice Quarterly, the Journal of Research and Delinquency, American Sociological Review, the American Journal of Sociology, and Social Problems. He received the Outstanding Scholarship Award of the Society for the Study of Social Problems Division on Crime and Juvenile Delinquency for his coauthored book Combating Corporate Crime: Local Prosecutors at Work. His most recent books include Corporate Crime Under Attack: The Fight to Criminalize Business Violence and White-Collar Crime: An Opportunity Perspective.

    Mark T. Berg is an assistant professor in the School of Public and Environmental Affairs at Indiana University – Purdue University, Indianapolis. His current research focuses on the social sources of violent behavior and research methods.

    Kristie R. Blevins is an assistant professor in the Department of Criminal Justice at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. She received her PhD in criminal justice at the University of Cincinnati in 2004. Her research interests include environmental crime, corrections, the work reactions of criminal justice employees, and crime prevention. Her work can be found in the Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, Criminal Justice Policy Review, the American Journal of Criminal Justice, Deviant Behavior, and the International Journal of Police Science and Management.

    Scott Blough is chair of the Department of Criminal Justice and Security Studies at Tiffin University, where he specializes in policy development, international crime, terrorism, international security, corrections, and information systems and technology. Prior to this appointment, he served as the chief of the Bureau of Adult Detention in the Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction, where he had oversight of more than 250 jails throughout Ohio. Professor Blough wrote the Minimum Standards for Jails in Ohio, which comprises the administrative rules governing jail operations in Ohio. He also served as a lieutenant on the Marion (Ohio) Police Department, where he conducted numerous gang, drug, and gambling investigations. He supervised a multijurisdictional gambling task force and successfully investigated and prosecuted the two largest embezzlement cases in Marion's history. He has been a featured lecturer for the National Institute of Corrections, the South Carolina Gang Investigators Association, the Ohio Community Corrections Association, the Southwest Ohio Information Technology Association, the National Association of Government Archives and Records Association, the Buckeye State Sheriff's Association, and the National Sheriffs Association, and he has given presentations at the Criminal Justice Facilities Planning and Management Conference and the Ohio Jail Administrator's annual conference. He was also a featured speaker in Romania, where he lectured on developing standards for adult and juvenile incarceration and probation. In addition to the aforementioned presentations, he has authored numerous publications on international justice and corrections issues, and he is a consultant on justice policy, prison and jail design, security, and technology application in justice. Professor Blough is ABD (All But Dissertation) from the University of Southern Mississippi International Development/Security Program.

    Robert M. Bohm is a professor of Criminal Justice and Legal Studies at the University of Central Florida and a Fellow of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences. He has taught both undergraduate and graduate courses on capital punishment since 1985. He regularly makes presentations on capital punishment at the annual meetings of scholarly associations and has been invited to speak on the subject at several universities. He also has served as an expert witness in death penalty cases. Professor Bohm has published numerous books, book chapters, and journal articles on capital punishment. His books include Deathquest III: An Introduction to the Theory and Practice of Capital Punishment in the United States (3rd ed., 2008), The Death Penalty Today (2008), America's Experiment With Capital Punishment: Reflections on the Past, Present, and Future of the Ultimate Sanction (with James R. Acker and Charles S. Lanier, 2nd ed., 2003), and The Death Penalty in America: Current Research (1991).

    Danielle Boisvert is a doctoral candidate in the Division of Criminal Justice at the University of Cincinnati. Her areas of interests include biosocial criminology, life course criminology, behavioral genetics, and early intervention. Much of her research focuses on the effects of genetic and environmental factors on antisocial behaviors. She has published widely in criminology and genetics journals.

    Leana A. Bouffard is an assistant professor of criminal justice at Washington State University. She received her PhD in criminology from the University of Maryland. Her primary area of research interest is criminological theory, especially from a life course perspective. Her current work in this area focuses on the role of various life events, including parenthood and military service, on trajectories of offending. Her other research interests include sexual aggression on college campuses, integrating feminist and mainstream theories of violence against women, and intimate partner violence and police behavior. She has published articles in the leading peer-reviewed journals in the field, including Criminology, Justice Quarterly, Crime & Delinquency, Criminal Justice and Behavior, and the Journal of Criminal Justice.

    Anthony A. Braga is a senior research associate in the Program in Criminal Justice Policy and Management, a lecturer in public policy at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government, and a Senior Research Fellow in the Berkeley Center for Criminal Justice at Boalt Hall School of Law, University of California, Berkeley. He is also a Fellow of the Academy of Experimental Criminology. His research focuses on working with criminal justice agencies to develop crime prevention strategies to deal with urban problems such as gang violence, illegal gun markets, and violent crime hot spots. He received his MPA from Harvard University and his PhD in criminal justice from Rutgers University.

    Robert Brame is a professor in the Department of Criminal Justice at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. His current research interests include domestic violence policy, the effects of adolescent employment on criminal behavior, and the use of criminal records to predict future criminal offending. He has also worked on research to study the linkage between juvenile delinquency and adult offending and issues related to capital punishment. His recent research has appeared in Criminology, Crime & Delinquency, Criminology & Public Policy, and the Journal of Quantitative Criminology.

    Kevin Buckler, PhD, is an assistant professor of criminal justice at the University of Texas at Brownsville and Texas Southmost College. His previous publications have focused on media and crime, crime and public policy, public opinion, and race and ethnicity. Dr. Buckler's research has appeared in the Journal of Criminal Justice, the American Journal of Criminal Justice, the Journal of Crime and Justice, the Journal of Criminal Justice Education, and the Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture. His current research focus is on countylevel voting patterns.

    Michael E. Buerger is an associate professor of criminal justice at Bowling Green State University in Ohio. A former police officer, he holds a PhD in criminal justice from Rutgers (1993) and was a National Institute of Justice Visiting Fellow. In addition to street work in New Hampshire and Vermont, he has worked with the Minneapolis (Minnesota) Police Department during the Crime Control Institute's RECAP (Repeat Call Address Policing) and Hot Spots of Crime Experiments, and he was Director of Research for the Jersey City (New Jersey) Police Department on a National Institute of Justice locally initiated research grant. In addition to research on racial profiling, he has written on police training, community policing, and the police role in national intelligence, and he is a charter member of the Futures Working Group, a working collaboration between Police Futurists International and the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

    Hoan N. Bui is an associate professor in the Department of Sociology, University of Tennessee at Knoxville. She earned a PhD in social sciences with a concentration in criminology and criminal justice at Michigan State University. Her research centers on the relationship between immigration adaptation and crime with a focus on delinquency and domestic violence among immigrants. Her work emphasizes social class, gender, race, and ethnicity as factors that influence the likelihood of domestic violence experienced by immigrant women and delinquency committed by immigrant adolescents.

    Ronald G. Burns is an associate professor and Director of the Criminal Justice Program at Texas Christian University. He earned his PhD from Florida State University. He has published several articles on the topic of environmental crime and is a coauthor of Environmental Crime: A Sourcebook and Environmental Law, Crime and Justice: An Introduction. His primary area of interest with regard to environmental crime concerns the availability of data to research environmental crime, issues pertaining to environmental justice, and enforcement practices with regard to harms against the environment.

    George W. Burruss is an assistant professor in the Center for the Study of Crime, Delinquency and Corrections at Southern Illinois University Carbondale. He received his PhD in criminology and criminal justice from the University of Missouri—St. Louis. He conducts research on criminal justice organizations, including juvenile courts and the police. He has published articles in Justice Quarterly, Policing, the Journal of Criminal Justice, and the Journal of Criminal Justice Education.

    Dean John Champion (1940–2009) was a professor of criminal justice and sociology, Texas A&M International University, Laredo, until his unexpected passing in February 2009. Dr. Champion formerly taught at the University of Tennessee; California State University, Long Beach; and Minot State University. He earned his PhD from Purdue University and BS and MA degrees from Brigham Young University. Over his 40-year career, Dr. Champion authored more than 40 texts and edited works as well as numerous articles. He held memberships in 11 professional organizations and is a lifetime member of the American Society of Criminology and the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences. A former Editor of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences/Anderson Publishing Series on Issues in Crime and Justice and the Journal of Crime and Justice, he was a Visiting Scholar at the National Center for Juvenile Justice and a former president of the Midwestern Criminal Justice Association. Dr. Champion's specialty interests included juvenile justice, criminal justice administration, corrections, and statistics/methods.

    Derral Cheatwood obtained his PhD from The Ohio State University and is currently a professor of sociology at the University of Texas at San Antonio. His primary areas of research in criminology are capital punishment, media and crime, and homicide. He has served as president of the Homicide Research Working Group and was awarded a Fulbright Scholarship to study European crime data at the Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Criminal Law in Germany. His articles on the relationship of weather to crime have appeared in Criminology and the Journal of Quantitative Criminology.

    Meda Chesney-Lind, PhD, is a professor of women's studies at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. Nationally recognized for her work on women and crime, her books include Girls, Delinquency and Juvenile Justice; The Female Offender: Girls, Women and Crime; Female Gangs in America; Invisible Punishment; and Girls, Women and Crime. She has just finished a book on trends in girls' violence, entitled Beyond Bad Girls: Gender, Violence and Hype. She received the Bruce Smith Sr. Award “for outstanding contributions to criminal justice” from the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences in April 2001. She was named a Fellow of the American Society of Criminology in 1996 and has received the Herbert Block Award for service to the society and the profession from the American Society of Criminology. She has also received the Donald Cressey Award from the National Council on Crime and Delinquency for “outstanding contributions to the field of criminology,” the Founders award of the Western Society of Criminology for “significant improvement of the quality of justice,” and the University of Hawaii Board of Regents Medal for Excellence in Research. Finally, Chesney-Lind has been included among the scholars working with the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's Girls Study Group. In Hawaii, she has worked with the Family Court, First Circuit, advising them on the recently formed Girls Court as well as helping improve the situation of girls in detention.

    John W. Clark received his bachelor's degree from the University of Alabama at Birmingham in 1996 and his master's degree in criminal justice in 1998 from University of Alabama. Upon graduation, he designed his own doctoral curriculum, which focused on the interaction between psychology and the criminal justice system. His minor area of concentration was political science. In 2002, Dr. Clark earned his Interdisciplinary PhD from the University of Alabama. He has taught at the University of Alabama and the University of North Alabama and is currently an associate professor at Troy University. His publications include articles in Law and Psychology Review, Behavioral Sciences and the Law, Criminal Justice and Behavioral Science, the Journal of Criminal Justice, Criminal Law Bulletin, the Journal of the Legal Profession, and Criminal Law Brief.

    Todd R. Clear is a Distinguished Professor at the John Jay College of Criminal Justice of the City University of New York. Dr. Clear earned his PhD in criminal justice from the University at Albany, State University of New York. An expert in the areas of corrections and community justice, Dr. Clear served as founding editor of the American Society of Criminology's policy journal, Criminology & Public Policy.

    Ellen G. Cohn is currently an associate professor in the Department of Criminology at Florida International University, in Miami. She received her PhD from Cambridge University in 1992. With David Farrington, she has published numerous articles using citation analysis in criminology and criminal justice. The new techniques they have developed to allow them to use citation analysis to examine the influence of scholars, works, and journals are considered groundbreaking and their book (with Richard Wright), Evaluating Criminology and Criminal Justice, is considered one of the leading works in the field of citation analysis. In addition, Dr. Cohn is involved in research into the relationship among weather, temporal variables, and criminal behavior. She has published extensively in this area and is a well-known expert in the field.

    Jonathon A. Cooper received his MA degree in criminal justice from Boise State University and is currently a doctoral student in the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Arizona State University. His research interests include the areas of theoretical criminology and crime prevention.

    Heith Copes is an associate professor in the Department of Justice Sciences at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. He received his PhD in sociology from the University of Tennessee. His research addresses crime from the offender's perspective. He received a grant from the National Institute of Justice to interview federally convicted identity thieves.

    Michael T. Costelloe received his PhD from Florida State University in 2004. He is currently an assistant professor in the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Northern Arizona University. His research interests focus on public perceptions of crime and punishment, power, crime and justice, undocumented immigration, research methods, and criminological theory.

    Anna Crayton is a third-year doctoral student in the criminal justice program at the John Jay College of Criminal of Criminal Justice/City University of New York Graduate Center. She joined the Prisoner Reentry Institute at the John Jay College of Criminal Justice as a research assistant in March 2006 and in June 2008 became the deputy director of research. Since joining the Prisoner Reentry Institute, she has worked on a number of projects, including the development of a national resource guide to help individuals plan for their education upon release from prison and a quantitative analysis of the effects of longterm incarceration on reentry.

    Angela D. Crews is an associate professor of criminal justice at Marshall University in Huntington, West Virginia. She is active in the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences as the Chair of the Corrections Section, in the American Society of Criminology, and in the Southern Criminal Justice Association. She earned a BS in psychology from Tusculum College (Tennessee), an MA in criminal justice and criminology from East Tennessee State University, and a PhD in criminology from Indiana University of Pennsylvania. Her research interests are varied and involve all aspects of the criminal justice system but share a policy analysis or program evaluation focus. Most recently, she has been interested in correctional policy analysis and program evaluation, in policies related to the release of ex-prisoners into society, and in comparative policing and corrections. Her areas of teaching include research methods and statistics, corrections, comparative justice systems, and criminological theory. She has authored or coauthored several journal articles, book chapters, encyclopedia entries, and grant proposals, and currently she is developing an edited book on international convict criminology and working on two juvenile crime and violence books with her husband, Dr. Gordon A. Crews.

    Gordon A. Crews is an associate professor in the Department of Criminal Justice at Marshall University. Since 1990, he has served as a faculty member and/or academic administrator at Washburn University (Kansas), Cameron University (Oklahoma), Roger Williams University (Rhode Island), Jacksonville State University (Alabama), Valdosta State University (Georgia), and the University of South Carolina at Beaufort. Prior to teaching, Dr. Crews worked in law enforcement as a bloodhound officer and trainer, field training officer, and criminal investigator; in corrections as a training and accreditation manager; and in insurance fraud as an investigator. His publications include books, chapters, and journal articles dealing with school violence, occult/Satanic involvement and youth, and various law enforcement and correctional issues. Since 2000, he has conducted extensive field research in these areas across the United States, United Kingdom, Middle East, Netherlands, Central Europe, Scandinavia, and most recently in Turkey and Ghana.

    Christine Crossland is a senior social science analyst with the National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice. Ms. Crossland is responsible for planning, implementing, testing, evaluating, managing, and reporting on criminal justice grants, contracts, and studies at the institute. She has served as the deputy director of the former U.S. Department of Justice's Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring program, where she directed and managed over 40 drug-testing research sites across the country. She is currently working with other government agencies, nonprofit organizations, public and private businesses, and criminal justice and public health agencies to coordinate the establishment of a broad and enhanced research agenda in the area of violence and victimization, drugs and crime, and American Indian and Alaska Native crime and justice issues.

    Janet T. Davidson, PhD, is an assistant professor of criminology and criminal justice at Chaminade University of Honolulu. She previously worked as a senior research analyst and project researcher for the Hawaii Department of the Attorney General. Her research interests include predictors of recidivism for community correctional populations, risk and need assessment instruments, and gender and crime. She has been active in applied research in Hawaii for both the state correctional agencies and the Federal District of Hawaii Probation Office, in particular in the area of recidivism. She has also been active in the evaluation of the recently formed Girls Court in Hawaii.

    Mathieu Deflem obtained his PhD in sociology from the University of Colorado in 1996. He previously held professional positions at Kenyon College and Purdue University and at present is an associate professor at the University of South Carolina. His main areas of expertise include the sociology of law, social control and policing, terrorism and counterterrorism, and sociological theory. His recent empirical research has focused on the sociology and criminology of terrorism and the law enforcement dimensions of counterterrorism in the United States and in various international settings.

    Matt DeLisi is coordinator of criminal justice studies, associate professor of sociology, and faculty affiliate with the Center for the Study of Violence at Iowa State University. He has published nearly 100 scholarly books, articles, and chapters, mostly on career criminals, psychopathy, self-control theory, inmate behavior, homicide offenders, and molecular/behavioral genetics and crime.

    Roger G. Dunham is a professor of sociology at the University of Miami, Florida. His research focuses on policing strategies and decision making; specifically, he has conducted research on use of force, emergency driving, racial profiling, and attitudes toward the police. His recent books include Understanding Police Use of Force: Officers, Suspects and Reciprocity (2004); Critical Issues in Policing (4th ed., 2005); Policing: Continuity and Change (2006), and Crime and Justice in America (2nd ed., 2002).

    John E. Eck is a professor of criminal justice at the University of Cincinnati, where he studies crime pattern formation and prevention. With Lin Liu, he coedited Artificial Crime Analysis Systems: Using Computer Simulations and Geographic Information System, the first book on the simulation of crime patterns. With Ronald V. Clarke, he is the coauthor of Crime Analysis for Problem Solvers, a manual for police officials on how to prevent crime. Eck received a master's degree in public policy from the University of Michigan in 1977 and his doctorate from the University of Maryland in 1994. From 1977 to 1994, he directed research at the Police Executive Research Forum in Washington, DC. Eck has written extensively on problem-oriented policing, crime mapping, drug markets, computer simulation of crime patterns, and crime prevention. He was a member of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Police Policy and Research and is a judge for the British Home Office's Tilley Award for Problem-Solving Excellence. He is the author of numerous articles on policing, crime mapping and analysis, evaluation methods, and crime simulation.

    Terry D. Edwards is an associate professor in the Department of Justice Administration at the University of Louisville, Kentucky. He received his MPA at Golden Gate University and his juris doctor degree at the University of Louisville's School of Law. His research interests include police civil liability, environmental crime, and constitutional law. Professor Edwards has authored, or coauthored several publications, including a textbook on criminal law, various book chapters on criminal and environmental law, and a number of articles on police legal issues.

    Roger Enriquez is an associate professor of criminal justice at the University of Texas at San Antonio and serves as the Graduate Director for the master's degree program in justice policy. He holds a juris doctor degree from the University of Iowa College of Law. Mr. Enriquez has a robust research agenda that includes policing, crime, courts, gangs, Latinos in the criminal justice system, and empirical testing of anecdotal legal theories with respect to jurors and secondary effects. He has published numerous articles in law reviews and peer-reviewed publications. Recent law review articles have appeared in the Journal of Gender, Race & Justice, the University of Texas Hispanic Journal of Law & Policy, the Washington College of Law Criminal Law Brief, the Criminal Law Bulletin, and the American University Journal of Gender, Social Policy & the Law. His recent peer-reviewed publications have appeared in the Journal of Criminal Justice, the Journal of Criminal Justice Education, Western Criminology Review, and the Journal of Ethnicity in Criminal Justice.

    David P. Farrington, OBE, is a professor of psychological criminology at the Institute of Criminology, Cambridge University, and an adjunct professor of psychiatry at Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh. He is a Fellow of the British Academy of Criminology, the Academy of Medical Sciences, of the British Psychological Society, and of the American Society of Criminology. He is also an Honorary Life Member of the British Society of Criminology and of the Division of Forensic Psychology of the British Psychological Society. He is a chartered forensic psychologist, co-chair of the U.S. National Institute of Justice Study Group on Transitions from Juvenile Delinquency to Adult Crime, a member of the board of directors of the International Observatory on Violence in Schools, a member of the board of directors of the International Society of Criminology, joint editor of the journal Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, and a member of the editorial boards of 15 other journals. He has been president of the American Society of Criminology (the first person from outside North America to be elected to this office), president of the European Association of Psychology and Law, president of the British Society of Criminology, president of the Academy of Experimental Criminology, chair of the Division of Forensic Psychology of the British Psychological Society, vice chair of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences Panel on Violence, and cochair of the U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Study Groups on Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders and on Very Young Offenders. He has received BA, MA, and PhD degrees in psychology from Cambridge University; an honorary ScD from Trinity College, University of Dublin; the Sellin-Glueck Award of the American Society of Criminology for international contributions to criminology; the Sutherland Award of the American Society of Criminology for outstanding contributions to criminology; and numerous other international awards. His major research interest is in developmental criminology, and he is director of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development and coinvestigator of the Pittsburgh Youth Study, In addition to more than 470 published articles and chapters on criminological and psychological topics, he has published 70 books, monographs. and government publications, one of which (Understanding and Controlling Crime, 1986) won the prize for distinguished scholarship of the American Sociological Association Criminology Section.

    Jeff Ferrell earned his PhD in sociology from the University of Texas at Austin and is currently a professor of sociology at Texas Christian University and visiting professor of criminology at the University of Kent, UK. He is the author of the books Crimes of Style; Tearing Down the Streets; Empire of Scrounge; and, with Keith Hayward and Jock Young, Cultural Criminology: An Invitation. He is also the coeditor of four books that explore the theories, subject matter, and methods of cultural criminology: Cultural Criminology, Cultural Criminology Unleashed, Ethnography at the Edge, and Making Trouble. Dr. Ferrell is the founding and current editor of the New York University Press book series Alternative Criminology and one of the founding and current editors of the journal Crime, Media, Culture.

    Bonnie S. Fisher is a professor in the Division of Criminal Justice at the University of Cincinnati. Her recent work includes examining the predictors of repeat sexual victimization and drug-facilitated sexual assault among college women and the criminal justice implications of the detection of genital–anal injury in forensic sexual assault exams. She has edited Campus Crime: Legal, Social and Political Perspectives (2nd ed.) and Violence at Work: Causes, Patterns, and Prevention. Professor Fisher has authored more than 100 articles, chapters, and reports addressing college student victimization, sexual victimization, stalking of and violence toward female college students, gendered fear, violence against older women, and workplace violence.

    David O. Friedrichs is a professor of sociology/criminal justice and Distinguished University Fellow at the University of Scranton. He is the author of Trusted Criminals: White Collar Crime in Contemporary Society (1996, 2004, 2007) and Law in Our Lives: An Introduction (2001, 2006) and editor of State Crime, Volumes I and II (1998). He has published well over 100 journal articles, book chapters, encyclopedia entries, and essays and well over 300 book reviews. He has been a visiting professor or guest lecturer at many colleges and universities, including the University of South Africa and Flinders University in Australia. He has served as editor of Legal Studies Forum (1985–1989) and as president of the White Collar Crime Research Consortium (2002–2004). In November 2005, he received a Lifetime Achievement Award from the Division on Critical Criminology of the American Society of Criminology.

    Natasha A. Frost is an assistant professor in the College of Criminal Justice at Northeastern University. Dr. Frost earned her PhD in criminal justice from the City University of New York's Graduate School and University Center. Dr. Frost's research and teaching interests are in the area of punishment and social control. She has served as founding managing and associate editor of Criminology & Public Policy.

    Chris L. Gibson is an assistant professor in the Department of Sociology and Criminology and Law at the University of Florida, a W. E. B. Du Bois Fellow of the National Institute of Justice, and a research affiliate of the Jim Walter Partnership at the University of South Florida. He received his PhD in criminology and criminal justice at the University of Nebraska in 2005. His current research focuses on neighborhood contextual effects on child and adolescent development and outcomes, neighborhoods and quality of life, applied quantitative methods, and biosocial/life-course criminology. As a W. E. B. Du Bois Fellow, Dr. Gibson is conducting research on how neighborhood conditions in Chicago influence Hispanic children's involvement in antisocial behaviors.

    Angela R. Gover, PhD, is an associate professor at the School of Public Affairs at the University of Colorado at Denver. She received her PhD in criminology and criminal justice at the University of Maryland. Her research interests include policy-relevant family violence issues, violence against women, gender and crime, and evaluation research. For the past 6 years, Dr. Gover has been working on two Department of Justice–funded research projects involving law enforcement and judicial responses to domestic violence. Her current project is examining the impact of proactive enforcement of no-contact orders on victim safety and repeat victimization in cases of domestic violence.

    Patricia M. Harris is a professor of criminal justice and associate dean of the College of Public Policy at the University of Texas at San Antonio. She received her PhD in criminal justice from Rutgers—The State University of New Jersey. Her research interests include offender classification, community supervision of offenders, and the regulation of crime risks. She has also published in the area of crime prevention.

    Richard D. Hartley is an assistant professor in the Department of Criminal Justice at the University of Texas at San Antonio. His research interests include disparities in sentencing practices, prosecutorial and judicial discretion, race/ethnicity and crime, and quantitative methods. His research has appeared in the Journal of Criminal Justice, Justice Quarterly, and the Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice.

    Dana L. Haynie is an associate professor of sociology at The Ohio State University. She received a PhD in sociology from The Pennsylvania State University in 1999. Her current research focuses on the social relationships that facilitate delinquent behavior and the developmental implications of exposure to violence.

    Stuart Henry, PhD, is a professor of criminal justice and director of the School of Public Affairs at San Diego State University. Previously, he has been director of the Interdisciplinary Studies Program and associate dean of the College of Lifelong Learning at Wayne State University in Detroit (1999–2006), professor of criminology at Eastern Michigan University (1987–1998), and chair of the Department of Sociology at Valparaiso University (1998–1999). Dr. Henry's research has been funded by the British Economic and Social Science Research Council, the U.S. Federal Management Agency, and the National Science Foundation. He has authored or edited 23 books and more than 100 professional journal articles on the topics of criminological theory, deviant behavior, law and society, and occupational crime. His books include The Hidden Economy (1978), Criminological Theory (1995, 2006) Constitutive Criminology (1996), What is Crime? (2001), and Essential Criminology (1998, 2004). He serves on the editorial board of Critical Criminology and Theoretical Criminology and is a member of the Board of the Association for Integrative Studies.

    Denise Herz, PhD, is a professor at the California State University, Los Angeles, in the School of Criminal Justice and Criminalistics. Previous to this appointment she was on the faculty of the University of Nebraska at Omaha in the Department of Criminal Justice. Dr. Herz was the site director for the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program in Omaha (1996–2001) and in Los Angeles (2003–2004). As part of the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program, she authored the National Institute Research in the report “Drugs in the Heartland: Methamphetamine Use in Rural Nebraska.” Her current area of research is in juvenile justice, with particular emphasis on mental health and substance abuse issues among offenders, improving the processing of juvenile offenders, and most recently, crossover youth. Denise Herz received her MA and PhD in criminology from the University of Maryland at College Park.

    George E. Higgins is an associate professor in the Department of Justice Administration at the University of Louisville. He received his PhD in criminology from Indiana University of Pennsylvania in 2001. His most recent publications have appeared in Criminal Justice Studies, Deviant Behavior, Criminal Justice and Behavior, Youth & Society, and the American Journal of Criminal Justice.

    Travis Hirschi is professor emeritus in the Department of Sociology at the University of Arizona. Professor Hirschi has authored several books, including Delinquency Research (with Hanan Selvin) and A General Theory of Crime (with Michael Gottfredson). He earned his PhD in sociology from the University of California, Berkeley.

    Andy Hochstetler earned his PhD from the University of Tennessee and is an associate professor of sociology at Iowa State University. Using quantitative and qualitative methodologies, he generally writes on criminal decision making and how offender identity and contexts shape it.

    Lorine A. Hughes is an assistant professor in the Department of Criminal Justice at the University of Nebraska at Omaha. She received her PhD in sociology from Washington State University. With James F. Short Jr., she edited the book Studying Youth Gangs.

    Wesley G. Jennings, PhD, is an assistant professor in the Department of Justice Administration at the University of Louisville and holds a PhD in criminology from the University of Florida. His research interests cover a number of criminological, psychological, and criminaljustice-related areas, but his primary focus is applying semiparametric group-based modeling techniques to examine similarities/differences among groups that demonstrate distinct behavioral trajectories over time. In addition, some of his recent work has focused on testing the cross-cultural applicability of social learning theory among Hispanic populations.

    Brian D. Johnson is an assistant professor of criminology and criminal justice at the University of Maryland. He received his PhD in crime, law, and justice from The Pennsylvania State University. His dissertation research was supported by the Forrest Crawford Fellowship for Ethical Inquiry and received the Penn State Alumni Association Dissertation Award. Dr. Johnson has received paper awards for his scholarship from both the American Society of Criminology and the American Sociological Association, and he is a faculty associate of the Maryland Population Research Center. His research examines juvenile transfer to adult court, contextual variations in sentencing, and social inequities in criminal punishments, as well as the use of advanced statistical modeling techniques to study criminal processes. Dr. Johnson recently served as the University of Maryland delegate to the Atlantic Coast Conference Inter-Institutional Academic Collaborative to Study Social Issues in Emerging Democracies in Central and Eastern Europe, and in 2008 he was awarded the Ruth Shonle Cavan Young Scholar Award from the American Society of Criminology.

    Catherine Elizabeth Kaukinen is an associate professor in the School of Public Affairs at the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs and is the Director of Academic Programs in Criminal Justice. Dr. Kaukinen received her PhD in sociology in 2001 from the University of Toronto. Her research interests include intimate partner violence, risk and protective factors for violent victimization, and the relationship between family structure and adolescent development. She is currently conducting a National Institute of Justice–sponsored project examining the effect of intensive enforcement of no-contact orders in cases of misdemeanor criminal domestic violence on victim well-being and offender recidivism. Her research has appeared in Criminology, the Journal of Marriage and Family, the Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, the Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Violence and Victims, and Health and Social Care in the Community, among other outlets.

    Philip R. Kavanaugh is a doctoral candidate in the University of Delaware's Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice. His dissertation research examines the relationship between individual disposition and social context in criminal offending and victimization among individuals with active night lives. In addition to crime and deviance, he maintains interests in theory, culture, and identity.

    Kent R. Kerley received the PhD in sociology and criminology from the University of Tennessee. He is an assistant professor and director of the Criminal Justice Honors Program in the Department of Justice Sciences at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. His primary research interests include religiosity and corrections. His work has appeared in the Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Justice Quarterly, Social Forces, and Social Problems.

    David N. Khey, MS, MA, is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Sociology and Criminology and Law at the University of Florida. His recent research efforts have concentrated in examining drug and alcohol arrests in college towns and exploring the recreational use of the plant Salvia divinorum among youths. More broadly, his research has investigated the changing nature of forensic technology and testimony in U.S. courts and improving forensic education and training through the use of distance education.

    Bitna Kim is an assistant professor in the Department of Criminology at Indiana University of Pennsylvania. She received her PhD from the College of Criminal Justice at Sam Houston State University, as well as a master's degree in psychology from Chungbuk National University in South Korea. Her specific areas of teaching and research interest include statistics, gender issues in criminal justice system, intimate partner homicide, and hate crimes. Her recent publications have appeared in the International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology and The Southwest Journal of Criminal Justice.

    Gary Kleck is a professor of criminology and criminal justice at Florida State University. He earned his doctorate at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign in 1979. His research has focused on the impact of firearms and gun control on violence, deterrence, crime control, and violence. He has studied gun ownership patterns, the effectiveness of armed self-protection, the frequency of defensive gun use, the impact of offender weapon possession and use on the outcomes of crimes, the effect of gun ownership levels on crime rates, the extent and character of gun trafficking, patterns of support for gun control, and the impact of gun control laws on violence rates. He is the author of Point Blank: Guns and Violence in America, which won the 1993 Michael J. Hindelang Award of the American Society of Criminology. More recently, he is the author of Targeting Guns (1997) and, with Don B. Kates Jr., The Great American Gun Debate (1997) and Armed (2001). His articles have appeared in the American Sociological Review, the American Journal of Sociology, Social Forces, Social Problems, Criminology, the Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Law & Society Review, the Journal of the American Medical Association, and other journals. He teaches doctoral students how to do survey research and statistical analysis and how to distinguish good research from bad.

    Peter Kraska is a professor and Research Fellow at Eastern Kentucky University. He has published numerous books and journal articles, including a major new textbook, Criminal Justice and Criminology Research Methods. His most recent research interests include steroid trafficking, further development of the idea of criminal justice theory, and the militarization of the criminal justice system.

    Steven P. Lab is professor of criminal justice and chair of the Department of Human Services at Bowling Green State University. He received his PhD in criminology from Florida State University and has been a visiting professor at Keele University and the Jill Dando Institute of Crime Science at the University College London. He is the author or coauthor of seven books, including Juvenile Justice: An Introduction (with John Whitehead) and Crime Prevention: Approaches, Practices and Evaluation, and Victimology (with William Doerner), as well as numerous journal articles. He is also a past president of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences.

    Jodi Lane is an associate professor of criminology, law, and society at the University of Florida. She earned her PhD in social ecology at the University of California, Irvine. Her recent research has focused on fear of crime and program evaluations of juvenile justice programs in California and Florida.

    Sean Maddan is an assistant professor in the Department of Criminology at the University of Tampa. His research areas include criminological theory, statistics, research methods, and the efficacy of sex offender registration and notification laws. Articles by Dr. Maddan have appeared in Justice Quarterly, Crime and Delinquency, and the Journal of Criminal Justice. Most recently, Dr. Maddan has authored the book The Labeling of Sex Offenders and has coauthored the textbook, Statistics in Criminology and Criminal Justice.

    David H. Marble is a professor of criminal justice at Collin College in Plano, Texas. He also serves as chair of the Department of Political Science and Criminal Justice. His interests are law, courts, and corrections. He received his MPA in criminal justice administration from the University of Utah in 1995 and is pursuing a PhD in criminology at the University of Texas at Dallas.

    Ineke Haen Marshall earned her PhD at Bowling Green State University and is a professor at Northeastern University. She specializes in the study of comparative criminology, ethnicity and crime, self-report methodology, juvenile delinquency, and criminal careers. Her current research focuses on cross-national surveys of juvenile delinquency and comparative examination of homicide. She serves on the editorial board of several international and national journals. She has published widely in leading scholarly periodicals, and she coauthored (with Josine Junger-Tas and Denis Ribeaud) Delinquency in an International Perspective: The International Self-Report Delinquency Study (2003). Her other book publications include Minorities and Crime: Diversity and Similarity Across Europe and the United States (1997, Sage Publications) and Between Prohibition and Legalization: the Dutch Experiment in Drug Policy (with Ed Leuw, 1994, 1996).

    Ramiro Martínez Jr. is professor of criminal justice at Florida International University. He received the American Society of Criminology's Division on People of Color and Crime Coramae Richey Mann Award, the Florida International University Faculty Award for Excellence in Research, and the American Sociological Association Latina\o Section Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research. He has authored Latino Homicide: Immigration, Violence and Community (2002), and edited Immigration and Crime: Race, Ethnicity, and Violence (2006).

    Sheila Royo Maxwell is an associate professor at the School of Criminal Justice at Michigan State University. Her research and publications include the areas of sanctioning, in particular behavioral responses to sanctioning; the efficacy of sanctioning mechanisms across gender, ethnic, and cultural milieus; and crosscultural patterns of violence, delinquency, and victimization. Dr. Maxwell has received research grants from the National Science Foundation, the National Institute of Justice, the Bureau of Cultural and Educational Affairs of the U.S. Department of State, and other local and state agencies.

    John D. McCluskey earned his PhD from the University at Albany, State University of New York, and is an associate professor in the Department of Criminal Justice at the University of Texas at San Antonio. His research involves understanding police and citizen behavior in the context of everyday encounters, the causes of violence, and the evaluation of the effectiveness of violence intervention efforts.

    Raymond J. Michalowski is Regents Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Northern Arizona University. He received a PhD in sociology from The Ohio State University and has written extensively on social class and crime in the books Order, Law and Crime (1985); State–Corporate Crime (2005); Crime, Power and Identity (2006); and articles on the political economy of crime and justice in Criminology, Justice Quarterly, Social Justice, and the Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency.

    Holly A. Miller is the assistant dean of undergraduate programs and an associate professor in the College of Criminal Justice at Sam Houston State University. She received her BA from Bethel University in St. Paul, Minnesota, and her PhD in clinical psychology from Florida State University. She teaches, consults, and conducts research in the areas of malingered psychopathology, assessment and treatment of violent offenders, psychopathy, and human diversity issues within the criminal justice system.

    Holly Ventura Miller is an assistant professor in the Department of Criminal Justice at the University of Texas at San Antonio and the current National Institute of Justice W. E. B. Du Bois Fellow. She received her PhD in sociology at the University of South Carolina in 2006. Her research interests include criminological theory testing, ethnicity and crime, and program evaluation. Along with Dr. Chris Gibson, she is conducting research on how neighborhood conditions in Chicago influence Hispanic children's involvement in antisocial behaviors.

    Jerry Miller, PhD, an industrial–organizational psychologist, is project director of Prodigy, a youth arts – based intervention program, and director of research at the Jim Walter Partnership Center, both at the University of South Florida. With a specialty in evaluation and organizational management, Dr. Miller has been leading the effort to enhance the program fidelity of the Prodigy arts program by directing the systematic manualization of the program as well as the development of methods to assess and monitoring the implementation of the program. In addition, he is leading the effort in developing a program evaluation model that examines the program's practices as part of an effort to identify the core components related to program success. Most of his academic career has been involved in designing and managing community-based interventions and programs, including economic and job placement, anti-crime activities, and community asset building. He is the recipient of numerous grants in the areas of international training of managers of youth programming, community development, and of projects to serve youth.

    Elizabeth Ehrhardt Mustaine, PhD, an associate professor in the Department of Sociology at the University of Central Florida, received her PhD in sociology from The Ohio State University in 1994. Dr. Mustaine has written numerous journal articles on registered sex offenders and sex offender registries, criminal victimization, routine activities theory, violence, violence against women, and stalking. She recently completed work on the National Institute of Justice–funded project “Violence Against Homeless Women.” She has also coauthored a book on issues in criminal justice research. She developed the Domestic Violence Graduate Track in the Department of Sociology at the University of Central Florida, and she teaches the “Child Abuse in Society” course to master's and PhD students.

    Raymund Espinosa Narag is a doctoral student in the School of Criminal Justice at Michigan State University. His research interests focus on communities and crime, criminal victimization, and corrections policy. He is currently one of the recipients of a Fulbright Scholarship to the Philippines.

    Greg Newbold is a senior academic at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand, where he has been teaching for the past 20 years. While serving a 7½-year sentence for selling drugs in the 1970s, he wrote an MA thesis on the maximum security prison where he was located. Upon his release in 1980, he commenced work on his PhD, which he completed in 1986. Since then he has written seven books and more than 50 academic articles and is currently recognized as one of New Zealand's leading criminological authorities. He speaks regularly at overseas conferences and is often consulted by New Zealand government agencies on matters of criminal justice and law enforcement.

    Wilson R. Palacios is an associate professor in the Department of Criminology at the University of South Florida. He received his PhD in sociology from the University of Miami. His primary research areas of interest are in the social epidemiology of illicit drug use/abuse, illicit drug markets (social networks), and qualitative research methods and analysis.

    Karen F. Parker is a professor in the Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice at the University of Delaware. Her current research interests include exploring the influence of theoretical constructs associated with labor markets and structural disadvantage on urban violence, examining the contextual and spatial dynamics of policing and crime in urban communities, and incorporating change models into the study of disaggregated homicide rates at the city level. She is the author of Unequal Crime Decline: Theorizing Race, Urban Inequality and Criminal Violence.

    Matthew Pate is a doctoral candidate in the School of Criminal Justice at the University at Albany, State University of New York. He holds advanced degrees in criminal justice, sociology, and environmental design. His primary research interests are comparative criminal justice, corporal punishment, and policing. Pate is the incoming associate editor for the Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture.

    Raymond Paternoster is a professor in the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice at the University of Maryland and a research associate at the Maryland Population Research Center. His current research interests include the theory of and modeling offender decision making, the transition from adolescence to adulthood, and issues pertaining to capital punishment.

    Brian K. Payne, PhD, is professor and chair of the Department of Criminal Justice at Georgia State University. His research focuses on elder abuse, family violence, and electronic monitoring. He received his PhD in criminology from Indiana University of Pennsylvania in 1993.

    Lynn Pazzani is a doctoral candidate at the University of California, Irvine, in the Department of Criminology, Law and Society. Her research focuses on sexual assault, but she often consults on research design and statistics issues for other topics within criminology. She is currently working on her dissertation on how rape is culturally defined and how responsibility is attributed in sexual assault cases.

    Matthew Perdoni is a faculty research associate in the Administration of Justice Program at George Mason University. Mr. Perdoni's work includes research and publication on the National Institute on Drug Abuse – funded Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies, a landmark research initiative aimed at depicting and evaluating the landscape of substance abuse treatment in the criminal justice system, and the National Drug Court Survey, which examined the treatment practices and the organizational cultures and characteristics of drug courts and their working relationships with community service providers. His current work includes research to estimate the impact of administrator turnover on correctional treatment practices, measuring the annual population of offenders exposed to clinical treatment services, and evaluating the impact of correctional populations on the public health systems. Mr. Perdoni holds a bachelor of arts degree in psychology from Lehigh University, a master of science degree in criminal justice from Virginia Commonwealth University, and is a juris doctor candidate at the David A. Clarke School of Law, at the University of the District of Columbia.

    Alex R. Piquero, PhD, is a professor at the University of Maryland Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology, a member of the MacArthur Foundation's Research Network on Adolescent Development, and a member of the National Consortium on Violence Research. He is also executive counselor of the American Society of Criminology, coeditor of the Journal of Quantitative Criminology, and a member of the National Academy of Science Panel Assessing the Research Program of the National Institute of Justice. He received a PhD in criminology and criminal justice from the University of Maryland in 1996 and has received several teaching, research, and mentoring awards, including the American Society of Criminology Young Scholar and E-Mail Mentor of the Year Awards and a University of Florida Teacher of the Year Award. His research interests include criminal careers, criminological theory, and quantitative research methods. He has published widely in the fields of criminology, criminal justice, psychology, and sociology, and is coauthor (with Alfred Blumstein and David Farrington) of Key Issues in Criminal Careers Research.

    William C. Plouffe Jr. is an assistant professor in the Department of Criminal Justice at Kutztown University. Plouffe holds advanced degrees in law and criminal justice as well as undergraduate degrees in philosophy and psychology. His professional background includes over a decade each in legal practice, law enforcement, and military service. Professor Plouffe has authored numerous scholarly articles and books.

    Travis C. Pratt received his PhD in criminal justice from the University of Cincinnati and is currently an associate professor in the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Arizona State University. He has published more than 50 journal articles and book chapters, primarily in the areas of criminological theory and correctional policy, that have appeared in journals such as Criminology, the Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Justice Quarterly, and Crime and Justice: A Review of Research. He is also the author of Addicted to Incarceration: Corrections Policy and the Politics of Misinformation in the United States (2009, Sage Publications) and was the recipient of the 2006 Ruth Shonle Cavan Award from the American Society of Criminology.

    Amy Reckdenwald is an assistant professor in the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Florida Atlantic University. She recently received her doctorate degree in criminology from the University of Florida. Her current research interests include intimate partner homicide, domestic violence, race and gender issues, and capital punishment and sentencing.

    Callie Marie Rennison, PhD, is an assistant professor at the University of Missouri—St. Louis, in the Criminology and Criminal Justice Department. She earned her PhD in political science at the University of Houston. Her areas of interest focus primarily on the nature, extent, and consequences of victimization, with an emphasis on research methodology, quantitative analysis, and measurement. She has a particular interest in examining violence against women and minority groups, such as African Americans and Hispanics. Before joining the faculty at the University of Missouri–St. Louis, she served as a statistician in the Victimization Statistics Unit of the Department of Justice's Bureau of Justice Statistics in Washington, DC. From 2004 to 2006, she was a Postdoctoral Fellow with the National Consortium on Violence Research.

    Bradford W. Reyns has a BA from Weber State University in anthropology and an MS from Weber State University in criminal justice and is a PhD student in criminal justice at the University of Cincinnati. His research interests include crime prevention, victimology and victimization, stalking, and computer-facilitated crimes. Currently, he is working on studies that address the ways in which online social networks act as arenas for cyberstalking of college students, situational crime prevention and cyberstalking, adolescent lifestyles and victimization, and how “broken windows” in schools affect fear of adolescent victimization.

    Stephen C. Richards is an associate professor of criminal justice at the University of Wisconsin—Oshkosh. His most recent books include Behind Bars: Surviving Prison and Convict Criminology (with Jeffrey Ian Ross). Richards is a Soros Senior Justice Fellow and member of the American Society of Criminology National Policy Committee.

    Jeffrey Ian Ross, PhD, is an associate professor in the Division of Criminology, Criminal Justice and Social Policy, and a Fellow of the Center for International and Comparative Law, at the University of Baltimore. He has researched, written, and lectured on national security, political violence, political crime, violent crime, corrections, and policing for over two decades. Ross's work has appeared in many academic journals and books, as well as popular outlets. He is the author, coauthor, editor, and coeditor of 13 books, including Behind Bars: Surviving Prison, Convict Criminology, and Special Problems in Corrections. Ross has performed consulting services for Westat; CSR; the U.S. Department of Defense; the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Department of Justice; the National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice; the U.S. Department of Homeland Security; and the Intel Science Talent Search. From 1995 through 1998, Ross was a social science analyst with the National Institute of Justice, a Division of the U.S. Department of Justice. In 2003, he was awarded the University of Baltimore's Distinguished Chair in Research Award. Ross worked close to 4 years in a correctional institution.

    William Rowe, DSW, is professor and director of the School Social Work at the University of South of Florida. He holds appointments in the College of Public Health, the AIDS Education and Training Center, and the Moffitt Cancer Center. He was formerly director of the Center for Applied Family Studies and director and professor of the Schools of Social Work at McGill University and Memorial University, and he was originally tenured at the University of Western Ontario. Dr. Rowe has worked extensively in the fields of social work education, child welfare, corrections, health, and HIV. He has provided training and lectures at agencies and universities throughout North America, Europe, the Middle East, South Asia, Australia, and New Zealand.

    During his 30 years as a social work educator, he has edited and authored more than 125 scholarly and professional books, articles, monographs, and research papers on a variety of topics. He serves on the editorial board of a number of academic and professional journals, including Stress, Trauma, and Crisis; the Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work; and Best Practices in Mental Health. He has served on numerous national and international boards and committees in both the academic and practice arenas, and he remains an active researcher. He has been at the forefront of evaluating arts intervention programming.

    Patti Ross Salinas, JD, PhD, chairs the Criminal Justice Department at the University of Texas at Brownsville and Texas Southmost College. A former city prosecutor for the City of Springfield, Missouri, Dr. Salinas has had diverse research interests and publications. Her current research focus is on delinquency among Hispanic youth.

    Claudia San Miguel is an assistant professor of criminal justice within the Department of Behavioral, Applied Sciences, and Criminal Justice at Texas A&M International University in Laredo. She is the coauthor of The Death Penalty: Constitutional Issues, Commentaries, and Cases and has published in the area of intelligence-led policing strategies, anti-bully programs, and community crime prevention. She was the coeditor of an issue of the Journal of Social and Ecological Boundaries entitled “Immigration: Crime, Victimization, and Media Representation.” Dr. San Miguel is working on research involving the trafficking of women and children and has recently traveled to Poland to help form collaborative relationships with their anti-trafficking task force. She has also taught courses for the Department of State in Roswell, New Mexico, on crime types and typologies and global human trafficking at the International Law Enforcement Academy.

    Christopher J. Schreck is an associate professor in the Department of Criminal Justice at the Rochester Institute of Technology. His work primarily focuses on using theories of crime to account for the overlap between criminal offending and victimization. Professor Schreck earned his PhD in Crime, Law, and Justice from The Pennsylvania State University.

    Jason Scott is an assistant professor in the Department of Criminal Justice at the Rochester Institute of Technology. Dr. Scott received his PhD from the School of Criminal Justice at the University at Albany, State University of New York. While a graduate student at the University at Albany he served as project coordinator for the Police – Community Interaction Project, which sought to define and measure a variety of community-level variables contained in community policing efforts. Dr. Scott's current research interests include comprehensive anti-gang strategies, community policing, and the role of criminal justice agencies in community capacity building.

    Susan F. Sharp is a professor of sociology at the University of Oklahoma. In 1996, she obtained a PhD in sociology from the University of Texas at Austin, and she has taught at the University of Oklahoma since that time. Her research interests primarily focus on women and crime, women and the criminal justice system, and the effects of penal policies on the families of offenders. Dr. Sharp is a former chair of the Division on Women and Crime of the American Society of Criminology. She is the founding editor of the division's official journal, Feminist Criminology. She is the editor of the textbook The Incarcerated Woman: Rehabilitative Programming in Women's Prisons, and she has authored more than 30 journal articles and book chapters, as well as the book Hidden Victims: The Effects of the Death Penalty on Families of the Accused.

    James F. Short Jr. is professor emeritus of sociology at Washington State University. Since receiving his PhD in sociology from the University of Chicago, he has spent many years investigating and writing about youth street gangs. He is the author or editor of numerous books, including Group Process and Gang Delinquency (with Fred L. Strodtbeck); Gang Delinquency and Delinquent Subcultures; Delinquency and Society; Studying Youth Gangs (with Lorine A. Hughes); and Poverty, Ethnicity, and Violent Crime.

    Neal Shover is professor of sociology at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. His principal areas of interest and expertise are criminal careers, white-collar crime, and ethnographic research methods. A Fellow of the American Society of Criminology, he is author or coauthor of seven books and numerous published articles.

    J. Eagle Shutt, JD, MCJ, PhD, is an assistant professor at the University of Louisville's Department of Justice Administration. A former prosecutor, public defender, and judicial clerk, Dr. Shutt's research interests include biosocial criminology, subcultures, and law.

    Leslie Gordon Simons is an associate professor in the Department of Child and Family Development at the University of Georgia. She received her doctorate in sociology from Iowa State University, and her research focuses families and delinquency. Specifically, Dr. Simons is interested in how family structure and family processes, such as quality of parenting, impact adolescent externalizing problems. Her recent work has addressed the ways in which harsh parenting behaviors are related to risky sex, substance use, dating violence, and sexual coercion among adolescents.

    John J. Sloan III, PhD, is an associate professor of criminal justice and sociology, senior scientist at the Center for Minority Health, and chair of the Department of Justice Sciences at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. He received his doctorate in sociology from Purdue University. For the past 15 years, he has studied crime and related issues on college and university campuses, including conducting the first ever nationallevel college student victimization survey in 1994.

    Hayden P. Smith is an assistant professor in the University of South Carolina's Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice. His principal focus of study is the intersection of the criminal justice and public health systems. His current works address the dynamic processes of self-injurious behaviors in corrections, jail diversion programs, and re-entry issues facing mentally ill inmates. His other areas of interest include criminological theory and corrections.

    Eric A. Stewart is an associate professor in the College of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Florida State University and a member of the Racial Democracy, Crime and Justice Network. His research interests include racial inequality and criminal outcomes, crime over the life course, and multilevel processes on adolescent development.

    Christopher J. Sullivan, PhD, is an assistant professor in the University of South Florida's Department of Criminology. He completed his doctorate at Rutgers University in 2005. His research interests include developmental criminology, juvenile delinquency, and research methodology and analytic methods. His recent publications have appeared in Criminology, Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, and the Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. These articles include multiple works on specialization in offending and the effect of shifts in local life circumstances.

    Marc L. Swatt is currently an assistant professor at the College of Criminal Justice at Northeastern University. He graduated in 2003 from the University of Nebraska—Omaha. His research interests include criminological theory, quantitative criminology, and spatial crime analysis. His recent publications have been featured in the Journal of Criminal Justice and the Journal of Quantitative Criminology. He is currently working on a collaborative project that is examining crime trends in a medium-sized Midwestern city.

    Faye S. Taxman, PhD, is a professor in the Administration of Justice Program at George Mason University. Dr. Taxman is recognized for her work in the development of the seamless systems of care models that link the criminal justice with other service delivery systems as well as reengineering probation and parole supervision services and organizational change models. Her work covers the breadth of the correctional system, from jails and prisons to community corrections and adult and juvenile offenders. She is the senior author of Tools of the Trade: A Guide to Incorporating Science Into Practice, a publication of the National Institute on Corrections that is a guidebook for implementation of science-based concepts into practice. She is on the editorial boards of the Journal of Experimental Criminology and the Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, and she has published articles in the Journal of Quantitative Criminology, the Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, the Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, the Journal of Drug Issues, Alcohol and Drug Dependence, and Evaluation and Program Planning. She received the University of Cincinnati award from the American Probation and Parole Association in 2002 for her contributions to the field. She is a Fellow of the Academy of Experimental Criminology and a member of the Correctional Services Accreditation Panel of England. In 2008, the American Society of Criminology's Division of Sentencing and Corrections recognized her as Distinguished Scholar.

    Ian Tebbett is director of the University of Florida Forensic Science Program and a professor in the University of Florida Colleges of Pharmacy and Veterinary Medicine. He holds a bachelor's degree in pharmacy and a PhD degree in forensic toxicology. He has previously held faculty positions in the forensic science programs at the University of Strathclyde, Scotland, and the University of Illinois at Chicago (1988–1992). Dr. Tebbett previously served as director of analytical toxicology and director of the racing laboratory in the University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine.

    Karen J. Terry, PhD, is a professor in criminal justice and executive officer of the doctoral program in criminal justice at John Jay College, City University of New York. She holds a doctorate in criminology from Cambridge University. She has authored several publications on sex offender treatment, management, and supervision, including Sex Offender Registration and Community Notification: A “Megan's Law” Sourcebook and Sexual Offenses and Offenders: Theory, Practice and Policy. She is also the editor of the periodical Sex Offender Law Report, published bimonthly by the Civic Research Institute. She has been involved with numerous research projects regarding sexual offenses and offenders. Most recently, she was the principal investigator for a national study on the nature and scope of child sexual abuse in the Catholic Church from 1950–2002, and she is currently analyzing the causes and context of this crisis.

    Richard Tewksbury is a professor of justice administration at the University of Louisville. He holds a PhD in sociology from The Ohio State University. His research focuses on issues of criminal victimization; sex offenders and responses to sex offenses; and issues of sex, gender, and sexuality. He has published numerous articles drawing on qualitative data, including studies that have used edge ethnographic methods.

    Marie Skubak Tillyer is an assistant professor of criminal justice at the University of Texas at San Antonio. She received her doctorate in criminal justice from the University of Cincinnati in 2008, and she received her master's degree in criminal justice from the University of Cincinnati in 2004. Her research has focused on multilevel aspects of guardianship, place management in schools, and the use of environmental criminology to inform the prevention of street violence. Most recently, she has expanded the concept of handlers to explore the prevention possibilities of applying routine activities theory to serious repeat offender problems.

    George Tita is an associate professor in the Department of Criminology, Law and Society at the University of California, Irvine. His research is anchored in the community and crime literature, with a special focus on the causes and correlates of interpersonal violence. In addition to exploring how youth gangs impact spatial dimensions of crime, he is also interested in examining how racial and ethnic change at the neighborhood level affects levels and patterns of crime. Dr. Tita has used diverse set of methods in his research, including spatial analysis, quasi-experimental methods (propensity score matching), hedonic models, agent-based models, and social network analysis.

    Jeremy Travis became the fourth president of the John Jay College of Criminal Justice on August 16, 2004. Prior to his appointment, President Travis served 4 years as a Senior Fellow affiliated with the Justice Policy Center at the Urban Institute, a nonpartisan research and policy organization in Washington, DC. Travis has taught courses on criminal justice, public policy, history, and law at Yale University, New York University's Wagner Graduate School of Public Service, the New York Law School, George Washington University, and the John Jay College of Criminal Justice. He is the author of But They All Come Back: Facing the Challenges of Prisoner Reentry (2005); coeditor (with Christy Visher) of Prisoner Reentry and Crime in America (2005); and coeditor (with Michelle Waul) of Prisoners Once Removed: The Impact of Incarceration and Reentry on Children, Families, and Communities (2003). He has published numerous book chapters, articles, and monographs on constitutional law, criminal law, and criminal justice policy.

    Michael G. Turner is an associate professor and graduate coordinator in the Department of Criminal Justice at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. His research interests include testing criminological theories and victimization. He has also secured several grants to address a variety of health-related behaviors that impact the success of college students. He has recently published in the Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Justice Quarterly, and Criminal Justice and Behavior.

    Lynne Vieraitis is an associate professor at the University of Texas at Dallas. She earned her PhD in criminology from Florida State University. She received a grant from the National Institute of Justice to interview federally convicted identity thieves.

    Gennaro F. Vito is a Distinguished University Scholar and professor in the Department of Justice Administration at the University of Louisville, where he has a faculty appointment in the Administrative Officer's Course of the Southern Police Institute. He holds a PhD in public administration from The Ohio State University. His research interests are concerned with criminal justice policy analysis and program evaluation and police management. His most recent textbook is Introduction to Criminal Justice Research Methods: An Applied Approach (2008).

    Jeffery T. Walker is a professor of criminal justice and criminology in the Department of Criminal Justice at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock. Dr. Walker also holds joint appointments with the University of Arkansas at Fayetteville and the University of Arkansas Medical School. He earned his PhD from Sam Houston State University in 1992. He has written 6 books and more than 50 journal articles and book chapters, including articles in Justice Quarterly, the Journal of Quantitative Criminology, and the Journal of Criminal Justice Education. He has obtained over $9 million in grants from the Department of Justice, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, and other agencies. His areas of interest are social/environmental factors of crime and the study of nonlinear dynamics as they relate to crime. He is the immediate past president of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences.

    Ralph A. Weisheit is Distinguished Professor of Criminal Justice at Illinois State University. He is the author of eight books; his most recent is Methamphetamine: Its History, Pharmacology, and Treatment. He is also the author of more than 40 journal articles, as well as numerous book chapters and solicited essays. He has appeared in the Frontline documentary film series and the news program 60 Minutes. His work has also been reported in a variety of magazines and newspapers, including the Atlantic Monthly, U.S. News & World Report, the New York Times, and USA Today.

    Charles F. Wellford is a professor of criminology and criminal justice at the University of Maryland. He is a Fellow and past president of the American Society of Criminology and a National Life Associate of the National Academy of Sciences. He received his PhD in 1961 from the University of Pennsylvania.

    John T. Whitehead is chair of the Department of Criminal Justice and Criminology at East Tennessee State University. He is coauthor, with Steven P. Lab, of Juvenile Justice and coauthor, with Mark Jones and Michael Braswell, of Exploring Corrections in America. He has published articles on the death penalty, the effectiveness of felony probation, and job burnout in probation and parole.

    Scott E. Wolfe is a doctoral student in the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Arizona State University. He earned his master's degree in justice administration from the University of Louisville. His publications can be found in Deviant Behavior, Social Science Computer Review, and the American Journal of Criminal Justice. His current research interests are criminological theory testing, computer crime, and child sexual abuse.

    Peter B. Wood is a professor of sociology and department head in the Department of Sociology, Anthropology, and Criminology at Eastern Michigan University. Dr. Wood earned his PhD in Sociology at Vanderbilt University and has served on the faculty at the University of Oklahoma and, most recently, Mississippi State University, where he served as department head and director of the Program in Criminal Justice and Corrections. His work examines issues associated with offender decision making, correctional policy and practice, and testing of criminological theories. He recently served as president of Alpha Kappa Delta, the International Sociology Honor Society, and as president of the Southern Criminal Justice Association. He received the Southern Criminal Justice Association's Educator of the Year Award in 2007. Dr. Wood's work has appeared in many peer-reviewed outlets, including Justice Quarterly, Punishment and Society, The Prison Journal, Crime & Delinquency, Criminology, the Journal of Criminal Justice, the Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, the Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, and others.

    Robert M. Worley, PhD, is an assistant professor of criminal justice at The Pennsylvania State University Altoona. He received his PhD in criminal justice from Sam Houston State University. His research interests include inappropriate inmate–guard relationships, violent crime, and legal issues in criminal justice. Dr. Worley's publications have appeared in such journals as Criminal Justice Review, Deviant Behavior, the American Journal of Criminal Justice, and Criminal Law Bulletin, among others.

    John L. Worrall is an associate professor of criminology at the University of Texas at Dallas. His interests are policing, courts, and panel data models. He is coeditor of The Changing Role of the American Prosecutor (2008) and editor of the journal Police Quarterly. He received his PhD in political science from Washington State University in 1999.

    John Paul Wright is an associate professor of criminal justice in the Division of Criminal Justice at the University of Cincinnati. His work focuses on genetic and biological influences on human violent behavior, life course development of serious antisocial behavior, and the interplay between biological processes and environmental stimuli. He has published more than 80 articles and 4 books.

    Marvin Zalman is a professor in the Department of Criminal Justice at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan. He earned a PhD in criminal justice from the State University of New York at Albany and a JD from Brooklyn Law School. Dr. Zalman's work focuses on constitutional criminal procedure and on criminal justice policies connected with civil liberties, including articles on confessions law and a study of police interrogation attitudes and practices. His most recent work concerns wrongful convictions and includes a jointly authored study of the incidence of wrongful convictions. He is the author of Criminal Procedure: Constitution and Society.

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