Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory


Edited by: Francis T. Cullen & Pamela Wilcox

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    • Editorial Board


      Francis T. Cullen, University of Cincinnati

      Pamela Wilcox, University of Cincinnati

      Managing Editor

      Kristin Swartz, University of Cincinnati

      Editorial Board

      Robert Agnew, Emory University

      Mark Colvin, Kent State University

      David P. Farrington, Cambridge University

      Jody Miller, Rutgers University

      Daniel S. Nagin, Carnegie Mellon University

      Alex R. Piquero, Florida State University


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      About the Editors

      General Editors

      Francis T. Cullen is Distinguished Research Professor in the School of Criminal Justice at the University of Cincinnati, where he also holds a joint appointment in Sociology. He received his B.A. (1972) in psychology from Bridgewater State College and his M.A. (1974) and Ph.D. (1979) in sociology and education from Columbia University. He has published more than 250 works in the areas of crime and deviance theory, corrections, public opinion, white-collar crime, and sexual victimization. He is author of Rethinking Crime and Deviance Theory: The Emergence of a Structuring Tradition (1984) and is co-author of Reaffirming Rehabilitation (1982), Corporate Crime Under Attack: The Ford Pinto Case and Beyond (1987, 2006), Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences (1989, 1995, 2002, 2007, and 2011), Criminology (1992), Combating Corporate Crime: Local Prosecutors at Work (1998), and Unsafe in the Ivory Tower: The Sexual Victimization of College Women (2010). He also has co-edited Contemporary Criminological Theory (1994), Offender Rehabilitation: Effective Correctional Intervention (1997), Criminological Theory: Past to Present—Essential Readings (1999, 2003, 2006, 2011), Taking Stock: The Status of Criminological Theory (2006), and the Origins of American Criminology (2009). Cullen is Past President of the American Society of Criminology and of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences. Previously, he served as editor of Justice Quarterly of the Journal of Crime and Justice. He has been honored as a Fellow of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences and of the American Society of Criminology, as the Outstanding Educator by the Ohio Council of Criminal Justice Educators, with the ASC Edwin H. Sutherland Award, and with the ACJS Bruce Smith Award and Founder's Award.

      Pamela Wilcox is Professor in the School of Criminal Justice at the University of Cincinnati. She received her B.A. (1990) in sociology from Miami University (OH) and her M.A. (1992) and Ph.D. (1994) in sociology from Duke University. She has published numerous works aimed at developing and testing theories of crime, victimization, and crime prevention. For instance, she is co-author of Criminal Circumstance: A Dynamic, Multicontextual Criminal Opportunity Theory (2003). Her articles have appeared in a number of sociological, criminological, and multidisciplinary journals, including Criminology, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Journal of Quantitative Criminology, Justice Quarterly, Crime and Delinquency, Social Forces, Social Problems, Sociological Quarterly, and Violence and Victims. She has also been co-investigator on several federally funded grants aimed at collecting longitudinal and contextual data on such things as school-based offending and victimization, student fear of crime and perceptions of safety, and bar-related violence. Wilcox serves on editorial boards for the top scholarly journals in the areas of criminology and criminal justice, including Criminology, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Justice Quarterly, and Victims and Offenders. She previously served as Deputy Editor of Justice Quarterly.

      Managing Editor

      Kristin Swartz is currently a Ph.D. student in the School of Criminal Justice at the University of Cincinnati. She received her B.A. (2006) in criminal justice from Indiana University and her M.A. (2007) in criminal justice from University of Cincinnati. Her research interests include communities and crime—specifically, social disorganization theory and the implications of U.S. incarceration policies for high-crime communities. She also has co-authored work in the areas of effective correctional intervention, victimization, and fear of crime.

      Editorial Board

      Robert Agnew is Samuel Candler Dobbs Professor of Sociology at Emory University. He has published five books and approximately 80 articles on the causes of crime and delinquency, with his most recent books being Juvenile Delinquency: Causes and Control (2009), Why Do They Do It? A General Theory of Crime and Delinquency (2005), Pressured Into Crime: An Overview of General Strain Theory (2006), and Criminological Theory: Past to Present (co-edited with Francis Cullen, 2011). He is best known for his development of general strain theory, one of the leading theories of crime and delinquency. He has served as Associate Editor of Theoretical Criminology and on the editorial boards of Criminology, Social Forces, and other journals. He has been active in many professional organizations and groups dealing with crime and delinquency. Agnew is a Fellow of the American Society of Criminology.

      Mark Colvin is Professor in the Department of Justice Studies at Kent State University and a research fellow with the Institute for the Study and Prevention of Violence. He received his Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Colorado in 1985, with a concentration in criminology. His publications investigate the links between coercion, social support and crime. He has published three books: The Penitentiary in Crisis (1992), Penitentiaries, Reformatories and Chain Gangs (1997), and Crime and Coercion (2000). He has also published articles in the journals Criminology, Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, American Journal of Sociology, Crime and Delinquency, Social Problems, Sociological Quarterly, International Criminal Justice Review, and The Prison Journal. He received the Outstanding Book Award for 2002 from the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences, and was co-winner of the Outstanding Scholar Award for 2001 from the Crime and Delinquency Section of the Society for the Study of Social Problems. He regularly teaches courses in criminological theory, criminal violence, punishment and corrections, and justice institutions. He is currently involved in researching the effects of coercion and social support while in prison on the psychological well-being and recidivism of recently released prisoners. Prior to his academic career, Colvin had worked in prisons and parole departments, and was principal researcher for the New Mexico Attorney General's Office in its investigation of the 1980 New Mexico prison riot.

      David P. Farrington is Professor of Psychological Criminology at the Institute of Criminology, Cambridge University and Adjunct Professor of Psychiatry at Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh. He has received B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. degrees in psychology from Cambridge University, an honorary degree of Sc.D. from Trinity College, University of Dublin. His major research interest is in developmental criminology, and he is Director of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development and Co-Investigator of the Pittsburgh Youth Study. in addition to 490 published journal articles and book chapters on criminological and psychological topics, he has published 70 books, monographs, and government publications, one of which (Understanding and Controlling Crime, 1986) won the prize for distinguished scholarship of the American Sociological Association Criminology Section. He is also editor of Cambridge Studies in Criminology. Farrington is a Fellow of the British Academy, of the Academy of Medical Sciences, of the British Psychological Society, and of the American Society of Criminology and is an Honorary Life Member of the British Society of Criminology and of the Division of Forensic Psychology of the British Psychological Society. He has been President of the American Society of Criminology, the European Association of Psychology and Law, the British Society of Criminology, and the Academy of Experimental Criminology. He has received the American Society of Criminology's Sellin-Glueck Award and Sutherland Award, the Joan McCord Award of the Academy of Experimental Criminology, the Beccaria Gold Medal of the Criminology Society of German-Speaking Countries, the Senior Prize of the British Psychological Society Division of Forensic Psychology, the U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Outstanding Contributions Award, and the Hermann Mannheim Prize of the International Centre for Comparative Criminology.

      Jody Miller is Professor of Criminal Justice at Rutgers University. She received her Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Southern California in 1996. Specializing in feminist theory and qualitative research methods, her research focuses on gender, crime and victimization in the context of urban communities, the commercial sex industry, drug markets, and youth gangs. In addition to publishing numerous articles and book chapters, Miller is the author of One of the Guys: Girls, Gangs, and Gender (2001) and of Getting Played: African American Girls, Urban Inequality, and Gendered Violence (2008)—a finalist for the 2008 C. Wright Mills Award.

      Daniel S. Nagin is Teresa and H. John Heinz III University Professor of Public Policy and Statistics in the Heinz College, Carnegie Mellon University. Since January 2006, he has served as the College's Associate Dean of Faculty. Nagin is an elected Fellow of the American Society of Criminology and of the American Society for the Advancement of Science. He is the 2006 recipient of the American Society of Criminology's Edwin H. Sutherland Award (for research contributions) and is a 1985 recipient of the Northeastern Association of Tax Administrators Award for Excellence in Tax Administration. In 2008, he was selected to be a University Professor. His research focuses on the evolution of criminal and antisocial behaviors over the life course, the deterrent effect of criminal and non-criminal penalties on illegal behaviors, and the development of statistical methods for analyzing longitudinal data. His work has appeared in such diverse outlets as the American Economic Review, American Sociological Review, Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Journal of Sociology, Archives of General Psychiatry, Criminology, Child Development, Psychological Methodology, Law and Society Review, Crime and Justice Annual Review, Operations Research, and Stanford Law Review. He is also the author of Group-based Modeling of Development (Harvard University Press, 2005).

      Alex R. Piquero is Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice at Florida State University. He is also an Adjunct Professor at the Key Centre for Ethics, Law, Justice, and Governance at Griffith University in Australia. A past Executive Counselor with the American Society of Criminology, he is currently a member of the National Academy of Sciences Panel Evaluating the National Institute of Justice and co-editor of the Journal of Quantitative Criminology. He has published more than 175 peer-reviewed articles, has been ranked as the leading publisher in criminology/criminal justice journals between 1996–2000 and 2000–2004, and his work has been cited more than 2,000 times. His research interests include criminal careers, criminological theory, and quantitative research methods. In addition to publishing in the leading journals in criminology, psychology, sociology, and public health, he is co-author (with David P. Farrington and Alfred Blumstein) of Key Issues in Criminal Careers Research: New Analyses From the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. In addition to his membership on over a dozen editorial boards of journals in criminology and sociology, he is past recipient of the American Society of Criminology's Young Scholar and E-Mail Mentor of the Year Award, as well as of the University of Florida's College of Arts and Sciences Teacher of the Year Award.


      Robert Agnew, Emory University

      Brittnie Aiello, University of Massachusetts–Amherst

      Leanne Fiftal Alarid, University of Texas–San Antonio

      Shahid Alvi, University of Ontario Institute of Technology

      Catherine M. Arnold, University of Cincinnati

      Bruce A. Arrigo, University of North Carolina–Charlotte

      Elyshia D. Aseltine, University of Texas–Austin

      Sarah Bacon, Florida State University

      Heidi M. Baez, City University of New York–The Graduate Center

      Laura A. Baker, University of Southern California

      David E. Barlow, Fayetteville State University

      Melissa Hickman Barlow, Fayetteville State University

      Stephen W. Baron, Queen's University

      Shannon M. Barton-Bellessa, Indiana State University

      Dawn Jeglum Bartusch, Valparaiso University

      Eric P. Baumer, Florida State University

      Kevin M. Beaver, Florida State University

      Chiara Beccalossi, Centre for the History of European Discourses

      Valerie Bell, Loras College

      Michael L. Benson, University of Cincinnati

      Wim Bernasco, Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement

      Heather Y. Bersot, University of North Carolina–Charlotte

      Joel Best, University of Delaware

      Meghna Bhat, University of Illinois–Chicago

      Brenda Sims Blackwell, Georgia State University

      Randy Blazak, Portland State University

      Kristie R. Blevins, University of North Carolina–Charlotte

      Danielle Boisvert, Pennsylvania State University–Harrisburg

      Jonathan Bolen, Boise State University

      John Boman, University of Florida

      Cathy Borck, City University of New York–The Graduate Center

      Adam M. Bossler, Georgia Southern University

      Lisa Growette Bostaph, Boise State University

      Leana Bouffard, Sam Houston State University

      Anthony A. Braga, Harvard University

      Robert Brame, University of North Carolina–Charlotte

      Kathryn A. Branch, University of Tampa

      Timothy Brezina, Georgia State University

      Sarah Britto, Central Washington University

      Michael P. Brown, Ball State University

      David Brownfield, University of Toronto

      Chris Browning, Ohio State University

      Sarah Browning, North Dakota State University

      Rachel Brushett, University of Cincinnati

      Kevin G. Buckler, University of Texas–Brownsville

      Hasan Büker, Turkish National Police Academy

      Velmer S. Burton, Jr., University of Minnesota–Twin Cities

      Shawn D. Bushway, University at Albany

      Liqun Cao, University of Ontario Institute of Technology

      Andrew N. Carpenter, Ellis University

      Gray Cavender, Arizona State University

      Constance L. Chapple, University of Oklahoma

      Ted Chiricos, Florida State University

      Ji Yoon Chung, University of Pennsylvania

      John K. Cochran, University of South Florida

      Julie Kiernan Coon, Roger Williams University

      Heith Copes, University of Alabama–Birmingham

      Barbara J. Costello, University of Rhode Island

      Francis T. Cullen, University of Cincinnati

      Elliott Currie, University of California, Irvine

      Stephanie D'Auria, University of California, Riverside

      Mengyan Dai, University of Baltimore

      Douglas J. Dallier, Western Carolina University

      Scott H. Decker, Arizona State University

      Walter S. DeKeseredy, University of Ontario Institute of Technology

      Matt DeLisi, Iowa State University

      Osman Dolu, Turkish National Police Academy

      Patrick G. Donnelly, University of Dayton

      Alexander Drayer, University of Cincinnati

      Jessica R. Dunham, University of Cincinnati

      John E. Eck, University of Cincinnati

      Ronald Eckert, University at Albany

      Arlen Egley, Jr., National Youth Gang Center

      Lori Elis, Radford University

      Beth Ellefson, University of Cincinnati

      Edna Erez, University of Illinois at Chicago

      Angela N. Estes, University of Cincinnati

      Katie A. Farina, University of Delaware

      Ben Feldmeyer, University of Tennessee

      Jeff Ferrell, Texas Christian University/University of Kent

      Bonnie S. Fisher, University of Cincinnati

      Jamie L. Flexon, Florida International University

      Adrienne Freng, University of Wyoming

      David O. Friedrichs, University of Scranton

      Kevan D. Galyean, University of Cincinnati

      Natasha M. Ganem, Savannah College of Art & Design

      Shaun M. Gann, University of Arkansas–Little Rock

      Yu Gao, University of Pennsylvania

      Jacinta M. Gau, California State University, San Bernardino

      Krista S. Gehring, University of Houston–Downtown

      Gilbert Geis, University of California, Irvine

      Saran Ghatak, Keene State College

      Brooke Miller Gialopsos, University of Cincinnati

      Chris L. Gibson, University of Florida

      Wayne Gillespie, East Tennessee State University

      Colin H. Goff, University of Winnipeg

      Jesse Goldstein, City University of New York

      Wendi Elizabeth Goodlin, University of Southern Mississippi

      Jennifer Gossett, Indiana University of Pennsylvania

      Richard G. Greenleaf, Elmhurst College

      Elizabeth Griffiths, Emory University

      Paul Groarke, St. Thomas University

      Elizabeth R. Groff, Temple University

      Brittany L. Groot, University of Cincinnati

      Gisli H. Gudjonsson, Institute of Psychiatry–London

      Elaine Gunnison, Seattle University

      Liena Gurevich, Hofstra University

      John M. Hagedorn, University of Illinois–Chicago

      Mark S. Hamm, Indiana State University

      Jared M. Hanneman, City University of New York–The Graduate Center

      Robert D. Hanser, University of Louisiana–Monroe

      Erin Harbinson, University of Cincinnati

      Nathan Harris, Australian National University

      Jennifer L. Hartman, University of North Carolina–Charlotte

      Justin A. Heinonen, University of Cincinnati

      April Dawn Henning, City University of New York–The Graduate Center

      Billy Henson, University of Cincinnati

      John D. Hewitt, Grand Valley State University

      John R. Hipp, University of California, Irvine

      Andy Hochstetler, Iowa State University

      Michael J. Hogan, Colorado State University

      Nancy Lynne Hogan, Ferris State University

      Yu-Hsu (Gail) Hsiao, American University

      Dana J. Hubbard, Cleveland State University

      Kirsten Hutzell, Villanova University

      Sung Joon Jang, Baylor University

      G. Roger Jarjoura, Indiana University, Indianapolis

      Kate Jenkins, City University of New York–The Graduate Center

      Wesley G. Jennings, University of Louisville

      Shayne Jones, University of South Florida

      Cheryl Lero Jonson, Northern Kentucky University

      Fiona M. Kay, Queen's University

      Kimberly Kempf-Leonard, Southern Illinois University

      Stephanie L. Kent, Cleveland State University

      Patrick Timothy Kinkade, Texas Christian University

      David S. Kirk, University of Texas–Austin

      Lloyd Klein, City University of New York–Kingsborough Community College

      Spyridon Kodellas, University of Cincinnati

      Mark Konty, Eastern Kentucky University

      Ronald C. Kramer, Western Michigan University

      Charis E. Kubrin, George Washington University

      Tasha Kunzi, Arizona State University

      Steven P. Lab, Bowling Green State University

      Randy LaGrange, University of North Carolina–Wilmington

      Karen F. Lahm, Wright State University

      Jodi Lane, University of Florida

      Matthew R. Lee, Louisiana State University

      Michael Levi, Cardiff University

      J. Robert Lilly, Northern Kentucky University

      Travis W. Linnemann, Kansas State University

      Shelley Johnson Listwan, University of North Carolina–Charlotte

      Laura S. Logan, Kansas State University

      Lori Brusman Lovins, University of Cincinnati

      Jennifer L. Lux, University of Cincinnati

      Michael J. Lynch, University of South Florida

      Jeff Maahs, University of Minnesota–Duluth

      Sean Maddan, University of Tampa

      Tamara D. Madensen, University of Nevada, Las Vegas

      Matthew D. Makarios, University of Wisconsin–Parkside

      Aili E. Malm, California State University, Long Beach

      Ineke Haen Marshall, Northeastern University

      Leslie A. Martino-Velez, City University of New York–The Graduate Center

      Shadd Maruna, Queen's University Belfast

      Amanda Matravers, American University

      Kristy N. Matsuda, University of Missouri–St. Louis

      Ross L. Matsueda, University of Washington

      Michael O. Maume, University of North Carolina–Wilmington

      David C. May, Eastern Kentucky University

      Jill A. McCorkel, Villanova University

      Arthur Evan McLuhan, University of Waterloo

      Benjamin Meade, University of South Carolina

      Steven F. Messner, University at Albany

      Doug Meyer, City University of New York–The Graduate Center

      Elizabeth A. Miller, City University of New York–The Graduate Center

      J. Mitchell Miller, University of Texas–San Antonio

      Jody Miller, Rutgers University

      Stacy C. Moak, University of Arkansas–Little Rock

      Melissa M. Moon, Northern Kentucky University

      Kristan A. Moore, University of Cincinnati

      Christopher W. Mullins, Southern Illinois University

      Elizabeth Ehrhardt Mustaine, University of Central Florida

      Andrew J. Myer, Viterbo University

      Daniel S. Nagin, Carnegie Mellon University

      Mirlinda Ndrecka, University of Cincinnati

      Greg Newbold, University of Canterbury

      Fawn T. Ngo, University of South Florida, Sarasota

      D. Wayne Osgood, Pennsylvania State University

      Graham C. Ousey, College of William & Mary

      Wilson R. Palacios, University of South Florida

      Paul-Philippe Pare, University of Western Ontario

      Nikos Passas, Northeastern Unviersity

      Raymond Paternoster, University of Maryland

      Francesca Patuelli, University of Bologna

      Allison Ann Payne, Villanova University

      Troy Payne, University of Alaska–Anchorage

      Melissa Peskin, University of Pennsylvania

      Michael Patrick Phelan, Pikeville College

      Justin Pickett, Florida State University

      Alex R. Piquero, Florida State University

      Nicole Leeper Piquero, Florida State University

      William C. Plouffe, Jr., Kutztown University

      Greg Pogarsky, University at Albany

      Henry N. Pontell, University of California, Irvine

      Travis C. Pratt, Arizona State University

      William Alex Pridemore, Indiana University

      David C. Pyrooz, Arizona State University

      Neil Quisenberry, McKendree University

      Adrian Raine, University of Pennsylvania

      Ryan Randa, Northern Colorado University

      Christine E. Rasche, University of North Florida

      Cesar J. Rebellon, University of New Hampshire

      Robert M. Regoli, University of Colorado

      Jennifer Reingle, University of Florida

      Bradford W. Reyns, Southern Utah University

      Stephen C. Richards, University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh

      Michael J. Rosenberg, University of Cincinnati

      Jeffrey Ian Ross, University of Baltimore

      Aaron Roussell, University of California, Irvine

      Emily J. Salisbury, Portland State University

      Beth A. Sanders, Texas State University

      Shannon A. Santana, University of North Carolina–Wilmington

      Robert A. Sarver III, University of South Carolina Upstate

      Heidi Scherer, University of Cincinnati

      Kip Schlegel, Indiana University

      Rebecca Schnupp, Slippery Rock University

      Robert A. Schug, University of Southern California

      Jennifer Schwartz, Washington State University

      Christine S. Sellers, University of South Florida

      Neal Shover, University of Tennessee

      Simon I. Singer, Northeastern University

      James W. Skinner, City University of New York

      Karen A. Snedker, Seattle Pacific University

      Jeffrey Brian Snipes, San Francisco State University

      Jamie A. Snyder, University of Cincinnati

      William H. Sousa, University of Nevada, Las Vegas

      Georgia V. Spiropoulos, California State University, Fullerton

      Steven Stack, Wayne State University

      William A. Stadler, University of Missouri–Kansas City

      Mark C. Stafford, Texas State University

      Darrell Steffensmeier, Pennsylvania State University

      Benjamin Steiner, University of South Carolina

      Amy Stichman, North Dakota State University

      Paul B. Stretesky, University of Colorado–Denver

      Christopher J. Sullivan, University of Cincinnati

      Jody L. Sundt, Portland State University

      Kristin Swartz, University of Cincinnati

      William Sweet, St. Francis Xavier University

      Gary Sweeten, Arizona State University

      Jennifer Tanner, University of Cincinnati

      Ralph B. Taylor, Temple University

      Terrance J. Taylor, University of Missouri–St. Louis

      Richard A. Tewksbury, University of Louisville

      Amy B. Thistlethwaite, Northern Kentucky University

      Bobbie Ticknor, University of Cincinnati

      Sherry Tillinghast, University of Cincinnati

      Marie Skubak Tillyer, University of Texas–San Antonio

      Rob Tillyer, University of Texas–San Antonio

      Taylor Trimboli, University of Cincinnati

      Catherine Tuvblad, University of Southern California

      Jeffrey Ulmer, Pennsylvania State University

      James D. Unnever, University of South Florida, Sarasota

      Taryn N. Valpey, University of Cincinnati

      Alana Van Gundy-Yoder, Miami University

      Patricia Van Voorhis, University of Cincinnati

      Jamie Vaske, Western Carolina University

      Michael G. Vaughn, Saint Louis University

      Brenda Vose, University of North Florida

      Anthony Walsh, Boise State University

      Barbara D. Warner, Georgia State University

      Mark Warr, University of Texas–Austin

      Adam M. Watkins, Bowling Green State University

      Kelly Welch, Villanova University

      Edward L. Wells, Illinois State University

      Donald West, Cambridge University

      Richard F. Wetzell, German Historical Institute

      Michele L. Whitehead, University of Texas–Arlington

      Per-Olof H. Wikström, Cambridge University

      Susan Will, John Jay College of Criminal Justice

      Kirk Williams, University of California, Riverside

      Steve Wilson, University of Texas–Brownsville

      L. Thomas Winfree, Jr., New Mexico State University

      John Wooldredge, University of Cincinnati

      John F. Wozniak, Western Illinois University

      Kevin H. Wozniak, American University

      Bradley R. E. Wright, University of Connecticut

      Emily M. Wright, University of South Carolina

      Yaling Yang, University of California, Los Angeles

      Georgia Zara, University of Turin

      Gregory M. Zimmerman, University at Albany


      What causes crime? This seemingly simple question is dauntingly complex and, not surprisingly, has yielded answers so diverse and numerous as to fill two volumes of the Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory. The richness in the attempts to explain the origins of crime is, to a large extent, a direct function of the intricate nature of human beings. Human conduct reflects the components of who we are—our bodies, our minds, and our social worlds. Unraveling each of these domains—the biology, psychology, and sociology of crime—reveals a myriad of potential sources of criminality. Discerning which factors are more or less important and then detailing how they interact with one another requires much research and creative thought.

      But even more complexity than this is involved in the quest to illuminate crime's causes. Thus, we must trace how criminality might vary over the life course, and how factors at one stage in life affect behavior at a later stage. We must be aware that the circumstances that may predispose a person to offend do not determine if the individual will commit a crime in any particular situation; understanding the background of crime is not the same as understanding its foreground. We now also know that crime not merely is an offender's choice but is affected by how potential victims behave—whether they unwittingly make themselves attractive targets or take precautions that eliminate perpetrators’ opportunities to victimize them. We must comprehend further the effects on unlawful behavior of the criminal justice system we have constructed—one that, on any given day, locks up about 2.4 million Americans or 1 in 100 of us. And there is the matter of levels of analysis. Explaining why some but not other individuals engage in criminal conduct is not the same as explaining why some but not other areas—whether neighborhoods or nations—have higher or lower crime rates.

      The complexity of the solutions proposed for the crime-causation puzzle is complicated still further by two considerations. First, similar to other social science disciplines, criminology has divided itself into “schools of thought.” But theorizing about crime is dynamic, not static. Thus, within these schools, classic works defining the theoretical tradition initially appear and establish a new way of thinking about crime. This is not the end of the story, however. After a period of time, subsequent writings are forthcoming that elaborate different features of the classic statement. These latter contributions may be diverse and then may themselves be elucidated—adding even more theoretical complexity. An understanding of theoretical criminology thus involves tracing the development of schools of thought, in all their twists and turns, from past to present.

      Second, how we think about crime is shaped not only by science or “what the data say” but also by our social experiences. Depending on the era in which we live and what we have experienced during that era, different ideas will or will not resonate with us—that is, they will strike us sensible or as “obviously wrong.” This insight—that social circumstances influence the production and acceptance of scholarly ideas—is the central thesis of the sociology of science. At any given time, therefore, the theories that are created and embraced may be due not only to the inherent logic of science but also to the social and political beliefs that scholars import into their work.

      Theoretical complexity is thus an inevitable feature of criminology, which is a very human enterprise in the sense that we are endeavoring to unlock the mysteries of our own behavior. The phenomenon of crime is intricate, ideas must be created and be elaborated over time, and those who study crime are themselves affected by their own humanness. Rather than decry this intractable fact, we should celebrate it. The wonder of criminology is that we have compiled rich answers to the crime-causation question. Some of these theoretical solutions have been foolish, if not dangerous; others have proven likely true; and still others await definitive evaluation. In any event, there is much to learn and, for those enticed by theoretical challenges, the opportunity exists to join in the search for the causes of crime.

      In this context, the Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory fills a pressing need in the field of criminology to compile, under the cover of one book (albeit two volumes), a comprehensive compendium of theories of crime. Our project has a historical focus, hoping to preserve insights on crime's origins that, as time progresses, are becoming increasingly distant and might be easily forgotten. Many of these perspectives might strike us today as biased and unsophisticated, but they were often products of the best minds of a past era. Some had real-world consequences in that they influenced crime control policy; many provided a basis for later ideas to come. Our project also has a contemporary focus. It reviews the latest thinking about crime found in today's diverse theoretical schools.

      This introduction serves two purposes. Our first task is to provide guidance on how best to use the Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory. We turn to this next. Our second task, which we take up later, is to provide a brief overview of the development of criminological theory. Here, we engage in story telling, alerting curious readers to the key theoretical turning points in the history of the discipline. This story hopefully provides a context for understanding the place of any given theorist that engages a reader's interest.

      How to Use the Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory

      Similar to others in its genre, this Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory is arranged from A to Z. Accordingly, the simplest advice on how to use this book is to consult the List of Entries, find the topic of interest, and then turn to the page where the entry on this topic begins. In short, one only has to “look it up.”

      This approach will be effective for readers who come to the Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory on a mission to find information on single topic. But this encyclopedia is arranged to do more than this. It not only is a conduit for deepening specific knowledge on a given topic but also can be a textbook that provides a comprehensive overview of theoretical criminology. In this regard, three features of the Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory can direct a reader's effort to achieve a grounding in theories of crime.

      First, beyond the List of Entries, there is a second table of contents, which is called the Reader's Guide. The guide divides the entries into schools of criminological thought—21 in all. These schools are theoretical traditions whose members are tied together by a shared fundamental view of the origins of crime. That said, theorists within any given school often differ from one another in specifics and, at times, in ways that boil up to the point of a family feud. In any event, readers will be able to grasp the diversity of criminological theorizing by reviewing the Reader's Guide. Those who choose to read entries “school by school” will be rewarded with a systematic understanding of how views about crime differ both across and within theoretical traditions. Indeed, taking this journey will result in a wealth of knowledge that few within the field of criminology now possess.

      Second, we have developed a Criminological Time Line that presents the Top 25 Theoretical Contributions across the history of criminology. This time line is a way to understand the evolution of criminological theory. It seeks to accomplish this goal by highlighting 25 of the most significant contributions in the discipline. Of course, any effort to reduce a field to a small pool of works involves leaving much of value off the list. Still, this time line sensitizes readers to contributions that have had an inordinate impact on the discipline, often serving as turning points in scholars’ views on why crime occurs. For readers, it furnishes a strategy for reading a subset of the encyclopedia's entries with the promise of gaining a special understanding of criminology's development. In and of itself, the time line is like a pocketbook guide that can be consulted to know who major theorists are and the key theoretical insights they made.

      Third, in the remainder of this Introduction, we supply an overview of the development of criminological theory. This overview is brief and, given the diversity of theorizing, necessarily selective. Its main purpose is to show historical sequence in schools of thought. In particular, an effort is made to link shifts in ways of theorizing to shifts in society. As noted, criminologists are social creatures. Our understandings of the world are shaped not only by our minds and commitment to science but also by what we have personally and vicariously experienced. For example, if we have been exposed to the intricacies of living in an urban neighborhood wracked by poverty, disorganization, and firearm violence, there is the potential that we will be more receptive to theories of crime that emphasize social causation as opposed to individual pathology. In all, this brief history to follow is divided into five parts that bring readers on a journey that spans the origins of criminological theory to the fresh insights of contemporary scholars.

      The Development of Criminological Theory

      As noted, this encyclopedia is arranged A to Z. This format marks virtually all encyclopedias not simply because of an adherence to tradition but also because this arrangement provides the easiest way for readers to find entries. But if there is a disadvantage to the format, it is that criminological theory did not develop in alphabetical order! Understanding the field's evolution thus cannot be grasped from studying the List of Entries. Rather, it is essential to learn about the story of how criminology has moved from past to present. It is to this story that we now turn.

      The Origins of Criminology

      Criminology—the study of crime—emerged largely as a by-product of the Enlightenment, an era that celebrated the use of reason to understand human affairs and to direct public policy. Two great traditions, one arising in the 1700s and one arising in the 1800s, established the foundation of modern criminology. These were the Classical School and the Positivist School.

      Cesare Beccaria is credited with the founding of the Classical School. In 1764, when just 26 years of age, Beccaria published On Crimes and Punishments. This short tract, authored by this scholar from Milan, would have profound effects, sending reverberations across Europe and beyond. Beccaria's focus was on legal reform. The criminal justice system of his day was wracked by injustice and inhumanity. Common practices included torture and coerced confessions, unfettered judicial discretion, favoritism in sentencing, and wildly cruel sanctions such as amputation, branding, whipping, and capital punishment for minor offenses. In opposition, Beccaria argued for criminal offenses and their penalties to be inscribed in the law, for equal justice, and for sanctions to be only severe enough to achieve deterrence.

      We take the rule of law for granted today, but this was not the case in the 1700s. In fact, Beccaria initially published On Crimes and Punishments anonymously because he feared retribution. He was challenging the power of monarchs and princes to use the criminal law without interference and as a means to protect their advantage. His reform also comprised an implicit critique of the church's authority. For underlying the Classical School's legal theory was the view that crime was, in essence, a rational choice governed by pains and pleasures. The law thus could be calibrated to serve as a rational tool to achieve deterrence; legal punishments simply had to be harsh and certain enough to outweigh the reward a crime might bring. The death penalty was seen as unnecessary in most instances, because it over-punished the offense—it imposed pains unneeded to deter the act and hence was unjust. These ideas called into question the church's view that crime and sin were synonymous. It suggested that the control of crime was a secular rather than a sacred matter that would best be handled by fashioning a rational legal system.

      The Classical School would be advanced further by Jeremy Bentham, the English utilitarian philosopher who passed away in 1848. Similar to Beccaria, he voiced the view that human choice was regulated by pains and pleasures, and that laws achieved most utility when they were just harsh enough to deter wrongdoing. Again, his system embraced the Enlightenment in rejecting religious views of crime and in arguing for the rational administration of criminal justice.

      The Classical School, however, had a fatal flaw. Its proponents were moral philosophers or legal theorists who were, as has been said, “armchair criminologists.” They focused on crime and its punishment—again, often in profound ways—but at the expense of having contact with and developing detailed knowledge of criminals. The Classical School, in fact, implicitly assumed that all humans made decisions the same way: self-interest based on the pursuit of pleasure and the avoidance of pain. Thus, how individuals differed from one another was irrelevant to the choice of crime. Holding this view, there was no compelling impetus for studying offenders. The Positivist School rejected this perspective.

      The Positivist School also was a child of the Enlightenment in the sense that it, too, trumpeted the secular over the sacred and the use of reason to understand crime and to guide its control. Unlike the Classical School, however, this perspective argued that the key to unlocking the mystery of crime was scientific study that would generate “positive” or empirical facts about offenders. The organizing premise was that those who commit crimes differ from those who do not—and that it is these individual differences that cause criminal conduct. Early positivists thus did not sit in armchairs philosophizing about crime but examined, probed, measured, drew diagrams of, photographed, and autopsied thousands of criminals in hopes of discovering “why they did it.”

      Cesare Lombroso is viewed as the founder of the Positivist School. Lombroso was a physician who eventually joined the faculty of the University of Turin, where he established the study of “criminal anthropology.” As an army physician in 1864, he first observed that wayward soldiers’ bodies were marked by tattoos. Subsequently, as he conducted the post-mortem examination of Vilella, a famous Italian brigand, he noticed an indentation on the base of the skull. In what he called a “revelation,” Lombroso suddenly made the connection that this trait also was found in lesser creatures. In turn, this led to the thesis that offenders were “atavistic reversions” or throwbacks to an earlier evolutionary stage—much like a savage, an ape, or an inferior animal. If this were true, then he reasoned that offenders would have bodily stigmata or characteristics that differed from non-criminals. Thus, he went about the task of comparing thousands of criminals with conventional members of society. He would publish his findings in 1876 in Criminal Man, a book he would revise multiple times before his death in 1909.

      Lombroso's most controversial claim, which he tempered as the years passed, was that most offenders were “born criminals”—a phrase, we might add, that was coined by Enrico Ferri, his student. Influenced by evolutionary thought (Darwin's writings preceded his), Lombroso was persuaded that criminals were akin to lesser species—more degenerate and not as civilized as “normal” societal members. In the long run, however, his particular claims were less important than how he shaped the future study of crime. As Rafter points out in The Criminal Brain, Lombroso's enduring legacy was in effecting a “paradigm shift.” in particular, he made two critical contributions. First, he advanced the idea that individual differences separated criminals from non-criminals. Again, this rejected the Classical School's assumption that human nature varied little across people. Second, by presenting scientific evidence, he challenged others to produce data that would prove his theory wrong.

      In the century to follow, criminology would eventually reject Lombroso's theory but, more significantly, would come to embrace his scientific or positivist paradigm. Scholars would embark on a search for the “criminal man” (and eventually woman) in which the Holy Grail would be finding which factors were most influential in distinguishing offenders from conformists. Importantly, the wealth of criminological theories that would follow comprised efforts to illuminate these causal factors.

      Transition to Modernity

      In the aftermath of the Civil War, the United States was marked by major transformations—migration and immigration, urbanization, industrialization, and westward expansion. The end result would be the nation's emergence as a world power. But in the process, America would face new and enormous social problems. In an era of increasingly rapid change, the question emerged as to how order would be possible as the United States made this transition to modernity.

      Scholars in or associated with the new sociology department at the University of Chicago took up this issue. These scholars were predominantly raised in small Midwestern farming communities. They found in the city of Chicago sources of both endless fascination and disquieting manifestations of social pain. The city had only 4,100 residents at its incorporation in 1833. By 1890, this figure had risen to over 1 million, which then rapidly doubled to 2 million by 1910. The urban core was beset by the influx of diverse immigrant groups, crowded into tenements in impoverished areas. The title and content of Upton Sinclair's The Jungle captured the nature of this social environment.

      Scholars studied diverse features of urban life, including crime and delinquency that led to the Chicago School of Criminology. The most influential contribution was made by Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay. As with other members of the Chicago School, they came to the city from rural communities. Importantly, they saw urban neighborhoods not as mere receptacles for society's biologically deficient and dangerous citizens but as producers of crime. Indeed, they witnessed social conditions that, in comparison with the towns in which they were raised, were marked by “social disorganization.” The press of racial and ethnic heterogeneity, population transience, and poverty undermined these neighborhoods’ social integration and social institutions. Two criminogenic conditions were the result.

      First, Shaw and McKay believed that the inner city, which they called the “zone in transition,” experienced social disorganization or a breakdown in social institutions (e.g., broken families). As a result, neighborhoods in this area were unable to achieve common goals, such as preventing crime. In more concrete terms, the residents were unable to exercise informal social control over delinquent youths and other wayward populations. Second, as time passed, criminal influences in disorganized communities gained strength (e.g., delinquent gangs, vice activities, criminal markets). Criminal values or traditions emerged that rivaled conventional culture. These traditions were transmitted from one generation to the next.

      Thus, Shaw and McKay believed that crime was high in disorganized neighborhoods because of the lack of control and the presence of criminal values. In the years ahead, these two insights would divide into two separate lines of theoretical inquiry, becoming, in fact, bitter rivals. One perspective, social control theory, would receive its most compelling statement by Travis Hirschi who, in 1969, published Causes of Delinquency. In this classic book, Hirschi presented his social bond theory. He offered the simple but powerful argument that youths that lacked ties or bonds to conventional society were most likely to be delinquent. Alternatively, conventional bonds “controlled” the natural desire to want to satisfy gratification easily and immediately, such as by stealing or becoming inebriated. Thus, youths who were attached to their parents, committed to school, involved in social activities, and believed in the moral legitimacy of the law were too invested emotionally, cognitively, and behaviorally to risk being delinquent.

      The second perspective, differential association theory, was advanced by Edwin H. Sutherland, a member of the early Chicago School. He built on two of Shaw and McKay's ideas: (1) that two cultures—criminal and conventional—existed in inner-city areas, and (2) that criminal values are transmitted or learned in these areas. Rejecting the theorizing of Lombroso and others who linked crime to biology or individual pathology, Sutherland argued that criminal conduct is learned—just as any other conduct is learned—through social interaction. Given that two cultures exist, it is possible to learn one more than the other. Sutherland called this the “principle of differential association.” Thus, the key determinate of crime is when an individual comes into contact with more definitions favorable than unfavorable to law violation. Later, Ronald Akers would elaborate Sutherland's perspective with his social learning theory. Notably, although friends, Akers and Hirschi would wage a theoretical battle for more than three decades regarding the relative merits of social learning theory versus social control theory.

      Beyond the Chicago School and its theoretical descendants, one other perspective dominated thinking in the first two-thirds of the twentieth century: anomie/strain theory. In 1938, Robert K. Merton published “Social Structure and Anomie,” an essay that, despite being merely 10 pages long, would become one of the most cited works in sociology and criminology. Ironically, although being raised in a Philadelphia slum, Merton did not find his childhood surroundings to be excessively criminogenic. Rather, when he came to formulate his explanation of crime and deviance, he looked beyond neighborhood boundaries to probe what was uniquely problematic about America.

      In his view, the United States suffered from an inherent contradiction. The American Dream served as a cultural mandate that instructed everyone to pursue the goal of material success. An inherent contradiction arose, however, because the class structure provided differential opportunity to achieve success goals. In short, the cultural goal to seek success—to seek upward mobility—was universal but the means to achieve this goal were limited only to some. Merton asserted that this disjunction or gap between what Americans were taught to desire and what they could actually attain was criminogenic for two reasons. First, it strained the cultural norms that people were expected to follow in seeking success (e.g., hard work, obtain an education). This condition of normative erosion was called “anomie.” In turn, as the norms regulating conduct weakened, people were free to use the technically most efficient means—including criminal means—to achieve success. Second, the disjunction made many individuals feel strain if they personally were thrown back in their attempt to grasp the American Dream. When one's hopes were dashed in the legitimate opportunity structure, innovation was possible. One could attempt to relieve strain by seeking success through criminal means.

      Notably, Albert Cohen, in his book Delinquent Boys in 1955, and Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin, in their book Delinquency and Opportunity in 1960, applied Merton's ideas to the study of youth gangs and their subcultural values. Although their theories differed somewhat, these authors argued that the frustrations experienced by lower-class urban males had serious consequences. Cut off from conventional avenues of success at school and in the workplace, these youths adapted by creating gangs and embracing antisocial subcultural values. In providing this insight, Cohen and Cloward and Ohlin helped to integrate Merton's theory with the Chicago School. In essence, they maintained that anomie/strain theory explained why delinquent subcultures emerged and that the Chicago School explained why contact with these criminal traditions led youths into crime.

      America in Crisis

      As the United States turned into the 1970s, three schools of thought thus dominated criminology: control theory, differential association theory, and anomie/strain theory. This theoretical trinity was said to comprise “mainstream” criminology. The perspectives earned this label for two reasons. First, as stated, they were the major theories of crime that all scholars knew well and that most empirical work addressed. Second, they were, at most, only mildly critical of the existing social order in America. They pointed to conditions in society that could be altered to reduce crime, but they did not argue that the United States was marked by intolerable injustices in need of radical reform. There was no call, in short, to take to the streets so as to change “the system.”

      The events of the late 1960s and early 1970s, however, created a social context conducive to more radical or critical thinking about crime, sometimes called the “new criminologies.” At the beginning of the 1960s, the nation was hopeful, as President Kennedy promised a “new frontier” and President Johnson promised a “great society.” But these hopes ran aground on the shores of harsh realities. In the intervening decade or so, John and Bobby Kennedy and Martin Luther King were assassinated. Civil rights marchers were attacked by thugs and by police dogs, and riots left inner-city neighborhoods ablaze and in ruins. Protests abounded, as the Civil Rights movement spawned the Women's Movement. Anti-business attitudes led to campaigns for greater protections for consumers against unsafe products and for the public against environmental toxins. Most significant, the intractable Vietnam War, which was taking a mounting toll in soldiers’ blood and in the public's treasury, spawned massive protests. The shooting of student protesters at Kent State University galvanized anti-war sentiments. Watergate was the straw that broke the camel's back, resulting in skepticism toward the government. Seymour Martin Lipset and William Schneider showed that taken together, these events led to a “confidence gap,” as the public's trust in those in power—from the state to big business—plummeted.

      In this context—with America in crisis—many scholars were prepared to think differently about their world, including about crime. Suddenly, mainstream theories struck many scholars as tepid. These perspectives seemed to ignore what contemporary events showed were integral features of social life: corrupt state power and entrenched inequality. Three important schools of criminology thus flourished in this period, each of which highlighted a potential cause of crime omitted by mainstream approaches.

      First, labeling theory questioned whether arresting and stigmatizing offenders made them less criminal. This was the position of deterrence theory, which asserted that harsh and certain punishment scared offenders straight. Instead, labeling theory proposed that treating offenders as though they were “criminals” had the unanticipated consequence of stabilizing their lawlessness. Thus, attaching criminal labels to people prompted them to develop a criminal identity. Legal interventions, especially imprisonment, caused beginning offenders to associate with serious criminals and to be cut off from conventional society (e.g., loss of jobs and family relations). As a result, offenders became increasingly trapped in criminal roles that led them deeper into crime. They became “career criminals.”

      This theory was popular because it resonated with the public's growing mistrust in the state. In its view, through its most powerful instrument—the criminal justice system—the government was not making society safer but exacerbating the problem. Most disquieting, the use of state power to disproportionately arrest and imprison minorities meant that labeling effects were felt most profoundly in impoverished neighborhoods.

      Second, critical or radical theory blamed capitalism, especially the extreme form found in the United States, for high crime rates—a thesis that made sense to many scholars radicalized by the sixties. This approach argued that capitalist America exposed its less fortunate citizens to what Jonathan Kozol has called “savage inequalities.” These conditions were the root causes of street crime. For those at the top of the class structure, opportunities to break the law were ubiquitous. Political corruption, corporate illegality, and other types of white-collar lawlessness robbed the public of enormous sums of money and, unbeknownst to most citizens, also injured, sickened, and killed them (e.g., unsafe products, hazardous work conditions, dumping of pollutants into the environment). But these upper-world offenders, observed radical theorists, were insulated against prosecution because they controlled which harms in society were criminalized. In capitalist America, as Jeffrey Reiman commented, “the rich get richer and the poor get prison.”

      Third, feminist theory critiqued mainstream criminology for formulating theories written by men about men. As the Women's Movement gained force, scholars argued that ignoring women, as offenders and as victims, was inexcusable. Influential theorists such as Freda Adler and Rita Simon proposed that the growing social and economic gender equality in American society would create growing gender equality in crime. Other scholars suggested that the cause of female criminality was their exclusion from, and thus marginalization within, the economy. Still others argued that female criminality might have gender-specific origins, including the sexual abuse of girls that might cause psychological damage and/or drive them into the streets as runaways. Feminist criminologists also called attention to the special ways in which women were victimized, blaming it on the persistence of patriarchal values. Thus, they demanded that the criminal justice system no longer ignore women's rape, sexual abuse, and victimization by domestic violence.

      Again, these lines of inquiry reflected the social times in that each offered a critique of American society. Thus, labeling theory questioned the justice and effectiveness of the state's use of power through its criminal justice system; radical theory questioned the capitalist system and the way it unfairly impoverished the poor and allowed the advantaged to enrich themselves in shady ways and with impunity from prosecution; and feminist theory questioned the legitimacy of a patriarchal system that treated women as second-class citizens, showed little interest in the sources of their criminality, and ignored their victimization at the hands of male assailants. However, a fourth innovative perspective arose that was not tied directly to the prevailing crisis in American society: routine activity theory. This approach, however, also contended that mainstream criminology was limited and had omitted an important factor in the explanation of crime.

      In 1979, routine activity theory was formulated by Lawrence Cohen and Marcus Felson. They noted that mainstream criminology placed a near-exclusive focus on what motivated some people but not others to break the law. An actual criminal act, however, did not simply involve the presence of a motivated offender. For this act to occur, the offender had to have access to the opportunity to undertake the behavior in question. Cohen and Felson then made a significant advance in elucidating the concept of opportunity. They divided this construct into two components: (1) the presence of suitable or attractive targets (e.g., a television set to steal, a person to rob), and (2) the absence of capable guardianship (e.g., a burglar alarm, friends escorting one home). They proposed that a criminal act thus ensues only when a motivated offender intersects in time and space with an attractive target that lacks capable guardianship.

      Cohen and Felson's perspective had two important implications—one theoretical and one practical. Theoretically, their work suggested that increases in crime rates were not always due to deteriorating circumstances (e.g., rise in unemployment or in neighborhood social disorganization). Thus, growing affluence could create more goods under less monitoring to steal (e.g., in department stores). Equal rights for women could result in more burglary (due to fewer women at home during the day guarding their residences) and in more rape (due to more women alone in public spaces, such as traveling home from work in evening hours). In short, crime was tied not simply to bad social conditions that might produce motivated offenders but to good social conditions that affected daily routine activity or lifestyles that, in turn, increased opportunities to victimize.

      Practically, Cohen and Felson's focus on opportunity as a key ingredient for crime held profound implications for reducing crime. Thus, beyond trying to lower people's motivation to commit crime—whether through rehabilitation programs or tougher laws aimed at deterrence—public safety could be enhanced by limiting opportunities to offend. This would be accomplished by making targets less attractive or by increasing guardianship. Consistent with this thinking, Ronald Clarke developed his theory of situational crime prevention. Clarke argued that the most effective way to prevent victimization was not to focus on crime's root causes but on situational factors that might be manipulated so as to make offending more difficult (e.g., placing locks on doors, requiring exact fares on bus rides so drivers handled no money, placing tags on merchandise that set off an alarm if taken outside a store). Notably, in the ensuing years, but especially since the inception of the current century, opportunity theories and opportunity reduction have become important ways of explaining and preventing criminal behavior.

      Revitalizing Older Theories

      The last two decades of the 20th century proved to be fertile soil for the criminological imagination in the United States. Many of these fresh theories, however, proved to be old wines in new bottles. A number of scholars returned to traditional theories. They saw in these older approaches key insights that illuminated crime. However, they also argued that these approaches were limited and needed to be updated and elaborated. In short, they called for a revitalization of these older theoretical paradigms. Four developments are worthy of special mention. These theoretical works are significant because they were widely read and generated a host of empirical studies. Indeed they have shaped criminology in fundamental ways.

      First, scholars returned to the Chicago School and to Shaw and McKay's social disorganization theory. A number of community-level theories were proposed. The most influential was collective efficacy theory advanced by Robert Sampson and colleagues. Consistent with Shaw and McKay, Sampson et al. argued that structural characteristics, especially concentrated disadvantage, determined a neighborhood's organization and thus crime rate. Collective efficacy theory, however, differed in two ways from social disorganization theory. On one hand, this newer perspective linked levels of crime to the presence (efficacy) rather than to the absence (disorganization) of a neighborhood condition. On the other hand, it focused on a factor that was active rather than passive. For Shaw and McKay, social disorganization was an entrenched or static feature of certain communities. For Sampson and colleagues, however, collective efficacy was a dynamic resource that could be mobilized to solve problems. In particular, when neighbors trusted one another and were willing to exercise informal social control, they could bind together to address issues that might prove criminogenic (e.g., stop unruly youths from hanging out on a street corner, shut down a “crack house” serving as a drug marketplace). By contrast, communities in which residents were mistrustful and not socially integrated lacked the socio-political “efficacy” to fight crime when the need arose.

      Second, Merton's anomie/strain theory inspired two prominent theories. Thus, in Crime in the American Dream published in 1994, Steven Messner and Richard Rosenfeld developed institutional-anomie theory. They extended Merton's original anomie theory, which had focused only on the interaction between the American Dream's prescription for everyone to pursue economic success and the class structure's restriction on upward mobility. They argued that beyond social class, the American Dream's overemphasis on economic goals also frayed the ability of other social institutions to exercise social control. For example, families often were less effective in socializing and supervising children because parents worked long hours, including on weekends, and moved around the country so as to achieve material success. Similarly, students entered colleges not for intellectual growth and to refine their moral sensibilities but to acquire skills and credentials that would “get them a job.”

      At virtually the same time (1992), Robert Agnew presented a second elaboration of Merton's paradigm through his general strain theory. He argued that Merton had elucidated one important source of strain—blockage from desired goals—but that other criminogenic strains existed. In addition, individuals might have desired stimuli removed from them (e.g., loss of a job or intimate relationship) or have noxious stimuli forced on them (e.g., victimization, life in a dangerous and physically unpleasant neighborhood). Agnew also identified factors that made a criminal response to strain more likely (e.g., weak controls, antisocial peers) or less likely (e.g., people to give a person social support, intelligence). He called these “conditioning variables.”

      Third, there has been a renewed interest in what we refer to as theories of the criminal sanction. In the half century following 1920, America's incarceration rate had remained largely stable. In fact, in the early 1970s, the state and federal prison population was under 200,000. Suddenly, the number of offenders behind bars jumped upward, escalating sevenfold in the next four decades. In this context of unprecedented punitiveness, it is understandable why interest grew in the effects of criminal sanctions, especially of harsh laws and imprisonment. This expanded focus included deterrence theory and, to a less extent, labeling theory. Most significant were attempts to move beyond these perspectives to explore the conditions under which criminal sanctions increased or decreased offending.

      John Braithwaite's Crime, Shame and Reintegration (1989) was the most influential of these works. Braithwaite observed that sanctions could either be stigmatizing or reintegrative. Much as labeling theorists had argued, he held that stigmatizing reactions knife off ties to conventional society, drive offenders toward criminal opportunities and subcultures, and increase their commitment to crime. By contrast, reintegrative shaming “hates the sin but not the sinner.” Criminal acts are condemned, but offenders are welcomed back into the community if they take responsibility for their crimes, apologize to victims, and compensate victims and the community for the harms they have caused. Braithwaite's criminological theory would prove to be an important impetus for the expansion of restorative justice programs aimed at harm reduction and the reintegration of offenders into the community. Further, it revitalized interest in theorizing about the effects of labeling and the contingencies under which sanctions exacerbate or reduce criminal involvement.

      Fourth, there was a renewed interest in control theory. A variety of perspectives were advanced, such as John Hagan's power-control theory and Charles Tittle's control-balance theory. However, perhaps the most significant theoretical contribution of this era was self-control theory authored in 1990 by Michael Gottfredson and Travis Hirschi. In their General Theory of Crime, Gottfredson and Hirschi embraced the traditional control theory assumption that humans by nature were self-interested and craved immediate, easy gratification. The issue thus was not to explain why people commit crimes—everyone is sufficiently motivated by our natures to do that—but rather to answer this question: “Why don't we do it?” The traditional control theory answer is that humans would “do it” except for the presence of controls that, much like a dam containing surging waters, holds back our surging criminal motivations. What differentiates control theories is the specific type of control whose presence restrains and whose absence permits motivations to actualize into criminal behavior.

      As might be recalled, in Causes of Delinquency, Hirschi had argued that “social bonds” serve to restrain criminal motivations. Writing two decades later with Gottfredson, he proposed that the key factor was “self-control.” For Gottfredson and Hirschi, those with low self-control are impulsive, risk-taking, insensitive to others, and unconcerned about long-term consequences. They are ideal candidates for crime, because the vast majority of criminal acts require little planning, are easy to commit, and provide immediate gratification.

      This shift to self-control theory stood social bond theory on its head. Previously, Hirschi had placed the existence of control in the quality of social relationships. Strong bonds to conventional society made crime unappealing because, for example, parents would be disappointed or promising futures sacrificed. Gottfredson and Hirschi now proposed that the locus of control was internal, not social. Self-control was a propensity—or a trait—that individuals carried with them. Self-control, in fact, not only prevented criminal involvement but also created social bonds. People with self-control both avoided crime and succeeded at school, were employed, and had good marriages. Those without self-control committed crime and were incapable of establishing bonds to society. By implication, the relationship of social bonds to crime—the core of Hirschi's original theory—was now seen as spurious, not causal; both the quality of social bonds and participation in crime were viewed as caused by the level of self-control.

      Social bond theory also assumed that involvement in crime was not stable but varied over time. During their lives, bonds might weaken, such as in adolescence when conflicts with parents occurred, or strengthen, such as when individuals made the transition to adulthood by taking jobs and getting married. This is why youths experienced legal troubles while juveniles but matured out of crime as they became young adults. But as a propensity or trait theory, self-control theory asserted that individual differences in self-control were permanent. Noting that childhood conduct problems predicted later criminal behavior, Gottfredson and Hirschi further contended that a person's level of self-control was established early in life—by age 8 or 10. Child-rearing practices determined whether the capacity to resist immediate gratification was inculcated. Thus, children would develop self-control if they were fortunate to have parents who cared enough to monitor them, could recognize wayward conduct when it occurred, and had the ability to punish misconduct effectively.

      Gottfredson and Hirschi's theory had three important implications. First, it called into question virtually every sociological theory of crime, including (as noted) Hirschi's own social bond theory. It argued that the causal relationship of social conditions to crime were in fact spurious. Thus, delinquent peer groups did not cause crime through differential association; rather it was a matter of “birds of a feather flocking together.” Second, their theory focused attention on childhood. Criminologists had mainly constructed theories of delinquency, assuming that events during adolescence were key to criminal involvement at that age. Gottfredson and Hirschi showed that criminal careers began not in the teenage years but in childhood. And third, self-control theory suggested that, beyond the mere fact of aging, all social experiences after childhood—from adolescence to the grave—were irrelevant to explaining crime. These bold assertions would reframe how scholars would think about crime and inspire fresh theoretical contributions.

      The Life-Course Paradigm

      In 1993, Robert Sampson and John Laub published Crime in the Making. This landmark book was important for two reasons. First, the authors based their book on data collected by Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck on 500 white boys ages 10 to 17 from Massachusetts reformatories and a matched sample of 500 youths from the Boston area. These boys were born in the Depression and followed until age 32. In 1987, the authors found the boxes of the Gluecks’ original data in the basement of the Harvard Law School library. They transformed this information into a modern data set that could be analyzed by computer. Notably, the design of the Gluecks’ investigation was longitudinal, making it possible to track the respondents from childhood into adulthood. Sampson and Laub realized that this would enable them to study continuity and change in offending over time. As a result, they could develop a life-course theory of crime.

      Second, their work directly challenged self-control theory. Ironically, Gottfredson and Hirschi had been Sampson and Laub's professors in graduate school. In making sense of the Gluecks’ data, they decided to rely on Hirschi's original social bond theory, developing an age-graded social bond theory. Although they agreed with Gottfredson and Hirschi that individual propensities, such as self-control, had important effects over time, they rejected their former mentors’ assertion that crime across the life course was marked by stability. Rather, their data showed not only continuity but also change in offending. The early onset of conduct problems in childhood certainly predicted later offending, but childhood difficulty did not consign a person to a criminal career. For example, Sampson and Laub showed that among adult offenders, a quality marriage or a quality job could be a turning point that bumped them off a criminal trajectory and into conformity.

      In 1993, another influential life-course theory was published by Terrie Moffitt. Moffitt argued that crime should be seen as a developmental process. According to Moffitt, the normative pathway involves youths avoiding problem behavior before and after the juvenile years. That is, their criminality is largely “adolescence-limited.” More disquieting, however, a small group of children become trapped in a developmental pathway that leads them to become “life-course-persistent” offenders. While in the womb, their development is compromised (e.g., mothers smoking or taking drugs), and thus they suffer neuropsychological deficits. Born with a difficult temperament to parents who are often young and impoverished, they typically receive harsh and erratic socialization. Manifesting conduct problems and lower intellectual skills, they are ill-prepared for school, where they fail academically and are rejected by other students. They are then candidates to self-select into delinquent peer groups, where they secure support for more serious offending. And on and on, deeper and deeper into crime. Moffit calls this process “cumulative disadvantage” and argues that, as this developmental sequence continues, the individuals are ensnared in life-course-persistent offending.

      The perspectives of Gofftredson and Hirschi (who theorized continuity in offending due to self-control), Sampson and Laub (who theorized continuity and change in offending depending on the strength of social bonds), and Moffitt (who theorized continuity or change in offending depending on which developmental pathway a child was in) diverged in important ways. But taken together, they were unified in showing the importance of studying how events in childhood affect criminal pathways through life. The power of their collective theorizing also was a turning point in criminology. From the early 1990s until this day, the life-course paradigm has dominated theoretical and empirical scholarship. It is likely to do so for the foreseeable future.

      In this regard, a final theoretical development has contributed further to the view that crime can only be understood by examining the twists and turns of individuals’ lives over time: biosocial criminology. Following World War II, biological approaches were dismissed by scholars because of the dominance of sociological thinking and because of their use in Nazi Germany to justify the exclusion and murder of Jewish and other non-Aryan peoples. In the Untied States, these approaches have been employed to legitimize the eugenics movement (including the sterilization of offenders) as well as racist policies and views toward African Americans and other minorities. This dismal history made the embrace of biological theories dis-reputable—and rightly so.

      In recent years, however, biology as a field has experienced a dramatic revolution, with more sophisticated tools to unpack human nature (e.g., DNA testing). More generally, biosocial research has been undertaken on a variety of social domains that has yielded potentially progressive policy recommendations (e.g., early intervention with children, helping at-risk expectant mothers to have healthy pregnancies). Further, the clear reality is that humans enter the world not as blank slates on which society writes a script but with individual differences that shape how they react to the world and how the world reacts to them. Biosocial processes thus cannot be ignored in achieving a complete understanding of how humans develop across the life course, including whether a person is trapped in a criminal trajectory. Our biology encapsulates us and is like a suitcase that we carry with us wherever we go in our travels in life. This observation is not to embrace the crude biological determinism of past eras. But it is to say that biosocial theorizing will become an increasingly important part of criminology in the time ahead.


      We are hopeful that our excursion across the main stages in criminology's development inspires readers to use the Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory to broaden and deepen their understanding of past and present explanations of crime. We are fortunate that the encyclopedia's entries have been authored by knowledgeable, if not distinguished, scholars. In a short space, they invariably provide a concise but detailed account of a perspective that has endeavored to unravel a key source of criminal conduct. These entries are much like gold coins in a treasure chest, valuable in and of themselves but of immeasurable worth when taken as a whole.

      We should note that each entry not only reviews an area of criminological theory but also contains a list of references to key articles and/or books on the topic cited in the entry. In the “See also” section, each entry is accompanied by a list of entries in the encyclopedia on related topics that readers seeking greater expertise regarding a specific theoretical school or issue might wish to peruse. In addition, each entry's author or authors suggested further readings and provided brief explanations for why these writings are of special relevance. These annotations have been compiled into a section titled “Annotated Further Readings” that appears at the end of volume 2. In short, every effort has been made to link each entry to related scholarly writings both within the encyclopedia and within the field of criminology generally.

      Again, we trust that as editors we have organized the Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory so as to make it accessible, replete with impeccable scholarship, and of use both as a source that can be quickly referenced and as a compendium of theories of crime that can be studiously explored. Most important, our goal has been to create a work that captures the rich theoretical imagination that has long nourished the criminological enterprise and that reflects our own fascination with the only partially solved mystery of why some of our fellow citizens break the law.

      Francis T.Cullen and PamelaWilcoxUniversity of Cincinnati

      Criminological Time Line: The Top 25 Theoretical Contributions

      Virtually any “Top 25 List”—whether of greatest movies, best rock-n-roll songs of all time, or most influential criminological contributions—is faced with a daunting challenge: an embarrassment of riches. There are, in short, many worthy candidates for inclusion. Lest this exercise descend into sheer idiosyncratic discretion—that is, where inclusion is based simply on personal preference—some criteria must be used in compiling the roster. In our case, the key consideration is whether a theorist and his or her work created a new way of understanding the origins of crime.

      Thus, the theorists included here contributed insights that transformed how scholars saw crime. They uncovered previously ignored criminogenic factors and illuminated how these factors are central to crime causation. After their work appeared, it was no longer possible to study illegal conduct in quite the same way. In many cases, their writings created new schools of criminological thought that shaped thinking and empirical research for decades to follow. Most of these scholars’ theorizing continues to be read today and, in either its original or revitalized form, to inspire fresh ways of thinking about crime.

      Our Top 25 list is arranged along a time line. By surveying this theoretical continuum, readers will have a road map in their excursion across the history of criminology. They will be guided to see the most significant turning points in the discipline's evolution—again, junctures at which new ways of envisioning crime were presented that had a profound influence on the field. The table to follow thus serves as a useful compendium for gaining a sense of the development of criminology as a discipline. Indeed, if the entries on this Top 25 list are consulted, readers will possess a firm foundation that will serve them well in their future studies of theoretical criminology.

    • Annotated Further Readings

      The author(s) of each entry have furnished a list of works that, if consulted, will further illuminate the topic of interest. Each recommended reading is annotated so that its relevance is clarified. Importantly, the Annotated Further Readings section is organized to correspond with the format used in the Reader's Guide: by the 21 schools of thought and then by topic within each school. In this way, these materials provide an easily accessible and invaluable resource for readers inspired to delve more deeply into any specific theory or broader way of thinking within criminology.

      Annotated Further Readings: The Classical School of Criminology
      Beccaria, Cesare: Classical School

      Beccaria, C. (1995). On crimes and punishments and other writings (R. Bellamy, Ed., & R. Davies, Trans.). New York: Cambridge University Press. (Original work published 1764)

      The text of On Crimes and Punishments plus selections from Beccaria's academic lectures, economic writings, and intellectual correspondence. Includes a useful bibliographical sketch, chronology, bibliographical glossary, and explanatory footnotes. This is the most useful English edition for students reading Beccaria for the first time.

      Beccaria, C. (2008). On crimes and punishments and other writings (A. Thomas, Ed., & A. Thomas & J. Parzen, Trans.). Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press. (Original work published 1764)

      The text includes On Crimes and Punishments plus three significant contemporary scholarly reactions by Ferdinando Facchinei (1765), Pietro and Allessandro Verri (1765), and Voltaire (1766). The book also includes a text related to Beccaria's political work reforming the death penalty in Lombardy and contains an extensive introduction to Beccaria's life and ideas by the prominent Italian scholar Alberto Burgio. This translation has greater literary elegance than the Cambridge edition.

      Davis, D. (1957). The movement to abolish capital punishment in America, 1787–1861. The American Historical Review, 63, 23–46.

      A historical account of capital punishment reform in America that includes an extensive discussion of Beccaria's influence in the United States. This scholarly article also relates Beccaria's ideas to those of political philosopher John Locke and addresses the use of Beccaria's secular arguments by members of American religious communities that advocated the abolition of capital punishment.

      Maestro, M. (1973). Cesare Beccaria and the origins of penal reform. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

      The only book-length biography of Beccaria published in English. Maestro provides much useful information about Beccaria's life, work, and relations with European intellectuals and statesmen, but his assessment of Beccaria's ideas is unsophisticated and his narrative tends toward hagiography.

      Bentham, Jeremy: Classical School

      Becker, G. S. (1968). Crime and punishment: An economic approach. Journal of Political Economy, 76, 169–217.

      This classic article is an excellent example of a modern attempt to provide an economic analysis of crime on the basis of Bentham's theory of deterrence and for the illustration of the logical development ofBentham's theories, which recognized the importance of economic factors in explaining crime.

      Harrison, R. (1983). Bentham. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

      A useful introduction, focusing on Bentham's semantics and account of meaning, his views on the relation of fact and value, and the sphere of public and private ethics. The account of Bentham's psychology is weak, perhaps because his views have been superseded by subsequent discoveries.

      Schofield, P. (2006). Utility and democracy: The political thought of Jeremy Bentham. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

      Arguing that the key to Bentham's political thought lies in his semantics and in his theory “fictions,” Schofield shows its implications for Bentham's moral theory, the account of natural law and natural rights, constitutional law and the problem of codification, and issues related to legal reform.

      Schofield, P. (2009). Bentham: A guide for the perplexed. London: Continuum.

      A short, general introduction to Bentham, with chapters devoted to his moral theory, the Panopticon, and torture. The author shows the relation of these issues to Bentham's account of language and “fallacies.”

      Semple, J. (1993). Bentham's prison: A study of the panopticon penitentiary. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.

      A sympathetic study of Bentham's plan of the Panopticon, providing an alternative to Foucault's rather foreboding analysis of the institution. Semple generalizes the “inspection principle,” suggesting that the Panopticon provides a standard of visibility and transparency that can be applied to public institutions and government.

      2. The Positivist School of Criminology
      Aschaffenburg, Gustav: German Criminology

      Becker, P., & Wetzell, R. F. (Eds.). (2006). Criminals and their scientists: The history of criminology in international perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press.

      Comprehensive international history of criminology from the 19th to the mid-20th century. Contains several essays on the German and international reception of Lombroso as well the further development of criminology in the 20th century that allow the reader to place Aschaffenburg in a broader context.

      Busse, F. (1991). Gustav Aschaffenburg (1866–1944): Leben und Werk. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

      A biographical dissertation on Aschaffenburg that provides a fair amount of detail about his life and work.

      Galassi, S. (2004). Kriminologie im deutschen kaiserreich: Geschichte einer gebrochenen Verwissenschaftlichung [Criminology in Imperial Germany: History of a partial scientization]. Stuttgart, Germany: Steiner.

      A history-of-science study of the development of criminology in Imperial Germany (1871–1918) that discusses Aschaffenburg as the most important exponent of a criminological “Vereinigungstheorie”—that is, a theory combining environmental and biological explanations of criminal behavior.

      Wetzell, R. F. (2000). Inventing the criminal: A history of German criminology, 1880–1945. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

      Shows that German biomedical research on crime predominated over sociological research and thus contributed to the rise of eugenics and the targeting of criminals for sterilization under the Nazi regime. But Wetzell also argues that German criminology was characterized by a continuing tension between the criminologists’ hereditarian inclinations and an increasing methodological sophistication that demonstrated the complexity of the interaction of heredity and milieu. Important study for placing Aschaffenburg in larger context.

      Ferri, Enrico: Positivist School

      Beck, N. (2005). Enrico Ferri's scientific socialism: A Marxist interpretation of Herbert Spencer's organic analogy. Journal of the History of Biology, 38, 301–325.

      This article analyzes Ferri's position on Marxian Socialism and discusses Spencer's influence on Ferri. Both Spencer's and Ferri's positions and work are discussed in depth.

      Ferri, E. (1900). Socialism and modern science: Darwin, Spencer, Marx (R. R. La Monte, Trans.). New York: New York International Library. (Original work published 1894)

      This work makes comparisons between socialism and modern science. Ferri believed that Marxian socialism was a product of Darwin's and Spencer's work. According to Ferri, Marxian socialism had the most scientific value.

      Garofalo, Raffaele: Positivist School

      Allen, F. A. (1960). Raffaele Garofalo. In H. Mannheim (Ed.), Pioneers of criminology (pp. 254–276). London: Stevens and Sons.

      This essay by Francis A. Allen is one of the few in-depth studies dealing with Garofalo's ideas. Allen's analysis, which was carried out from a juridical point of view, looks at Garofalo's theories, their influence on later juridical thought, and the coexistence of Classical School elements in his ideas.

      Gibson, M. (2002). Born to crime. Cesare Lombroso and the origins of biological criminology. Westport, CT: Praeger.

      Mary Gibson's book provides a useful tool for examining Garofalo's ideas in more depth and, above all, for contextualizing his figure and works within the cultural scene of the second half of the 19th century and the first decade of the 20th century.

      Goring, Charles: The English Convict

      Driver, E. (1972). Charles Buckman Goring. In H. Mannheim (Ed.), Pioneers in criminology (pp. 429–442). Montclair, NJ: Patterson Smith.

      This work provides an interesting summary of Goring's work. It is within the academic reach of any student.

      Goring, C. (1972). The English convict: A statistical study. Montclair, NJ: Patterson Smith. (Original work published 1913)

      The original work, available in reprinted form, consists of extensive presentations of the statistical data and the calculations conducted by Goring. It is not an easy book to read without some knowledge of statistics, although it is logically presented.

      Jones, D. A. (1986). History of criminology: A philosophical perspective. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

      This work is a valuable presentation of the history of criminology, although it is dated.

      Kretschmer, Ernst: Physique and Character

      Enke, W. (1968). Ernst Kretschmer. In D. Sills (Ed.), International encyclopedia of the social sciences (pp. 450–452). New York: Macmillan/Free Press.

      This entry provides a valuable chronology and overview of Kretschmer's life and work. It provides the necessary background to understanding Kretschmer and his ideas.

      Kretschmer, E. (1970). Physique and character. New York: Cooper Square. (Original work published 1921)

      This edition of Kretschmer's work is very readable. Its presentation is clear and, although its conclusions are out of date, its presentation is easily understood by non-scientists.

      Roebuck, J. (1967). Criminal typology: The legalistic, physical-constitutional-hereditary, psychological-psychiatric, and sociological approaches. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.

      This work provides a thorough comparison of the different ways criminal behavior is generally classified. Although the work is dated, its explanation of the different classifications is still valuable.

      Lombroso, Cesare: The Criminal Man

      Becker, P., & Wetzell, R. F. (2006). Criminals and their scientists: The history of criminology in international perspective. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

      While exploring the historical developments of criminology, this work provides an account of how scientists from different countries reacted to and were influenced by the publication of Cesare Lombroso's L'uomo delinquente.

      Horn, D. G. (2003). The criminal body. Lombroso and the anatomy of deviance. New York: Routledge.

      This work shows how the construction of the born criminal as an atavistic being was dependent on new practices of measuring and documenting that sought to differentiate deviant bodies from normal bodies.

      Lombroso, C. (2006). Criminal man (M. Gibson & N. H. Rafter, Eds.). Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

      This book makes available key excerpts in English from all five editions of Lombroso's L'uomo delinquente and summarizes some of the main developments of Lombroso's theories within the different editions.

      Pick, D. (1989). Faces of degeneration: A European disorder, c. 1848–c. 1918. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

      This is an excellent work on how degeneration theories developed in France, Italy, and England. The second part of the book focuses on Lombroso, and explains the specific Italian historical context of Lombroso's criminal anthropology.


      Rafter, N. H. (2008). The criminal brain: Understanding biological theories of crime. New York: New York University Press.

      Nicole Rafter, a Senior Research Fellow in the College of Criminal Justice at Northeastern University, provides a historical context of how biological theories of crime emerged and implications of those theories on biosocial criminology today.

      Van Wyhe, J. (2004). Phrenology and the origins of Victorian scientific naturalism. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.

      John van Wyhe of the Department of History and Philosophy of Science at Cambridge University wrote Phrenology and the Origins of Victorian Scientific Naturalism as an extension of his dissertation work. Van Wyhe provides an in-depth analysis of the roots of British phrenology during the early to mid-1800s in this five-part book.

      Quetelet, Adolphe: Explaining Crime through Statistical and Cartographic Techniques

      Beirne, P. (1987). Adolphe Quetelet and the origins of positivist criminology. American Journal of Sociology, 92(5), 1140–1169.

      Beirne gives readers an in-depth overview of Quetelet's life within the context of his time. Quetelet's contributions to the development of positivist criminology are clearly outlined as well as those of his contemporaries.

      Quetelet, A. J. (1984). Research on the propensity for crime at different ages (S. F. Test Sylvester, Trans.). Cincinnati, OH: Anderson. (Original work published 1831)

      The introduction to the English translation of Quetelet's classic work offers a nice contextual background on the man. Quetelet outlines his theories here and presents the classic statistical tables and map examples.

      Weisburd, D. L., Bruinsma, G., & Bernasco, W. (2008). Units of analysis in geographic criminology: Historical development, critical issues and open questions. In D. Weisburd, W. Bernasco, & G. Bruinsma (Eds.), Putting crime in its place: Units of analysis in spatial crime research (pp. 3–31). New York: Springer-Verlag.

      The introduction to this book offers a comprehensive history of crime and place research. It will be informative for anyone seeking a good overview of the subject.

      3. Early American Theories of Crime
      Aichhorn, August: Wayward Youth

      Freud, S. (1962). The ego and the id. New York: W. W. Norton. (Original work published 1923)

      This work provides the reader with an overview of psychoanalytical principles. Although Freud discussed how delinquency and personality are connected, he did not apply his work in practice.

      Wulach, J. S. (1983). August Aichhorn's legacy: The treatment of narcissism in criminals. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 27, 226–234

      Wulach provides an overview of the instrumental work of Aichhorn in addressing narcissistic youths in an institutional setting. His pioneering work set the stage for future psychoanalysts.

      Alexander, Franz, and William Healy: Roots of Crime

      Alexander, F., & French, T. M. (1946). Psychoanalytic therapy: Principles and application. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

      This text provides an overview of the many techniques used in psychoanalytic therapy with particular focus on decreasing the time traditional therapy requires. Traditional psychoanalytic therapy was quite lengthy, and Alexander and French recognized the need to employ brief techniques. These techniques are introduced and explained in the context of proper psychoanalysis.

      Healy, W. (1915). The individual delinquent: A text-book of diagnosis and prognosis for all concerned in understanding offenders. Boston: Little, Brown.

      This textbook focuses on early childhood psychological development in the context of later delinquency. Healy places particular emphasis on temperament development and environmental influences on development.

      Dugdale, Richard L.: The Jukes

      Carlson, E. A. (2001). The unfit: A history of a bad idea. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

      Carlson provides a careful examination of the notion that those deemed “unfit” due to weak minds, weak physical constitutions, or weak moral standards were problems within society. He fits the research in the late 19th century within traditional thinking dating back to biblical times. He then describes the eugenics movement and the role that eugenics played in the Holocaust atrocities.

      Degler, C. N. (1991). In search of human nature: The decline and revival of Darwinism in American social thought. New York: Oxford University Press.

      Degler traces the development of early criminological research that grew from the work of Charles Darwin. The eugenics movement peaked during the period from the late 1800s through the early decades of the 1900s. This author examines the heredity-environment debate, while chronicling the influence of scholars that emphasized the role of the environment and then the later works provided more support for biological/hereditary interpretations of the research findings.

      Rafter, N. H. (1988). White trash: The eugenic family studies, 1877–1919. Boston: Northeastern University Press.

      Rafter reviews 15 studies that fit her conception of “eugenic family studies.” She also reprints 11 of the original works in this volume. As such, this is a great source for finding many of these works. Rafter offers an insightful analysis of this body of research.

      Eugenics and Crime: Early American Positivism

      Bruinius, H. (2006). Better for all the world: The secret history of forced sterilization and America's quest for racial purity. New York: Knopf.

      This book is an introduction to the eugenics movement and its major actors, presented in a narrative fashion and explaining each individual's personal background as well as probable motives for their involvement. Bruinius traces the movement from its earliest beginnings with Francis Galton to its height in the 1930s.

      Pickens, D. (1968). Eugenics and the progressives. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.

      This is a solid introduction to the eugenics movement in the United States, especially for those individuals who are not familiar with it. Each chapter of the book is dedicated to a particular time frame. Within each section, Pickens explains the key actors of the time and the movement's current status of development and power.

      Goddard, Henry H.: Feeblemindedness and Delinquency

      Black, E. (2003). The war against the weak: Eugenics and America's campaign to create a master race. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows.

      A historical review of the eugenic movement in the United States.

      Smith, J. D. (1985). Minds made feeble: The myth and the legacy of the Kallikaks. Rockville, MD: Aspen.

      An assessment of the impact of the Kallikak study in the contemporary eugenic movement.

      Zenderland, L. (2001). Measuring minds: Henry Herbert Goddard and the origin of American intelligence testing. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

      An account of Goddard's role in the popularization of intelligence testing in the United States.

      Hooton, Earnest A.: The American Criminal

      Barkan, E. (1993). The retreat of scientific racism: The changing concept of race in Britain and the United States between the World Wars. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

      A study of the debates regarding race in early 20th century American anthropology that includes substantial references to Hooton's work.

      Rafter, N. H. (1997). Creating born criminals. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

      A historical overview of biological and psychological theories in early American criminology.

      Rafter, N. H. (2004). Earnest A. Hooton and the biological tradition in American criminology. Criminology, 42, 735–771.

      An assessment of Hooton's place in the history of American criminology.

      Insanity and Crime: Early American Positivism

      Dain, N., & Carlson, E. T. (1962). Moral insanity in the United States 1835–1866. American Journal of Psychiatry, 118, 795–801.

      Norman Dain and Eric Carlson trace the evolution of the concept of moral insanity during the middle part of the 1800s. Dain and Carlson delineate the arguments of both the psychiatrists who were influenced by the positivist movement, as well as those who favored moralist explanations of insanity.

      Rafter, N. H. (2008). The criminal brain: Understanding biological theories of crime. New York: New York University Press.

      Nicole Rafter thoroughly elucidates the emergence and evolution of biological theories of criminology. From the 19th-century notion of moral derangement to the 21st-century study of neurotransmitters, Rafter offers a fascinating account of the development of criminological theory.

      Parmelee, Maurice

      Craig, C. (Ed.). (2007). Sociology in America: A history. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

      A volume that brings together several articles on the origin and early history of American sociology.

      Sheldon, William H.: Somatotypes and Delinquency

      Rafter, N. H. (2007). Somatotyping, antimodernism, and the production of criminological knowledge. Criminology, 45, 805–834.

      Rafter's work examines archival documents to explore Sheldon's personal views on his somatotype research. Couched within this discussion of Sheldon's personal views about his work is an exploration of the ambivalence with which somatotyping is treated in introductory textbooks and classes.

      4. Biological and Biosocial Theories of Crime
      Alcohol and Violence

      Babor, T., Caetano, R., Casswell, S., Edwards, G., Giesbrecht, N., Graham, K., et al. (2003). Alcohol: No ordinary commodity: Research and public policy. New York: Oxford University Press.

      This is a comprehensive volume to which several leading alcohol epidemiologists and others have contributed. The book first establishes the need for alcohol policy via a discussion of alcohol-related harm, then highlights several different strategies and interventions for reducing these harms, and finally outlines how effective alcohol policy can be formulated. The focus of this book is not on violence, but the topics it covers are essential to those interested in alcohol and violence.

      Parker, R. N. (1995). Bringing “booze” back in: The relationship between alcohol and homicide. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 32, 3–38.

      This article details one of the first structural-level analyses that helped reintegrate alcohol back into the study of serious interpersonal violence in the United States. The study tests hypotheses derived from several theoretical perspectives as they relate to different types of homicides, revealing that the effects of other common correlates of homicide rates may be dependent upon levels of alcohol consumption.

      Parker, R. N., & Rebhun, L.-A. (1995). Alcohol and homicide: A deadly combination of two American traditions. Albany: SUNY Press.

      This book is unique in several respects. It first outlines historical features associated with alcohol and violence in America. It then discusses several theoretical reasons for why we might expect alcohol to be related to violence. This is accompanied by a description of the authors’ own theoretical explanation of the alcohol-violence association, which they label selective disinhibition. Given these theoretical underpinnings, it then reports the results of two empirical tests, one that examines the impact of alcohol availability on homicide in more than 250 American cities and the other that gauges the effects of increasing the drinking age to 21 on youth homicides in the United States.

      Pernanen, K. (1991). Alcohol in human violence. New York: Guilford Press.

      A classic work in research on alcohol and violence. This comprehensive book employs both official and observational data to describe the role of alcohol in everyday violent events such as barroom encounters and fights. It carefully weaves quantitative and qualitative data into a cohesive story that reveals the importance of social, psychological, and situational factors in explaining the alcohol-violence association.

      Pridemore, W. A., & Eckhardt, K. (2008). A comparison of victim, offender, and event characteristics of alcohol-and non-alcohol-related homicides. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 45, 227–255.

      One way to illuminate the role of alcohol in violence is to delineate how alcohol-related violent events are different from non-alcohol-related violent events. In this article, the authors reveal several distinguishing victim, offender, and event characteristics of alcohol-related homicides. The authors also provide a new grounded typology of homicide events based upon alcohol use by homicide offenders and victims.

      Brain Abnormalities and Crime

      Blair, R. J., Mitchell, D., & Blair, K. (2005). The psychopath: Emotion and the brain. Hoboken, NJ:


      James Blair has influenced the field of neurobiology and criminal behavior with his proposed models on aggression and moral development. In this book, Blair provides a summary of neurobiological findings on psychopathic, criminal behavior and a modified Integrated Emotion Systems Model, which further his proposed Violent Inhibition Mechanism Model.

      Damasio, A. R. (1996). The somatic marker hypothesis and the possible functions of the prefrontal cortex. Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, 351, 1413–1420.

      Antonio Damasio provides further discussion on his somatic marker hypothesis and applies it to human reasoning and decision-making processes. Damasio also clarifies in this article the neural system underlying his hypothesis.

      Yang, Y., Glenn, A. L., & Raine, A. (2008). Brain abnormalities in antisocial individuals: Implications for the law. Behavioral Science and the Law, 26, 65–83.

      In this review article, Yaling Yang and her colleagues provide an overview on the up-to-date findings on structural and functional brain abnormalities on violent and criminal offenders. A discussion also is presented on implications of these findings in the legal system.

      Ellis, Lee: Evolutionary Neuroandrogenic Theory

      Ellis, L. (2000). Theories of criminal/antisocial behavior. In L. Ellis & A. Walsh (Eds.), Criminology: A global perspective (Part III). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

      Ellis proposes his evolutionary neuroandrogenic theory in this book chapter. This chapter provides the initial framework underlying the theory by describing the two components to the theory, which are evolution and neuroandrogens.

      Ellis, L. (2003). Biosocial theorizing and criminal justice policy. In A. Somit & S. A. Peterson (Eds.), Human nature and public policy: An evolutionary approach (pp. 97–120). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

      This book chapter presents a detailed overview of Ellis's evolutionary neuroandrogenic theory and proposes several hypotheses derived from the theory. It also highlights hypotheses that are specifically relevant to the criminal justice system.

      Ellis, L. (2003). Genes, criminality, and the evolutionary neuroandrogenic theory. In A. Walsh & L. Ellis (Eds.), Biosocial criminology: Challenging environmentalism's supremacy (pp. 13–34). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science.

      This book chapter presents a review of Ellis's evolutionary neuroandrogenic in the context of biosocial criminology.

      Ellis, L. (2005). A theory explaining biological correlates of criminality. European Journal of Criminology, 2, 287–315.

      This journal article provides a detailed description of Ellis's evolutionary neuroandrogenic theory. It also discusses 12 biological correlates of crime that are relevant to evolutionary neuroandrogenic theory.

      Ellis, L., Das, S., & Buker, H. (2008). Androgen-promoted physiological traits and criminality: A test of the evolutionary neuroandrogenic theory. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 699–709.

      This study is the first empirical test of three hypotheses derived from evolutionary neuroandrogenic theory: (1) do males commit more crimes than females; (2) are physiological traits associated with higher levels of androgens associated with criminal behaviors, especially violent behaviors; and (3) are sex differences in levels of crime explained by androgen-promoted physiological traits. Overall, the findings from this study provide general support for evolutionary neuroandrogenic theory.

      Environmental Toxins Theory

      Carson, R. (1962). Silent spring. Cambridge, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

      Silent Spring is a classic work that documents the harm that pesticides can cause and challenges the chemical industry for misleading the public about pesticide production. The book is often credited as the reason that the pesticide DDT was banned. It is also referenced as the turning point in the modern environmental movement and widespread concern about environmental toxins.

      Colborn, T., Dumanoski, D., & Myers, J. P. (1997). Our

      stolen future: Are we threatening our fertility, intelligence, and survival? A scientific detective story. New York: Dutton.

      Our Stolen Future examines the relationship between synthetic chemicals known as endocrine disrupters and birth defects, sexual abnormalities, and reproductive failures among animals. The book is credited for advancing the public policy debate about the role of endocrine disruptors. This work provides a nice introduction about the potential problematic effects of environmental toxins.

      Needleman, H. (1990). The future challenge of lead toxicity. Environmental Health Perspectives, 89, 85–89.

      This article examines the history and development of understanding of the harmful effects of lead. Needleman uses research on the effects of lead to point out the potential for lead exposure to lead to anti-social behavior and crime.

      Zakrewski, S. (2002). Environmental toxicology. New York: Oxford University Press.

      This is an introductory textbook that provides the reader with a basic understanding of the impact of various toxic chemicals on the human body; details environmental problems such as air and water pollution; and examines how society controls and regulates environmental toxins.

      Eysenck, Hans J.: Crime and Personality

      Eysenck, H. J. (1996). Personality and crime: Where do we stand. Psychology, Crime and Law, 2, 143–152.

      This is Eysenck's last work on crime and personality. It provides an up-to-date account of his final thinking on the subject matter. In the article, he argues that personality plays a central role in mediating between genetic and environmental forces in explaining the causes of criminality.

      Gudjonsson, G. H. (1997). Crime and personality. In H. Nyborg (Ed.), The scientific study of human nature. Tribute to Hans J. Eysenck at eighty (pp. 142–164). Oxford, UK: Elsevier Science.

      This paper provides a detailed reivew of Eysenck's theory of crime and personality, reviews the empricial evidence for the therory, and shows how the theory has changed over time. The main conclusion is that Eysenck's work has been more influenctial in terms of stimulating resarch into the causes of crime than into its prevention and control.

      Fishbein, Diana H.: Biosocial Theory

      Beaver, K. M. (2009). Biosocial criminology: A primer. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.

      This book provides an overview of biosocial criminology. It explains the biological concepts and it also provides a detailed overview of the biosocial research bearing on the etiology of crime and delinquency.

      Walsh, A. (2002). Biosocial criminology: Introduction and integration. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.

      This book introduces the reader to the biosocial perspective. It places particular emphasis on showing how biological concepts can be integrated into existing criminological theories.

      Walsh, A., & Beaver, K. M. (Eds.). (2009). Biosocial criminology: New directions in theory and research. New York: Routledge.

      This edited book contains a series of original essays written by some of the leading biosocial experts, each of which tackles a different issue related to the biosocial perspective.

      Wright, J. P., Tibbetts, S. G., & Daigle, L. E. (2008). Criminals in the making: Criminality across the life course. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

      This book provides an in-depth examination of the causes to criminality. In doing so, it injects biosocial research into the life-course perspective to show how biology and the environment work together in the creation of criminals.

      Harris, Judith Rich: Why Parents Do Not Matter

      Galton, F. (1973). Inquiries into human faculty and its development. New York: AMS Press. (Original work published 1883)

      This book provides insight into the early thoughts of Galton on the importance of heredity and human social behavior.

      Harris, J. R. (2006). No two alike: Human nature and human individuality. New York: W. W. Norton.

      Judith Rich Harris provides a coherent review of the literature dealing with twin studies, an elaboration of group socialization theory, and an explanation for personality differences.

      Wasserman, D., & Wachbroit, R. (Eds.). (2001). Genetics and criminal behavior. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

      The authors of this edited book provide an excellent review of a literature that substantiates that genetic factors are important to understanding the development of some forms of criminal activity.

      Herrnstein, Richard J., and Charles Murray: Crime and the Bell Curve

      Ellis, L., & Walsh, A. (2003). Crime, delinquency and intelligence: A review of the worldwide literature. In H. Nyborg (Ed.), The scientific study of general intelligence: A tribute to Arthur Jensen (pp. 343–365). Oxford, UK: Elsevier Science.

      This book chapter surveyed the worldwide literature on delinquency and crime up to 2001. Data from many countries indicate that low IQ places individuals at risk for a variety of antisocial behaviors. The relationship between IQ and crime/delinquency is always stronger in official statistics than in self-reports due to the fact that very few serious offenders are ever represented in self-report studies.

      Flynn, J. (2007). What is intelligence: Beyond the Flynn effect. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

      This book is the culmination of the author's 20-year examination of the so-called Flynn effect, which is the documentation of secular gains in IQ over 70 years. The gain is not in question, but what caused it is. This book is Flynn's efforts to answer the question from a much different point of view than Herrnstein and Murray.

      Neisser, U., Boodoo, G., Bouchard, T., Boykin, A., Brody, N., Ceci, S., et al. (1995). Intelligence: Knowns and unknowns: Report of a task force established by the board of scientific affairs of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

      This is the report of the American Psychological Association's task force that was formed specifically to address many of the points made by Herrnstein and Murray. The task force basically supported almost all of the scientific points made by Herrnstein and Murray, such as the lack of class or race bias in IQ tests, the considerable genetic contribution to intelligence, and the fact that IQ predicts so many life outcomes more strongly than any other factor. They also affirmed the large IQ gap between black and whites, but tip-toed around the possibility that this could be partially genetic.

      Mednick, Sarnoff A.: Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Theory

      Mednick, S. A. (1977). A biosocial theory of the learning of law-abiding behavior. In S. A. Mednick & K. O. Christiansen (Eds.), Biosocial bases of criminal behavior (pp. 1–8). New York: Gardner.

      In the unveiling of ANS theory, Mednick becomes one of the first modern biosocial criminology proponents. This theory proposal chapter covers the essentials of the construct, including hypotheses and measurement.

      Mednick, S. A., Gabrielli, W. F., Jr., & Hutchings, B. (1987). Genetic factors in the etiology of criminal behavior. In S. A. Mednick, T. E. Moffitt, & S. A. Stack

      (Eds.), The causes of crime: New biological approaches (pp. 74–91). New York: Cambridge University Press.

      Following up an article in the journal Science several years earlier, this adoption study finds that the delinquency of adopted children is very similar to their biological parent's criminality. This finding is especially strong in terms of chronic recidivism.

      Mednick, S. A., Kirkegaard-Sorensen, L., Hutchings, B., Knop, J., Rosenberg, R., & Schulsinger, F. (1977). An example of biosocial interaction research: The interplay of socioenvironmental and individual factors in the etiology of criminal behavior. In S. A. Mednick & K. O. Christiansen (Eds.), Biosocial bases of criminal behavior (pp. 9–23). New York: Gardner.

      In the initial test of ANS theory, Mednick and his colleagues find that EDRec is only related to criminal behavior in the lower-middle and middle classes. This study serves as a pilot study for the larger, nationally representative sample in Denmark.

      Neurology and Crime

      Damasio, A. R. (1996). The somatic marker hypothesis and the possible functions of the prefrontal cortex. Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, 351, 1413–1420.

      Antonio Damasio provides further discussion on his somatic marker hypothesis and applies it to human reasoning and decision-making processes. Damasio also clarifies in this article the neural system underlying his hypothesis.

      Yang, Y., Glenn, A. L., & Raine, A. (2008). Brain abnormalities in antisocial individuals: Implications for the law. Behavioral Science and the Law, 26, 65–83.

      In this review article, Yaling Yang and her colleagues provide an overview on the up-to-date findings on structural and functional brain abnormalities on violent and criminal offenders. A discussion is also provided on the implications of these findings in the legal system.

      Nutrition and Crime

      Benton, D. (2007). The impact of diet in anti-social, violent, and criminal behavior. Neuroscience and Behavioral Reviews, 31, 752–774.

      David Benton is a psychology professor at University of Wales, Swansea. He provides a general, extensive overview of nutrition and its possible link to antisocial and criminal behavior.

      Hibbeln, J. R., Davis, J. M., Steer, C., Emmett, P., Rogers, I., Williams, C., et al. (2007). Maternal seafood consumption in pregnancy and neurodevelopmental outcomes in childhood (ALSPAC study): An observational cohort study. The Lancet, 369, 578–585.

      This study explores the possible effects lack of omega-3 consumption by pregnant mothers on children's later neurodevelopment and behavior.

      Prenatal Influences and Crime

      Raine, A. (2002). Biosocial studies of antisocial and violent behavior in children and adults: A review. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 311–326.

      In this article, Adrian Raine provides an overview of the data linking prenatal risk factors to antisocial behavior, focusing in particular on biosocial interactions. He also summarizes research on biosocial interactions within a host of other domains related to violence.

      Raine, A., Brennan, P., & Mednick, S. A. (1997). Interaction between birth complications and early maternal rejection in predisposing individuals to adult violence: Specificity to serious, early-onset violence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 1265–1271.

      The authors follow up on data from a previous study they conducted to report on the interaction between birth complications and maternal rejection in predisposing to violent behavior.

      Raine, A., Mellingen, K, Liu, J. H., Venables, P. H., &

      Mednick, S. A. (2003). Effects of environmental enrichment at 3–5 years on schizotypal personality and antisocial behavior at ages 17 and 23 years. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1627–1635.

      This study offers an example of the type of intervention that may prove beneficial in future efforts to prevent antisocial behavior.

      Wakschlag, L. S., Pickett, K. E., Cook, E. C., Benowitz, N. L., & Leventhal, B. L. (2002). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and severe antisocial behavior in offspring: A review. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 966–974.

      The authors review the evidence linking prenatal nicotine exposure to later antisocial behavior.

      Psychophysiology and Crime

      Lorber, M. F. (2004). Psychophysiology of aggression, psychopathy, and conduct problems: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 531–552.

      In this meta-analysis of 95 studies the relationships between three measures of heart rate and skin conductance activity—resting, task, and reactivity—and three types of antisocial spectrum behavior—aggression, psychopathy, and conduct problems—were examined. Results provide important empirical and clinical implications and suggest that age and stimulus valence may moderate the psychophysiology–behavior relationships.

      Raine, A., Brennan, P. A., Farrington, D. P., & Mednick, S. A. (1996). Biosocial bases of violence. New York: Plenum Press.

      This book provides an overview of research that integrates biological and psychosocial processes in attempts to explain violence. Biosocial theories of aggression and violence in children and adults are discussed, and directions for future studies are provided.

      Schizophrenia and Crime

      Raine, A. (2006). Pursuing a second generation of research on crime and schizophrenia. In A. Raine (Ed.), Crime and schizophrenia: Causes and cures (pp. 3–12). New York: Nova Science.

      This chapter discusses the co-occurrence of schizophrenia and crime, the issue of stigmatization, applications of schizophrenia-crime research, and the need for a second generation of research that breaks into new territory.

      Schug, R. A., & Raine, A. (2009). Comparative meta-analyses of neuropsychological functioning in antisocial schizophrenic persons. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 230–242.

      In this article, evidence for a biologically distinct subgroup of antisocial individuals with schizophrenia is reviewed, and results from preliminary meta-analyses of studies of cognitive performance in antisocial schizophrenic persons compared to their non-schizophrenic and non-antisocial counterparts, which suggest specific patterns of brain dysfunction, are reported.

      Vila, Brian J., Lawrence E. Cohen, and Richard S. Machalek: Evolutionary Expropriative Theory

      Cohen, L. E., & Machalek, R. (1988). A general theory of expropriative crime: An evolutionary ecological approach. American Journal of Sociology, 94, 465–501.

      This article presents the original version of the ecological expropriative theory. One of the major foci is on behavioral strategies that are propagated throughout the population and are related to forms of expropriative crime. These behavioral strategies are learned via cultural transmission.

      Vila, B. J. (1994). A general paradigm for understanding criminal behavior: Extending evolutionary ecological theory. Criminology, 32, 311–359.

      This article argues for a revision of the original theory and extension to all forms of crime. One of the major refinements is the inclusion of biological evolutionary content to augment cultural evolutionary content described in the original theory. A wide variety of interdisciplinary concepts are interwoven in order to derive this general paradigm of crime.

      Wilson, James Q., and Richard J. Herrnstein: Crime and Human Nature

      Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

      Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674–701.

      In the wake of James Q. Wilson and Richard J. Herrnstein's Crime and Human Nature, a series of works appeared that embraced the use of individual-level constructs from a range of academic disciplines, including sociology, psychology, biology, genetics, and neuroscience, to explain involvement in antisocial behaviors. Two of these works, Gottfredson and Hirschi's self-control theory and Moffitt's developmental taxonomy, are even more influential than Wilson and Herrnstein's work based on the number of citations and empirical tests of these theories. More broadly, these works show that the use of individual-level variables from across disciplines is now commonplace, and contemporary research that does so is well received and not criticized as with Wilson and Herrnstein.

      Raine, A. (1993). The psychopathology of crime: Criminal behavior as a clinical disorder. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

      Another important work by Adrian Raine explores the biopsychological correlates and bases of antisocial behavior from a more clinical perspective. Raine's work summarizes scholarship from fields removed from mainstream criminology and can be seen as an update of Wilson and Herrnstein.

      XYY Aggression Theory

      Rutter, M. (2006). Genes and behaviour: Nature-nurture interplay explained. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.

      This book summarizes genetics in relation to mental disorders and normal psychological characteristics, as well as environmental determinants. It covers causes and risks, nature and nurture, heritability of different mental disorders and traits, patterns of inheritance including XYY, environmentally mediated risks, and gene-environment interaction.

      Rutter, M., Giller, H., & Hagell, A. (1998). Antisocial behavior by young people. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

      This is a comprehensive review of international research evidence on antisocial behavior. The book covers many different aspects of the field, including different types of delinquent behavior, time trends, heritable and environmental risk factors, and theories, including XYY.

      Witkin, H. A., Mednick, S. A., Schulsinger F., Bakkestrom, E., Christiansen, K. O., Goodenough, D. R., et al. (1976). Criminality in XYY and XXY men. Science, 193, 547–555.

      This is an important paper in the field. Based on a large Danish sample, the authors showed that the association between XYY and violent behavior was confounded by cognitive dysfunction.

      5. Psychological Theories of Crime
      Andrews, D. A., and James Bonta: A Personal, Interpersonal, and Community-Reinforcement (PIC-R) Perspective on Criminal Conduct

      Andrews, D. A., Bonta, J., & Hoge, R. D. (1990).

      Classification for effective rehabilitation: Rediscovering psychology. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 17, 19–52.

      This article outlines the importance of assessment tools in guiding treatment delivery. It provides a good grounding for Andrews and Bonta's arguments regarding their theory's clinical relevance.

      Gendreau, P. T., Little, T., & Goggin, C. (1996). A meta-analysis of the predictors of adult offender recidivism: What works! Criminology, 34, 575–607.

      This article examines the research on factors associated with criminal behavior. The factors identified mirror those discussed by Andrews and Bonta and provide a meaningful framework for the principles of effective intervention.

      Lowenkamp, C. T., Latessa, E. J., & Holsinger, A. M. (2006). The risk principle in action: What we have learned from 13,676 offenders and 97 correctional programs? Crime and Delinquency, 52, 77–93.

      This article reviews the risk principle and the importance of reserving intensive services for higher risk clients. In particular, the study reviews programs providing services for offenders. Those programs that provided intensive services for lower risk clients had higher recidivism rates.

      Pratt, T. C., & Cullen, F. T. (2000). The empirical status of Gottfredson and Hirschi's general theory of crime: A meta-analysis. Criminology, 38, 931–964.

      This article discusses Gottfredson and Hirschi's self-control theory. However, Pratt and Cullen also note that while self-control theory is predictive of crime, it is the addition of other risk factors, such as attitudes and peers, that provide a fuller understanding of criminal behavior.

      Bandura, Albert: Social Learning Theory

      Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

      Bandura formally presents social learning theory in this work. It is a must-read to gain a comprehensive understanding of the theory. Specifically, he presents how behavior begins and how the anticipation of consequences and actual consequences of behavior moderates further similar behavior. He clarifies the idea of the reciprocal relationship between the person, the environment, and the behavior.

      Bandura, A. (1979). The social learning perspective: Mechanisms of aggression. In H. Toch (Ed.), Psychology of crime and criminal justice (pp. 198–236). New York: Holt, Reinhart, and Winston.

      Social learning theory is formally applied to aggressive behavior by Bandura in this work. While still theoretical, the systematic and detailed application of the theory to aggression provides a useful look at the practical application of the theory to criminal behavior.

      Bandura, A. (2007). Albert Bandura. In G. Lindzey &

      W. M. Runyan (Eds.), A history of psychology in autobiography (Vol. 9, pp. 43–75). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

      This work provides the reader an entertaining memoir of Albert Bandura. In his own words, Bandura describes his early life in rural Alberta to his eventual appointment at Stanford University. He narrates a story that engagingly contextualizes his academic pursuits over half a century.

      Cognitive Theories of Crime

      Berkowitz, L. (1989). Frustration-aggression hypothesis: Examination and reformulation. Psychological Bulletin, 106(1), 59–73.

      This work describes Berkowitz's extension and reformulation of Dollard et al.'s original frustration-aggression hypothesis.

      Dodge, K. A., & Coie, J. D. (1987). Social information processing factors in reactive and proactive aggression in children's peer groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 1146–1158.

      This work explains Dodge's hostile attribution model in relation to aggression among children.

      Dollard, J., Doob, L. W., Miller, N. E., Mowrer, O. H., & Sears, R. R. (1970). Frustration and aggression. In E. Megargee & J. Hokanson (Eds.), The dynamics of aggression (pp. 22–32). New York: Harper & Row.

      This work explains the frustration-aggression hypothesis as it relates to criminal and delinquent behavior.

      Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women's development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

      This work elaborates upon Kohlberg's moral development theory, and identifies the moral development of women.

      Huesmann, L. R., & Eron, L. D. (1984). Cognitive processes and the persistence of aggressive behavior. Aggressive Behavior, 10(3), 243–251.

      This work outlines Huesmann and Eron's cognitive scripts model.

      Kohlberg, L. (1976). Moral stages and moralization: The cognitive developmental approach. In T. Lickona (Ed.), Moral development and behavior: Theory, research and social issues (pp. 31–52). New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

      This work provides an overview of moral development theory, summarizes the state of the research, and elaborates on its applicability to juvenile offending.

      Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1958). The growth of logical thinking from childhood to adolescence. New York: Basic.

      This work includes the first statements of Piaget's cognitive development theory among children and adolescents.

      Samenow, S. E. (2004). Inside the criminal mind. New York: Crown.

      This work describes Yochelson and Samenow's updated theory on criminal thinking errors.

      Yochelson, S., & Samenow, S. E. (1976). The criminal personality: Vol. 1. A profile for change. New York: Jason Aronson.

      This work describes Yochelson and Samenow's original theory on criminal thinking errors.

      Dodge, Kenneth A.: Aggression and a Hostile Attribution Style

      Dodge, K. A., & Somberg, D. R. (1987). Hostile attributional biases among aggressive boys are exacerbated under conditions of threats to the self. Child Development, 58, 213–224.

      In this essay, Dodge and Somberg detail more specific situations that highlight the differences between aggressive and nonaggressive boys. They report that under conditions of threat, aggressive boys are more likely to make hostile attributions in ambiguous circumstances.

      Unnever, J. D. (2005). Bullies, aggressive victims, and victims: Are they distinct groups? Aggressive Behavior, 3, 153–171.

      In this essay, Unnever examines whether there are three distinct types of behaviors that are associated with bullies, aggressive victims (those who bullied but are themselves bullied), and victims and whether proactive and reactive aggression predict their bullying behaviors.

      Freudian Theory

      Eysenck, H. (1987). The rise and fall of the Freudian empire. New York: Plenum.

      The criticisms of Freudian theory are many. This text provides excellent insights into the weakness of this most influential yet consistently controversial, theoretical perspective.

      Freud, S. (1953). A general introduction to psychoanalysis. New York: Permabooks.

      There is no better route to understanding the Freudian perspective on criminal behavior than from the theorist himself. His writings are highly accessible to the reader and intuitively applicable to the understanding of deviance and criminality.

      Glueck, S., & Glueck, E. (1950). Unraveling juvenile delinquency. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

      A classic study in the field of criminology, Glueck and Glueck root many of their theoretical assumptions in psychoanalytic thought. Their empirical evaluation of their theoretical propositions is an excellent example of cross-sectional research and data interpretation.

      Glueck, Sheldon, and Eleanor Glueck: The Origins of Crime

      Blokland, A. (2005). Crime over the life span: Trajectories of criminal behaviour in Dutch offenders. Leiden, Netherlands: NSCR.

      This study exemplifies the benefits of a large sample followed over a long span of years facilitating the study of hitherto neglected latecomers to crime and older offenders. The results point to the existence of a group of very persistent offenders to a late age who tend to specialize in property offenses, different from the commoner trajectory of recidivists who desist earlier. There are policy implications for the use of incapacitating sentences that are apt to be applied at a point when criminal careers are anyway commencing desistence or to offenders who are not dangerously violent. Given a large sample, it becomes possible to study subgroups, for example to differentiate the careers of female offenders who appear half as numerous as men, have more intermittent offending careers, and may respond differently to marriage and the arrival of children.

      Farrington, D. P., & Welsh, B. C. (2007). Saving children from a life of crime: Early risk factors and effective intervention. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

      Theories of causation of delinquency derived from longitudinal studies of offending have had much influence on the design of delinquency prevention projects targeting young children and their families. Some of these—like the well-known Perry Project of pre-school intellectual enrichment, outstanding for its control group and long follow-up—have been shown to produce significant reduction of delinquency potential, both short and long term. Family-based interventions, particularly schemes of education in parenting, have also proved beneficial. These successes go some way to validate and justify longitudinal career analysis. The authors believe that a government-based national strategy is needed to promote community projects baaed on methods that have been shown to work.

      Hawkins, J. D., & Herrenkohl, T. I. (2007). Prevention in the school years. In D. P. Farrington & J. W. Coid (Eds.), Early prevention of adult antisocial behaviour (pp. 265–291). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

      The enormous contrasts in the delinquency potential of leavers or dropouts from different schools have been shown to be largely due to differences at intake. This might seem to indicate, as early studies such as the Gluecks suggested, that delinquency potential is irrevocably fixed in the pre-school years. This review points to a more optimistic conclusion. Techniques of classroom management, the application of consistent carrot-and-stick measures to the control of aggression and bullying, the inclusion of social skills training in the curriculum, the enlistment of pupils in cooperative tasks, attention to individual pupils’ problems of comprehension, and the application of appropriate cognitive behavior modification methods have all been found to have some effect. This is important because longitudinal studies show that school leaving age can be a critical turning point in delinquency careers, when those lacking the practical or social skills needed in the job market encounter special stress. Unfortunately, small demonstration projects in schools are indicators of what is possible, but in a less-than-ideal world, implementation on a national scale is problematic.

      Thornberry, T. P., & Krohn, M. D. (Eds.). (2003). Taking stock of delinquency: An overview of findings from contemporary longitudinal studies. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.

      As criminal career data from diverse samples have accumulated, it is instructive to note how the same basic patterns re-emerge, notably the link between early onset of offending and the likelihood of continuing recidivism and the close association among adverse features of family backgrounds, poor parenting, poor performance and behavior at school, and subsequent delinquency. As data for later years of the life span have become available, it has become increasingly evident that static models of career progression do not explain the measurable delinquency-inhibiting effects of events such as marriage or the exacerbating effects of, for example, maltreatment during adolescence or substance abuse. The serious collateral damage of delinquency in its impact on chances of establishing stable relationships, preserving a family, or achieving economic security has also become clearer.

      Hare, Robert D.: Psychopathy and Crime

      Blair, J., Mitchell, D., & Blair, K. (2005). The psychopath: Emotion and brain. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

      Blair et al. provide one of the most current theoretical perspectives on the etiology of psychopathy. They also discuss key empirical findings that have been advanced in recent years. The book is written to appeal to experts, graduate students, and advanced undergraduate students.

      Hare, R. D. (1993). Without conscience: The disturbing world of the psychopaths among us. New York: Pocket.

      This book is a very readable explanation that is accessible to students and laypersons alike. Hare discusses some of the possible causes of psychopathy, and provides clear descriptions of the disorder. The existence and nature of white-collar psychopaths is discussed as well.

      Millon, T., Simonsen, E., Birket-Smith, M., & Davis, R. D. (Eds.). (1998). Psychopathy: Antisocial, criminal, and violent behavior. New York: Guilford.

      Patrick, C. J. (Ed.). (2006). Handbook of psychopathy. New York: Guilford.

      Both of these edited volumes provide comprehensive overviews of psychopathy. The leading experts in the field cover such topics as the etiology of this disorder; the biological, psychological, and social correlates of psychopathy; clinical and practical implications; and current directions and dilemmas facing the field.

      Kohlberg, Lawrence: Moral Development Theory

      Gilligan, C. (1986). In a different voice: Psychological theory and women's development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

      Carol Gilligan challenges Kohlberg's theory of moral development for its lack of attention to the moral development of girls. It affords a feminist perspective on identity development in girls and is considered a classic work in feminist thought. Gilligan's reformulation of the stages of moral development for women is based on interviews with college women around their views toward abortion.

      Killen, M., & Smetana, J. (Eds.). (2006). Handbook of moral development. Hillsdale, NJ: Psychology Press.

      A more recent edited volume, the 26 chapters discuss reformulations of Kohlberg's perspective and provide a number of chapters on culture and diversity. Descriptions of new educational approaches to moral and character development are also presented. One section of five chapters addresses moral development and aggressive behavior in children.

      Laufer, J., & Day, M. (Ed.). (1983). Personality theory, moral development and criminal behavior. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

      This is an edited volume that provides several chapters on moral development, including a thorough review of the theory's applicability to offenders by Jennings, Kilkenny, and Kohlberg. The chapter also discusses early Just Community interventions. Additional chapters assess the theories relevance to psychopathy and offenders court-ordered to restitution.

      Lahey, Benjamin B., and Irwin D. Waldman: Developmental Propensity Model

      Eisenberg, N., & Mussen, P. H. (1991). The roots of prosocial behavior in children. New York: Cambridge University Press.

      This book discusses the biological, psychological, and environmental factors that contribute to healthy child development. The authors also introduce the concept of dispositional sympathy, which is a protective factor against conduct problems.

      Farrington, D. P., & West, D. J. (1993). Criminal, penal and life histories of chronic offenders: Risk and protective factors and early identification. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, 3, 492–523.

      This article discusses the protective and risk factors for antisocial behaviors. The authors identify four important risk factors for chronic offending: troublesomeness, delinquent sibling, convicted parent, and—important to Lahey and Waldman's model—daring.

      Kagan, J., Reznick, J. S., & Snidman, N. (1988).

      Biological bases of childhood shyness. Science, 240, 167–171.

      This journal article assesses variation in shyness in children from a biological perspective. The authors discuss how behaviorally disinhibition children would spontaneously react in novel situations. These children grew up to become more talkative and interactive with unfamiliar children and adults.

      Lahey, B. B., & Waldman, I. D. (2003). A developmental propensity model of the origins of conduct problems during childhood and adolescence. In B. B. Lahey, T. E. Moffitt, & A. Caspi (Eds.), Causes of conduct disorder and juvenile delinquency (pp. 76–117). New York: Guilford Press.

      Lahey and Waldman propose their developmental propensity model of the origins of conduct problems in this book chapter. This chapter provides a detailed account of the development and components of their model.

      Lahey, B. B., & Waldman, I. D. (2005). A developmental model of the propensity to offend during childhood and adolescence. In D. P. Farrington (Ed.), Integrated developmental and life-course theories of offending (Advances in Criminological Theory: Vol. 14, pp. 15–50). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

      Lahey and Waldman describe their developmental propensity model of the origins of conduct problems in this book chapter. They place a particular emphasis on applying their model to the developmental trajectories of juvenile delinquency.

      Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescent-limited and life-course-persistent antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674–701.

      Moffitt presents her dual taxonomy theory in this journal article by discussing two distinct groups of offenders (i.e., adolescent-limited and life-course-persistent). She also describes the unique causal processes underlying each trajectory.

      Media Violence Effects

      Freedman, J. L. (2002). Media violence and its effect on aggression: Assessing the scientific evidence. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

      In this book, University of Toronto psychology professor Jonathan Freedman argued that the available scientific evidence suggests that there is no causal link between exposure to violence in media and aggressive or criminal behavior. He presented explanations concerning why, in his view, the alleged link between media violence and aggression has become so widely accepted in the absence of credible evidence establishing such a link. He also provided reasons why media violence may not have impacts on aggression.

      Grossman, D., & DeGaetano, G. (1999). Stop teaching our kids to kill: A call to action against TV, movie, and video game violence. New York: Crown.

      West Point psychology and military science professor Dave Grossman and media violence expert Gloria DeGaetano argue in their book that there is incontrovertible evidence of a causal link between violent media content and criminal aggression. Additionally, they issue a call to action and provide recommendations to address youth violence.

      Potter, W. J. (2003). The 11 myths of media violence. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

      In this book, University of California, Santa Barbara communications professor W. James Potter identifies 11 different media violence myths that, in his view, facilitated the creation of violent media productions. Among other things, he challenges the notion that media violence primarily only impacts children and that the First Amendment provides protection to those who produce violent media content. He also advances a public health approach to regulating media content.

      Mental Illness and Crime

      Hails, J., & Borum, R. (2003). Police training and specialized approaches to respond to people with mental illness. Crime and Delinquency, 49, 52–61.

      This article examines some of the various approaches that police forces have begun to use to deal with mentally ill offenders. It explores how mentally ill offenders affect the police force and various techniques that police officers can use to manage mentally ill offenders in a more effective manner.

      James, D. J., & Glaze, L. E. (2006). Mental health problems of prison and jail inmates. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.

      This report examines the percentages of individuals who are mentally ill in prison and jail populations. It provides statistics for the various backgrounds of these individuals and how they differ from non-mentally ill individuals.

      Moore, M. E., & Hiday, V. A. (2006). Mental health court outcomes: A comparison of re-arrest and re-arrest severity between mental health court and traditional court participants. Law and Human Behavior, 30, 659–674.

      This article is one of the first studies to examine the effectiveness of mental health courts. Because mental health courts are relatively new in their inception, there have been very few studies that have examined the effectiveness of these courts in terms of recidivism.

      Silver, E. (2006). Understanding the relationship between mental disorder and violence: The need for a criminological perspective. Law and Human Behavior, 30, 685–706.

      This article examines the potential theoretical relationships between mental illness and crime. Silver articulates that this relationship may be able to be explained through current criminological theories. He then elaborates on how social learning theory, general strain theory, social bond theory, the age-graded theory of crime, rational choice theory, and social disorganization theory may apply to mental illness.

      Patterson, Gerald R.: Social Learning, the Family, and Crime

      Granic, I., & Patterson, G. R. (2006). Toward a comprehensive model of antisocial development: A dynamic systems approach. Psychological Review, 113, 101–131.

      This article attempts to merge Patterson's coercion theory with a dynamic systems approach, providing a more nuanced and advanced model of the theory. This is recommended to readers who are interested in following the latest development of coercion theory.

      Reid, J. B., Patterson, G. R., & Snyder, J. (Eds.). (2002). Antisocial behavior in children and adolescents: A developmental analysis and model for intervention. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

      This edited book is a compilation of Patterson and colleagues’ research spanning the last 30 years. It provides a historical perspective on the development of the Oregon delinquency model, chapter summaries of research testing various constructs of coercion theory, and intervention strategies for preventing and disrupting child and adolescent antisocial behavior.

      Raine, Adrian: Crime as a Disorder

      Raine, A. (1997). The psychopathology of crime: Criminal behavior as a clinical disorder. New York: Academic Press.

      This is the premier text for anyone interested in research by Adrian Raine. This text is grounded in experimental research and empirical approaches to explaining potential causes of criminality. Raine provides a very good argument for biological causes as well as environmental factors related to criminal behavior.

      Raine, A. (2006). Crime and schizophrenia: Causes and cures. New York: Nova Science.

      This is a very unique book that squarely addresses an issue that is often avoided: the crime and schizophrenia association. In most of the contemporary criminological literature, there is a tendency to dismiss this association and/or to resist its possibility. Raine provides a scientific demonstration of the association as a means of generating new research on the crime-schizophrenia relationship to benefit offenders who are so afflicted, the victims of their crimes, and society as a whole.

      Raine, A., & Sanmartin, J. (Eds.). (2007). Violence and psychopathy. New York: Springer.

      This book presents some of the key contributions made at the Fourth International Meeting on the Biology and Sociology of Violence held in November 1999. One primary point throughout this book is the notion that violence and psychopathy simply cannot be understood solely in terms of social and environmental forces and influences.

      Walters, Glenn D.: Lifestyle Theory

      Katz, J. (1988). Seductions of crime: Moral and sensual attraction of doing evil. New York: Perseus.

      Katz employs a comprehensive qualitative theoretical framework for exploring the common-sense attitude violent criminal offenders adopt in their accounts of past criminal acts. Through a qualitative lens, Katz provides a conceptual scheme for coming to terms with the mundane as well as the horrific aspects of violent crime.

      Walters, G. D. (2000). Beyond behavior: Construction of an overarching psychological theory of lifestyles. Westport, CT: Praeger.

      This is one of two volumes reflecting Walters's most current research. This first volume offers a contemporary assessment of lifestyle theory by focusing on an integrative-interaction approach to understanding and explaining criminality. It presents an expansive yet readable theoretical treatise on lifestyle theory.

      Walters, G. D. (2000). The self-altering process: Exploring the dynamic nature of lifestyle development and change. Westport, CT: Praeger.

      Walters, in this second volume, outlines the change process that retains its developmental characteristics as those found in criminal belief system(s). Its coverage of desistance theory and “natural” recovery, as fundamental principles in understanding the change process via a lifestyle theory framework is comprehensive and provides a “blueprint” for those wishing to continue the work.

      Yochelson, Samuel, and Stanton E. Samenow: The Criminal Personality

      Elliott, B., & Verdeyen, V. (2002). Game over! Strategies for redirecting inmate deception. Lanham, MD: American Correctional Association.

      Elliott and Verdeyen modified the model proposed by Walters in order to make it easier to use by correctional counselors. They transformed the criminal “thinking patterns,” into what they called “cognitive distortions.” By working on changing these distortions, the counselors seek to change how criminals think.

      Walters, G. (1990). The criminal lifestyle: Patterns of serious criminal conduct. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

      The work of Yochelson and Samenow and the principles of cognitive-behavioral strategies that they developed have been widely used in the treatment of offenders in correctional facilities. Their strategies in correcting the 52 “thinking errors” that criminals employ to justify their actions have gained popularity among many correctional counselors. Their work was further expanded and modified by Walters, who consolidated these thinking errors into eight criminal thinking patterns.

      6. The Chicago School of Criminology
      Burgess, Robert L., and Ronald L. Akers: Differential Association-Reinforcement Theory

      Akers, R. L. (1973). Deviant behavior: A social learning approach. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

      This book provides a summary of his social learning theory, which constitutes the most current and complete presentation of a social learning theory of criminal behavior. Importantly, Akers's book is written in a style that is easily grasped by most readers.

      Burgess, R. L., & Akers, R. L. (1966). A differential association-reinforcement theory of criminal behavior. Social Problems, 14, 128–147.

      This article is Burgess and Akers's response to Sutherland's theory of differential association.

      Sutherland, E. H. (1947). Principles of criminology (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott.

      This book contains the most complete statement of his theory of differential association and is the version of differential association theory to which Burgess and Akers are responding.

      De Fleur, Melvin L., and Richard Quinney: A Reformulation of Sutherland's Differential Association Theory

      Burgess, R. L., & Akers, R. L. (1966). A differential association-reinforcement theory of criminal behavior, Social Problems, 14, 128–147.

      Here, Burgess and Akers develop social learning theory, which adapted Sutherland's original theory of differential association theory in an attempt to account for a wider variety of criminal behavior.

      Gaylord, M., & Galliher, J. (1988). The criminology of Edwin Sutherland. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

      This book is a very thorough and detailed resource on the life and work of Sutherland. Gaylord and Galliher examine the development of differential association theory as well as Sutherland's other important contributions to criminology.

      Kobrin, Solomon: Neighborhoods and Crime

      Kobrin, S. (1951). The conflict of values in delinquency areas. American Sociological Review, 16, 653–661.

      This article lays out Kobrin's major theoretical contributions to social disorganization theory, describing continuums between delinquents andnon-delinquents and differential neighborhood organization.

      Kobrin, S. (1959). The Chicago Area Project: A 25-year assessment. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 322, 19–29.

      Here, Kobrin summarizes the theory and practice of the Chicago Area Project under his direction.

      Kornhauser, Ruth Rosner: Social Sources of Delinquency

      Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley: University of California Press.

      The first chapter of this classic book contains the classification (strain, social control, cultural deviance) still used by many theorists. Kornhauser's then-unpublished manuscript is cited heavily, suggesting that her writing influenced Hirschi's theoretical organization.

      Messner, S. F., & Rosenfeld, R. (2007). Crime and the American dream (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson.

      Messner and Rosenfeld update Merton's theory of anomie at the macro level. Although the authors do not agree completely with Kornhauser's insights and theoretical critiques, the fact that they explicitly address her criticisms indicates the important place that Social Sources of Delinquency maintains in criminology.

      Sampson, Robert J.: Collective Efficacy Theory

      Kirk, D. S. (2009). Unraveling the contextual effects on student suspension and juvenile arrest: The independent and interdependent influences of school, neighborhood, and family social controls. Criminology, 47, 479–520.

      David Kirk was Robert Sampson's doctoral student at the University of Chicago. In this article, Kirk extends the conception of collective efficacy to understand school environments. Just as neighborhood collective efficacy reveals how social ties in the neighborhood community can be activated in order to promote social control, collective efficacy within the domain of schools is a mechanism that activates the communal organization within a school in order to control student behavior.

      Pratt, T. C., & Cullen, F. T. (2005). Assessing macro-level predictors and theories of crime: a meta-analysis. In M. Tonry (Ed.), Crime and justice: A review of research (Vol. 32, pp. 373–450). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

      Pratt and Cullen provide a comprehensive meta-analysis of the empirical literature on the ecological predictors of crime, including collective efficacy.

      Sampson, R. J. (2006). Collective efficacy theory: Lessons learned and directions for future inquiry. In F. T. Cullen, J. P. Wright, & K. R. Blevins (Eds.), Taking stock: The status of criminological theory (Advances in Criminological Theory: Vol. 15, pp. 149–167). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

      Sampson, R. J. (2006). How does community context matter? Social mechanisms and the explanation of crime. In P.-O. Wikström & R. J. Sampson (Eds.), The explanation of crime: Context, mechanisms, and development (pp. 31–60). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

      These two chapters by Robert Sampson provide discussions of the intellectual legacy of collective efficacy theory, a description of empirical evidence in support of the theory, and an overview of future directions in the theoretical development of collective efficacy.

      Shaw, Clifford R.: The Jack-Roller

      Becker, H. S. (1966). Introduction. In C. R. Shaw, The jack-roller: A delinquent boy's own story (pp. v–xviii). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

      This introduction to the 1966 reissue of The Jack-Roller makes the case for the value of life histories of delinquents.

      Maruna, S., & Matravers, A. (2008). N = 1: Criminology and the person. Theoretical Criminology, 11, 427–442.

      This paper examines the uses, advantages, and shortcomings of life histories for understanding and answering larger questions about crime, punishment, and criminal careers.

      Shover, N. (1996). Great pretenders: Pursuits and careers of persistent thieves. Boulder, CO: Westview.

      This study of the lives and careers of street-level thieves draws heavily from dozens of life histories and shows their value as sources of generalizations about offenders.

      Snodgrass, J. (1976). Clifford R. Shaw and Henry D. McKay: Chicago criminologists. British Journal of Criminology, 16, 1–19.

      This article describes and interprets the social, intellectual and personal context in which Clifford R. Shaw and his colleagues worked.

      Snodgrass, J. (Ed.). (1982). The jack-roller at seventy: A fifty year follow-up. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath.

      This sequel to The Jack-Roller makes clear that in later life, as in his early years, there was much about Stanley that is typical of street-level thieves.

      Shaw, Clifford R., and Henry D. McKay: Social Disorganization Theory

      Kubrin, C. E., & Weitzer, R. (2003). New directions in social disorganization theory. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 40, 374–402.

      This article addresses current problems, both substantive and methodological, and charts some promising new directions in social disorganization theory.

      Sampson, R. J., & Groves, W. B. (1989). Community structure and crime: Testing social-disorganization theory. American Journal of Sociology, 94, 774–802.

      This study constitutes the first empirical analysis of the mediating factors of social disorganization theory using survey data from communities in Britain.

      Shaw, C. R., & McKay, H. D. (1942). Juvenile delinquency and urban areas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

      A classic text that provides the foundation of social disorganization theory. Shaw and McKay convincingly demonstrate the spatial relationship between social conditions of neighborhoods and rates of delinquency in Chicago communities over time.

      Stark, R. (1987). Deviant places: A theory of the ecology of crime. Criminology, 25, 893–909.

      In this article, Stark calls for the resurrection of social disorganization theory reminding readers that along with “kinds of persons” theories of crime, we also need “kinds of places” theories. Using basic assumptions of social disorganization theory, Stark creates a set of propositions to be tested by disorganization theorists.

      Spergel, Irving: Neighborhoods and Delinquent Subcultures

      Agnew, R. (2006). Pressured into crime: An overview of general strain theory. Los Angeles: Roxbury.

      In this book, Agnew provides a contemporary summary and updating of strain theory. As such, Agnew revitalized the work of Robert Merton, Albert Cohen, Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin, and Irving Spergel.

      Cullen, F. T. (1988). Were Cloward and Ohlin strain theorists? Delinquency and opportunity revisited. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 25, 214–241.

      In this essay, Francis Cullen highlights Cloward and Ohlin's emphasis on the role of illegitimate means in channeling motivated offenders into one criminal role rather than another.

      Steffensmeier, Darrell J., and Jeffery T. Ulmer: The Professional Fence

      Bradley-Engen, M. S. (2009). Naked lives: Inside the worlds of exotic dance. Albany: SUNY Press.

      This work applies and expands key ideas from The Fence and Confessions to describe the skills, challenges, pitfalls, rewards, and rationales that shape the lives and careers of exotic dancers.

      Matsueda, R. L., Piliavin, I., Gartner, R., & Polakowski, M. (1992). The prestige of criminal and conventional occupations: A subcultural model of criminal activity. American Sociological Review, 57, 752–770.

      A key theme of this article concerns stratification in the underworld and the prestige ranking of criminal specialties and roles within it. It draws from The Fence and was drawn upon in turn by Confessions.

      Steffensmeier, D. J., & Ulmer, J. T. (2006). Black and white control of numbers banking in black communities, 1970–2000. American Sociological Review, 71, 123–156.

      Steffensmeier and Ulmer draw heavily from ideas in Confessions to highlight the importance of cultural and social capital in shaping success in a criminal enterprise like numbers gambling; how “criminal capital” and opportunities for success in the underground economy are shaped by upperworld and underworld racial and ethnic stratification; and how the underground economy is affected by changes in the legitimate market economy.

      Ulmer, J. T. (2000). Commitment, deviance, and social control. Sociological Quarterly, 41, 315–336.

      The author describes continuity and change in criminal careers in terms of changes in structural, personal, and moral commitments, and also describes commitment to crime and to conventional life as two sides of the same coin. This commitment framework is featured prominently in Confessions’ discussions of the careers of skilled property offenders and criminal entrepreneurs.

      Sutherland, Edwin H.: Differential Association Theory and Differential Social Organization

      Akers, R. L. (1998). Social learning and social structure: A general theory of crime and deviance. Boston: Northeastern University Press.

      This book summarizes over 30 years of theoretical and empirical work specifying and respecifying a revision of differential association theory using principles of social learning theory.

      Matsueda, R. L. (1988). The current state of differential association theory. Crime and Delinquency, 34, 277–306.

      Matsueda was a doctoral student of Donald Cressey who, in turn, was a doctoral student of Edwin Sutherland. This article summarizes differential association theory, finds the highly influential critique of differential association by Ruth Kornhauser to be misguided by creating a caricature of the theory, and updates revisions and research on Sutherland's theory.

      Matsueda, R. L. (2006). Differential social organization, collective action, and crime. Crime, Law, and Social Change, 46, 3–33.

      This article attempts to revitalize the concept of differential social organization by drawing out the dynamic collective action implications of the theory, and by specifying causal mechanisms from sociological theory, including social networks and social capital, weak ties, collective action frames, collective action thresholds, symbolic interaction, and stages of moral reasoning.

      Sutherland, E. H. (1947). Principles of criminology (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott.

      The fourth edition of Sutherland's classic textbook dominated the field for over half a century and presents the final version of his theory of differential association.

      Sutherland, E. H. (1973). Wartime crime. In K. Schuessler (Ed.), Edwin H. Sutherland on analyzing crime (pp. 120–128). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

      This volume brings together a number of unpublished papers by Sutherland, including his account of the development of differential association, his critique of his own theory, and his overlooked essay on differential group organization and wartime crime.

      Sutherland, E. H., Cressey, D. R., & Luckenbill, D. F. (1992). Principles of criminology (11th ed.). Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.

      The final edition of Sutherland's textbook, which spanned over 60 years, with Cressey and Luckenbill as co-authors.

      Sutherland, Edwin H.: The Professional Thief

      Letkemann, P. (1973). Crime as work. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

      In this book, Peter Letkemann draws heavily on the writings of Sutherland and Everett Hughes's sociology of occupations to present an occupational perspective on crime as “work,” with special focus on the practices and skill of burglars and robbers.

      Prus, R., & Sharper, C. R. D. (1977). Road hustler: The career contingencies of professional card and dice hustlers. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath.

      This work applies Sutherland's notion of “professional thief” to card and dice hustlers (via “C.R.D. Sharper” and hustlers he knew). Prus expands on Sutherland's theory of differential association by incorporating key ideas from symbolic interactionism to better explain the processes by which criminal careers stabilize.

      Steffensmeier, D. J., & Ulmer, J. (2005). Confessions of a dying thief: Understanding criminal careers and criminal enterprise. New Brunswick, NJ: Aldine Transaction.

      Along with the companion work The Fence (authored by Steffensmeier), Confessions applies and expands key ideas of Sutherland to theft and fencing specifically as well as to theories of crime and deviance generally. In so doing, both works elucidate the how, when, and why of criminal involvements (including how they stabilize); the organization of crime and criminal enterprise; the role of opportunities in shaping criminal involvement, including their range and variability across individuals and groups; and how these opportunities have changed in recent decades.

      Thrasher, Frederick M.: The Gang

      Clark, K. B. (1965). Dark ghetto: Dilemmas of social power. New York: Harper & Row.

      The classic work on the “invisible walls” that shape the ghetto. Unlike the Chicago School, Clark applies the historical concept of the ghetto to the African American experience.

      Giordano, P. C. (1978). Girls, guys and gangs: The changing social context of female delinquency. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 69, 126–132.

      A sound scientific work establishing the female peer groups as a major influence in the lives of girls. Thrasher failed to give adequate attention to the realities of girls’ lives.

      Kornhauser, R. (1978). Social sources of delinquency: An appraisal of analytic models. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

      This essential work examines the adequacy of theoretical explanations for delinquency.

      Short, J. F., Jr., & Strodtbeck, F. L. (1965). Group process and gang delinquency. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

      This work is a thorough comparison of the adequacy of completing sociological perspectives on gangs, based on careful empirical research in Chicago in the 1950s and early 1960s.

      Turner, Ralph H.: Deviant Roles and the Social Construction of Behavior

      Turner, R. H. (1954). Self and other in moral judgment. American Sociological Review, 19, 249–259.

      This article describes the interrelationship between role-specific expectations for one's own behavior and expectations for the behavior or reactions of others when judging morally questionable activities.

      Turner, R. H. (1969). The public perception of protest. American Sociological Review, 34, 815–831.

      This article describes the social construction of deviance by exploring the how violent collective disturbances are defined as either protest or crime.

      Turner, R. H. (1972). Deviance avowal as neutralization of commitment. Social Problems, 19, 308–321.

      This article builds on labeling theory to understand when and under what conditions individuals accept a deviant label.

      Turner, R. H. (2002). Role theory. In J. H. Turner (Ed.), Handbook of sociological theory (pp. 233–254). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.

      This chapter summarizes Turner's role theory with particular attention to the interactive nature of role-making and the resolution of role conflict.

      Whyte, William Foote: Street Corner Society

      Adler, P. A., Adler, P., & Johnson, J. M. (Eds.). (1992). Street corner revisited [Special issue]. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 21.

      Commemorating the 50th anniversary of the publication of Street Corner Society, the Journal of

      Contemporary Ethnography dedicated a special issue to contemporary issues surrounding the book, particularly the debate surrounding the postmodernist critique of probing into the implicit authority of ethnographic analysis and writing.

      Brotherton, D., & Barrios, L. (2004). The almighty Latin king and queen nation: Street politics and the transformation of a New York City street gang. New York: Columbia University Press.

      Brotherton and Barrios provide a detailed analysis of the rise and fall of the Almighty Latin King and Queen Nation's reform process. It pays attention to history, social context, and patterns of social change within gangs over time.

      Hagedorn, J. (1998). People and folks: Gangs, crime and the underclass in a rustbelt city (2nd ed.). Chicago: Lakeview Press.

      Hagedorn interviewed gang members in Milwaukee about their participation in drug trafficking. The results show a wide range in duration and consistency among drug-selling gang members. Hagedorn attributes the inconsistent pattern of gang drug trafficking to the effects of economic restructuring in inner-city America.

      7. Cultural and Learning Theories of Crime
      Akers, Ronald L.: Social Learning Theory

      Akers, R. L. (1985). Deviant behavior: A social learning approach (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

      Ronald Akers demonstrates how social learning theory can be applied to the explanation of a wide variety of deviant behaviors.

      Akers, R. L. (2009). Social learning and social structure: A general theory of crime and deviance. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

      In this reissued version of the 1998 book of the same title, Ronald Akers details social learning theory's origins and theoretical statement, reviews the empirical research he has conducted to test the theory, and adds a social structural component to the theoretical model to enhance the theory's ability to account for crime and deviance. This book contains a new introduction by Akers that updates the theory's status.

      Anderson, Elijah: Code of the Street

      Anderson, E. (1990). Streetwise: Race, class, and change in an urban community. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

      In this ethnographic work, Anderson addresses the issue of how a black and impoverished community and a racially mixed middle-class and upper-class community are able to co-exist in the same public spaces. The work in Code of the Street developed from this book.

      Wilson, W. J. (1987). The truly disadvantaged: The inner city, the underclass, and public policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

      William Julius Wilson provides an in-depth discussion of the social pathologies of inner-city communities and an explanation for these social ills. Similar to Anderson (1999), Wilson identifies the devastating implication isolation from mainstream society has on communities.

      Bennett, William J., John J. DiIulio, Jr., and John P. Walters: Moral Poverty Theory

      Bennett, W. J., DiIulio, J. J., Jr., & Walters, J. P. (1996). Body count: Moral poverty … and how to win America's war against crime and drugs. New York: Simon & Schuster.

      In this book, William Bennett, John DiIulio, and John Walters introduce their moral poverty theory. The authors define moral poverty, discuss its influence on violent crime and drugs in America, and offer solutions to the problem of moral poverty.

      Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

      Gottfredson and Hirschi offer a theory about self-control and crime. This theory includes the characteristics that Bennett et al. attribute to moral poverty but offers a different way to view their connection to crime.

      Matza, David, and Gresham M. Sykes: Subterranean Values and Delinquency

      Inglehart, R., Basanez, M., Dietz-Medrano, J., Halman, L., & Luijkz, R. (2004). Human beliefs and values: A cross cultural sourcebook on the 1999–2002 value surveys. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Siglo XXI Editores.

      This work demonstrates support for the cognitive process intuited by Sykes and Matza.

      Rokeach, M. (1973). The nature of human values. New York: Free Press.

      Provides a summary of the developments of the social psychology of values that took place after Sykes and Matza published the idea of subterranean values.

      Schwartz, S. H. (2006). A theory of cultural value orientations: Explication and applications. Comparative Sociology, 5, 137–182.

      While, Schwartz (2006) does not use the term “subterranean,” this work conceives of values—similar to Sykes and Matza—as existing in a hierarchical cognitive system that directs behavior through our preferences and attitudes.

      Miller, Walter B.: Lower-Class Culture Theory of Delinquency

      Brownfield, D. (1986). A reassessment of cultural deviance theory. Deviant Behavior, 8, 343–359.

      In this article, the contributions of subcultural theories of crime and delinquency are re-examined. If social class is measured in terms of unemployment status and receipt of welfare benefits, then there is more support for the subcultural theory (regarding predictions such as the positive correlations between class and measures of subcultural values and between class and crime itself).

      Brownfield, D. (1996). Subcultural theories of crime and delinquency. In J. Hagan, A. R. Gills, & D. Brownfield (Eds.), Criminological controversies (pp. 99–123). Boulder, CO: Westview.

      In this chapter, the emphasis on culture and on structure in criminological theories is reviewed. An innovative way to conceive of “subcultures” in terms of gender differences in criminal behavior is considered.

      Jensen, G., & Rojek, D. (1998). Delinquency and youth crime (3rd ed.). Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.

      In this text, the authors provide a very useful comparison of the three major theories in criminology (social control, subcultural or cultural deviance, and anomie perspectives). Jensen and Rojek discuss central assumptions of all three theories. For example, what do subcultural theorists assume about human nature and conflict or consensus about social rules, in comparison to the assumptions made by social control theorists regarding human nature and social rules?

      Peers and Delinquency

      Akers, R. L. (1998). Social learning and social structure: A general theory of crime and deviance. Boston: Northeastern University Press.

      In this important work, Ronald Akers carefully delineates the principles of social learning theory, reviews the state of evidence and applies the theory to specific behaviors such as rape and drug abuse.

      Matsueda, R. L., & Anderson, K. (1998). The dynamics of delinquent peers and delinquent behavior. Criminology, 36, 269–308.

      This article offers a useful survey of the literature on delinquent peers and a thoughtful treatment of issues surrounding their measurement and effects.

      Reiss, A. J., Jr. (1986). Co-offender influences on criminal careers. In A. Blumstein, J. Cohen, J. Roth, & C. Visher (Eds.), Criminal careers and “career criminals” (pp. 121–160). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

      Perhaps the best treatment of co-offending ever published, this report helped revitalize research on the topic.

      Warr, M. (2002). Companions in crime. New York: Cambridge University Press.

      This book summarizes decades of research on co-offending and peer influence and sets forth a variety of possible mechanisms of peer influence.

      Sellin, Thorsten: Culture Conflict and Crime

      Lejins, P. P. (1987). Review essay. Criminology, 25, 975–988.

      In this essay, Peter Lejins gives an excellent overview of the biography of Thorsten Sellin as well as his intellectual career. Of particular importance is the coverage of the diversity of the career of Sellin.

      Lilly, J. R., Cullen, F. T., & Ball, R. A. (2007). Criminological theory: Context and consequences (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

      Lilly, Cullen, and Ball present a number of informative chapters where they overview the type of work being conducted by sociologists during the era in which Sellin was writing Culture Conflict and Crime.

      Wolfgang, M. E. (Ed.). (1968). Crime and culture: Essays in honor of Thorsten Sellin. New York: Wiley.

      This volume contains 21 articles focusing upon various aspects of the academic career of Sellin. The articles are written by former students, colleagues, and academics who knew Sellin during various stages of his career.

      Southern Subculture of Violence Theory

      Anderson, E. (1999). Code of the street: Decency, violence, and the moral life of the inner city. New York:

      W. W. Norton.

      Though not about southern violence per se, this award-winning urban ethnographic essay is the most widely acknowledged, contemporary theoretical treatment of subcultural deviance and crime. The book details the reality and life challenges specific to inner-city life (e.g., fear of crime and violence, teen pregnancy, drug use, and gangs) and how the urban underclass has developed a “streetcode” as a means of survival and interaction. Inner-city residents are dichotomized as “decent” or “street,” with the latter category displaying and intergenerationally transferring a criminal subculture.

      Nisbett, R. E., & Cohen, D. (1996). Culture of honor: The psychology of violence in the South. Boulder, CO: Westview.

      The disproportionate amount of violence in the American South is thoroughly examined in this brief book that makes a strong case indicting the South's distinctive regional attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors concerning honor. Situating southern values in the historical context of immigrant Scots-Irish herding economies to the southern highlands, this social-psychological/subcultural theory makes a compelling case for a southern subculture of violence based on geographical, historical, and social scientific evidence. In so doing, a thorough review and critical critique of alternative explanations for southern violence are provided.

      Webb, J. (2004). Born fighting: How the Scots-Irish shaped America. New York: Broadway Books.

      In as much as the Scots-Irish have been identified as the primary offending and victimization group in the extant southern subculture of violence literature, this part historical and part descriptive book traces the migration of the Scots-Irish to the United States and illustrates a tough and independent-minded Celtic people whose historical struggles against Rome and Britain have resulted in generational transference of a value system placing a premium on the use of violence and self-rule, as indicated by the legalism of states rights—a rallying point of southern cultural affirmation during military reconstruction after the war. The historical complexity and cultural fusion on a regional level concerning an insider-outsider social outlook attributed to southerners is discussed and informs understanding of high levels of violence in the region, generally, and why the Scots-Irish are such a fighting folk.

      Wolfgang, Marvin E., and Franco Ferracuti: Subculture of Violence Theory

      Borg, M. J. (1997). The Southern subculture of punitiveness? Regional variation in support for capital punishment. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 34, 25–45.

      This study is an interesting application of the subculture of violence theory. The southern region of the United States has been hypothesized to have a penchant for violence. This article follows with that line of thought and asks the question: If southerners are more aggressive in their interpersonal relationships, then to what degree do cultural factors affect their punishment decisions?

      Cao, L., Adams, A., & Jensen, V. J. (1997). A test of the black subculture of violence thesis: A research note. Criminology, 35, 367–379.

      This study is also an innovative application of the subculture of violence theory. In this article, the researchers test the theory's relevance to determining if violent values are widespread among African Americans.

      Wolfgang, M. E., & Ferracuti, F. (1967). The subculture of violence: Towards an integrated theory in criminology. London: Tavistock.

      This is the original work from which this entry is derived. A full account of the research behind the theory is included, and readers will gain a more in-depth understanding of the perspective from which the theory was generated.

      8. Anomie and Strain Theories of Crime and Deviance
      Agnew, Robert: General Strain Theory

      Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a general strain theory of crime and delinquency. Criminology, 30, 47–87.

      In this seminal piece, Robert Agnew outlined the key theoretical assumptions underlying his revision of strain theory. He also distinguished general strain theory from other theoretical approaches. The article paved the way for empirical tests as well as future theorizing.

      Agnew, R. (1995). Controlling delinquency: Recommendations from general strain theory. In H. Barlow (Ed.), Crime and public policy (pp. 43–70). Boulder, CO: Westview.

      General strain theory has unique implications for the control of crime and delinquency. In this chapter, Agnew shows how his theory can be applied to problems in the prevention and control of crime and, ultimately, how it can guide us toward a safer society.

      Agnew, R. (2001). Building on the foundation of general strain theory: Specifying the types of strain most likely to lead to crime and delinquency. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 38, 319–361.

      Robert Agnew offered his initial statement of general strain theory as a starting point and as a framework for future development. This article illustrates the development of the theory over time. Here, Agnew discusses the possibility that some strains may be more criminogenic than others, thereby adding precision and specificity to the theory.

      Agnew, R. (2006). Pressured into crime: An overview of general strain theory. Los Angeles: Roxbury.

      This book provides a comprehensive overview of general strain theory, discusses the relevance of the theory to key problems in criminology and criminal justice, and examines the existing body of evidence as it relates to the theory's validity. For students who wish to learn more about general strain theory, this short but engaging book provides an ideal resource.

      Cloward, Richard A.: The Theory of Illegitimate Means

      Cloward, R. A., & Ohlin, L. E. (1960). Delinquency and opportunity: A theory of delinquent gangs. New York: Free Press.

      In this work, Richard Cloward applied his theory of illegitimate means to explain gang delinquency in the United States. It is considered one of the most important theoretical statements in the strain theory tradition.

      Cloward, R. A., & Piven, F. F. (1979). Hidden protest: The channeling of female innovation and resistance. Signs, 4, 651–669.

      Twenty years after publishing his theory of illegitimate means, Richard Cloward joined with Francis Fox Piven to use this theory to explain how gender-related experiences and opportunities shaped the nature of female deviance.

      Cullen, F. T. (1984). Rethinking crime and deviance theory: The emergence of a structuring tradition. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Allenheld.

      Francis Cullen was Richard Cloward's doctoral student at Columbia University. For his dissertation, later published as this book, Cullen took Cloward's ideas and applied them to theories of crime and deviance generally.

      Cloward, Richard A., and Lloyd E. Ohlin: Delinquency and Opportunity

      Agnew, R. (2006). Pressured into crime: An overview of general strain theory. Los Angeles: Roxbury.

      With his general strain theory, Robert Agnew revitalized the work of Robert Merton, Albert Cohen, and Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin. In this book, Agnew provides an up-to-date and readable summary of contemporary strain theory.

      Cullen, F. T. (1984). Rethinking crime and deviance theory: The emergence of a structuring tradition. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Allenhend.

      Francis Cullen was Richard Cloward's doctoral student at Columbia University. For his dissertation, later published as this book, Cullen took Cloward's ideas and applied them to theories of crime and deviance generally.

      Cullen, F. T. (1988). Were Cloward and Ohlin strain theorists? Delinquency and opportunity revisited. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 25, 214–241.

      In this essay, Francis Cullen shows that many scholars have assumed that Cloward and Ohlin are merely strain theorists. In so doing, they neglect the most innovative thesis at the core of Delinquency and Opportunity: the role of illegitimate means in channeling motivated offenders into one criminal role rather than another.

      Cohen, Albert K.: Delinquent Boys

      Cohen, A. K. (1955). Delinquent boys: The culture of the gang. New York: Free Press.

      This is the original treatise that presents the theory discussed herein.

      Lilly, J. R., Cullen, F. T., & Ball, R. A. (2007). Criminological theory: Context and consequence (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

      This book offers an overview of theoretical criminology, including those from Cohen's era as well as more recent theoretical explanations of crime.

      Messerschmidt, J. (2000). Nine lives: Adolescent masculinities, the body, and violence. Boulder, CO: Westview.

      Using more contemporary theories of gender, the author analyzes the relationship between different forms of masculinity and violent delinquent behavior.

      Durkheim, Émile: Anomie and Suicide

      Adler, F., Laufer, W. S., & Merton, R. K. (Eds.). (1999). The legacy of anomie theory (Advances in Criminological Theory: Vol. 6). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

      This book provides a detailed examination of anomie, including the changes in its development and application in criminology.

      Emirbayer, M. (1996). Durkheim's contribution to the sociological analysis of history. Sociological Forum, 11, 263–284.

      This article provides a good discussion Durkheim's works and his contributions to the field of sociology.

      Pope, W. (1976). Durkheim's “Suicide”: A classic analyzed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

      This book provides a useful assessment of Durkheim's findings and discussion in Suicide (1897), which is somewhat easier to comprehend than the original work.

      Puffer, P. (2009). Durkheim did not say “normlessness”: The concept of anomic suicide for introductory sociology courses. Southern Rural Sociology, 24, 200–222.

      Centered on the variation in defining anomie by introduction to sociology textbooks, this article provides a clear discussion of the concept of anomie that is easy for younger academics to understand.

      Hagan, John, and Bill McCarthy: Mean Streets and Delinquency

      Hagan, J., & McCarthy, B. (1997). Mean streets: Youth crime and homelessness. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

      This book outlines in detail the development and testing of the theoretical model. The combination of qualitative/quantitative data sources in multiple locations, longitudinal panel design, and the comparative street/school samples makes this work one of the most methodologically comprehensive in criminology. Its movement between theoretical integration, generation, and testing provides an exemplary model for research.

      McCarthy, B., & Hagan, J. (1998). Uncertainty, cooperation, and crime: Understanding the decision to co-offend. Social Forces, 77, 155–176.

      In this article, Hagan and McCarthy extend their work by exploring how adversity on the street and connections with potential co-offenders influences street youths’ readiness to trust others. This trust, in turn, influences street youths’ willingness to collaborate and cooperate with others that increases participation in criminal activity.

      McCarthy, B., & Hagan, J. (2001). When crime pays: Capital, competence, and criminal success. Social Forces, 79, 1035–1060.

      Hagan and McCarthy build further on their work by examining the roles of human capital, social capital, and personal capital, factors associated with conventional economic success, contribute to the illegal earnings of youth on the street. Here they discover that criminal economic success is more likely for youths who desire wealth (personal capital) and for those with the personal capital characteristic of competence when they are willing to collaborate with others (personal capital), specialize in certain offenses (criminal human and social capital), and enjoy risk taking (personal capital).

      Merton, Robert K.: Social Structure and Anomie

      Agnew, R. (2006). Pressured into crime: An overview of general strain theory. Los Angeles: Roxbury.

      Robert Agnew has developed an important extension of social structure and anomie by detailing the diverse strains that may lead individuals into crime. This book provides an introduction to and a summary of the evidence on Agnew's “general strain theory.”

      Merton, R. K. (1938). Social structure and anomie. American Sociological Review, 3, 672–682.

      In this classic essay, Robert K. Merton first outlined his theory of social structure and anomie. Those interested in Merton's “classic” anomie theory should start their inquiry with this article.

      Messner, S. F., & Rosenfeld, R. (2007). Crime and the American dream (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

      In this book, Steven F. Messner and Richard Rosenfeld present an important extension of Merton's anomie theory. The authors formulate an “institutional-anomie” theory of crime that explains how the functioning of the major social institutions in society generates and reinforces the anomic features of the “American Dream.”

      Messner, Steven F., and Richard Rosenfeld: Institutional-Anomie Theory

      Merton, R. K. (1938). Social structure and anomie. American Sociological Review, 3, 672–682.

      Seminal article in which Robert K. Merton first outlined his anomie theory, upon which institutional-anomie theory is built heavily. A must read for those interested in anomie theory.

      Messner, S. F., & Rosenfeld, R. (2007). Crime and the American dream (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

      A highly accessible and relatively short book suitable for those interested in anomie theory and those interested generally in geographic variation in crime or specifically why America exhibits particularly high levels of violence.

      Parsons, Talcott: Aggression in the Western World

      Cohen, A. K. (1955). Delinquent boys: The culture of the gang. New York: Free Press.

      Cohen expands on Parsons's 1947 paradigm with his evaluation of the delinquent subculture. This extrapolation is particularly relevant to criminologists because it is considered the first in-depth attempt to explain this phenomenon.

      Weber, M. (1905). The protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism. New York: Scribner's.

      In this famous text, Weber discusses the evolution and spirit of the capitalist system. While in graduate school in Europe, Parsons translated this text into English. His experience performing this task had a tremendous influence on the way he viewed social processes. Particularly, Weber's concept of “rationalization” continued to exert an influence on Parson's work throughout his adult life.

      Stinchcombe, Arthur L.: Rebellion in a High School

      Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a General Strain Theory of crime and delinquency. Criminology, 30, 47–87.

      Departing from strain theorists Merton, Cohen, and Cloward and Ohlin, Robert Agnew provides a general overview of strain theory, focusing on the emotional and environmental causes.

      Cohen, A. K. (1955). Delinquent boys: The culture of the gang. New York: Free Press.

      A classic for anyone interested in criminology, youths, and delinquency, Delinquent Boys develops a theory of subculture that ties together an analysis of social class to micro and macro determinants of delinquency, from individual personality to social structure. Subcultural delinquency simultaneously achieves status among peers while protesting adult systems of authority.

      Merton, R. K. (1938). Social structure and anomie. American Sociological Review, 3, 672–682.

      Following Durkheim, and arguably the first articulation of strain theory, Robert Merton addresses the impact of social structures on determining deviant and conforming behavior. Merton focuses primarily on culturally defined goals and the structural modes by which those goals are achieved.

      Thio, Alex: Relative Deprivation and Deviance

      Rushing, W. A. (1972). Class, culture, and alienation. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath.

      This book provides data to support the difference between relative deprivation and absolute deprivation.

      Thio, A. (1973). Class bias in the sociology of deviance. The American Sociologist, 8, 1–12.

      This is the original article that discusses the relationship between class bias and deviant behavior.

      Thio, A. (1975). A critical look at Merton's anomie theory. Pacific Sociological Review, 18, 139–158.

      This article critiques Merton's premise that lower-class members of society are more likely to participate in deviant behaviors due to the greater disjunction between their aspirations and opportunities. It also describes the differences between relative and absolute deprivation and the association between deprivation, social class, and deviance.

      9. Control Theories of Crime
      Briar, Scott, and Irving Piliavin: Delinquency, Commitment, and Stake in Conformity

      Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley: University of California Press.

      Hirschi provides the most widely cited version of control theory. He further defines Briar and Piliavin's concept of commitment and adds the remaining three bonds of attachment, control, and belief.

      Laub, J. H., & Sampson, R. J. (2003). Shared beginnings, divergent lives: Delinquent boys to age 70. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

      The authors examine the Gluecks’ data, and apply concepts of control over the life course. We see control theory being integrated into new and exciting theories such as this life-course perspective.

      Matza, D. (1964). Delinquency and drift. New York:


      In this classic piece, Matza examines how individuals are typically not “all bad.” For many, participation in crime it is not a way of life; rather they drift in and out of this behavior. His study sets the tone for situational inducements into crime.

      Gottfredson, Michael R., and Travis Hirschi: Self-Control Theory

      Geis, G. (2000). On the absence of self-control for the basis of a general theory of crime: A critique. Theoretical Criminology, 4, 35–53.

      In this essay, Gilbert Geis offers a critique of Gottfredson and Hirschi self-control theory as it relates to scientific standards. More specifically, he addresses issues of child-rearing and self-control, tautology, opportunity as a concept in self-control theory, how self-control theory deals with white-collar crime, and age and crime, to name only a few.

      Goode, E. (Ed.). (2008). Out of control: Assessing the general theory of crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

      This book is a recent edited volume of original essays summarizing Gottfredson and Hirschi's contributions to criminological theory. Specifically, this volume provides a thorough summary of debates and criticisms regarding self-control theory from experts that often have very different opinions.

      Marcus, B. (2004). Self-control in the general theory of crime: Theoretical implications of a measurement problem. Theoretical Criminology, 8, 33–55.

      In this essay, Bernd Marcus suggests that many of the studies testing self-control are seriously flawed and misleading. He argues that the reason for this is due to how self-control has been measured. After reviewing previous measures of self-control, Marcus put forth criteria that must be met for a valid measure of self-control.

      Hagan, John: Power-Control Theory

      Hagan, J. (1989). Structural criminology. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

      This work provides a thorough overview of power-control model, and references many of the early articles that produced the original framework. It also provides other insights into the roles that the social structure and class play in generating criminal outcomes.

      Hirschi, Travis: Social Control Theory

      Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

      This work provides a later version of control theory, which shows how Hirschi's thinking evolved later in his career. Gottfredson and Hirschi acknowledge the stability of offending over time and explain that stability with reference to self-control, which the authors argue is formed in early childhood.

      Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley: University of California Press.

      This was the original presentation of Hirschi's social control theory.

      Hirschi, T. (2002). The craft of criminology: Selected papers. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

      This book provides an overview of the work of Hirschi's career and provides further context for social control theory.

      Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (1993). Crime in the making: Pathways and turning points through life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

      Sampson and Laub's theory draws on both social control theory and self-control theory to explain changes in the likelihood of offending over the life course.

      Matza, David: Delinquency and Drift

      Currie, E. (2004). The road to whatever: Middle-class culture and the crisis of adolescence. New York: Metropolitan Books.

      A study of delinquency among middle-class youth influenced by Matza's conception of “drift.”

      Matza, D. (1969). Becoming deviant. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

      Further development and elaboration of the author's critical perspective on contemporary theories of deviant behavior.

      Sykes, G. M., & Matza, D. (1957). Techniques of neutralization: A theory of delinquency. American Sociological Review, 22, 664–670.

      An early, influential discussion of the key concept of neutralization and its significance for theories of delinquency.

      Nye, F. Ivan: Family Controls and Delinquency

      Britt, C. L., & Gottfredson, M. R. (Eds.). (2003). Control theories of crime and delinquency. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

      This collection of papers on social control theory by many different scholars provides a more up-to-date and more diverse view of the theoretical perspective 45 years after Nye's initial explication. It shows how the theory has been developed and applied to different research questions.

      Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley: University of California Press.

      Published a decade after Nye's book, Hirschi's book provided a more focused analysis of indirect social controls over juvenile delinquency and extends the analysis of social control beyond the family to the influence of peers, schools, and other outside settings. Hirschi's description is widely regarded as the definitive discussion of indirect social control.

      Vold, G. B., Bernard, T. J., & Snipes, J. B. (2002). Theoretical criminology (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.

      This criminological theory text provides a very succinct yet comprehensive overview of social control theory and the criminological research by which it has been developed and tested. Chapter 10 describes a number of the original contributors to the historical development of social control theory (including Ivan Nye) and evaluates their contributions to the theory.

      Reckless, Walter C.: Containment Theory

      Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley: University of California Press.

      In much the same fashion of Reckless, Hirschi devises a control theory promoted as being a general theory of crime. Some scholars have noted that Reckless's containment theory laid the foundation for Hirschi's more contemporary, but seminal work.

      Martin, R., Mutchnick, R. J., & Austin, W. T. (1990). Criminological thought: Pioneers past and present. New York: Macmillan.

      In this work, the authors provide very detailed biographical information on Walter C. Reckless from various sources including personal discussions with Dr. Simon Dinitz and Mrs. Martha Reckless.

      Reiss, Albert J., Jr.: Personal and Social Controls and Delinquency

      Farrington, D. P. (Ed.). (2008). Integrated developmental and life course theories of offending (Advances in Criminological Theory: Vol. 14). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

      In this book, David Farrington has compiled a number of works that integrate perspectives explaining deviance from the individual, family, peer, school, neighborhood, and community perspectives. Many of the included works suggest that controls at both the personal and societal levels are important in explaining deviance at various phases throughout one's life course.

      Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley: University of California Press.

      In this book, Travis Hirschi articulates what later became known as social bond theory. Many of his ideas about the elements of the social bond can be traced (both directly and indirectly) to the personal and social control elements articulated by Reiss in 1951.

      McCord, J. (Ed.). (1995). Coercion and punishment in long-term perspectives. New York: Cambridge University Press.

      Joan McCord has compiled a number of works that examine, longitudinally, the impact of various forms of personal and social controls on delinquency. The impact of both parental and social sanctions, and their effectiveness in reducing delinquency, is examined from a wide variety of theoretical perspectives.

      Reiss, A. J., Jr. (1951). Delinquency as the failure of personal and social controls. American Sociological Review, 16, 196–207.

      In this article, Reiss articulates his ideas about both personal and social controls. This article serves as the foundation of his theoretical perspective articulated here.

      Sykes, Gresham M., and David Matza: Techniques of Neutralization

      Agnew, R. (1994). The techniques of neutralization and violence. Criminology, 32, 555–580.

      Agnew's paper is perhaps the most methodologically sound longitudinal study of neutralizations. Using the National Youth Survey (NYS), Agnew showed a significant relation between neutralization and future violent behaviors.

      Maruna, S., & Copes, H. (2005). What have we learned from fifty years of neutralization research? In M. Tonry (Ed.), Crime and justice: A review of research (Vol. 32, pp. 221–320). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

      Maruna and Copes provide the most comprehensive overview and summary of the theory. In addition they propose a modification of the theory by arguing that neutralization theory is best understood as an explanation of criminal persistence or desistance, rather than initiation.

      Maruna, S., & Mann, R. (2006). Fundamental attribution errors? Re-thinking cognitive distortions. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 11, 155–177.

      Maruna and Mann discuss the policy implications of neutralization theory. In particular, they argue that the world of cognitive-based offender treatment has misunderstood and misapplied the research on offender neutralizations. They suggest a new way forward that is more in line with both the original theory and the latest research in this regard.

      Sykes, G. M., & Matza, D. (1957). Techniques of neutralization: A theory of delinquency. American Sociological Review, 22, 664–670.

      This article is the original formulation of the theory. It is the article that all research on neutralizations is based.

      Topalli, V. (2005). When being good is bad: An expansion of neutralization theory. Criminology, 43, 797–835.

      Topalli expanded the theory to show that people use neutralizations when they violate subcultural norms. He showed that persistent street offenders did not experience guilt when committing serious forms of crime and thus did not neutralize their criminal actions. They did, however, neutralize when they snitched or failed to retaliate when wronged.

      Tittle, Charles R., David A. Ward, and Harold G. Grasmick: The Capacity and Desire for Self-Control

      Hirschi, T. (2004). Self-control and crime. In R. F.

      Baumester & K. D. Vohs (Eds.), Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications (pp. 537–552). New York: Guilford Press.

      In this essay, Travis Hirschi agrees that his use of characteristics to describe self-control is incongruent with many of his original arguments. He therefore redefines low self-control as the tendency not to consider the full range of potential costs of a particular act. Although he uses items to measure his redefined version of self-control that are similar to Tittle et al.'s “desire to exercise self-control,” the fundamental distinction between capability and desire still exists.

      Reckless, W. C. (1967). The crime problem (4th ed.). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

      Reckless's containment theory proposes that there are two types of controls—inner and outer containment. By focusing on the environmentally influenced desire to self-control, Tittle et al.'s modification of self-control theory is in the spirit of earlier control theories that examined both the importance of inner and outer constraints.

      Tittle, C. R. (1995). Control balance: Toward a general theory of deviance. Boulder, CO: Westview.

      Tittle, Ward, and Grasmick (2004) created the concept “desire for self-restraint” by finding similar themes throughout competing criminological theories. This is a prime example of synthetic integration, a key step for criminology to progress according to Tittle in this book. In addition to providing a solid discussion and defense of synthetic integration, he critiques extant criminological theories, including self-control theory.

      Toby, Jackson: Stake in Conformity

      Toby, J. (1971). Contemporary society: An introduction to sociology (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.

      This was Toby's introduction to sociology textbook. He discusses his stake in conformity theory in the text and further elaborates on the ideas and theories of Talcott Parsons.

      Toby, J. (1974). The socialization and control of deviant motivation. In D. Glaser (Ed.), Handbook of criminology (pp. 85–100). Chicago: Rand McNally.

      In this article, Toby further discusses the role of families as sources of social control and applies Parsons's theories to an understanding of delinquency.

      Toby, J. (1979). Societal evolution and criminality: A Parsonian view. Social Problems, 26, 386–391.

      In this article, Toby argues that the work of his mentor, Talcott Parsons, could be used to understand variations in crime rates across jurisdictions. Parsons was Toby's mentor at Harvard University and wrote many articles elaborating on Parsons's ideas and theories.

      Toby, J. (2001). Let them drop out: A response to the killings in suburban high schools. Weekly Standard, 6(29), 18–23.

      In this article, Toby discusses the suburban school shootings that occurred at Columbine, Santana, and Granite Hills in the context of his stake in conformity theory.

      Wooldredge, J., & Thistlethwaite, A. (2002).

      Reconsidering domestic violence recidivism: Conditioned effects of legal controls by individual and aggregate levels of stake in conformity. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 18, 45–70.

      The authors explore the influence of both individual and aggregate level measures of Toby's stake in conformity theory in determining the effectiveness of court sanctions on domestic violence recidivism.

      Wells, Edward L., and Joseph H. Rankin: Direct Controls and Delinquency

      Rankin, J. H., & Wells, L. E. (1990). The effect of parental attachments and direct controls on delinquency. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 27, 140–165.

      The authors re-examine the impact of direct parental controls, indirect parental controls, and the relationship to delinquency. An analysis of the Youth in Transition data finds that while each control is important, the interactions between the variables are weaker than previous studies found.

      Rankin, J. H., & Wells, L. E. (2006). Social control theory and direct parental controls. In S. Henry & M. M. Lanier (Eds.), Essential criminology reader (pp. 119–128). Boulder, CO: Westview.

      This essay chronicles the development of social bond theory, discusses the effectiveness of direct and indirect controls, and focuses on the effects of family controls and policy considerations.

      Seydlitz, R. (1993). Complexity in the relationships among direct and indirect parental controls and delinquency. Youth and Society, 24, 243–275.

      This study tests the linearity of direct and indirect controls of parental attachment on delinquency. Seydlitz discusses the specifics of parental attachment, monitoring, and discipline. The findings conclude that interactions between the variables are gender and age-specific and depend on the type and intensity of direct control utilized.

      Wells, L. E., & Rankin, J. H. (1988). Direct parental controls and delinquency. Criminology, 26, 263–285.

      Rankin and Well propose a new view of direct controls. By reconceptualizing the concept to include regulation, monitoring and punishment, they find a stronger relationship to delinquency than previous studies.

      10. Labeling and Interactionist Theories of Crime
      Athens, Lonnie: Interaction and Violence

      Athens, L. (2003). Violentization in larger social context. In J. T. Ulmer (Ed.), Violent acts and violentization: Assessing, applying, and developing Lonnie Athens’ theories (pp. 1–42). Oxford, UK: Elsevier Science.

      In this article, Athens intended to extend his violentization theory toward the macro-social perspective. Efforts were made to establish the linkage between the micro-level theory and macro-level social characteristics, such as social structure and community culture. With the newly amended theory, Athens expected to counter the criticism that violentization theory fails to see the larger social context underlying violent conduct.

      Ulmer, J. T. (Ed.). (2003). Violent acts and violentization: Assessing, applying, and developing Lonnie Athens’ theories. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Science.

      Articles with in-depth discussions of Athens's arguments about the decision process, self-image, and interpreting social experience of violent criminals are gathered in this edited book. The contributors’ works enhance Athens's violentization theory and also provide insights on linking Athens's theory to social learning theory and labeling theory in a comparative manner.

      Becker, Howard S.: Labeling and Deviant Careers

      Becker, H. S. (1963). Outsiders: Studies in the sociology of deviance. New York: Free Press.

      This is Howard S. Becker's primary work on deviance and, according to his website, is all he has to say on the topic to date.

      Bernberg, J. G., Krohn, M. D., & Rivera, C. J. (2006).

      Official labeling, criminal embeddedness, and subsequent delinquency: A longitudinal test of labeling theory. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 43, 67–88.

      This work is a current reexamination of labeling theory as is applies today. The article also references the work of Becker and others that may enhance understanding of labeling theoretical perspective.

      Cole, S. (1975). The growth of scientific knowledge: Theories of deviance as a case study. In L. A. Coser (Ed.), The idea of social structure: Papers in honor of Robert K. Merton (pp. 175–220). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

      This article was cited by Howard S. Becker on his website and provides another perspective on the theoretical approach to deviance.

      Lemert, E. M. (1951). Social pathology: A systematic approach to the theory of sociopathic behavior. New

      York: McGraw-Hill.

      In Social Pathology, Edwin Lemert developed the concepts of primary and secondary deviance. This distinction was an early statement of how societal reaction can stabilize individuals in deviant or criminal careers that otherwise might have been transitory.

      Tannenbaum, F. (1938). Crime and the community. Boston: Ginn.

      This work is considered to have great impact and influence in the formation of labeling theory and thus is essential in the creation of this perspective. In order to more fully understand the concepts that Becker discusses in his work and later studies in which empirical observations and findings are framed under labeling theory, an understanding of the historical foundation of the theory could be useful.

      Chambliss, William J.: The Saints and the Roughnecks

      Becker, H. (1963). Outsiders: Studies in the sociology of deviance. London: Free Press.

      Becker's classic book explains why some people are labeled as deviant and some are not, even for the same acts. The process and outcomes of labeling are explained by Becker.

      Macleod, J. (2008). Ain't no makin’ it: Aspirations and attainment in a low-income neighborhood (3rd ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview.

      Originally published in 1987, this is the third installment of Macleod's book that follows white and black adolescents from public housing over a period of 25 years. He explains how both class and race combine to determine one's future.

      Reiman, J. (1998). The rich get richer and the poor get prison: Ideology, class and criminal justice (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

      Reiman's classic work explains how having money and influence may actually decrease the chances of being arrested, prosecuted, or convicted of a crime. He details how white-collar crime is not taken as seriously as street crime by the criminal justice system.

      Cohen, Albert K.: Deviance and Control

      Cohen, A. K. (1955). Delinquent boys: The culture of the gang. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.

      This is Cohen's classic text that established the fundamental elements of strain theory. By building on Merton's theory of anomie and crime, Cohen created a theory of subcultural deviance and also explored the role masculinity plays in delinquency.

      Cohen, A. K. (1966). Deviance and control. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

      Deviance and Control provided an overview of deviance theories and allowed Cohen to refine his strain theory. Cohen suggested an integration of role theory, anomie theory, and cultural transmission theory in this text.

      Cohen, A. K. (1997). An elaboration of anomie theory. In N. Passas & R. Agnew (Eds.), The future of anomie theory (pp. 54–64). Boston: Northeastern University Press.

      Cohen's chapter in this book presented an opportunity for him to reflect on the impact of his theoretical work. Cohen also suggested that the choices made by both collectivities and individuals be studied to understand how both become involved in deviant behavior.

      Erikson, Kai T.: Wayward Puritans

      Durkheim, É. (1981). Rules of the sociological method. New York: Free Press.

      In this text, Durkheim laid out the thesis that deviance and criminality are an inevitable part of all societies. He stated that not only is deviance ubiquitous, but also it is necessary, within certain tolerance levels, for a healthy society.

      Merton, R. K. (1938). Social structure and anomie. American Sociological Review, 3(5), 672–682.

      This contribution to the sociology of deviance contravened Durkheim and Freud, theorizing that society actually contributed to the deviance of individuals rather than serving to minimize it. This revolutionary theory provided the foundation for a generation of social researchers on deviance and social control.

      Grounded Theory

      Bryant, A., & Charmaz, K. (Eds.). (2007). The SAGE handbook of grounded theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

      A collection of papers on the history, methods, and ongoing debates of the grounded theory approach by some of the preeminent scholars working within the grounded theory tradition today.

      Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

      Informed by the interactionist tradition, Charmaz offers a reflective and constructionist approach to grounded theory methodology that is very much in line with Glaser and Strauss's early work, as well as Strauss's (1993) Continual Permutations of Action. This methodological guide further refines and demystifies the grounded theory method from an interactionist perspective for another generation of qualitative researchers.

      Prus, R., & Grills, S. (2003). The deviant mystique. Westport, CT: Praeger.

      Many of those interested in the implications of grounded theory for the study of crime, deviance, and regulation are likely to find that this text is of particular value. Prus and Grills address the matters of people defining deviance and deviants, people's involvements and careers in deviance, their participation in subcultural deviance and solitary deviance, as well as the informal and formal regulation of deviance, the disinvolvement process, and the problematics of studying deviance. Not only do Prus and Grills take the deviance-making process apart piece by piece, but as ethnographers as well as social theorists who built directly on the works of Herbert Blumer, Anselm Strauss, and others in the Chicago tradition of symbolic interaction, Prus and Grills also provide one of the most sustained developments of grounded theory in the literature.

      Strauss, A. L. (1993). Continual permutations of action. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

      This text stands as a particularly potent testimony to the broader importance of grounded theory for the study of human group life and people's involvements in the many life-words or subcultures in which community life takes place. Strauss attempts to translate the pragmatist philosophical assumptions of Mead and other pragmatists into a “theory of action” and a guide for sociological (specifically interactionist) inquiry and analysis. This text is of great value to those of the human sciences and has much to offer to students of crime, deviance, and regulation as a highly instructive conceptual and methodological resource.

      Heimer, Karen, and Ross L. Matsueda: A Theory of Differential Social Control

      Heimer, K. (1995). Gender, race, and the pathways to delinquency. In J. Hagan & R. D. Peterson (Eds.), Crime and inequality (pp. 141–174). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

      In this book chapter, Karen Heimer examines the role of race in the process leading to gender differences in delinquency.

      Heimer, K. (1996). Gender, interaction, and delinquency: Testing a theory of differential social control. Social Psychology Quarterly, 59, 39–61.

      In this article, Karen Heimer employs differential social control theory to generate and test predictions about similarities and differences across gender in the relationship between commitment to reference groups, role-taking, and delinquency.

      Matsueda, R. L. (1992). Reflected appraisals, parental labeling, and delinquency: Specifying a symbolic interactionist theory. American Journal of Sociology, 97, 1577–1611.

      Karen Heimer and Ross Matsueda's differential social control theory is an extension of Ross Matsueda's earlier work, namely his symbolic interactionist theory of the self and delinquency. In this article, Matsueda outlined his symbolic interactionist theory of the self and delinquency as well as subjected the theory to empirical test.

      Matsueda, R. L., & Heimer, K. (1997). A symbolic interactionist theory of role-transitions, role-commitments, and delinquency. In T. P. Thornberry (Ed.), Developmental theories of crime and delinquency (pp. 163–213). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

      In this book chapter, Ross Matsueda and Karen Heimer argue for the utilities of the symbolic interactionist approach in general and their differential social control theory in particular in the study of crime and criminals over the life course.

      Katz, Jack: Seductions of Crime

      Cromwell, P. (Ed.). (2010). In their own words: Criminals on crime (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.

      Cromwell's anthology provides an in-depth examination of a broad range of criminal behavior. Through field research that includes firsthand accounts by offenders, the reader gains insight into the motives, methods, and rationalization of criminal behavior.

      Presser, L. (2008). Been a heavy life: Stories of violent men. Urbana: University of Illinois.

      In this book, Lois Presser provides a detailed account of interviews she conducted with men who commit violent crime. Presser's work goes beyond describing the stories of offenders to how these men construct their narratives, how these change, and what it means for our understanding of the people we most fear.

      LaFree, Gary D., and Christopher Birkbeck: Situational Analysis of Crime

      Clarke, R. V. (1980). “Situational” crime prevention: Theory and practice. British Journal of Criminology, 20, 136–147.

      Ronald Clarke provides an argument for the use of situational measures of crime, as opposed to a continued focus on dispositional theories of crime. In doing so, he lays the foundation for the development of situational crime prevention techniques.

      Cohen, L. E, & Felson, M. (1979). Social change and crime rate trends: A routine activity approach. American Sociological Review, 44, 588–608.

      Cohen and Felson (1979) lay the groundwork for future opportunity theories. In this work, they assess how an aggregate level of opportunity affects the aggregate crime rate. Later, this idea is taken to the individual level. The theory posits that criminal opportunity exists when motivated offenders and suitable targets converge in time and space in the absence of capable guardians.

      Sutherland, E. H. (1947). Principles of criminology (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott.

      Making a distinction between dispositional theories of crime/deviance and situational theories of crime/deviance, Edwin Sutherland argues that theorists need to address both. However, criminologists focused mainly on dispositional theories until the 1980s.

      Lemert, Edwin M.: Primary and Secondary Deviance

      Braithwaite, J. (1989). Crime, shame and reintegration. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

      In this book, Braithwaite presents one of the most noted contemporary labeling theories: the theory of reintegrative shaming. Of particular importance, Braithwaite argues that societal reaction can lead to either more or less offending, depending upon its nature—whether it is “stigmatizing shaming” or “reintegrative shaming.”

      Sherman, L. W. (1993). Defiance, deterrence, and irrelevance: A theory of criminal sanction. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 30, 445–473.

      Like Braithwaite, Sherman also presents the idea that societal reaction (i.e., intervention) can have negative effects, but it can also have positive or null effects. Intervention are most likely to produce negative effects (i.e., defiance) if the person receiving the intervention is weakly bonded to society and defines the intervention as undeserved or unfair.

      Luckenbill, David F.: Stages in Violence

      Blumer, H. (1969). Symbolic interactionism: Perspective and method. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

      Blumer's work provides a good jumping off point for readers interested in a further discussion of symbolic interactionism. This work will help readers struggling with the concepts of microsociology.

      Goffman, E. (1967). Interaction ritual: Essays on face-to-face behavior. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.

      Goffman's essays provide a detailed description of his theory of “face.” Luckenbill refers to this work throughout his essay on the stages in violence. Readers interested in learning more about Goffman's analysis of face-to-face interaction should find this work useful.

      Matsueda, Ross L.: Reflected Appraisals and Delinquency

      Heimer, K., & Matsueda, R. L. (1994). Role-taking, role commitment, and delinquency: A theory of differential social control. American Sociological Review, 59, 39–61.

      In this article, Heimer and Matsueda extend Matsueda's theory of reflected appraisals. In particular, the authors address how social control—also integral to understanding delinquency from an interactionist perspective—is combined with reflected appraisals of self. They also discuss more fully how social interactions are organizationally structured.

      Matsueda, R. L., & Heimer, K. (1997). A symbolic interactionist theory of role transitions, role commitments, and delinquency. In T. P. Thornberry (Ed.), Developmental theories of crime and delinquency (pp. 163–213). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

      This book chapter builds upon both Matsueda (1992) and Heimer and Matsueda (1994) by exploring how reflected appraisals and differential social control can be useful in understanding crime over the life course.

      Matza, David: Becoming Deviant

      Matza, D. (1964). Delinquency and drift. New York:


      In his drift theory, Matza argues that adolescents are neither committed nor compelled to delinquency and that delinquents are not really different from law-abiding youths. Instead, youths drift between conventional behavior and delinquency, often feeling guilt as a result of their delinquent acts.

      Matza, D., & Sykes, G. M. (1961). Juvenile delinquency and subterranean values. American Sociological Review, 26, 712–719.

      Building on their earlier discussion of neutralization theory, Matza and Sykes provide an example of soft determinism in which youths select from among values available in their immediate environment. Youths are exposed to both conventional and subterranean (deviant) values that exist alongside one another, and displays of deviant values often provide greater status than conventional values.

      Sykes, G. M., & Matza, D. (1957). Techniques of neutralization: A theory of delinquency. American Sociological Review, 22, 664–670.

      This essay, published 12 years before Matza's Becoming Deviant, is considered one of the seminal works in the interactionist perspective. The authors argue that formal social controls, and the guilt that often follows violations of law, are effectively neutralized for delinquents through a variety of justifications and rationalizations.

      Schur, Edwin M.: Radical Non-Intervention and Delinquency

      Becker, H. S. (1963). Outsiders: Study in the sociology of deviance. New York: Free Press.

      Schur based a large portion of Radical Non-Intervention on Becker's labeling theory. In this book, Becker introduced labeling theory and illustrated how assigning negative labels to juveniles can result in “secondary” delinquency.

      Platt, A. (1969). The child savers: The invention of delinquency. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

      The primary thesis in radical non-intervention theory is that the juvenile justice system intrudes too far into the lives of youths. In this book, Platt describes the history of the juvenile justice system, including its political and social origins.

      Shelden, R. G. (n.d.). Resurrecting radical nonintervention: Stop the war on kids. Retrieved January 5, 2009, from the Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice: http://www.cjcj.org/files/radical.pdf

      It has been more than 30 years since Schur published Radical Non-Intervention. In this essay, Shelden gives an up-to-date synopsis of the theory and argues that its core concepts remain applicable today.

      Spector, Malcolm, and John I. Kitsuse: Constructing Social Problems

      Best, J. (2008). Social problems. New York: W. W. Norton.

      Spector and Kitsuse sought to provide an introduction to constructionist thinking about social problems. Best has a similar goal but seeks to build on the theoretical developments since Constructing Social Problems appeared.

      Holstein, J. A., & Gubrium, J. F. (Eds.). (2008). Handbook of constructionist research. New York: Guilford.

      Constructionist thought has evolved in many directions since Spector and Kitsuse wrote. This collection surveys developments in the constructionist approach across the social sciences.

      Jenness, V., & Grattet, R. (2001). Making hate a crime: From social movement to law enforcement. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

      Spector and Kitsuse's ideas have inspired hundreds of case studies that extend the constructionist perspective, including many concerned with crimes. Jenness and Grattet's monograph explores constructionist processes in establishing and enforcing hate crime laws.

      Sudnow, David: Normal Crimes

      Sudnow, D. (1967). Passing on: The social organization of dying. New York: Prentice Hall.

      Using similar methods, Sudnow takes his concept of “normal” activities and applies it to a medical context. In this book, he looks at how dying is managed by various actors in an urban hospital. He is especially interested in the idea of a normal death, which, like a normal crime, has a pattern to which the actors fit the case, instead of fitting a pattern to a case.

      Tannenbaum, Frank: The Dramatization of Evil

      Becker, H. S. (1963). Outsiders: Studies in the sociology of deviance. New York: Free Press.

      In his book, Howard Becker provides an outline of his social reaction theory that was one of the first comprehensive labeling theories developed. Becker's piece focuses on the creation of deviance by social groups and how rule-breakers view themselves differently from the rest of society.

      Chambliss, W. J. (1973). The saints and the roughnecks. Society, 11, 24–31.

      In his piece, William J. Chambliss provides an examination of two groups of males from the same high school who were both involved in delinquent behavior. He examines how the community's perceptions of the groups helped influence the future success of the Saints and the failure of the Roughnecks.

      11. Theories of the Criminal Sanction
      Becker, Gary S.: Punishment, Human Capital, and Crime

      Ehrlich, I. (1974). The supply of illegitimate activities: An economic approach. In G. S. Becker & W. M. Landes (Eds.), Essays in the economics of crime and punishment (pp. 68–134). New York: Columbia University Press.

      Isaac Ehrlich uses economic choice theory to construct a model of decision-making between legal and illegal behavior. Under the assumption that human beings are rational, Ehrlich argues that individuals compare alternatives on the basis of their expected utility and seek to maximize welfare.

      McCarthy, B. (2002). New economics of sociological criminology. Annual Review of Sociology, 28, 417–442.

      In this essay, Bill McCarthy summarizes the rational choice model and its relevance to the study of criminal behavior. He argues that combining the rational choice model with sociological perspectives provides insight toward our understanding of, and ability to predict, criminal behavior.

      Braithwaite, John: Reintegrative Shaming Theory

      Ahmed, E., Harris, N., Braithwaite, J., & Braithwaite, V. (2001). Shame management through reintegration. Melbourne, Australia: Cambridge University Press.

      This book offers a revision of the theory that incorporates ideas form shame management, procedural justice and defiance theory.

      Braithwaite, J. (2002). Restorative justice and responsive regulation. New York: Oxford University Press.

      This book discusses the complementary relationship between Ayres and Braithwaite's (1992) theory of responsive regulation, which had initially been applied for business non-compliance, and restorative justice.

      Braithwaite, J., & Pettit, P. (1990). Not just deserts: A republican theory of criminal justice. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

      This book, which followed closely on Crime, Shame and Reintegration, presents a republican theory of criminal justice, which argues against the normative view of justice presented by just-deserts theory.

      Gendreau, Paul, D. A. Andrews, and James Bonta: The Theory of Effective Correctional Intervention

      Andrews, D. A., & Bonta, J. (2006). The psychology of criminal conduct (4th ed.). Newark, NJ: Anderson.

      This book can be used as a key reference for effective correctional practices. It provides a foundation for the theories and research that support the principles of effective intervention.

      Andrews, D. A., Zinger, I., Hoge, R., Bonta, J., Gendreau, P., & Cullen, F. T. (1990). Does correctional treatment work? A clinically relevant and psychologically informed meta-analysis. Criminology, 28, 369–404.

      This is the first meta-analysis to test the principles of effective intervention. It is also a classic study providing early support for the principles of effective intervention.

      Gendreau, P. (1996). The principle of effective intervention with offenders. In A. T. Harland (Ed.), Choosing correctional options that work: Defining the demand and evaluating the supply (pp. 117–130). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

      This is a classic article providing an early description of the principles of effective intervention. This article also touches upon principles of ineffective intervention, providing a framework for strategies that have lacked effectiveness in corrections.

      Gendreau, P., Smith, P., & Goggin, C. (2000). Treatment programs in corrections. In J. Winterdyk (Ed.), Corrections in Canada: Social reaction to crime (pp. 238–263). Toronto, ON: Prentice Hall.

      This book chapter provides a reader-friendly description of the principles of effective intervention, including empirical support for the principles.

      General Deterrence Theory

      Stack, S. (2001). Publicized executions and the incidence of homicide: Methodological sources of inconsistent findings. In M. A. DuPont-Morales, M. Hooper, & J. H. Schmidt (Eds.), Handbook of criminal justice administration (pp. 355–369). New York: Marcel Dekker.

      Provides the largest review of investigations (N=20) that measure public awareness of executions (most of the 104 investigations on executions and homicide do not measure awareness). Methodological differences among these studies are associated with the extent to which they find any deterrent effect.

      Yang, B., & Lester, D. (2008). The deterrent effect of executions: A meta-analysis thirty years after Ehrlich. Journal of Criminal Justice, 36, 453–460.

      This is the first meta-analysis of the universe of research on the impact of the death penalty on homicide. It covers 95 studies with adequate data published between 1975 and 2006. The average effect size, while not large, is consistent with general deterrence theory. Variation in the methodological features of studies is associated with the effect size reported.

      Gibbs, Jack P.: Deterrence Theory

      Pratt, T. C., Cullen, F. T., Blevins, K. R., Daigle, L. E., &

      Madensen, T. D. (2006). The empirical status of deterrence. In F. T. Cullen, J. P. Wright, & K. R. Blevins (Eds.), Taking stock: The status of criminological theory (Advances in Criminological Theory: Vol. 15, pp. 367–395). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

      Pratt et al. (2006) reveal Gibbs's continuing impact on deterrence research.

      Tittle, C. R. (1980). Sanctions and social deviance. New York: Praeger.

      Tittle (1980) was contemporaneous with Gibbs's deterrence publications and shows the breadth and depth of deterrence scholarship during its heyday in the 1970s and 1980s.

      Tonry, M. (2008). Learning from the limitations of deterrence research. In M. Tonry (Ed.), Crime and justice: A review of research (Vol. 37, pp. 279–312). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

      Many deterrence researchers continue to address the issues initially considered by Gibbs, bringing his goal of a deterrence theory closer to fruition. Tonry (2008) is a good example.

      Zimring, F. E., & Hawkins, G. (1973). Deterrence: The legal threat in crime control. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

      This timely piece provided an illustration of the importance of deterrence research.

      Incarceration and Recidivism

      Gendreau, P., Goggin, C., Cullen, F. T., & Andrews, D. A. (2000, May). The effects of community sanctions and incarceration on recidivism. Forum on Corrections Research, 12, 10–13.

      Gendreau et al. conducted a meta-analysis on the impact of incarceration on recidivism. They not only examined custodial versus non-custodial sanctions but also investigated the impact that the length of time served has on subsequent recidivism.

      Maurer, M. (1999). Race to incarcerate. New York: New Press.

      Maurer attempts to explain the multitude of reasons that have lead to the massive increase in the use of incarceration. He discusses multiple sentencing policies, the media, and the political advantage for politicians to be “tough on crime.” He also addresses the substantial number of minorities now incarcerated in U.S. prisons. A discussion of the impact of this incarceration boom on subsequent crime rates is also presented.

      Nagin, D. S., Cullen, F. T., & Jonson, C. L. (2009).

      Imprisonment and reoffending. In M. Tonry (Ed.), Crime and justice: A review of research (Vol. 38, pp. 115–200). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

      Nagin and colleagues extend Villettaz et al.'s (2006) systematic review of the research on incarceration and crime. Not only do these authors examine custodial versus non-custodial sanctions, but they also review the research on the length of incarceration. Nagin et al. take much care in ensuring that the findings are sound and control for the various factors believed to influence recidivism.

      Smith, P., Goggin, C., & Gendreau, P. (2002). The effects of prison sentences and intermediate sanctions on recidivism: General effects and individual differences (User report 2002–01). Ottawa, ON: Solicitor General Canada.

      Smith and colleagues expand the 2000 meta-analysis conducted by Gendreau et al. They examine the impact of custodial versus non-custodial sanctions and the length of time incarcerated on post-release recidivism. This meta-analysis is unique as it investigates the impact of multiple moderator variables on the results, such as age, gender, race, risk level, and quality of the research design.

      Villettaz, P., Killias, M., & Zoder, I. (2006). The effects of custodial vs. noncustodial sentences on re-offending: A systematic review of the state of knowledge. Philadelphia: Campbell Collaboration Crime and Justice Group.

      This article provides a systematic review of the current literature on the effects of custodial and non-custodial sanctions. It employs sound methodology so the findings can be viewed with reliability. It also includes studies both within and outside North America.

      McCarthy, Bill, and John Hagan: Danger and Deterrence

      Jaeger, C. C., Ortwin, R., Rosa, E. A., & Webler, T.

      (2001). Risk, uncertainty, and rational action. London: Earthscan.

      This book describes the Rational Actor Paradigm (RAP) and how the principles of this paradigm have been applied in economics, psychology, and sociology. Emphasis on risk assessment in each of the aforementioned disciplines is discussed.

      Pratt, T. C., Cullen, F. T., Blevins, K. R., Daigle, L. E., &

      Madensen, T. D. (2006). The empirical status of deterrence. In F. T. Cullen, J. P. Wright, & K. R. Blevins (Eds.), Taking stock: The status of criminological theory (Advances in Criminological Theory: Vol. 15, pp. 367–395). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

      This essay traces the empirical history and highlights recent theoretical advances in the area of deterrence. The authors also present findings from a meta-analysis of 40 empirical studies of deterrence.

      Nagin, Daniel S., and Raymond Paternoster: Individual Differences and Deterrence

      Nagin, D. S., & Paternoster, R. (1991). The preventive effects of the perceived risk of arrest: Testing an expanded conception of deterrence. Criminology, 29, 561–588.

      This article provides an early example of Nagin and Paternoster's thinking about the conditionally deterrent effects of sanctions. In this article, the threat of informal sanctions are considered in conjunction with more traditional measures of sanction threats typically examined in tests of deterrence theory.

      Nagin, D. S., & Paternoster, R. (1993). Enduring individual differences and rational choice theories of crime. Law and Society Review, 27, 467–496.

      This article focuses on the contributions of expected probability of sanctions, stable individual differences in the propensity to offend, and expected utility in the explanation of offending intentions. It expands on their earlier work by further elaborating the processes by which sanction threats are most salient and how sanction threats may fit into the entire offending decision-making process.

      Nagin, D. S., & Paternoster, R. (1994). Personal capital and social control: The deterrence implications of a theory of individual differences in criminal offending. Criminology, 32, 581–606.

      This article represents the most complete statement of the Nagin and Paternoster theory. It expands on previous work by fully elaborating a theory of offender decision making including attending to sanction threats, life-span developmental issues, and related issues of utility, conscience, and personal and social capital.

      Perceptual Deterrence

      Matsueda, R. L., Kreager, D. A., & Huizinga, D. (2006).

      Deterring delinquents: A rational choice model of theft and violence. American Sociological Review, 71, 95–122.

      Using sophisticated empirical methods and panel data from the Denver Youth Study, this article reports evidence for the two linkages of perceptual deterrence—that individuals who are punished elevate their perceptions of sanction risk, and that offending relates inversely to perceived sanction certainty.

      Pogarsky, G. (2007). Deterrence and individual differences among convicted offenders. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 23, 59–74.

      This study tested how variation in criminal propensity (operationalized as “self-control”) moderated deterrent effects in a sample of convicted offenders in New Jersey's Intensive Supervision Program (ISP) in 1989 and 1990. Offenders’ perceptions of the risks and consequences from violating ISP were associated with whether they successfully completed ISP. Moreover, lower self-control did not diminish and, if anything, enhanced these deterrent effects.

      Pogarsky, G. (in press). Deterrence and decision-making: Research questions and theoretical refinements. In M. D. Krohn, A. J. Lizotte, & G. P. Hall (Eds.), Handbook on crime and deviance. New York: Springer.

      This chapter comments on the current state of criminological deterrence research. It identifies areas of intersection between behavioral economics and criminological deterrence and suggests avenues of further investigation to improve our understanding of crime decisions.

      Pogarsky, Greg, and Alex R. Piquero: The Resetting Effect

      Clotfelter, C. T., & Cook, P. J. (1993). The “gambler's fallacy” in lottery play. Management Science, 39, 1521–1525.

      In their article, Charles Clotfelter and Philip Cook examine the gambler's fallacy using a lottery experiment. Their findings indicate that rare occurrences are discounted immediately after they occur.

      Gibbs, J. P. (1975). Crime, punishment, and deterrence. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

      In his book, Jack Gibbs discusses the deterrence doctrine, paying particular attention to the wide array of legal and non-legal elements that may be considered deterrents to law violation.

      Jacobs, B. A. (1996). Crack dealers and restrictive deterrence: Identifying narcs. Criminology, 34, 409–431.

      In his article, Bruce Jacobs examines the processes by which drug dealers legitimatize their customers. He identifies restrictive deterrence as a process whereby dealers reduce but do not completely refrain from offending following punishment. One type of restrictive deterrence is probabilistic—a reduction of offense frequency based on a law of averages.

      Zimring, F. E., & Hawkins, G. J. (1973). Deterrence: The legal threat in crime control. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

      In their book, Franklin Zimring and Gordon Hawkins focus on deterrence as the threat of legal punishments. They discuss the background and rationale of deterrence theory, distinguish general and specific deterrence, examine problems with measurement in deterrence research, and outline numerous issues warranting future research.

      Rose, Dina R., and Todd R. Clear: Coerced Mobility Theory

      Clear, T. R. (2007). Imprisoning communities: How mass incarceration makes disadvantaged neighborhoods worse. New York: Oxford University Press.

      This book provides an in-depth theoretical foundation for coerced mobility. Clear discusses in more detail how concentrated incarceration undermines the legitimate systems within which offenders are embedded. It also provides a detailed description of community justice.

      Sherman, Lawrence W.: Defiance Theory

      Bouffard, L. A., & Piquero, N. L. (2010). Defiance theory and life course explanations of persistent offending. Crime and Delinquency, 56, 227–252.

      This article provides the most recent and most complete test of defiance theory. It also includes a discussion of the link between defiance, labeling, and the life course perspective.

      Sherman, L. W. (1993). Defiance, deterrence, and irrelevance: A theory of the criminal sanction. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 30, 445–473.

      This article presents Sherman's defiance theory in full along with examples of defiant behavior and a review of the literature on sanction effects.

      Stafford, Mark C., and Mark Warr: Deterrence Theory

      Pogarsky, G., & Piquero, A. (2003). Can punishment encourage offending? Investigating the “resetting” effect. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 40, 95–120.

      This article investigates why punishment experiences may increase the likelihood of offending. The first hypothesis is that committed offenders are more likely to be punished, which is known as the selection account. The second hypothesis asserts that punished offenders believe they would have to be extremely unlucky to get caught again. The article concludes with a discussion of challenges posed to deterrence theory as a result of the “positive punishment effect.”

      Tyler, Tom R.: Sanctions and Procedural Justice Theory

      Tyler, T. R. (1990). Why people obey the law. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

      This book contrasts different perspectives on why people obey the law, explores how people react to their personal experiences with legal authorities, and explains the meaning of procedural justice. It provides a comprehensive analysis of the links among procedural justice, legitimacy, and compliance with the law and legal authorities.

      Tyler, T. R. (2003). Procedural justice, legitimacy, and the effective rule of law. In M. Tonry (Ed.), Crime and justice: A review of research (Vol. 30, pp. 283–357). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

      Based on Tyler's theory of procedural justice, this article analyzes the process-based model of regulation. It also provides a comprehensive review of previous empirical studies.

      Tyler, T. R., & Huo, Y. J. (2002). Trust in the law. New

      York: Russell Sage.

      This book explores the deference to legal authorities among minorities. Using empirical analyses, it emphasizes the role of procedural justice and legitimacy in shaping people's willingness to consent and cooperate with legal authorities.

      Williams, Kirk R., and Richard Hawkins: Deterrence Theory and Non-Legal Sanctions

      Akers, R. L. (1990). Rational choice, deterrence, and social learning theory in criminology. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 81, 653–676.

      Akers points to the conceptual and theoretical links between deterrence theory and rational choice theory and argues that both are deducible from social learning theory. He further argues that a social learning approach to deterrence offers the greatest promise for advancing an understanding of the deterrence process.

      Pratt, T. C., Cullen, F. T., Blevins, K. R., Daigle, L. E., & Madensen, T. D. (2006). The empirical status of deterrence. In F. T. Cullen, J. P. Wright, & K. R. Blevins (Eds.), Taking stock: The status of criminological theory (Advances in Criminological Theory: Vol. 15, pp. 367–395). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

      This article offers a systematic review and assessment of decades of deterrence studies and identifies directions for further research.

      Stafford, M. C., & Warr, M. (1993). A reconceptualization of general and specific deterrence. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 30, 123–135.

      Stafford and Warr propose a conceptualization of general and specific deterrence that considers the indirect and direct experiences of people with legal punishment and the implications of this conceptualization for such key deterrence issues as “experiential effects.”

      Tittle, C. R. (1980). Sanctions and social deviance. New York: Praeger.

      Tittle's book represents one of the first attempts to systematize deterrence theory. In the process, he points to the complexity of the deterrence process, including the possibility that a host of non-deterrence variables may condition the deterrent effects of legal punishment.

      12. Conflict, Radical, and Critical Theories of Crime

      Knopp, F. H., Boward, B., & Morris, M. O. (1976). Instead of prisons: A handbook for abolitionists. Syracuse, NY: Prison Research Education Action Project.

      Knopp et al.'s text provides a description of the practical application of abolitionist ideals. The text details the application of abolitionist ideology to the practice of eradicating prisons.

      Mathiesen, T. (1974). The politics of abolition. London: Martin Robertson.

      Thomas Mathiesen's text provides a strong basis on the concept of abolitionism. Mathiesen, one of the forefathers of abolitionist thought, details the development of the penal reform movement in Scandinavia, a movement that is strongly rooted in abolitionist ideology.

      Anarchist Criminology

      Capouya, E., & Tompkins, K. (Eds.). (1975). The essential Kropotkin. New York: Liveright.

      This collection of essays by Peter Kropotkin offers an accessible introduction to the work of one of the founding figures in anarchist theory, and perhaps the most important progenitor of anarchist criminology. Especially notable are the essays “Law and Authority” and “Prisons and Their Moral Influence on Prisoners.”

      Ferrell, J. (2001). Tearing down the streets: Adventures in urban anarchy. New York: Palgrave.

      This book blends perspectives from anarchist criminology with a wide-ranging account of contemporary anarchist activism and anarchist social movements, including homeless activists, micro-radio operators, bicycle militants, and those working to “reclaim the streets.” The anarchist critique of law is here embodied in an analysis of legal enforcement strategies that are designed to control marginal groups and to protect private economic development at the cost of urban community.

      Bonger, Willem: Capitalism and Crime

      Mike, B. (1976). Willem Adriaan Bonger's “Criminality and Economic Conditions”: A critical analysis. International Journal of Criminology and Penology, 4, 211–238.

      Mike takes a critical look at how Bonger's interpretation of Marx and the influence of Social Darwinism on his theory, and he further clarifies some of Bonger's arguments through his discussion of the difficulties with Bonger's approach.

      Van Bemmelen, J. M. (1955). Pioneers in criminology. Willem Adriaan Bonger. Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science, 46, 293–302.

      Van Bemmelen discusses the life history of Bonger and helps provide a social context to explain how and why Bonger became a criminologist as well as what influenced his perspective on crime causation.

      Chambliss, William J.: Power, Conflict, and Crime

      Chambliss, W. J. (with King, H.). (1972). Boxman: A professional thief's journal. New York: Harper & Row.

      In Boxman, William Chambliss expanded Edwin Sutherland's pioneering research on professional theft. Based on the diaries of a professional safe cracker named Harry King, whom Chambliss befriended during this research on organized crime in Las Vegas, Boxman remains a classic text on professional theft more than 30 years after its publication.

      Chambliss, W. J. (1978). On the take: From petty criminals to presidents. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

      On the Take constitutes a major contribution to the organized crime literature. William Chambliss argued that the Cosa Nostra or the Mafia was simply a smokescreen for a more complex set of social relations between financiers, businessmen, politicians, policemen and organized crime figures. Chambliss concluded that a symbiotic relationship between these individuals is essential for organized crime to survive in America.

      Chambliss, W. J., & Seidman, R. B. (1971). Law, order, and power. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

      Law, Order, and Power is a seminal textbook on law and society. Chambliss and Seidman advanced the conflict perspective beyond a Marxian discussion of law formation to an examination of the processes by which the interests of the rich and powerful are actually translated into law and administration.

      Colvin, Mark: Coercion Theory

      Alexander, A. D., & Bernard, T. J. (2002). A critique of Mark Colvin's, Crime and Coercion: An Integrated Theory of Chronic Criminality. Crime, Law and Social Change, 38, 389–398.

      This essay criticized the differential coercion theory for providing vague statements that are inappropriate for empirically testing the propositions of the theory. The authors proposed several statements that capture at least a portion of the theory and more suitable for empirical tests.

      Colvin, M. (2000). Crime and coercion: An integrated theory of chronic criminality. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

      Integrating several existing perspectives of criminology, Colvin lays out his differential coercion theory in this book with a great emphasis on the role of coercive forces that create social and psychological dynamics that lead to chronic criminality.

      Colvin, M. (2003). Crime and coercion. In F. T. Cullen & R. Agnew (Eds.), Criminological theory: Past to present—essential readings (pp. 379–386). Los Angeles: Roxbury.

      This chapter provides a compact essay for a general understanding of Colvin's differential coercion theory.

      Colvin, M. (2007). Applying differential coercion and social support theory to prison organizations. Prison Journal, 87, 367–387.

      Colvin tested the general premises of the differential coercion and social support theory using the levels of social support in the Penitentiary of New Mexico and coercion felt by the inmates thereof in different time periods. This study is important to observe how the variables of the differential coercion theory were included in an empirical theory testing.

      Unnever, J. D., Colvin, M., & Cullen, F. T. (2004). Crime and coercion: A test of core theoretical propositions. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 41, 244–268.

      Using 2,472 middle-school students, this study tested the core propositions of Colvin's differential coercion theory. Supporting the major arguments of the theory, this empirical test reported that participants exposed to coercion in their environments develop social-psychological deficits that lead them to delinquent behavior.

      Colvin, Mark, and John Pauly: A Structural Marxist Theory of Delinquency

      Colvin, M., Cullen, F. T., & Vander Ven, T. (2002).

      Coercion, social support and crime: An emerging theoretical consensus. Criminology, 40, 19–42.

      In this article, Mark Colvin, Francis Cullen, and Thomas Vander Ven propose an integrated theory of crime that addresses the causal role of coercion, a key concept included in the integrated structural Marxist theory of crime.

      Simpson, S., & Elis, L. (1994). Is gender subordinate to class? An empirical assessment of Colvin and Pauly's Structural Marxist Theory of Delinquency. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 85, 453–480.

      This article presents an empirical test of Colvin and Pauly's integrated structural Marxist theory of crime. In addition to testing the core propositions of the theory, Simpson and Elis examine the gender neutrality of the theory.

      Convict Criminology

      Irwin, J. (2005). The warehouse prison: Disposal of the new dangerous class. Los Angeles: Roxbury.

      A recent study of a modern prison in California. The author uses the convict criminology perspective in reporting qualitative interviews at length as support for policy changes.

      Irwin, J., & Austin, J. (1994). It's about time: America's imprisonment binge. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

      A book that recommends policy changes favored by the Convict Criminology Group. The authors make a strong case for immediate reductions in the nation's prison population.

      Newbold, G. (2007). The problem of prisons: Corrections reform in New Zealand since 1840. Wellington, New Zealand: Dunmore.

      The book looks at prison conditions in New Zealand. Special attention is paid to how the prisoners experience different levels of security.

      Ross, J. I., & Richards, S. C. (2002). Behind bars: Surviving prison. Indianapolis, IN: Alpha/Penguin.

      The book demonstrates how the convict criminology perspective can be used to trace the life of an anonymous defendant and convict. The everyman is followed from arrest, through court, jail, prison, and return home to the community.

      Ross, J. I., & Richards, S. C. (Eds.). (2003). Convict criminology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

      This is the book that first defined convict criminology as an emerging theoretical perspective and movement. This co-edited text includes nine autobiographical contributions of ex-convicts professors.

      Terry, C. M. (2003). The fellas: Overcoming prison and addiction. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

      Convict criminology perspective used to examine lives of heroin addicts. The ex-convict professor author interviews prisoners he did time with in prison. The book is an in-depth look at what happens to convict heroin addicts in prison and on the street.

      Cultural Criminology

      Ferrell, J., Hayward, K., Morrison, W., & Presdee, M. (Eds.). (2004). Cultural criminology unleashed. London: Glasshouse/Routledge.

      This collection of some 25 essays explores issues ranging from domestic violence, virtual grief, and urban symbolism to street fighting, the USA PATRIOT Act, and the multicultural administration of justice.

      Ferrell, J., Hayward, K., & Young, J. (2008). Cultural criminology: An invitation. London: Sage.

      This book offers perhaps the best single overview of cultural criminology as theory, method, and field of study. It includes discussions of cultural criminology in relation to stylistic innovation, media dynamics, everyday experience, and existing criminological theory.

      Presdee, M. (2000). Cultural criminology and the carnival of crime. London: Routledge.

      This innovative book mixes autobiography and historical analysis with accounts of advertising, music, and street crime in developing a cultural criminology attuned to the dangerous dynamics of carnival.

      Currie, Elliott: The Market Society and Crime

      Reiner, R. (2007). Law and order: An honest citizen's guide to crime and control. London: Cambridge University Press.

      Reiner analyzes the increase in crime in England linking it to unregulated capitalism, which results in higher poverty, unemployment, inequality, and authoritarian criminal justice control.

      Taylor, I. (1999). Crime in context: A critical criminology of market societies. Boulder, CO: Westview.

      Taylor looks at broad economic changes in Canada and how they have influenced crime and the criminal justice system. He specifically notes how the market economy has negatively transformed contemporary society.

      Young, J. (1999). The exclusive society: Social exclusion, crime and difference in late modernity. London: Sage.

      Young looks at changes in society from being very inclusive and homogenous to very exclusive. He identifies three areas of exclusion: economic, social, and the activities of the criminal justice system.

      Gordon, D. M.: Political Economy and Crime

      Box, S. (1987). Recession, crime and punishment. London: Macmillan.

      Stephen Box adds human agency to these structural explanations for the political economy shaping society's reaction to crime. He develops theoretical explanations for why human actors respond more aggressively during periods of economic stagnation.

      Hall, S., Critcher, C., Jefferson, T., Clarke, J., & Roberts, B. (1978). Policing the crisis: Mugging, the state, and law and order. London: Macmillan.

      Hall et al. demonstrate how a moral panic can be constructed and then impact crime control policy.

      Reiman, J. (2004). The rich get richer and the poor get prison: Ideology, crime, and criminal justice (7th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

      Jeffrey Reiman provides extensive evidence for how government crime control policy tends to support the interest of the capitalist class while providing social control over the poor.

      Rusche, G., & Kirchheimer, O. (1968). Punishment and social structure. New York: Russell and Russell. [Original work published in 1939]

      This is one of the first and more important works for establishing the relationship between the political economic structure and society's response to criminal behavior and deviance.

      Greenberg, David F.: Age, Capitalism, and Crime

      Ezell, M. E., & Cohen, L. E. (2005). Desisting from crime: Continuity and change in long term crime patterns of serious chronic offenders. New York: Oxford University Press.

      This statistical study uses three large samples of young offenders tracked over the period of time to assess age-crime patterns and to answer questions about their stability over time. Different theoretical perspectives are tested using sophisticated statistical models and the findings have serious implications for penal policies, such as “three strikes and you're out” convictions.

      Pequero, A. R., & Mazerolle, P. (Eds.). (2001). Life-course criminology: Contemporary and classic readings. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

      This reader consists of seminal articles written about theories of crime as it relates to human development and biological maturation. The life-course approach that is being assessed builds on recent trends in psychology and sociology answering the growing demand for integrated theories of crime and age. The reader includes articles by life-course scholars such as Robert Sampson and John Laub, Travis Hirschi and Michael Gottfredson, and Alfred Blumstein, among others.

      Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (Eds.). (2005). Developmental criminology and its discontents: Trajectories of crime from childhood to old age [Special issue]. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 602.

      This special issue provides critical debate on patterns of age and crime across the life course. The debate was inspired by 2003 American Society of Criminology conference session titled “Age, Crime and Human Development: The Future of Life-Course Criminology,” chaired by the editors of this issue. Criminal career topics such as onset, continuation, termination and career length are also discussed, along with questions about the suitability of existing data and prospects of integrating longitudinal and experimental studies.

      Left Realism Criminology

      Currie, E. (1985). Confronting crime: An American challenge. New York: Pantheon.

      This book is the first major theoretical and political statement on left realism in the United States. Currie's book is also deemed to be the definitive left-wing response to James Q. Wilson's 1985 right-wing book Thinking About Crime.

      Currie, E. (2004). The road to whatever: Middle-class culture and the crisis of delinquency. New York: Metropolitan Books.

      Historically, left realists have focused mainly on crimes committed by and against inner-city working class people, as well as on the victimization of women in intimate heterosexual relationships. This book constitutes the first attempt to offer a left realist understanding of troubled middle-class youths.

      DeKeseredy, W. S., Alvi, S., & Schwartz, M. D. (2006).

      Left realism revisited. In W. S. DeKeseredy & B. Perry (Eds.), Advancing critical criminology: Theory and application (pp. 19–42). Lanham, MD: Lexington.

      Born during the years that Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher governed their respective countries, left realism is now seen by many scholars as a marginalized subdiscipline of critical criminology. DeKeseredy, Alvi, and Schwartz show that nothing can be further from the truth and demonstrate that left realism is still important today.

      DeKeseredy, W. S., Donnermeyer, J. F., Schwartz, M. D., Tunnell, K. D., & Hall, M. (2008). Thinking critically about rural gender relations: Toward a rural masculinity crisis/male peer support model of separation/divorce sexual assault. Critical Criminology, 15, 295–311.

      Thus far, there have been only a handful of attempts to develop a critical criminological understanding of violence against women in rural communities. DeKeseredy and his colleagues help fill this gap by offering an integrated theory heavily influenced by left realist thought.

      Donnermeyer, J. F., & DeKeseredy, W. S. (2008).

      Toward a rural critical criminology. Southern Rural Sociology, 23, 4–28.

      The main objective of this article is twofold: (1) to describe the key reasons for a more fully developed rural critical criminology and (2) to outline some of its key elements. Donnermeyer and DeKeseredy also assert that the left realist square of crime does not have an intrinsic urban bias.

      Lea, J., & Young, J. (1984). What is to be done about law and order? New York: Penguin.

      There are actually quite a few books that could be read on left realism, most of which are edited works by Jock Young, Roger Matthews, or both. However, this co-authored book offers one of the best theoretical statements of British left realism.

      Young, J. (1999). The exclusive society. London: Sage.

      Although he does not explicitly identify himself as a left realist in this book, Jock Young offers a left realist account of how major social and economic transformations that occurred during the latter part of the 20th century have shaped current patterns of crime and highly punitive societal reactions to crime.

      Marx, Karl, and Frederick Engels: Capitalism and Crime

      Taylor, I., Walton, P., & Young, J. (1973). The new criminology: For a social theory of deviance. New York: Routledge.

      This book is an important milestone in contemporary Marxist criminology. The authors situate Marxist criminology within the history of relevant social and political thought and then provide a succinct overview (in chapter 7) of Marx and Engels perspectives on crime (as well as a critique of Bonger's interpretation of Marx).

      Taylor, I., Walton, P., & Young, J. (Eds.). (1975). Critical criminology. New York: Routledge.

      The essays compiled in this book provide a number of interpretations of Marx and Engels work, as well as attempt to move beyond their work toward a Marxist criminology. Contributions by the editors, as well as Hirst, Quinney, Platt, and others.

      Peacemaking Criminology

      Pepinsky, H. E., & Quinney, R. (1991). Criminology as peacemaking. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

      Harold Pepinski and Richard Quinney set forth this volume of collected essays as one of the first clear articulations of peacemaking criminology. Substantive topics include homelessness, violence against women, reconciliation, conflict resolution, education, and human rights enforcement.

      Wozniak, J. F., Braswell, M. C., Vogel, R. E., & Blevins, K. R. (Eds.). (2008). Transformative justice: Critical and peacemaking themes influenced by Richard Quinney. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

      Wozniak et al. have brought together a collection of essays that celebrate the life and the work of Richard Quinney, father of peacemaking criminology. Topics examine both the critical orientation in Quinney's work as well as his contributions to peacemaking.

      Postmodern Theory

      Arrigo, B. A., & Milovnaovic, D. (2009). Revolution in penology: Rethinking the society of captives. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

      The development of postmodernism—including chaos theory, continental philosophy, constitutive thought, and psychoanalytic and cultural studies—is presented as a more holistic assemblage of ideas. This synthesis is then applied to penal philosophy and practice in which the radicalized post-penological self/society duality is described.

      Arrigo, B. A., & Milovanovic, D. (Eds.). (2010). Postmodernist and post-structuralist theories of crime. Surrey, UK: Ashgate.

      This edited volume includes previously published articles by some of the leading international scholars in the field of postmodernist and post-strucutralist criminology. Collectively, the articles represent important reflections on the current theoretical landscape in criminology. For the contributors, this is a landscape in which symbolic, linguistic, material, and cultural realms of inquiry inform the analysis. The volume's substantive sections address: (1) major theoretical developments and integrations (2) critical applications; (3) transformational analyses and attention to marginalized identities; (4) international, transnational, and post-national directions; and (5) postmodern and post-structural criminology's interlocutors. An original introductory chapter situates the assembled articles within relevant philosophical and social theoretical perspectives, and proposes novel future directions in research, practice, pedagogy, and activism.

      Arrigo, B. A., Milovanovic, D., & Schehr, R. C. (2005). The French connection in criminology: Rediscovering crime, law, and social change. Albany: SUNY Press.

      In this book, Bruce Arrigo, Dragan Milovanovic, and Robert Carl Schehr present a thorough guide to postmodernism and its contribution to criminology, law, and social justice. Drawing on the thoughts offered from the 11 most prominent French scholars who have helped develop and advance postmodern theory, the authors conceptualized these insights and applied them to today's most critical crime and justice problems.

      Best, S., & Kellner, D. (1991). Postmodern theory: Critical interrogation. New York: Guilford Press.

      Steven Best and Douglas Kellner methodically analyze postmodern theory in order to assess the strength of its influence and its limitations in application, particularly in regard to social critical theory and contemporary radical politics. A comprehensive overview and critique of the works by the foremost contributors to postmodern thought is provided.

      Henry, S., & Milovanovic, D. (1996). Constitutive criminology: Beyond postmodernism. London: Sage.

      Based on affirmative postmodernism, Stuart Henry and Dragan Milovanovic offer a constitutive approach to understanding criminal behavior. Rather than determining what causes deviancy, the authors are concerned with discerning how human subjects and the social structures that they develop coproduce crime. Topics discussed range from human nature and behavior to justice policy and practice.

      Quinney, Richard: Social Transformation and Peacemaking Criminology

      Pepinsky, H. E., & Quinney, R. (Eds.). (1991). Criminology as peacemaking. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

      This book presents chapters addressing concerns of peacemaking criminology. Chapters are organized into religious, feminist, and critical traditions of peacemaking criminology.

      Wozniak, J. F. (2008). Toward a theoretical model of peacemaking criminology: An essay in honor of Richard Quinney. In J. F. Wozniak, M. C. Braswell, R. E. Vogel, & K. R. Blevins (Eds.), Transformative justice: Critical and peacemaking themes influenced by Richard Quinney (pp. 141–166). Lanham, MD: Lexington.

      Upon review of research and a survey of peacemaking authors, this article delineates elements of a peacemaking criminology theoretical model. The analysis suggests ways this peacemaking theoretical model can be adapted toward future crime research and policies.

      Wozniak, J. F., Braswell, M. C., Vogel, R. E., & Blevins, K. R. (Eds.). (2008). Transformative justice: Critical and peacemaking themes influenced by Richard Quinney. Lanham, MD: Lexington.

      This book outlines the links between peacemaking criminology, critical criminology, social transformation, and transformative justice. Also, it contains chapters on critical and peacemaking criminology inspired by Richard Quinney.

      Regoli, Robert M., and John D. Hewitt: Differential Oppression Theory

      Colvin, M. (2002). Crime and coercion. New York: St. Martin's Press.

      Children who are exposed to coercive environments are more likely to develop social-psychological deficits that increase the possibility of their committing crimes.

      Hewitt, J. D., & Regoli, B. (2003). Differential oppression theory and female delinquency. Free Inquiry in Creative Sociology, 31, 165–174.

      Hewitt and Regoli argue that girls commit less delinquency because girls are doubly oppressed. They are oppressed as children and as females.

      Kingston, B., Regoli, B, & Hewitt, J. (2003). The theory of differential oppression: A developmental-ecological explanation of adolescent problem behavior. Critical Criminology, 11, 237–260.

      The developmental-ecological perspective provides a way for understanding how the oppression of children occurs within multiple social contexts.

      Spitzer, Steven: Capitalism and Crime

      Spitzer, S. (1975). Toward a Marxian theory of deviance. Social Problems, 22, 638–651.

      An article in which Spitzer develops the essential outlines of his argument linking the structure of capitalism with the nature of social control in capitalist societies.

      Spitzer, S., & Scull, A. (1977). Privatization and capitalist development: The case of the private police. Social Problems, 21, 18–29.

      This article traces the history of policing and its emergence as a profit-making enterprise. It is a good example of the argument that criminal justice institutions increasingly reflect the priorities of the capitalist mode of production.

      Taylor, Ian, Paul Walton, and Jock Young: The New Criminology

      Ferrell, J., Hayward, K., & Young, J. (2008). Cultural criminology. London: Sage.

      Whereas its authors do not explicitly state that this perspective is a direct result of The New Criminology, it nonetheless provides an excellent introduction to cultural criminology and its links to late modernity and capitalism.

      Reiner, R. (2007). Law and order: An honest citizen's guide to crime and control. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.

      Understanding the causes of crime and policy responses to it is a complex endeavor no less for academic criminologists and honest citizens. This book will be useful to both.

      Turk, Austin T.: The Criminalization Process

      Kowalski, B. R., & Lundman, R. J. (2008). Sociologist Austin Turk and policing: Structural reinforcers and reversals of the positional authority of police. Sociological Forum, 23, 814–844.

      In this essay, Kowalski and Lundman examine Turk's theory at police traffic stops. They conclude that testing of Turk's theory is still in its infancy and has been limited to policing citizens with mixed results. Further tests of Turk's work are recommended.

      Lanza-Kaduce, L., & Greenleaf, R. G. (1994). Police-citizen encounters: Turk on norm resistance. Justice Quarterly, 1, 605–623.

      Addressing the problem of police-citizen conflict, Lanza-Kaduce and Greenleaf develop specific hypotheses about Turk's theory. The authors claim that Turk's theory provides fertile ground for formulating propositions about the likelihood of norm resistance.

      Lanza-Kaduce, L., & Greenleaf, R. G. (2000). Age and race deference reversals: Extending Turk on police-citizen conflict. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 37, 221–236.

      In this essay, Lanza-Kaduce and Greenleaf extend their research on Turk's theory and explore social deference norms and police-citizen conflict. The spotlight is on race and age of authorities and subjects at domestic violence calls.

      Vold, George B.: Group Conflict Theory

      Bernard, T. J., Snipes, J. B., & Gerould, A. L. (2010). Vold's theoretical criminology (6th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.

      In the latest edition of Vold's seminal work, published 52 years after the first edition, readers can see how group conflict theory fits in the context of several other types of conflict theories.

      Vold, G. B. (1958). Theoretical criminology. New York: Oxford University Press.

      Vold's entire presentation of his group conflict theory was presented in a single chapter of this major text of his, which is a summary and critical assessment of theories of crime.

      13. Feminist and Gender-Specific Theories of Crime
      Adler, Freda: Sisters in Crime

      Chesney-Lind, M., & Pasko, L. (2004). The female offender: Girls, women, and crime. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

      Meda Chesney-Lind is a leading contemporary feminist scholar whose writings in this work (along with Lisa Pasko) highlight how young criminalized women are disproportionately affected by the United State's punitiveness toward female offenders, despite their relatively small numbers.

      Flynn, E. E. (1998). Freda Adler: A portrait of a pioneer. Women and Criminal Justice, 10, 1–27.

      This 1998 article chronicles Freda Adler's scholarship, including but not limited to feminist criminology.

      Hartman, J. L., & Sundt, J. L. (in press). The rise of feminist criminology: Freda Adler. In F. T. Cullen, C. Lero Jonson, A. J. Myer, & F. Adler (Eds.), The origins of American criminology (Advances in Criminological Theory: Vol. 18). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

      This chapter, based on a series of interviews with Freda Alder, discusses in greater detail the origins of the liberation hypothesis. The chapter also includes more biographical information about a fascinating, influential figure.

      Peterson, Rebecca D. (2006). The female presidents of the American Society of Criminology. Feminist Criminology, 1, 147–168.

      In this article, Peterson relates the personal and professional experiences of the female presidents of the American Society of Criminology. Freda Adler was the third woman to serve in this prestigious role.

      Smart, C. (1978). Women, crime and criminology: A feminist critique. New York: Routledge.

      Smart, who was writing about gender and crime at the same time as Adler, provides a radically different perspective on female criminality. This work provides a good contrast to Adler's work. Smart was one of the outspoken critics of the liberation hypothesis.

      Alarid, Leanne Fiftal, and Velmer S. Burton, Jr.: Gender and Serious Offending

      Alarid, L. F., & Cromwell, P. (Eds.). (2006). In her own words: Women offenders’ views on crime and victimization. Los Angeles: Roxbury.

      This edited book of contemporary readings by a variety of scholars examines the overlap of female offending and victimization as a function of women's family of origin, peer groups, relationships with men, economic marginalization, and rational choice.

      Heimer, K., & Kruttschnitt, C. (Eds.). (2006). Gender and crime: Patterns in victimization and offending. New York: New York University Press.

      This edited book examines how women's patterns of criminal behavior and victimization are gendered by differences in social interactions and social organizations in daily life.

      Bartusch, Dawn Jeglum, and Ross L. Matsueda: Gender and Reflected Appraisals

      Heimer, K. (1996). Gender, interaction, and delinquency: Testing a theory of differential social control. Social Psychology Quarterly, 59, 39–61.

      In this article, Heimer operationalizes three dimensions of role-taking to explain the gender gap. She asserts important implications concerning group social controls and their influence over delinquency by gender.

      Heimer, K., & Matsueda, R. L. (1994). Role-taking, role commitment, and delinquency: A theory of differential social control. American Sociological Review, 59, 365–390.

      Heimer and Matsueda build on the original symbolic interactionist theory put forth by Matsueda. The authors find support for social interactionist theory in the context of competing theories.

      Koita, K., & Triplett, R. A. (1998). An examination of gender and race effects on the parental appraisal process: A reanalysis of Matsueda's model of the self. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 25, 382–401.

      The authors build off of Matsueda's original model of the self and delinquency. Koita and Triplett examine the effects of race and gender on reflected appraisals.

      Bottcher, Jean: Social Practices of Gender

      Messerschmidt, J. W. (1993). Masculinities and crime: Critique and reconceptualization of theory. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

      In this book, James Messerschmidt challenges the traditional association between crime and masculinity. In so doing, James Messerschmidt examines gender roles that influence the occurrence and types of crimes in society. This book provides a thorough discussion of the inseparable relationship between gender and crime.

      Messerschmidt, J. W. (2004). Flesh and blood: Adolescent gender diversity and violence. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

      In this book, James Messerschmidt provides the reader with a discussion of how masculine practices may be constructed by both boys and girls and how these social practices are related to both violence and nonviolence. In addition, this book explores the misleading notion of the sex-gender, and gender difference dichotomies.

      Renzetti, C., & Curran, D. (1992). Women, men, and society (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

      In this book, Claire Renzetti and Daniel Curran provide the reader with an analysis of gender inequality, addressing how sexism affects both men and women. In addition, this book discusses the consequences of gender inequality and how these consequences can be compounded by other factors such as racism, social class inequality, ageism, and heterosexism.

      Broidy, Lisa M., and Robert S. Agnew: A General Strain Theory of Gender and Crime

      Agnew, R. (2006). Pressured into crime: An overview of general strain theory. Los Angeles: Roxbury.

      Fourteen years after the initial presentation of general strain theory, Agnew revisits the theory, assesses related empirical research, discusses added theoretical extensions of general strain theory, and demarcates future directions in this book. The role of gender in general strain theory is discussed at length.

      Broidy, L. M. (2001). A test of general strain theory. Criminology, 39, 9–33.

      This empirical piece tests general strain theory's propositions regarding gender, emotion, and crime. Authored by Broidy, the theoretical piece reviewed here is tested by its original author.

      Chesney-Lind, M. (1989). Girls’ crime and woman's place: Toward a feminist model of female delinquency. Crime and Delinquency, 35, 5–29.

      This classic piece in feminist criminology addresses two issues: (1) the “generalizability problem,” which questions whether traditional theories of crime apply to women and (2) the “gender ratio problem,” which questions why women are less likely than men to engage in criminal behavior. The applicability of general strain theory is inferred.

      Ganem, N. M. (2008). The role of negative emotion in general strain theory. Saarbrücken, Germany: VDM Verlag.

      This dissertation systematically investigates the role of negative emotion in general strain theory. A review of the causes and consequences of negative emotions pulls together information from the social psychology of emotion and general strain literature. Multiple emotions are considered, with analyses and discussion focusing on how gender differences in emotion may explain gender differences in criminal behavior.

      Campbell, Anne: Girls in the Gang

      Chesney-Lind, M., & Hagedorn, J. (Eds.). (1999). Female gangs in America: Essays on girls, gangs, and gender. Chicago: Lake View Press.

      This Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP)-sponsored reader summarizes past and current studies on female gangs. The reader highlights stereotypes of female criminality, law enforcement surveys that measure gang participation, as well as levels of offending.

      LeBlanc, A. N. (2003). Random family: Love, drugs, trouble and coming of age in the Bronx. New York: Scribner.

      Adrian LeBlanc is a journalist who spent nearly 10 years studying girls in the Bronx. Her observation began in the late 1980s. LeBlanc's contribution is that like Campbell, she delves into the lives of girls and women in order to help the reader understand how a person's choices and opportunity are limited by social forces such as the economy, violence, and the cycle of poverty.

      Miller, J. (2000). One of the guys: Girls, gangs, and gender. New York: Oxford University Press.

      Miller's book presents both a qualitative and quantitative picture of girls in gangs. Miller's insightful interviews of gang girls in Columbus, Ohio, and St. Louis, Missouri, helps fill in the gap of quality scholarly research in an oft-overlooked area.

      Chesney-Lind, Meda: Feminist Model of Female Delinquency

      Bloom, B., Owen, B., & Covington, S. (2003). Gender responsive strategies: Research, practice, and guiding principles for women offenders. Washington, DC: National Institute of Corrections.

      This research report provides an overview of current gender-responsive strategies for correctional intervention with female offenders. Further, this work demonstrates the policy and practices in the criminal justice system that have been developed from feminist criminologists, most notably Meda Chesney-Lind.

      Chesney-Lind, M. (1989). Girls’ crime and a woman's place: Toward a feminist model of female delinquency. Crime and Delinquency, 35, 5–29.

      In this article, Chesney-Lind presents a feminist model for delinquency. Through her discussion of patriarchy and victimization, she develops a theory of female crime, which became a major contribution to criminology and guides much gender-responsive research that is conducted today.

      Chesney-Lind, M., & Pasko, L. (2004). The female offender: Girls, women, and crime. London: Sage.

      The book provides an overview of much of the literature on female offending and feminist theories. Special attention is paid to the experience of girls and women in the criminal and juvenile justice systems, the causes of female crime, and the common offenses of women.

      Costello, Barbara J., and Helen J. Mederer: A Control Theory of Gender and Crime

      Chapple, C. L., McQuillian, J., & Berdahl, T. A. (2005). Gender, social bonds and delinquency: A comparison of boys’ and girls’ models. Social Science Research, 34, 357–383.

      In this article, the authors examine whether the social bond is measured similarly and operates similarly for boys and girls. Chapple et al. find that the social bond is invariant across gender, although the effect of peer attachment on decreasing delinquency is stronger for boys than girls.

      Miller, J., & Mullins, C. M. (2006). The status of feminist theories in criminology. In F. T. Cullen, J. P. Wright, & K. R. Blevins (Eds.), Taking stock: The status of criminological theory (Advances in Criminological Theory: Vol. 15, pp. 217–249). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

      Miller and Mullins argue for an integration of feminist perspectives within traditional theories. They suggest that because boys and girls often give many of the same reasons for offending, traditional theories of delinquency should not be abandoned but rather modified to incorporate gendered paths to delinquency for girls and a greater understanding of the social context of female offending.

      Daly, Kathleen: Women's Pathways to Felony Court

      Alarid, L. F., & Cromwell, P. (Eds.). (2006). In her own words: Women offenders’ views on crime and victimization. Los Angeles: Roxbury.

      This edited book of contemporary readings extends Kathleen Daly's theoretical pathways of crime approach to a fuller understanding of female offending, particularly as it relates to race/ethnicity and class differences, and as a function of women's family of origin, peer groups, relationships with men, victimization, economic marginalization, and rational choice.

      Daly, K., & Maher, L. (Eds.). (1998). Criminology at the crossroads: Feminist readings in crime and justice. New York: Oxford University Press.

      This edited book reviews three decades of feminist work in criminology, presenting the most important and pivotal works in this area. Feminist Criminology. Can be accessed at http://fc.sagepub.com A quarterly journal published by SAGE that focuses on theory and research regarding the gendered nature of crime from a feminist perspective. This is the official journal of the Division on Women and Crime of the American Society of Criminology.

      Freud, Sigmund: The Deviant Woman

      Freud, S. (1930). Civilization and its discontents (J. Strachey, Ed. & Trans.). New York: W. W. Norton.

      This book is a must for anyone interested in Freud's view of the world. The work provides a unique look into the effects of society on man from the theoretical lens of psychoanalysis.

      Saguaro, S. (Ed.). (2000). Psychoanalysis and woman: A reader. New York: New York University Press.

      This reader opens with Freud's theory on female sexuality and provides the reader a look at psychoanalysis through the eyes of women. The book includes chapters written by Freud's contemporaries and those who followed him regarding their insights into different aspects of psychoanalysis and its relation to women.

      Young-Bruehl, E. (1990). Freud on women. New York:

      W. W. Norton.

      This edited compilation provides a look at Freud's theories on female sexuality. The work offers an overview of different materials written by Freud and gives the reader an opportunity to view some of the evolution of his works.

      Hagan, John, and Holly Foster: Stress and Gendered Pathways to Delinquency

      Hagan, J., Gillis, A. R., & Simpson, J. (1985). The class structure of gender and delinquency: Toward a power-control theory of common delinquent behavior. American Journal of Sociology, 90, 1151–1178.

      This further reading was selected because it provides the theoretical foundation for the formation of the gendered and age-graded sequential stress theory. It serves as the direct springboard for the formation of the theory discussed in this entry.

      Hagan, J., McCarthy, B., & Foster, H. (2002). A gendered theory of delinquency and despair in the life course. Acta Sociologica, 45, 37–46.

      This further reading was selected because it also provides the foundation for the formation of the gendered and age-graded sequential stress theory. In this article, which discusses the gendered role of delinquency was published the year before the gendered and age-graded sequential stress theory appeared. Thus, it also serves as a springboard to the theory.

      Jang, S. J. (2007). Gender differences in strain, negative emotions, and coping behaviors: A general strain theory approach. Justice Quarterly, 24, 523–553.

      This further reading was selected because it provides one of the most recent empirical investigations of how strains can differ by gender. Since stress, or strain, is an essentially component of Hagan and Foster's theory and because the researchers posit gender differences in reactions to strains, this article was included.

      Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Life-course-persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674–701.

      This further reading was included to direct readers to an alternative view of offending. This cite was mentioned in the entry in the criticisms section. Hagan and Foster do not acknowledge the importance of biology and the role it can play in shaping criminal behavior.

      Wright, R. T., & Decker, S. H. (1997). Armed robbers in action: Stickups and street culture. Boston: Northeastern University Press.

      This further reading was included because it discusses the importance of examining behaviors after crime. Often criminologists do not examine post-crime behavior. Hagan and Foster posit that crime should be considered as an intervening variable between behaviors before and after the commission of a crime.

      Haynie, Dana L.: Contexts of Risk

      Akers, R. L. (1985). Deviant behavior: A social learning approach (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

      In this book, Akers presents his social learning theory of delinquency. Building on Sutherland's differential association theory, Akers lays out a theory of how individuals learn delinquency through their interactions with significant others. Friends and parents both play critical roles in the delinquent behavior of adolescents.

      Armour, S., & Haynie, D. (2007). Adolescent sexual debut and later delinquency. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 141–152.

      This article extends Haynie's previous work on pubertal timing and delinquency. In this piece, the authors try to determine whether becoming sexually active earlier than one's peers is linked to later delinquency. Findings suggest that early sexual activity relative to peers is associated with an increased risk of delinquency later.

      Caspi, A., & Moffitt, T. E. (1991). Individual differences are accentuated during periods of social change: The sample case of girls at puberty. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 157–168.

      In this earlier article, Caspi and Moffitt explore three competing hypotheses about the relationship between female puberty and changes in behavior. Their results indicated that the early onset of puberty appeared to increase behavioral problems that existed prior to puberty.

      Heimer, Karen, and Stacy De Coster: The Gendering of Violent Delinquency

      Belknap, J. (2001). The invisible woman: Gender, crime, and justice (2nd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

      Belknap provides a comprehensive overview of women as offenders, victims, and criminal justice professionals. This book also re-examines mainstream criminological theories in terms of their applicability to female offending and introduces feminist criminology.

      Sutherland, E. H. (1947). Principles of criminology (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott.

      This reading offers the original theoretical framework for differential association theory including both the individual-level and structural-level differential social organization—concepts discussed by Heimer and De Coster (1999).

      Klein, Dorie: The Etiology of Female Crime

      Belknap, J. (2007). The invisible woman: Gender, crime, and justice (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

      A widely used and excellent textbook on women and crime, this readable text covers the whole range of the relationship between women and the criminal justice system—as offenders, victims, and employees. There is a good chapter critiquing criminological theories, following the early groundwork laid by Klein and others.

      Morash, M. (2006). Understanding gender, crime and justice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

      Another excellent basic text about women and crime, though this one employs a postmodernist theoretical approach to understanding the relationships between women and criminal offending, victimization, and working in the criminal justice system.

      Rafter, N. H. (Editor-in Chief). (2000). Encyclopedia of women and crime. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press.

      A comprehensive presentation of the key ideas comprising the field of women and crime in encyclopedia format. Though Klein does not appear in this text as a separate entry, her work is recognized in the preface as fundamental to the development of the field.

      Koss, Mary P.: The Prevalence and Sources of Rape

      Fisher, B. S., Cullen, F. T., & Turner, M. G. (2000). Thesexual victimization of college women. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice. Available from http://www.ncjrs.org/criminal_justice2000/vol_4/04g.pdf

      This study examines several aspects of sexual victimization among college women. For example, this article provides sections of the definition of rape, prevalence, and impact. Results from the National College Women Sexual Victimization (NCWSV) are discussed.

      Hamby, S. L., & Koss, M. P. (2003). Shades of gray: A qualitative study of terms used in the measurement of sexual victimization. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 27, 243–255.

      This study used a qualitative focus group method to examine methodological and definitional issues raised in past sexual victimization research. Specifically, terms used frequently in sexual victimization research are assessed.

      Kalof, L. (1993). Rape-supportive attitudes and sexual victimization experiences of sorority and non-sorority women. Sex Roles, 29, 767–780.

      This article explores the hypothesized link between sorority participation and sexual victimization of college women. Rape-supportive attitudes of sorority compared to non-sorority women are also examined.

      Koss, M. P. (1993). Rape: Scope, impact, interventions, and public policy responses. American Psychologist, 48, 1062–1069.

      This article provides an overview of past research in the area of sexual victimization, including scope, impact, and intervention. Several policy implications and suggestions for future research are given.

      Koss, M. P., Dinero, T. E., & Cerbel, C. A. (1988).

      Stranger and acquaintance rape. Are there differences in the victim's experience? Psychology of Women Quarterly, 12, 1–24.

      This article examines differences between women who experienced sexual victimization from either a stranger or acquaintance. Variables such as number of offenders, violence level, and drug or alcohol use were used as distinguishing factors.

      Lackie, L., & De Man, A. F. (1997). Correlates of sexual aggression among male university students. Sex Roles, 37, 451–457.

      This purpose of this article was to examine characteristics of males who were sexually aggressive. Several variables such as athletic participation, fraternity participation, sex role stereotyping, and attitudes are tested.

      Testa, M., VanZile-Tamens, C., Livingston, J. A., & Koss, M. P. (2004). Assessing women's experiences of sexual aggression using the sexual experiences survey: Evidence for validity and implications for research. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 28, 256–265.

      In this article, the revised sexual experiences survey is given to a sample of women to determine the validity of the modified tool. Survey items were assessed to determine the ability to detect several forms of sexual aggression.

      Lombroso, Cesare: The Female Offender

      Lombroso, C. (2006). Criminal man (M. Gibson & N. Hahn Rafter, Trans.). Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

      Mary Gibson and Nicole Hahn Rafter are leading scholars of Cesare Lombroso's work. This contemporary translation of Criminal Man brings new light to Lombroso's classic text.

      Lombroso, C., & Guglielmo, F. (2004). Criminal woman, the prostitute, and the normal woman. (N. Hahn Rafter & M. Gibson, Trans.). Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

      This new translation of La donna delinquente incorporates more of the original text that was omitted from The Female Offender. Hahn Rafter and Gibson pay particular attention to the matters of sexuality, which were largely ignored in the original and incomplete translation of the text. The translators offer not only a historical analysis of Lombroso's influence but also detail the scientist's context at the time of the text's publication in their introduction.

      Maher, Lisa: Sexed Work

      Belknap, J. (2007). The invisible woman: Gender, crime, and justice (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson.

      This book provides an up-to-date summary and review of feminist research on the relationship between gender and crime. This includes recent data and major theoretical explanations of women's participation in crime, women's experiences as victims, and women working within the criminal justice system.

      Britton, D. (2000). Feminism in criminology: Engendering the outlaw. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 571, 57–76.

      This article examines the significance of feminist theory and research for criminology. It considers the difference between mainstream and feminist perspectives on crime and identifies emerging trends in feminist criminological research.

      Richie, B. E. (1996). Compelled to crime: The gender entrapment of battered black women. New York: Routledge.

      Richie's study of drug- and crime-involved women serving time is one of the first to offer a comprehensive explanation of how both gender and race shape women's experiences as victims and offenders. Her study offers a compelling explanation of how physical and sexual victimization contribute to women's patterns of offending.

      Messerschmidt, James W.: Masculinities and Crime

      Messerschmidt, J. (1997). Crime as structured action: Gender, race, class and crime in the making. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

      A more involved exploration of the theory being used with more explicative cases.

      Messerschmidt, J. (2000). Nine lives: Adolescent masculinities, the body, and violence. Boulder, CO: Westview.

      Application of the theory to life-history interviews with nine young men.

      Messerschmidt, J. (2004). Flesh and blood: Adolescent gender diversity and violence. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

      An analysis of the gendered lives of both male and female adolescents involved in violence. Extends structured action theory into femininities.

      Newburn, T., & Stanko, E. (Eds.). (1994). Just boys doing business? Men, masculinities and crime. London: Routledge.

      An edited volume of papers exploring the intersections of masculinities and crime.

      Miller, Jody: Gendered Social Organization Theory

      Britton, D. M. (2000). The epistemology of the gendered organization. Gender and Society, 14, 418–434.

      Traditionally, the theory of gendered organizations has been applied to workplace and professional settings (e.g., Acker, 1990). Miller developed a theory of gendered social organizations. This article by Britton will enrich one's understanding of the early work in this vein. Here, Britton argues that scholars must be deeply attentive to the significance of organizational context in order to effectively understand and apply this theoretical approach. Both she and Miller demonstrate how being attentive to context enriches our understandings of social phenomena.

      Miller, J. (2008). Getting played: African American girls, urban inequality, and gendered violence. New York: New York University Press.

      This is Miller's most recent foray into gendered social organizations theory, a richly detailed study drawing on interviews with 75 girls and boys. In this book, Miller documents violence experienced by poor urban African American girls, effectively arguing that this violence is deeply rooted in structures of gender, race, and class inequality in the girls’ distressed urban neighborhoods.

      Zhang, S. X., Chin, K., & Miller, J. (2007). Women's participation in Chinese transnational human smuggling: A gendered market perspective. Criminology, 45, 699–733.

      The authors do an exemplary job demonstrating how their data about Chinese transnational struggling reveal a gendered process, illuminating the intersection of criminal enterprise and gendered organizations. This article enriches our theoretical understanding of Miller's theory of gendered social organizations.

      Miller, Jody: Girls, Gangs, and Gender

      Miller, J. (1998). Up it up: Gender and the accomplishment of street robbery. Criminology, 36, 37–66.

      In this article, Miller examines street robberies among inner-city residents involved in prostitution and drug markets to illustrate both the gendered nature of street life and how violence is marshaled as a resource for both males and females.

      Miller, J. (2002). The strengths and limits of “doing gender” for understanding street crime. Theoretical Criminology, 6, 433–460.

      In this article and subsequent responses, Miller critiques static depictions of masculine and feminine criminality provided by the research literature. Here, Miller asserts that offending differences in criminal offending are a product not so much of individual-level notions of “doing gender” as some have suggested, but also of broader structural considerations that place women in social positions subordinate to men.

      Moore, Joan W.: Homeboys and Homegirls in the Barrio

      Hughes, E. (1971). Bastard institutions. The sociological eye: Selected papers (pp. 98–105). Chicago: Aldine-Atherton.

      Moore's most influential mentor was the first to conceptualize gangs within a context of institutionalization.

      Klein, M. (1971). Street gangs and street workers. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

      Klein's approach to Los Angeles gangs argues that process trumps ethnicity and in this regard is diametrically opposed to Moore's perspective.

      Vigil, D. (1988). Barrio gangs. Austin: University of Texas Press.

      This comprehensive treatment of the Mexican American experience owes a great debt to Moore's pioneering work.

      Pollak, Otto: The Hidden Female Offender

      Anderson, E. A. (1976). The “chivalrous” treatment of the female offender in the arms of the criminal justice system: A review of the literature. Social Problems, 23, 350–357.

      This reading posits a position opposite to Pollak's assertions about how female offenders are treated by the criminal justice system. In this empirical article, Anderson dispels the myth that the criminal justice system is chivalrous to women.

      Chesney-Lind, M. (1997). The female offender: Girls, women, and crime. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

      This work shows that there is some debate in the field as to whether females receive shorter sentences than male offenders when similar crimes are committed and when prior arrests and convictions are controlled for as Pollak has asserted. Opposite of Pollak's assertions and expectations, Chesney-Lind states that females disproportionately receive harsher sentences for drug offenses than males.

      Freud, S. (1933). New introductory lectures on psychoanalysis. New York: W. W. Norton.

      Freud's work offers a theoretical precursor to Pollak's theory and reveals how women criminals were described by early theorists. This is a pivotal reading.

      Heidensohn, F. M. (1968). The deviance of women: A critique and an enquiry. British Journal of Sociology, 19, 160–173.

      Heidensohn directs readers to alternative views of female offending. She critiques Pollak's assertions, including his failure to explain why some female deviance and criminality surfaces and is processed in the criminal justice system.

      Lombroso, C., & Ferrero, W. (1895). The female offender. London: Fisher Unwin.

      This reading provides another theoretical precursor to Pollak's theory and thus is a pivotal reading.

      Smart, C. (1976). Women, crime, and criminology: A feminist critique. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

      Smart provides a critique of Pollak, including his interpretations of the data that he cites to support his viewpoints are flawed.

      Thomas, W. I. (1923). The unadjusted girl. Boston: Little, Brown.

      Thomas is another significant theoretical precursor to Pollak's work.

      Rape Myths and Violence Against Women

      Wilson, P. (1978). The other side of rape. Queensland, Australia: University of Queensland Press.

      This book has provided a comprehensive yet detailed study on rape, victims, and perpetrators. Paul Wilson highlights the social stigmatization faced by the victims not only by society but also by the police, lawmakers, and the criminal justice system. His research provides an in-depth report about the risk factors, nature of victimization, and why rape is underreported.

      Winkler, C. (2002). One night: Realities of rape. New York: AltaMira Press.

      This book portrays the nightmare a rape victim has experienced. The author's narrative, ethnography, and radiant observation describes the appalling experience and frustration she underwent in her long fight to seek justice, much of which are due to the myths associated with rape. This book provides researchers with a framework to introspect about victims’ experiences with rape, its aftermath, and the processing of the offense in the justice system.

      Russell, Diana E. H.: The Politics of Rape

      Henderson, H. (2007). Feminism, Foucault, and rape: A theory and politics of rape prevention. Berkeley Journal of Gender, Law and Justice, 22, 225–253.

      Henderson considers Foucault's views of rape as a violent crime, not a sexual crime, and considers feminist views of rape and power. She argues that self-defense as a mechanism for rape prevention is physical feminism.

      Russell, D. E. H. (1998). Dangerous relationships: Pornography, misogyny and rape. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

      In this book, Russell argues that pornography is a misogynistic endeavor to the detriment of women. She considers the role of pornography as women-hating propaganda and as a cause of rape.

      Schwartz, Martin D., and Victoria L. Pitts: A Feminist Routine Activity Theory

      Cohen, L. E., & Felson, M. (1979). Social change and crime rate trends: A routine activity approach. American Sociological Review, 44, 588–608.

      This article was the original discussion of routine activity theory that was published. It outlines what Cohen and Felson theorized regarding why crime rates had increased. This original version of routine activity theory has a macro orientation.

      Mustaine, E. E., & Tewksbury, R. A. (2002). Sexual assault of college women: A feminist routine activities analysis. Criminal Justice Review, 27, 89–123.

      This article was published after the Schwartz and Pitts article and is a further explication of the combination of routine activity theory and feminism. Mustaine and Tewksbury utilize a sample of female college students and explore the relationships between the lifestyles of women and the types of behaviors that increase their risks for sexual assault victimization.

      Schwartz, M. D., & DeKeseredy, W. (1997). Sexual assault on the college campus: The role of male peer support. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

      This book is a much more thorough and in-depth examination of the concepts and theory raised in the Schwartz and Pitts article. Here, one of the areas that is explored more fully is the idea that male college students in certain settings (e.g., fraternities) receive support from their peers for the sexual assault of women. Then, women who live lifestyles that bring them into contact with men belonging to such groups are at greater risk for victimization.

      Schwartz, M. D., & Pitts, V. L. (1995). Exploring a feminist routine activities approach to explaining sexual assault. Justice Quarterly, 12, 9–31.

      This is the original article that is discussed in this entry. It is the first time routine activity theory was combined with feminism in order to explore the concept of target attractiveness. In this article, the authors theorize that one aspect of target attractiveness could be the ease of getting away with the sexual assault of women, in part because women are not likely to report their victimization or because the penalties for this type of behavior are not terribly severe.

      Simon, Rita J.: Women and Crime

      Adler, F. (1975). Sisters in crime: The rise of the new female criminal. New York: McGraw-Hill.

      This book explores the increase in women's criminality during the 1970s. The author purports that changes in women's criminality could be attributed to their “emancipation” from the home and their traditional female sex roles. Adler argues that there will be significant increases in women's violent offending, such that women criminals would essentially mimic male criminals.

      Messerschmidt, J. (1986). Capitalism, patriarchy, and crime: Toward a socialist feminist criminology. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield.

      Messerschmidt shows how capitalism and patriarchy work together to affect women's criminality. He suggests that women's subordinate position in a capitalist, patriarchal society provides them with limited opportunities for white-collar or employment-related crime. Rather, he argues that women's criminality typically involves petty economic crimes, drug issues, and prostitution. In sum, women engage in crime as a result of economic marginalization or necessity rather than from increased labor force participation.

      Pollack-Byrne, J. (1990). Women, prison, and crime. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

      This reading explores the nature of women's involvement in the criminal justice system. It specifically examines the idea of chivalry in regards to sentencing women offenders. Moreover, it also investigates the conditions women face in U.S. prisons, such as programming, health care, and violence.

      Simon, R. J., & Ahn-Redding, H. (2005). The crimes women commit, the punishments they receive (3rd ed.). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

      This book is the most recent edition of Rita Simon's original Women and Crime. It provides updated statistics on women in the criminal justice system, from arrest to imprisonment. Moreover, it includes a new discussion of women's criminality around the world in regards to the liberation hypothesis.

      Simpson, Sally S.: Gender, Class, and Crime

      Simpson, S., & Elis, L. (1994). Is gender subordinate to class? An empirical assessment of Colvin and Pauly's Structural Marxist theory of crime. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 82, 453–480.

      In this article, Simpson and Elis examine the basic relationship between class, family, peers, and educational experiences and serious patterned delinquency so as to determine whether the implicit assumption of gender neutrality in Colvin and Pauly's theory holds true. This is an interesting view of the race-class-gender intersection that utilizes an additional structural theory in the analysis.

      Simpson, S., & Elis, L. (1995). Doing gender: Sorting out the caste and crime conundrum. Criminology, 33, 47–81.

      Simpson and Elis contend that the field of criminology tends to view social class as the primary system of stratification. From this point, they systematically link gender and race oppression as moderating ecological variables. Further, these researchers examine how hegemonic masculinities and femininities are played out in work, the family, school, and so forth.

      Simpson, S., & Gibbs, C. (2005). Intersectionalities: Gender, race, poverty, and crime. In K. Heimer & C. Kruttschnitt (Eds.), Gender and crime (pp. 269–302). New York: New York University Press.

      This is a more recent work on intersections in the gender, race, class, and crime nexus. Though this work is similar to other prior works on this topic, it is included due to its recency in publication. It provides the reader with a good overview of Simpson's contentions in most of her research on intersectionalities. This work is also co-authored with Carole Gibbs, another prime researcher on intersectionalities who is often cited conducting similar research.

      Smart, Carol: Women, Crime, and Criminology

      Cowie, J., Cowie, V., & Slater, E. (1968). Delinquency in girls. London: Heinemann.

      This book examines the social and psychological variables that are related to female delinquency. The authors observe case studies and focus on age, parents and family background, and psychiatric records.

      Konopka, G. (1966). The adolescent girl in conflict. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

      The author examines at-risk females’ behavior by interviewing adolescent girls that were reported to the courts or social agencies. The book includes writings from the females and transcripts from the original interviews.

      Pollak, O. (1961). The criminality of women. New York: A. S. Barnes.

      Author focuses on the manner that women commit crimes, the specific nature of female criminality, the personal attributes of female offenders, and the differences between female offenders and other offenders. The book discusses the underestimation of female crime as well as the biological and cultural components of female criminality.

      Steffensmeier, Darrell J.: Organization Properties and Sex Segregation in the Underworld

      Acker, J. (1990). Hierarchies, jobs, bodies: A theory of gendered organizations. Gender and Society, 4, 139–158.

      In this essay, Acker develops a theory of gendered organizations, explicitly articulating how organizational structures, rather than being gender neutral, are built on assumptions about gender. Though not addressing crime or criminal organizations, it provides a useful expansion of the concepts discussed by Steffensmeier.

      Britton, D. M. (2000). The epistemology of the gendered organization. Gender and Society, 14, 418–434.

      Britton's application of gendered organizational theory builds from and refines Acker's. While again not written for a criminological audience, and focused primarily on formal occupations, it outlines important epistemological considerations for studying gender across organizational types, including those involving crime.

      Maher, L. (1997). Sexed work: Gender, race, and resistance in a Brooklyn drug market. New York: Clarendon Press.

      Maher's longitudinal ethnography of a Brooklyn crack economy provides an important look at the impact of gender and race on this specific illicit market. Many of the tenets of Steffensmeier's original theory are supported, while Maher's analysis of the intersection of gender and race further advances this framework.

      Zhang, S., Chin, K.-O., & Miller, J. (2007). Women's participation in Chinese transnational human smuggling: A gendered market perspective. Criminology, 45, 699–733.

      Zhang et al.'s analysis of women's roles in Chinese transnational human smuggling networks is one of the few explicit efforts to examine the second facet of Steffensmeier's theory, specifically, the variability of gendered exclusionary practices across illicit organizational contexts. The nature of these human smuggling networks appears to provide a unique niche for female smugglers due to organizational facets and market conditions shaping these networks.

      Steffensmeier, Darrell J., and Emilie Andersen Allan: A Gendered Theory of Offending

      Haynie, D., Steffensmeier, D. J., & Bell, K. (2007).

      Gender and serious violence: Untangling the role of friendship sex composition and peer violence. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 5, 235–253.

      This study applies concepts from the gendered paradigm and insights from social influence literature to examine the effect of friendship sex composition on girls’ and boys’ involvement in serious violence. Findings are consistent with the tenet that girls’ focal concerns, femininity norms, and lesser physical strength influence their offending patterns and also that girls’ greater prosocial norms influence the behavior of males in their lives.

      Maher, L., & Daly, K. (1996). Women in the street-level economy: Continuity or change? Criminology, 34, 465–491.

      Ethnographic work in New York City demonstrates that the crack cocaine market of the late 1980s and early 1990s was highly gender-stratified with women playing lesser roles in selling and distribution, much like in heroin markets of the 1960s and 1970s. Street-level sex work was a more viable option for women than selling drugs, demonstrating pervasive sexism in the underworld.

      Miller, E. M. (1986). Street woman. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

      This work highlights how relational obligations and gender norms influence women's pathways into and out of offending.

      Zhang, S., Ko-Lin, C., & Miller, J. (2007). Women's participation in Chinese transnational human smuggling: A gendered market perspective. Criminology, 45, 699–733.

      Interviews with human smugglers are analyzed to understand the extent and nature of women's roles in smuggling operations and gender stratification in illicit enterprises. Gender ideologies about work and caregiving, the importance of social networks, the emphasis on safety, and the limited use of violence offer a niche for women in these operations.

      Thomas, W. I.: The Unadjusted Girl

      Blumer, H. (1979). Critiques of research in the social sciences: An appraisal of Thomas and Znaniecki's the Polish peasant in Europe and America. New York: Transaction.

      With this critique of Thomas's writings, Herbert Blumer was able to articulate his theory of symbolic interactionism. Blumer would develop a more precise vision of social action that emphasized less the wishes that Thomas relates and more how social interaction is the essence of all social action. If not for Thomas's scholarship, it is difficult say if Blumer would have been able to develop his theory of symbolic interactionism.

      Bressler, M. (1952). Selected family patterns in W. I. Thomas’ unfinished study of the Bintl Brief. American Sociological Review, 71, 563–571.

      This article more clearly states the sources for many of the letters that Thomas cites in his book The Unadjusted Girl. Thomas was less clear about his methodology and how his letters were selected. Bressler shows that he had a larger project, one that reflects his obsession with not only the stories of Polish immigrants but also Eastern Jewish immigrants. The letters were letters to the editor and reflected the need for advice in the new world of America. A theme that fit well with Thomas's general argument that the lives of immigrants would remain disorganized if not provided with expert knowledge.

      Merton, R. K. (1995). The Thomas theorem and the Matthew effect. Social Forces, 74, 379–422.

      Merton traces the history of ideas and the several reasons for why W. I. Thomas's collaborator Dorothy Thomas was not initially cited as well in reference to “definitions of the situation.” This is an important article because it shows not only the intellectual history of an idea but also how the Matthew effect leads to the citation of an older and more distinguished scholar over that of the lesser known scholar.

      Widom, Cathy Spatz: The Cycle of Violence

      White, H. R., & Widom, C. S. (2008). Three potentialmediators of the effects of child abuse and neglect on adulthood substance use among women. Journal of Drug Problems, 69, 337–347.

      This article attempts to explain the relationship between childhood victimization and substance abuse in women. It examines whether posttraumatic stress disorder, stressful life events, and delinquency are the casual mechanism through which childhood victimization causes substance abuse in adulthood.

      Widom, C. S. (1992). The cycle of violence (NCJ No. 136607). Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.

      This report describes Widom's original research and findings. It provides an overview of the research methodology and describes the sample and measures. It also provides detailed findings regarding the effects of abuse on arrests as a young adult.

      Widom, C. S. (2000). Childhood victimization and the derailment of girls and women into the criminal justice system. In J. E. Samuels & J. Thomas (Eds.), Plenary papers of the 1999 Conference on Criminal Justice Research and Evaluation: Enhancing policy and practice through research: Vol. 3. Research on women and girls in the justice system (pp. 27–36) (NCJ No. 180973). Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.

      This paper outlines the implications for Widom's research for females in the criminal justice system. It provides a review of the research on women, childhood victimization and offending as well as points out key issues regarding the treatment of female offenders who have been victimized.

      Widom, C. S., & Maxfield, M. G. (2001). An update on the cycle of violence (NCJ No. 184894). Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.

      This report provides results from a 6-year follow-up to the cycle of violence. It provides detailed information regarding the methodology of the follow-up as well as new findings from the follow-up data. It also points out that gender and race are important factors in the cycle of violence.

      Widom, C. S., Schuck, A. M., & White, H. R. (2006). An examination of pathways from childhood victimization to violence: The role of early aggression and problematic alcohol use. Violence and Victims, 21, 675–690.

      This article seeks to provide an explanation for the cycle of violence. It examines whether aggression and alcohol use provide the casual mechanism through which childhood victimization causes violence in adulthood.

      14. Choice and Opportunity Theories of Crime
      Brantingham, Patricia L., and Paul J. Brantingham: Environmental Criminology

      Felson, M. K. (2002). Crime and everyday life (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.

      With his routine activities theory, Marcus Felson provides theoretical support for many of the central tenets of environmental criminology. In this book, Felson emphasizes how everyday actions provide the context for criminal activities.

      Rossmo, D. K. (1999). Geographic profiling. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

      D. Kim Rossmo was Patricia and Paul Brantingham's doctoral student at Simon Fraser University. For his dissertation, later published as this book, Rossmo took the Brantingham's ideas and applied them to criminal investigation and geographic profiling.

      Wortley, R., & Mazerolle, L. (Eds.). (2008). Environmental criminology and crime analysis. Portland, OR: Willan.

      In this collected edition, Richard Wortley and Lorraine Mazerolle bring together scholars who provide the key theories in environmental criminology and brings them up to date with current research.

      Clarke, Ronald V.: Situational Crime Prevention

      Clarke, R. V. (2004). Technology, criminology and crime science. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research. 10, 55–63.

      Clarke draws a stark contrast between traditional criminology and the field of environmental criminology.

      Clarke, R. V. (2008). Situational crime prevention. In R. Wortley & L. Mazerolle (Eds.), Environmental criminology and crime analysis (pp. 178–194). Cullompton, Devon, UK: Willan.

      This is the most recent comprehensive description of the theory and practice of situational crime prevention. The book containing this chapter describes other related theories of crime and prevention.

      Clarke, R. V., & Eck, J. E. (2005). Crime analysis for problem solvers: In 60 small steps. Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing.

      This manual, available as a PDF file from http://www.popcenter.org integrates Clarke's works with other environmental criminology and shows their practical application to policing. This manual, and a companion manual for the British police services, have been translated into 15 languages (also available at the above website). The manual contains the most up-to-date version of situational crime prevention.

      Clarke, R. V., & Newman, G. R. (2006). Outsmarting the terrorists. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International.

      Clarke and Newman take on terrorism, show its “rationality” and how understanding principles of opportunity theory can help prevent terrorist incidents. Not only does this book show how situational approaches can be applied to terrorism, but it also gives a good overview of situational crime prevention and opportunity theories.

      Felson, M., & Clarke, R. V. (1998). Opportunity makes the thief: Practical theory for crime prevention (Police Research Papers No. 98). London: Home Office, Research Development and Statistics Directorate.

      This paper (available for free from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/prgpdfs/fprs98.pdf) describes opportunity theories, including situational crime prevention, and provides 10 principles of crime opportunity theory. Though over a decade old, this monograph, written for practitioners, provides a lively introduction to opportunity theories and situational crime prevention.

      Cohen, Lawrence E., and Marcus K. Felson: Routine Activity Theory

      Felson, M. (2002). Crime and everyday life (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.

      In this book, Felson presents an overview of contemporary routine activity theory, highlighting how everyday aspects of social settings facilitate or inhibit the commission of criminal offenses. This is perhaps the most easily read and digested overview of routine activity theory. Both scholars and laypersons alike will find this book highly informative.

      Kennedy, L. W., & Forde, D. R. (1999). When push comes to shove: A routine conflict approach to violence. Albany: SUNY Press.

      In this book, Kennedy and Forde focus on the ways in which individuals define and consequently respond to everyday confrontations in life. Emphasis is on how and when people do or do not use violent means to respond to and resolve disputes in everyday life.

      Miethe, T. D., & Meier, R. F. (1994). Crime and its social context: Toward an integrated theory of offenders, victims, and situations. Albany: SUNY Press.

      This text draws together issues encompassing those who commit crime, are victims of crime and the variable contexts in which offenders, and victims intermingle to offer an explanation of criminal events that is multifaceted. The core issues of routine activity are emphasized, with the ultimate explanation for criminal events relying on interactions and intersections of the three core theoretical components.

      Sacco, V. F., & Kennedy, L. W. (1996). The criminal event. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

      This book emphasizes the event of a crime as the intersection of multiple factors that are necessary for crime to occur. The argument presented emphasizes criminal events as a process, not just a distinct event that is not tied to larger social issues.

      Schwartz, M. D., & Pitts, V. L. (1995). Exploring a feminist routine activities approach to explaining sexual assault. Justice Quarterly, 12, 9–31.

      In this study, Schwartz and Pitts present one of the first attempts to apply routine activity theory to sexual violence. The study emphasizes both victim vulnerability (women's drinking in public frequently) and motivations of offenders (men working to get women drunk so as to victimize them). The study applies feminist principles as well as the core concepts of routine activity theory to the explanation of sexual assault among college students.

      Cook, Philip J.: Supply and Demand of Criminal Opportunities

      Clarke, R. V. (1980). Situational crime prevention: Theory and practice. British Journal of Criminology, 20, 136–147.

      This article provides an introduction to the principles of situation crime prevention, a strategy that focuses on thwarting crimes by eliminating criminal opportunities.

      Ehlich, I. (1981). The market for offenses and the public enforcement of laws: An equilibrium analysis. British Journal of Social Psychology, 21, 107–120.

      This article discusses the “demand for offenses” in terms of supply and demand.

      Felson, M., & Clarke, R. V. (1998). Opportunity makes the thief: Practical theory for crime prevention (Police Research Series No. 98). London: Home Office.

      This article provides an overview of opportunity theories and implications for crime prevention.

      Wilcox, P., Land, K. C., & Hunt, S. A. (2003). Criminal circumstance: A dynamic, multicontextual criminal opportunity theory. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

      This book introduces a multilevel and mulitcontextual theoretical model for how criminal opportunities are created.

      Cornish, Derek B., and Ronald V. Clarke: Rational Choice Theory

      Clarke, R. V., & Cornish, D. (1985). Modeling offender's decisions: A framework for research and policy. In M. Tonry & N. Morris (Eds.), Crime and justice: An annual review of research (Vol. 6, pp. 147–185). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

      This is the original article that describes the contributions from other social sciences and lays out the involvement and event models.

      Cornish, D., & Clarke, R. V. (Eds.). (1986). The reasoning criminal: Rational choice perspectives on offending. New York: Springer-Verlag.

      This book reviews rational choice approaches to studying crime, as well as multiple empirical studies of criminal decision making and relevant theoretical issues.

      Crime Hot Spots

      Sherman, L., Gartin, P., & Buerger, M. (1989). Hot spots of predatory crime: Routine activities and the criminology of place. Criminology, 27, 27–56.

      This article is one of the seminal works in the micro-level examination of the distribution of crime within and across neighborhoods. This article also develops routine activity theory as an explanation for the concentration of crime in particular hot spot locations.

      Weisburd, D., & Braga, A. (2006). Hot spots policing as a model of police innovation. In D. Weisburd & A. Braga (Eds.), Police innovation: Contrasting perspectives (pp. 225–244). New York: Cambridge University Press.

      This chapter describes the role of criminological theory and careful empirical study in the development of hot spots policing. The evaluation evidence on the crime prevention effectiveness of hot spots policing is also reviewed.

      Weisburd, D., Bushway, S., Lum, C., & Yang, S. (2004). Trajectories of crime at places: A longitudinal study of street segments in the city of Seattle. Criminology, 42, 283–321.

      This article presents empirical evidence that crime hot spots have generally stable concentrations of crime over time. The research also suggests that a relatively small proportion of crime places belong to groups with steeply rising or declining crime trajectories and that these places may be primarily responsible for overall city trends in crime.

      Decker, Scott H., and Richard T. Wright: Decisions of Street Offenders

      Katz, J. (1988). Seductions of crime: Moral and sensual attractions in doing evil. New York: Basic Books.

      This is a prominent work in criminology that focuses on emotional and “foreground” factors in shaping the decisions of persons who partake in certain acts of crime and aggression.

      Lofland, J. (1969). Deviance and identity. Englewood

      Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

      Wright and Decker draw from Lofland in developing their theoretical framework and in interpreting the behaviors of active street criminals.

      Eck, John E.: Places and the Crime Triangle

      Clarke, R. V., & Eck, J. E. (2005). Crime analysis for problem solvers in 60 small steps. Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, U.S. Department of Justice.

      This manual was written for crime analysts but can also be used to introduce readers to the crime science perspective. The manual translates the basic principles of environmental criminology into practical analytical strategies (e.g., use of the crime triangle) for crime researchers.

      Eck, J. E., & Weisburd, D. (Eds.). (1995). Crime and place: Crime prevention studies (Vol. 4). Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

      Crime and Place is the most popular volume of the Crime Prevention Studies series. It contains a collection of chapters dedicated to examining place and crime relationships.

      Wortley, R., & Mazerolle, L. (Eds.). (2008). Environmental criminology and crime analysis. Portland, OR: Willan.

      This edited volume provides summaries of environmental criminology theories and related contributions. This volume serves as the most complete resource for those interested in the environmental criminology paradigm. Many of the chapters are authored by the original theorists.

      Economic Theory and Crime

      Bushway, S., & Reuter, P. (2008). Economists’ contribution to the study of crime and the criminal justice system. In M. Tonry (Ed.), Crime and justice: A review of research (Vol. 37, pp. 389–451). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

      The current chapter is based on this much larger work on the contribution of economists to the study of crime. Those readers interested in more detail should refer to this article.

      Coase, R. (1978). Economics and contiguous disciplines. Journal of Legal Studies, 7, 201–211.

      This chapter lays out general elements of what economists bring to the study of new areas, including crime. Coase is a Nobel Prize–winning economist who helped found the area of Law and Economics.

      Miles, T., & Levitt, S. (2007). The empirical study of criminal punishment. In A. M. Polinsky & S. Shavell (Eds.), The handbook of law and economics (pp. 453–495). Amsterdam: North-Holland.

      This chapter reviews empirical work by economists on the study of criminal punishment. While not explicitly about economic theory, the theoretical approach is made explicit in the empirical approach of the economist.

      Tonry, M. (2008). Learning from the limitations of deterrence research. In M. Tonry (Ed.), Crime and justice: A review of research (Vol. 37, pp. 279–312). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

      This balanced critique of deterrence research by a non-economist presents some insight into the potential limitations of economic theory when applied to criminal behavior.

      Felson, Marcus K.: Crime and Everyday Life

      Cohen, L. E., & Felson, M. K. (1979). Social change and crime rate trends: A routine activity approach. American Sociological Review, 44, 588–608.

      This article is the introduction to routine activity theory and is the foundation of much of environmental criminology.

      Eck, J. E., & Weisburd, D. (Eds.). (1995). Crime and place. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

      This volume in the Crime Prevention Studies series is one of the seminal pieces in empirical research on the influence of place in crime occurrence.

      Felson, Marcus K.: Crime and Nature

      Felson, M. (2002). Crime and everyday life (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.

      In this unconventional textbook on crime causation, Felson explains how routine everyday activities set the stage for illegal activities, and how crime can be reduced by simple measures.

      Felson, M. (2006). Crime and nature. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

      This textbook, written for undergraduate courses in criminology and criminal justice, formulates Felson's perspective on crime as outlined in this entry.

      Krebs, J. R., & Davies, N. B. (1993). An introduction to behavioral ecology (3rd rev. ed.). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.

      Felson's Crime and Nature uses many concepts that have been developed in behavioral ecology, a contemporary branch of biology that explains behavior as a function of ecological and evolutionary mechanisms. This book is generally seen as an accessible introduction to this field of investigation.

      Hindelang, Michael J., Michael R. Gottfredson, and James Garofalo: Lifestyle Theory

      Robinson, M. B. (1999). Lifestyles, routine activities, and residential burglary victimization. Journal of Crime and Justice, 22, 27–56.

      In this article, Matthew Robinson provides a brief summary of lifestyle/exposure and routine activity theories. He also reports the findings from his telephone survey regarding the relationship between victims’ lifestyles, routine activities, and residential burglary victimization.

      Jeffery, C. Ray: Crime Prevention through Environmental Design

      Jacobs, J. (1961). The life and death of great American cities. New York: Random House.

      This book introduced the insight that the natural and social environment contributes to crime and deviance, as well as suggested ideas for combating crime by changing the physical environment.

      Jeffery, C. R. (1971). Crime prevention through environmental design. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

      This book introduces the idea that it is possible to curtail offending by removing environmental cues that reinforce the offending behavior.

      Jeffery, C. R. (1977). Crime prevention through environmental design (2nd ed.). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

      In this edition, Jeffery added major discussion of the biological influences of behavior. He spends much time outlining the influence of the individual's biological makeup on processing input to behavior.

      Jeffery, C. R. (1990). Criminology: An interdisciplinary approach. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

      This work argues for fully integrating biological, social, psychological, and other disciplinary approaches into a single coherent model for understanding behavior and what can be done to prevent crime.

      Newman, O. (1972). Defensible space: People and design in the violent city. New York: Macmillan.

      This book introduces the idea of defensible space, which seeks to create “a physical expression of a social fabric which defends itself.” The book offers very specific recommendations on what to change in the environment in order to combat crime.

      Wood, E. (1961). Housing design, a social theory. New York: Citizens’ Housing and Planning Counsel of New York.

      This work reports on an evaluation of public housing in Chicago and problems that contribute to crime in that setting. The analysis made early suggestions on enhancing safety by promoting resident surveillance and activity in the area.

      Miethe, Terance D., and Robert F. Meier: An Integrated Theory of Victimization

      Miethe, T. D., & Meier, R. F. (1994). Crime and its social context: Toward an integrated theory of offenders, victims and situations. Albany: SUNY Press.

      In this book, the authors demonstrate empirically and conceptually the importance of integrating offender-, victim-, and situation-based theories in one perspective.

      Miller, Jody: Gendered Criminal Opportunity

      Anderson, E. (1999). Code of the street: Decency, violence, and the moral life of the inner city. New York:

      W. W. Norton.

      This book provides a good understanding of both the culture and ideals of normalcy among inner-city residents.

      Giordano, P. C., Cernkovich, S. A., & Rudolph, J. L. (2002). Gender, crime, and desistance: Toward a theory of cognitive transformation. American Journal of Sociology, 107(4), 990–1064.

      This study provides a detailed look at the gender-race-crime interaction. It also works to develop an updated theory of cognitive transformation that is applicable across gender and races.

      Jacobs, B. A., & Wright, R. (1999). Stick-up, street culture, and offender motivation. Criminology, 37, 149.

      This study provides a detailed look at the influence of street culture and norms on the decision to commit crime, in lieu of background risk factors.

      Steffensmeier, D. J., & Allan, E. (1996). Gender and crime: Toward a gendered theory of female offending. Annual Review of Sociology, 22, 459–487.

      This study provides an all-encompassing look at the effect of gender on criminality, including variance over time and general theory.

      Suchman, L. A. (1987). Plans and situated actions: The problem of human-machine communication. New York: Cambridge University Press.

      This book is the first to discuss the concept of situated action. It provides a detailed description of its meaning and application.

      Newman, Oscar: Defensible Space Theory

      Newman, O. (1972). Defensible space: Crime prevention through urban design. New York: Macmillan.

      In this book, Newman lays out for the first time, a detailed description of the concept of defensible space. The book contains many photographs, drawings, and blueprints to portray the concept visually.

      Newman, O. (1996). Creating defensible space. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.

      This volume contains an updated version of Newman's thesis about the relationship between physical space and crime. He explores the concept as it applies to the design of the Five Oaks neighborhood in Dayton, a row house public housing complex in the South Bronx, and dispersed, scatter-site public housing in Yonkers.

      Reynald, D. M., & Ellfers, H. (2009). The future of

      Newman's defensible space theory. European Journal of Criminology, 6, 25–46.

      This article describes the evolution of the defensible space concept and critiques the ambiguity of key aspects of the concept. The authors show the relationship between the defensible space approach and situational crime prevention theory and routine activity theory.

      Osgood, D. Wayne, Janet K. Wilson, Jerald G. Bachman, Patrick M. O'Malley, Lloyd D. Johnston: Routine Activities and Individual Deviant Behavior

      Felson, M. (2002). Crime and everyday life (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.

      This book provides a thorough and engaging introduction to routine activity theory. Felson demonstrates that the theory offers a coherent and distinct perspective about crime by showing its relevance to a surprisingly wide range of topics.

      Osgood, D. W., & Anderson, A. L. (2004). Unstructured socializing and rates of delinquency. Criminology, 42, 519–549.

      These authors apply individual-level routine activity theory to explaining rates of delinquency for neighborhoods and schools. They show that this perspective is a useful addition to social disorganization theory.

      Osgood, D. W., Anderson, A. L., & Shaffer, J. N. (2005). Unstructured leisure in the after-school hours. In J. L. Mahoney, R. W. Larson, & J. S. Eccles (Eds.), Organized activities as contexts of development: extracurricular activities, after-school and community programs (pp. 45–64). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

      This chapter discusses the connection between unstructured socializing and delinquency in relation to the students’ after-school time use. It reviews evidence about the connection, lays out the developmental trends of time use with age and their association with age differences in delinquency, and considers the policy implications of these themes.

      Physical Environment and Crime

      Fowler, E. P. (1992). Building cities that work. Montreal, QC: McGill-Queens University Press.

      The most impressive ideas about crime and physical environment at the community—as opposed to the site level—originated with Jane Jacobs. Fowler provides a test of her idea that short blocks with mixed land use are safer.

      St. Jean, P. K. B. (2007). Pockets of crime: Broken windows, collective efficacy, and the criminal point of view. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

      Of most value in the above volume is hearing how offenders—drug dealers and robbers—in extremely disadvantaged neighborhoods think about physical environment. They pay attention to what the Brantinghams call crime generators and crime attractors. Although the volume overlooks the contributions of environmental criminology to land-use dynamics, it provides considerable detail on how offenders choose sites and the roles of land use—at least in this type of setting.

      Taylor, R. B. (2001). Breaking away from broken windows: Evidence from Baltimore neighborhoods and the nationwide fight against crime, grime, fear and decline. Boulder, CO: Westview.

      This work seeks to provide a longitudinal test of the incivilities thesis. It raises methodological and theoretical questions and finds some support for some ideas in some versions of the thesis.

      Pogarsky, Greg: Behavioral Economics and Crime

      Nagin, D. S., & Pogarsky, G. (2003). An experimental investigation of deterrence: Cheating, self-serving bias, and impulsivity. Criminology, 41, 167–193.

      This article reported on a randomized experiment in which student subjects could cheat on a laboratory task to earn extra money and on which the probability of detection and severity of punishment were manipulated. Among the key results was that cheating was more prevalent among individuals with strong present orientation and who were prone to self-serving bias.

      Pogarsky, G. (2007). Deterrence and individual differences among convicted offenders. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 23, 59–74.

      This study tested how variation in criminal propensity (operationalized as “self-control”) moderated deterrent effects in a sample of convicted offenders in New Jersey's Intensive Supervision Program (ISP) in 1989 and 1990. Offenders’ perceptions of the risks and consequences from violating ISP were associated with whether they successfully completed ISP. Moreover, lower self-control did not diminish and, if anything, enhanced these deterrent effects.

      Pogarsky, G. (in press). Deterrence and decision-making: Research questions and theoretical refinements. In M. D. Krohn, A. J. Lizotte, G. Penly Hall (Eds.), Handbook on crime and deviance. New York: Springer.

      This chapter comments on the current state of criminological deterrence research. It identifies areas of intersection between behavioral economics and criminological deterrence and suggests avenues of further investigation to improve our understanding of crime decisions.

      Pogarsky, G., Kim, K., & Paternoster, R. (2005). Perceptual change in the National Youth Survey: Lessons for deterrence theory and offender decision making. Justice Quarterly, 22, 1–29.

      This study advanced and tested a theoretical framework in which perceptions of the certainty of punishment are a function of the offending experiences and consequences of both the actor and others. The findings included the following:

      (1) Arrests had little effect on perceptions of the certainty of punishment for stealing and attacking.

      (2) In contrast, offending corresponded with decreases in the perceived certainty of punishment for both offenses. (3) Peer offending produced decreases in the perceived certainty for stealing, but not for attacking. (4) Prior offending experience did not diminish the influence of more immediate offending experience on risk perceptions. (5) Moral inhibition reduced the effects of offending experience on risk perceptions.

      Sacco, Vincent F., and Leslie W. Kennedy: The Criminal Event Perspective

      Anderson, A. L., & Meier, R. F. (2004). Interaction and the criminal event perspective. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 20, 416–440.

      Anderson and Meier used the criminal event perspective to explore how components of the social environment interact together to produce crime or delinquency.

      Meier, R. F., Kennedy, L. W., & Sacco, V. F. (Eds.).

      (2001). The process and structure of crime: Criminal events and crime analysis. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

      This edited book explores the criminal event perspective in detail from the perspective of a variety of authors. Specific topics include the application of the criminal event perspective to macro studies of crime, using qualitative methods to study criminal events, and the relationship between criminal careers and criminal events.

      Pino, N. W. (2005). Serial offending and the criminal events perspective. Homicide Studies, 9, 109–148.

      In this article, Pino applied the criminal events perspective to understanding serial offending through a focus on the precursors, the event, and the aftermath.

      Weaver, G. S., Wittekind, J. E., Huff-Corzine, L., Corzine, J., Petee, T. A., & Jarvis, J. P. (2004). Violent encounters: A criminal event analysis of lethal and nonlethal outcomes. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 20, 348–368.

      Weaver et al. explored the contextual factors related to violent encounters, including the type of weapon used, the temporal and spatial characteristics of the event, and the offender and victim characteristics of the event.

      Shover, Neal: Great Pretenders

      Shover, N. (1985). Aging criminals. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

      This work uses some of the data used in Great Pretenders with more specific focus.

      Wright, R. T., & Decker, S. H. (1996). Burglars on the job: Streetlife and residential break-ins. Boston: Northeastern University Press.

      This work adds additional insight into how streetlife affects criminal decision making.

      Wright, R. T., & Decker, S. H. (1997). Armed robbers in action: Stick-ups and street culture. Boston: Northeasters University Press.

      This work adds additional insight into how streetlife affects criminal decision making.

      Stark, Rodney: Deviant Places

      Sampson, R. J., & Groves, W. B. (1989). Community structure and crime: Testing social disorganization theory. American Journal of Sociology, 94, 774–802.

      This article is considered a seminal piece contributing to the social disorganization theory literature. Their study was the first to directly test social disorganization theory. They mentioned problems with past research; these problems consisted of a lack of intervening variables in the model, and reliance on official crime rates. They addressed these issues in their study. They used self-report victimization and offending data. Their sample included 10,905 households across 238 localities in Great Britain. For intervening variables, they created a model that was an extension of Shaw and McKay's original theory. With this new model, they were able to directly test Shaw and McKay's theory. They found that the results from their study were consistent with social disorganization theory.

      Shaw, C. R., & McKay, H. D. (1969). Juvenile delinquency and urban areas (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

      Shaw and McKay developed social disorganization theory. The work that they undertook was unprecedented and was conducted without the use of computers and statistical techniques that we have today. Further, their theory, which was first published in 1942, is still being tested and supported today. They found that rather than individuals themselves being the cause of crime, it is neighborhoods that create criminal conduct. Their work sparked a movement that explored contextual level theories of causes of crime.

      Wikström, Per-Olof H.: Situational Action Theory

      Wikström, P.-O. (2005). The social origins of pathways in crime. Towards a developmental ecological action theory of crime involvement and its changes. In D. P. Farrington (Ed.), Integrated developmental and life-course theories of offending (Advances in Criminological Theory: Vol. 14, pp. 211–245). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

      Wikström, P.-O., & Treiber, K. (2009). What drives persistent offending. The neglected and unexplored role of the social environment. In J. Savage (Ed.), The development of persistent criminality (pp. 389–420). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

      These two chapters give jointly the best overview of how situational action theory conceptualizes and deals with the topic of development and change.

      Wikström, P.-O. (2006). Individuals, settings and acts of crime: Situational mechanisms and the explanation of crime. In P.-O. Wikström & R. J. Sampson (Eds.), The explanation of crime: Context, mechanisms and development (pp. 61–107). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

      This chapter presents in detail the foundations of situational action theory and its grounding in social and behavioral science theory.

      Wilcox, Pamela, Kenneth C. Land, and Scott A. Hunt: Multicontextual Opportunity Theory

      Sampson, R. J., & Wooldredge, J. D. (1987). Linking the micro- and macro-level dimensions of lifestyle-routine activity and opportunity models of predatory victimization. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 3, 371–393.

      This study examines whether micro- and macro-level indicators of opportunity independently influence the likelihood of victimization. Consistent with the main effects of individual and environmental opportunity on crime posited by multicontextual opportunity theory, the findings suggest that both macro- and micro-level indicators of opportunity influence victimization risk.

      Wilcox, P., Madensen, T., & Tillyer, M. S. (2007).

      Guardianship in context: Implications for burglary victimization risk and prevention. Criminology, 45, 771–803.

      This study uses multicontextual opportunity theory to guide the development of hypotheses predicting the relationship between neighborhood- and individual-level guardianship indicators and their influence on burglary victimization risk. The findings reflect support for the hypothesized moderating effects suggested by multicontextual opportunity theory.

      Wilcox Rountree, P., Land, K. C., & Miethe, T. D.

      (1994). Macro-micro integration in the study of victimization: A hierarchical logistic model analysis across Seattle neighborhoods. Criminology, 32, 387–414.

      This study examines whether the effects of individual-level opportunity variables on victimization risk vary depending on neighborhood context. Consistent with the interactive effects of environmental- and individual-level opportunity on crime posited by multicontextual opportunity theory, the findings suggest that the importance of individual-level opportunity in explaining victimization varies by neighborhood context.

      Wortley, Richard: A Revised Situational Crime Prevention Theory

      Clarke, R. V., & Cornish, D. B. (1985). Modeling offenders’ decisions: A framework for research and policy. In M. Tonry & N. Morris (Eds.), Crime and justice: An annual review of research (Vol. 6, pp. 147–185). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

      In this essay, Ronald Clarke and Derek Cornish argue that crime is the outcome of an offender's rational choice. These authors provide fundamental theoretical groundwork for situational crime prevention by emphasizing offender decision making across all stages of a criminal event.

      Cohen, L. E., & Felson, M. (1979). Social change and crime rate trends: A routine activity approach. American Sociological Review, 44, 588–608.

      Lawrence Cohen and Marcus Felson suggest that offending is a function of opportunity when motivated offenders converge in time and space with suitable targets in the absence of capable guardianship. Their routine activity theory underlies using situational crime prevention to disrupt criminal opportunity structures at specific times and places.

      Cornish, D. B., & Clarke, R. V. (2003). Opportunities, precipitators, and criminal decisions: A reply to Wortley's critique of situational crime prevention. In M. Smith & D. Cornish (Eds.), Theory for practice in situational crime prevention (Vol. 16, pp. 41–96). Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.

      Derek Cornish and Ronald Clarke offer a rebuttal to Wortley's (2001) critique of situational crime prevention. In the end, these authors concede to Wortley and update the existing framework for situational crime prevention.

      15. Macro-Level/Community Theories of Crime
      Blau, Judith R., and Peter M. Blau: Inequality and Crime

      Messner, S. F., & Golden, R. M. (1992). Racial inequality and racially disaggregated homicide rates: An assessment of alternative theoretical explanations. Criminology, 30, 421–447.

      Messner and Golden delineate the various arguments linking racial inequality to race-specific homicide rates. Their results indicate that racial inequality affects both black and white homicide rates, suggesting a generalized disorganizing effect on the total population, rather than on just one racial group.

      Shihadeh, E. S., & Flynn, N. (1996). Segregation and crime: The effect of black social isolation on the rates of urban black violence. Social Forces, 74, 1325–1352.

      This article by Shihadeh and Flynn marked a critical turn in the macro-level research on urban black violence. Their summary of the social disorganization/social control model informed by the work of William Julius Wilson and of Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton and their empirical analysis of black social isolation highlighted the importance of spatially embedded inequalities.

      Bursik, Robert J., Jr., and Harold C. Grasmick: Levels of Control

      Bursik, R. J., Jr., & Grasmick, H. G. (1993). Neighborhoods and crime. New York: Lexington.

      This book furnishes more details on Bursik and Grasmick's levels of control and systemic theory. It also provides useful discussion on how neighborhoods deal with disorder, fear of crime, and gangs and provides examples of community organizing against crime.

      Carr, P. (2005). Clean streets: Controlling crime, maintaining order, and building community activism. New York: New York University Press.

      This book is a close-up examination of a single neighborhood in Chicago and of how levels of control come together there to fight against crime. Carr spent 5 years interviewing neighborhood residents and taking field notes to produce insightful observations about how order is maintained in a modern urban community.

      DeLeon-Granados, W. (1999). Travels through crime and place: Community-building as crime control. Boston: Northeastern University Press.

      This book is an ethnographic travelogue by a criminologist intent on determining how neighborhoods and communities around the United States maintain order. Interesting reading on the topic of communities and crime.

      Rose, D. R., & Clear, T. R. (1998). Incarceration, social capital, and crime: Implications for social disorganization theory. Criminology, 36, 441–479.

      This article extends Bursik and Grasmick's theory to consider in more detail how incarceration, as a form of public control, contributes to social disorganization and a breakdown of social capital. The authors also outline an extension of the theory that considers “feedback” effects of crime and incarceration on neighborhood order.

      Sampson, R. J., Raudenbush, S. W., & Earls, F. (1997).

      Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277, 918–924.

      This article describes collective efficacy and systemic theory in more detail and provides an empirical test using data from Chicago neighborhoods. It is an influential article in the literature on neighborhoods and crime published in one of the leading scientific journals.

      Inequality and Crime

      Hipp, J. (2007). Income inequality, race, and place: Does the distribution of race and class within neighborhoods affect crime rates? Criminology, 45, 665–696.

      Hipp argues that if inequality-crime theories are correct, inequity in the distribution of economic resources within neighborhoods should affect crime rates. He contends that because most theories suggest that the social interaction of residents is an important mechanism by which inequality affects crime, neighborhoods are a preferred unit of analysis than larger aggregates (e.g., cities or standard metropolitan statistical areas).

      Reiman, J. (2007). The rich get richer and the poor get prison: Ideology, class, and criminal justice (8th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

      In this classic book, Reiman argues that the “criminal” actions of the economic elite frequently cause as much or more death, destruction, and financial loss as is caused by all “street crimes.” Yet, these actions and their perpetrators commonly are not treated as criminal. In contrast, members of the lower class are more likely to be arrested, convicted, and imprisoned than the members of the middle and upper classes, even when they commit the same type of crime. Reiman contends that the criminal justice system operates to preserve and enhance the wealth of the rich, and its function is not really to reduce crime, as many believe.

      Walker, S., Spohn, C., & DeLone, M. (2007). The color of justice: Race, ethnicity, and crime in America. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

      In this accessible book, Walker and colleagues document the extent of racial inequality in crime and criminal justice, review potential explanations of existing disparities, and provide insightful summaries of the state of the research literature on these issues.

      Krivo, Lauren J., and Ruth D. Peterson: Extreme Disadvantage and Crime

      Bernard, T. J. (1990). Angry aggression among the “truly disadvantaged.” Criminology, 28, 73–96.

      Bernard presents a theoretical model that incorporates psychological data on aggression in order to explain why we should expect to see a relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and violence. This article both complements the major findings of Krivo and Peterson (1996) and posits underlying causal mechanisms that Krivo and Peterson were unable to establish.

      De Coster, S., Heimer, K., & Wittrock, S. M. (2006).

      Neighborhood disadvantage, social capital, street context, and youth violence. Sociological Quarterly, 47, 723–753.

      In this study using individual-level data, De Coster, Heimer, and Wittrock demonstrate that the effects of living in concentrated disadvantage on violent offending drop out of statistical significance once criminogenic street context variables are added to the model. The authors’ findings provide a counterpoint to the findings of Krivo and Peterson (1996) because they suggest that community disadvantage itself might not cause violence once other criminogenic characteristics of the community are taken into account. De Coster and colleagues’ contrasting findings might also be the result of using individual-level data versus Krivo and Peterson's aggregate-level analysis.

      Wilson, W. J. (1996). When work disappears: The world of the new urban poor. New York: Vintage.

      In this later book, Wilson expands on his discussion of the world of the urban underclass in The Truly Disadvantaged by further analyzing the effects of the loss of manufacturing jobs on low-skilled inner-city residents. Of interest to criminologists, he particularly discusses the link between the rise of unemployment and social disorganization and the surge in drug trafficking.

      Negotiated Coexistence

      Browning, C. R. (2009). Illuminating the downside of social capital: Negotiated coexistence, property crime, and disorder in urban neighborhoods. American Behavioral Scientist, 52, 1556–1578.

      This article builds on the negotiated coexistence framework presented in Browning, Feinberg, and Dietz (2004) and applies the model to the case of property crime and disorder. The analyses offer additional empirical support for the negotiated coexistence model—the regulatory effects of collective efficacy on the prevalence of property crime and disorder are diminished as network interaction exchange increase.

      Browning, C. R., Feinberg, S. L., & Dietz, R. (2004). The paradox of social organization: Networks, collective efficacy, and violent crime in urban neighborhoods. Social Forces, 83, 503–534.

      The negotiated coexistence model is described and contrasted with two extant competing perspectives on the joint effects of collective efficacy and social network interaction and exchange. Employing data on violence in Chicago neighborhoods, results of the analyses are consistent with the expectations of the negotiated coexistence model—as network interaction and exchange increase, the beneficial effect of collective efficacy in reducing the prevalence of violence is diminished.

      Pattillo-McCoy, M. (1999). Black picket fences. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

      Pattillo-McCoy's insightful analysis of a middle-class African American community provides an important foundation for the negotiated coexistence model. Residents of “Groveland” expressed concern about—and attempted to control—the prevalence of crime in their community. Nevertheless, the density of ties between Groveland's more conventionally oriented residents and local gang members inhibited the community's ability to translate strong social control inclinations into effective regulation of local crime.

      Racial Threat and Social Control

      Blalock, H. M. (1967). Toward a theory of minority-group relations. New York: Wiley.

      This is the work that got social scientists interested in the social control implications of minority group threat. Some readers may find parts of it to be somewhat technical, but it is essential reading for anyone interested in this perspective.

      Chiricos, T., Welch, K., & Gertz, M. (2004). Racial typification of crime and support for punitive measures. Criminology, 42, 359–390.

      This article develops an alternative micro-level measure of racial threat that directly assesses the extent to which crime is perceived to be associated with African Americans. That perception is implicit, though unmeasured, in macro-level assessments of the relationship between racial composition of place and criminal justice controls.

      Liska, A. E. (1992). Social threat and social control. Albany: SUNY Press.

      Liska provides a readable summary of the origins, propositions, and problems with this perspective. Chapters written by other authors expand the range of potentially threatening “others” that may be subject to fatal, coercive, and beneficent controls.

      Sampson, Robert J., and William Julius Wilson: Contextualized Subculture

      Morenoff, J. D., Sampson, R. J., Raudenbush, S. W. (2001). Neighborhood inequality, collective efficacy, and the spatial dynamics of urban violence. Criminology, 39, 517–559.

      This article examines how concentrated disadvantage, structural social disorganization, collective efficacy, and spatial proximity to violence affect homicide rates. It represents a sophisticated test of Sampson and Wilson's ideas about the importance of neighborhood context in explaining violent crime.

      Sampson, R. J., & Wilson, W. J. (1995). Toward a theory of race, crime, and urban inequality. In J. Hagan & R. D. Peterson (Eds.), Crime and inequality (pp. 37–54). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

      This chapter presents the original statement of Sampson and Wilson's theory.

      Skogan, Wesley G.: Disorder and Decline

      Kelling, G. L., & Coles, C. M. (1996). Fixing broken windows: Restoring order and reducing crime in our communities. New York: Free Press.

      In this book, George Kelling and Catherine Coles expand on the “broken windows” hypothesis and Skogan's work in Disorder and Decline. They discuss the increase of disorder in America, the failure of past municipal strategies to deal with disorder, and methods to prevent disorder and crime in neighborhoods.

      Thacher, D. (2004). Order maintenance reconsidered: Moving beyond strong causal reasoning. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 94, 101–133.

      In this essay, David Thacher discusses the difficulty of establishing the connection between disorder and serious crime with scientific certainty. He argues, however, that the control of disorder is still important.

      Wilson, J. Q., & Kelling, G. L. (1982, March). Broken windows: The police and neighborhood safety. The Atlantic Monthly, pp. 29–38.

      In this essay, James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling develop the broken windows hypothesis. Disorder and Decline is a test of the broken windows hypothesis.

      Systemic Model of Social Disorganization

      Bursik, R. J., Jr., & Grasmick, H. (1993). Neighborhoods and crime: The dimensions of effective community control. New York: Lexington Books.

      This book lays out an extensive discussion of the systemic model of social disorganization theory and provides a thorough review of research up to its point of publication.

      Sampson, R. J., & Groves, W. B. (1989). Community structure and crime: Testing social-disorganization theory. American Journal of Sociology, 94, 774–802.

      This was among the first empirical studies examining social disorganization theory that included both an adequate number of neighborhoods to empirically test the theory and measures of social disorganization separate from exogenous neighborhood structural features. It is generally considered the classic piece for the systemic model of social disorganization theory.

      Warner, B. D. (2007). Directly intervene or call the authorities? A study of forms of neighborhood social control within a social disorganization framework. Criminology, 45, 99–129.

      This is one of the more recent studies specifically examining the systemic model of social disorganization. It is important because the study distinguishes between direct and indirect forms of social control and examines the relationship of social ties to each.

      Wilson, James Q., and George L. Kelling: Broken Windows Theory

      Kelling, G. L., & Coles, C. M. (1996). Fixing broken windows. New York: Simon & Schuster.

      This book was George Kelling's first big follow-up to the original broken windows article. The authors examined the New York City Police Department's experience with broken windows theory and provided several arguments in favor of the effectiveness of this approach.

      Sampson, R. J., & Raudenbush, S.W. (1999). Systematic social observation of public spaces: A new look at disorder in urban neighborhoods. American Journal of Sociology, 105, 603–651.

      This article is a good single source for an empirical test of broken windows theory combined with a discussion of the major weaknesses of the theory and directions for future theoretical development.

      Skogan, W. G. (1990). Disorder and decline. Berkeley: University of California Press.

      This was the first large-scale, widely-read empirical test of broken windows theory. In addition to analyzing disorder's effect on crime, Skogan also addressed the significance of disorder for the entire process of community decline, including structural decay and reductions in property values.

      Taylor, R. B. (2001). Breaking away from broken windows. Boulder, CO: Westview.

      This is probably the most large-scale, comprehensive test of broken windows theory to date. Taylor used both observed and perceived measures of incivilities and employed a longitudinal design. These two strategies allowed for a strict test of the proposition that disorder causes crime over the long run. Taylor's extensive analyses and nuanced conclusions make this a good single source for a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of the theory.

      Wilson, William Julius: The Truly Disadvantaged

      Sampson, R. J., & Wilson, W. J. (1998). Toward a theory of race, crime and urban inequality. In D. R. Karp (Ed.), Community justice: An emerging field (pp. 97–115). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

      This chapter discusses the implication of Wilson's work to the field of criminology by trying to develop a theoretical perspective to understand the relationship between race and violent crime. This is one of the first significant works to specifically integrate Wilson's The Truly Disadvantaged to criminality.

      Wilson, W. J. (1996). When work disappears: The world of the new urban poor. New York: Knopf.

      Wilson's work from The Truly Disadvantaged was continued in this book. A further understanding of the underclass along with short-term and long-term policy recommendations are incorporated in this piece.

      16. Life-Course and Developmental Theories of Crime
      Catalano, Richard F., and J. David Hawkins: Social Development Model

      Catalano, R. F., & Hawkins, J. D. (1996). The Social Development Model: A theory of antisocial behavior. In J. D. Hawkins (Ed.), Delinquency and crime: Current theories (pp. 149–197). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

      This chapter provides a thorough overview of theoretical foundation and specific propositions contained in the theory. It is the definitive outline of the social development model by its developers.

      Catalano, R. F., Park, J., Harachi, T. W., Haggerty, K. P., Abbott, R. D., & Hawkins, J. D. (2005). Mediating the effects of poverty, gender, individual characteristics, and external constraints on antisocial behavior: A test of the social development model and implications for developmental life course theory. In D. P. Farrington (Ed.), Integrated developmental and life-course theories of offending (Advances in Criminological Theory: Vol. 14, pp. 93–123). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

      This book chapter provides an empirical examination of some key tenets of the social development model. It also responds to some broader questions surrounding integrated developmental and life-course theories of crime and delinquency.

      Criminal Career Paradigm

      Blumstein, A., Cohen, J., Roth, J. A., & Visher, C. A. (Eds.). (1986). Criminal careers and “career criminals” (Vol. 1: Report of the Panel on Criminal Careers, National Research Council). Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences.

      This report provides an overview of the criminal career framework and discusses research on key dimensions as well as methodological and statistical issues.

      Farrington, D. P. (2003). Developmental and life-course criminology: Key theoretical and empirical issues—the 2002 Sutherland award address. Criminology, 41, 221–255.

      This article provides an overview of key life-course criminology facts and then theoretical explanations of them.

      Laub, J. H., & Sampson, R. J. (2003). Shared beginnings, divergent lives: Delinquent boys to age 70. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

      This resource consists of quantitative and qualitative data for the longest longitudinal study in the world tracking Boston-area delinquents until age 70.

      Piquero, A. R., Farrington, D. P., & Blumstein, A. (2003). The criminal career paradigm. In M. Tonry (Ed.), Crime and justice: A review of research (Vol. 30, pp. 359–506). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

      This study updates the Blumstein et al. (1986) report with new literature and issues on criminal career issues.

      Farrington, David P.: The Integrated Cognitive Antisocial Potential Theory

      Farrington, D. P. (Ed.). (2005). Integrated developmental and life-course theories of offending (Advances in Criminological Theory: Vol. 14). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

      In this edited book, David Farrington gathers some of the leading experts who, from their perspectives, present and elucidate their different developmental and life-course theories of offending, many of which were formulated in the last 20 years.

      Flannery, D. J., Vazsonyi, A. T., & Waldman, I. D. (Eds.). (2007). The Cambridge handbook of violent behavior and aggression. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

      In this edited book, Flannery, Vazsonyi, and Waldman present a comprehensive and multidisciplinary investigation of aggressive and violent behavior from international leading experts in the field. Many of the chapters constitute a developmental, biological, bio-genetics, and cultural analysis of the risk factors and mechanisms implicated in the origin of violent behavior over the life span.

      Gulotta, G. (Ed.). (2002). Elementi di psicologia giuridica e di diritto psicologico [Juridical psychology and psychological law]. Milan, Italy: Giuffrè.

      Even though this book is mainly for European readers, mostly Italians, it offers an overall view of the theories of offending and looks at how the criminal system responds to prevent and control the onset and development of criminal careers.

      Loeber, R., & Farrington, D. P. (Eds.). (2001). Child delinquents. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

      Child Delinquents is an edited book that permits readers to be up to date with the most recent work on early criminal onset. Loeber and Farrington assemble some of the most interesting investigations on the risk-processes behind the onset, persistence, and aggravation of a criminal career started in childhood.

      Thornberry, T. P., & Krohn, M. D. (Eds.). (2003). Taking stock of delinquency: An overview of findings from contemporary longitudinal studies. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.

      This edited book by Thornberry and Krohn provides readers with an extensive overview of seven of the most significant longitudinal studies in contemporary criminology. The underlying message for researchers is to recognize and appreciate that longitudinal investigation has become a crucial empirical approach to direct theory testing and policy making.

      Welsh, B. C., & Farrington, D. P. (Eds.). (2006). Preventing crime: What works for children, offenders, victims, and places. New York: Springer.

      This book is a project of the Campbell Collaboration Crime and Justice Group. Welsh and Farrington affirm that crime prevention should be rational and based on the best possible evidence—and explain why. Criminal behavior is multidetermined by individual, familial, scholastic, situational, and social risk factors. Multimodal programs, which tackle these dimensions, are proved to be the most effective in the long term.

      Giordano, Peggy C., and Stephen A. Cernkovich: Cognitive Transformation and Desistance

      Giordano, P. C., Cernkovich, S. A., & Rudolph, J. L. (2002). Gender, crime, and desistance: Toward a theory of cognitive transformation. American Journal of Sociology, 107, 990–1064.

      This is the original article that first presents the foundation of the theory of cognitive transformation. The development and tenets of the theory are also discussed in a clear and concise manner.

      Giordano, P. C., Schroeder, R. D., & Cernkovich, S. A. (2007). Emotions and crime over the life course: A neo-Meadian perspective on criminal continuity and change. American Journal of Sociology, 112, 1603–1661.

      This article presents the new direction of the theory. It describes the additional role of emotions, particularly the emotion of love, as well as the role that cognitions and social bonds play in the desistance process.

      Le Blanc, Marc: An Integrated Personal Control Theory of Deviant Behavior

      Farrington, D. P. (2006). Building developmental and life-course theories of offending. In F. T. Cullen, J. P. Wright, & K. R. Blevins (Eds.), Taking stock: The status of criminological theory (Advances in Criminological Theory: Vol. 15, pp. 335–364). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

      Farrington provides a brief overview of Le Blanc's theory along with other developmental and life-course theories of crime. This work is of particular importance because it provides a concise comparison of these theories on key topics such as underlying constructs, age of onset, and desistance.

      Le Blanc, M. (1997). A generic control theory of deviant behavior: The structural and dynamical statements of an integrative multilayered control theory. In T. P. Farrington (Ed.), Developmental theories of crime and delinquency (Advances in Criminological Theory: Vol. 7, pp. 215–286). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

      In this foundational chapter, Le Blanc introduces his integrative multilayered control theory. Le Blanc argues that his control theory addresses two deficiencies of traditional control theories: single layered and non-developmental. This chapter is important because it not only provides a description of his entire theory but also details his integrated personal control theory of deviant behavior and places it in the context of his integrative multilayered control theory.

      Le Blanc, M. (2005). An integrative personal control theory of deviant behavior: Answers to contemporary empirical and theoretical developmental criminology issues. In T. P. Farrington (Ed.), Integrated developmental and life-course theories of offending (Advances in Criminological Theory: Vol. 14, pp. 125–163). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

      This book chapter serves to expand and clarify Le Blanc's integrated personal control theory of deviant behavior by focusing on the developmental aspect of this theory. Specifically, he addresses the causes of change in deviant behavior overtime by discussing the role of quantitative and qualitative changes.

      Le Blanc, M. (2007). Self-control and the social control of deviant behavior in context: Development and interactions along the life-course. In P.-O. H. Wikström & R. J. Sampson (Ed.), The explanation of crime: Context, mechanisms, and development (pp. 195–242). New York: Cambridge University Press.

      This book chapter can be characterized as an additional expansion and clarification of Le Blanc's earlier works (see Le Blanc, 1997 and 2005). This essay expands on his earlier works by focusing on self-control and how it interacts with other forms of control, including characteristics of the community in which an individual resides.

      Life-Course Interdependence

      Ousey, G. C., & Wilcox, P. (2007). The interaction of antisocial propensity and life-course varying predictors of delinquent behavior: Differences by method of estimation and implications for theory. Criminology, 45, 313–354.

      This article summarizes and tests models of antisocial behavior and life-course ties.

      Sampson, R., & Laub, J. (1993). Crime in the making: Pathways and turning points through life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

      A classic theory about the effect of antisocial behavior on crime via weakened social ties.

      Wright, B. R. E., Caspi A., Moffitt, T. E., & Silva, P. A.

      (2001). The effects of social ties on crime vary by criminal propensity: A life-course model of interdependence. Criminology, 39, 321–352.

      A statement and test of the life-course model of interdependence.

      Loeber, Rolf, and Magda Stouthamer-Loeber: Pathways to Crime

      Loeber, R., Keenan, K., & Zhang, Q. (1997). Boys’ experimentation and persistence in developmental pathways toward serious delinquency. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 6, 321–327.

      This work extends upon Loeber et al.'s 1993 work by examining whether the pathway model equally applies to chronic offenders (i.e., persisters) and experimental offenders.

      Maruna, Shadd: Redemption Scripts and Desistance

      Laub, J. H., & Sampson, R. J. (2003). Shared beginnings, divergent lives: Delinquent boys at age 70. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

      This work traces the life experiences of 500 delinquent boys into late adulthood. The findings indicate that desistance is shaped by structural routines and strong connections to family and community.

      Maruna, S., Porter, L., & Carvalho, I. (2004). The

      Liverpool Desistance Study and probation practice: Opening the dialogue. Probation Journal, 51, 221–232.

      Maruna et al. provide a brief overview of the findings from the Liverpool Desistance Study and develop recommendations for how these results can inform probation practice.

      Shover, N. (1996). The great pretenders: Pursuits and careers of persistent thieves. Boulder, CO: Westview.

      Like Making Good, this work provides a narrative analysis of the life stories of more than 50 persistent thieves. Shover shows how the choice to commit crime is shaped by cultural and social constraints. The work challenges assumptions about the effectiveness of imprisonment as a deterrent.

      Moffitt, Terrie E.: A Developmental Model of Life-Course-Persistent Offending

      Moffitt, T. E. (2006). Life-course-persistent versus adolescence-limited antisocial behavior. In D. Cicchetti & D. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 570–598). New York:


      Moffitt reviews 10 years of research on her dual taxonomy of offending, with particular emphasis on empirical tests of her theory. She provides a comprehensive and up-to-date discussion of the empirical status of the theory and concludes that many of her original postulates are well-supported. She also identifies those postulates that require either theoretical refinement or additional empirical scrutiny.

      Nagin, D. S., & Tremblay, R. E. (2005). Developmental trajectory groups: Fact or a useful statistical fiction? Criminology, 43, 873–904.

      Moffitt's dual taxonomy of offending—and developmental theories at large—has generated significant conversation and heated debate as to the appropriate methodological and analytical techniques to apply. This article is the first of three (printed sequentially in the same volume) in an exchange between (1) Nagin and Tremblay and (2) Sampson and Laub that proves both enlightening and provocative.

      Piquero, A. R., & Moffitt, T. E. (2005). Explaining the facts of crime: How the developmental taxonomy replies to Farrington's invitation. In D. P. Farrington (Ed.), Integrated developmental and life course theories of offending (Advances in Criminological Theory: Vol. 14, pp. 51–72). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

      In this systematic response to David Farrington's 2003 Sutherland Address to the members of the American Society of Criminology, Piquero and Moffitt provide a detailed discussion of how Moffitt's dual taxonomy fits in to the larger landscape of developmental theories of offending behavior and of the contributions and challenges of the theory.

      Philadelphia Birth Cohorts, The

      Cohen, J., Roth, J. A., Visher, C. A., & Blumstein, A. (Eds.). (1986). Criminal careers and “career criminal” (Vols. 1–2). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

      These two volumes were produced by the National Academy Panel on Research on Criminal Careers and include work by major scholars studying crime, measurement, and policy issues related to crime patterns over the life course.

      Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1986). The true value of lambda would appear to be zero: An essay on career criminals, criminal careers, selective incapacitation, cohort studies, and related topics. Criminology, 24, 213–234.

      This article provides perhaps the harshest criticism of the cohort studies and longitudinal framework used for studying the Philadelphia Birth Cohorts. This is one of a series of papers by these authors, and readers should consult these other works as well.

      Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (1993). Crime in the making: Pathways and turning points through life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

      This award-winning book offers an age-period-specific explanation for criminal careers, or crime over the life course, based on data that were collected by Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck for 500 delinquents and 500 youths not involved in juvenile justice who were followed for many years. The nature of the “Glueck” data differ dramatically from that of the Philadelphia Birth Cohort.

      Sampson, Robert J., and John H. Laub: Age-Graded Theory of Informal Social Control

      Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (Eds.). (2005). Developmental criminology and its discontents: Trajectories of crime from childhood to old age. Annals of the American Academic of Political Science. Volume 602.

      This volume covers the major theoretical and methodological controversies of contemporary life-course criminology with essays from top criminologists.

      17. Integrated Theories of Crime
      Agnew, Robert: Integrated Theory

      Agnew, R. (2005). Why do criminals offend? A general theory of crime and delinquency. Los Angeles: Roxbury.

      In his complete work, Robert Agnew describes in further detail the particulars of his theory, describes the specific manner in which he believes that his theory can most effectively be tested by future research, and builds on his theory to elaborate the implications that he believes it to have for efforts to control criminal behavior most effectively.

      Bernard, Thomas J., and Jeffrey B. Snipes: Variable-Centered Approach

      Agnew, R. (2005). Why do criminals offend? A general theory of crime and delinquency. Los Angeles: Roxbury.

      This book provides another example of a variable-centered approach to theory integration.

      Bernard, T. J., & Snipes, J. B. (1996). Theoretical integration in criminology. In M. Tonry (Ed.), Crime and justice: A review of research (Vol. 20, pp. 301–348). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

      This reading provides an overview of most of the major integrated theories in criminology and then presents Bernard and Snipes variable-centered approach to integration.

      Messner, S. F., Krohn, M. D., & Liska, A. E. (1989). Theoretical integration in the study of deviance and crime: Problems and prospects. Albany: SUNY Press.

      This book provides an overview of other strategies for constructing integrated theories of crime.

      Chamlin, Mitchell B., and John K. Cochran: Social Altruism and Crime

      Chamlin, M. B., & Cochran, J. K. (1997). Social altruism and crime. Criminology, 35, 203–228.

      This is the original theoretical piece. It provides an overview of the logic behind the development of the theory. Moreover, it provides insight into how to test the relationship between crime and social altruism.

      Chamlin, M. B., & Cochran, J. K. (2001). Social altruism and crime revisited: A research note on measurement. Journal of Crime and Justice, 24, 59–72.

      In this article, Chamlin and Cochran delve into the complications and issues surrounding measurement and testing of social altruism theory. Any future tests of social altruism theory would benefit from reading this article.

      Chamlin, M. B., Novak, K. J., Lowenkamp, C. T., & Cochran, J. K. (1999). Social altruism, tax policy, and crime: A cautionary tale. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 10, 429–446.

      This research paper provides the first policy test of social altruism theory. While unsuccessful, the authors provide suggestions for future research, as well as a discussion on what this means for the policy implications of social altruism theory.

      Colvin, Mark, Francis T. Cullen, and Thomas Vander Ven: Coercion, Social Support, and Crime

      Colvin, M. (2000). Crime and coercion: An integrated theory of chronic criminality. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

      Integrating several existing perspectives of criminology, Colvin lays out his differential coercion theory in this book with a great emphasis on the role of coercive forces that create social and psychological dynamics that lead to chronic criminality. A comprehensive understanding of the differential coercion and social support (DCSS) theory requires being exposed to the arguments of Colvin on “coercion” as proposed in this book.

      Colvin, M. (2007). Applying differential coercion and social support theory to prison organizations. Prison Journal, 87, 367–387.

      Colvin tested the general premises of the differential coercion and social support (DCSS) theory using the levels of social support in the Penitentiary of New Mexico and coercion felt by the inmates thereof in different time periods. This study supported the core propositions of the DCSS theory and indicated that it has implications beyond individual criminal behavior.

      Colvin, M., Cullen, F. T., & Vander Ven, T. (2002).

      Coercion, social support, and crime: An emerging theoretical consensus. Criminology, 40, 19–42.

      Colvin, Cullen, and Vander Ven proposed a new perspective in understanding criminal behavior around the themes of “coercion” and “social support” in this essay that was the basis for the DCSS theory.

      Cullen, F. T. (1994). Social support as an organizing concept for criminology: Presidential address to the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences. Justice Quarterly, 11, 527–559.

      In this essay, Cullen offered “social support” in both instrumental and expressive forms as an organizing concept for the contemporary approaches against the crime problem in the society. Since the DCSS theory grips “social support” along with “coercion” to explain vicious cycle of chronic criminality, reading Cullen's presidential address is vital for a comprehensive understanding of the DCSS theory.

      Cullen, Francis T.: Social Support and Crime

      Currie, E. (1997). Market, crime and community: Toward a mid-range theory of post-industrial violence. Theoretical Criminology, 1, 147–172.

      In this article, Currie lays out what he refers to as a “mid-range” theory of violent crime among post-industrial nations. What is important here from a social support perspective is that he argues that market-based societies (like the United States) tend to emphasize individualism, which systematically undermines key sources of social support—such as education, health care, and welfare—that could conceivably reduce violence in the long term.

      Pratt, T. C. (2009). Addicted to incarceration: Corrections policy and the politics of misinformation in the United States. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

      While Pratt's book is focused most heavily on the collateral consequences of policies emanating from the “control” tradition in criminology, considerable discussion is devoted to how these policies have eroded forms of social support over time in the United States. His discussion of potential correctional reform draws heavily on Cullen's (1994) social support theory both generally (i.e., socially supportive policies outside of criminal justice that may have a significant impact on crime) and specifically related to corrections (i.e., socially supportive approaches such as correctional rehabilitation).

      Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon & Schuster.

      Although Putnam's work is only peripherally concerned with criminal behavior, his work is relevant here in that his discussion of the breakdown of the American community is rooted firmly in the social capital tradition (a close cousin of social support theory). Drawing from many of the same ideas that influenced Cullen's (1994) work, Putnam outlines the harmful consequences that have emerged as a result of social institutions from education, religion, and politics having all become weakened over time.

      Savolainen, J. (2000). Inequality, welfare state, and homicide: Further support for the institutional anomie theory. Criminology, 38, 1021–1042.

      Savolainen's cross-national study, while rooted explicitly in the institutional anomie perspective, focused on how the effect of economic inequality on levels of lethal violence is most pronounced among nations that are also characterized as having weakened institutions of social protection (i.e., the strength of the welfare state). In short, Savolainen argues that “nations that protect their citizens from the vicissitudes of market forces appear to be immune to the homicidal effects of economic inequality.”

      Drennon-Gala, Don: Social Support and Delinquency

      Cullen, F. T. (1994). Social support as an organizing concept for criminology: Presidential address to the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences. Justice Quarterly, 11, 527–559.

      Cullen, another early theorist on social support, provides an alternative theory that builds upon literature in mental health. Reflecting his background in corrections and rehabilitation, Cullen's social support theory suggests that criminal offenders have difficulty ceasing their deviant behavior because they lack the adequate social resources and support mechanisms. He suggests that a society and criminal justice system that is focused on providing offenders with the necessary social supports is not only more likely to reduce crime but also is more benevolent.

      Drennon-Gala, D. (1994). The effects of social support and inner containment on the propensity toward delinquent behavior and disengagement in education. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Rochester.

      Drennon-Gala's dissertation was the original work from which his book, Delinquency and High School Dropouts, was produced. It provides a detailed description of his theoretical statements, a thorough review of the literature, an in-depth discussion of his methodology, and a comprehensive presentation of his findings.

      Drennon-Gala, D. (1995). Delinquency and high school dropouts: Reconsidering social correlates. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

      In this book, Drennon-Gala details his hypothesis regarding social support, inner containment, and social bond theory. After a theoretical explanation, he provides a test of his key propositions and finds that social support and inner containment are strongly related to both disengagement from education and delinquency. He closes with his revised model of social bond theory that includes measures of social support.

      Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley: University of California Press.

      In this book, Hirschi presents a comprehensive theoretical review of theories of social control, cultural deviance, and strain. He suggests that control theories have a stronger logical and theoretical framework and presents his own control theory on social bonds and delinquency. Hirschi also tests his theory using survey data from a large sample of adolescents and finds that his theory is shown more support than measures of cultural deviance and strain.

      Elliott, Delbert S., Suzanne S. Ageton, and Rachelle J. Canter: Integrated Perspective on Delinquency

      Elliott, D. S. (1985). The assumption that theories can be combined with increased explanatory power: Theoretical integrations. In R. F. Meier (Ed.), Theoretical methods in criminology (pp. 123–149). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

      In this piece, Elliott discusses the benefits of developing integrated theories of delinquency. Much of the material is part of an ongoing debate between Elliott and Travis Hirschi.

      Elliott, D. S., Ageton, S., & Canter, R. (1979). An integrated theoretical perspective on delinquent behavior. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 16, 3–27.

      Elliott and colleagues introduce their integrated theory of delinquency in this article. The key components of the theory (strain, social learning, and social control) are discussed and combined into a comprehensive explanation of individual involvement in sustained delinquent behavior.

      Elliott, D. S., Huizinga, D., & Ageton, S. (1985). Explaining delinquency and drug use. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

      Elliott and colleagues present information from the National Youth Survey (NYS). This book includes a description of the theoretical framework of the study, the research methodology, and study findings.

      Hirschi, T. (1979). Separate and unequal is better. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 16, 34–38.

      Hirschi presents arguments against the use of integrated theories in criminology. Hirschi presents the benefits of using a “classical approach” in which components of various pure theories are tested against one another.

      Hirschi, T. (1989). Exploring alternatives to integrated theory. In S. F. Messner, M. D. Krohn, & A. E. Liska (Eds.), Theoretical integration in the study of deviance and crime: Problems and prospects (pp. 37–49). Albany:

      SUNY Press.

      Part of the ongoing debate on the utility of integrated approaches to delinquency between Hirschi and Delbert Elliott, Hirschi offers additional support for the “competing hypothesis” approach to theoretical development.

      England, Ralph W.: A Theory of Middle-Class Delinquency

      Cernkovich, S. A. (1978). Evaluating two models of delinquency causation. Criminology, 16, 335–352.

      In this article, Cernkovich tests competing theoretical perspectives on juvenile delinquency, including one of the assumptions of England's theory that adherence to a hedonistic value system is conducive to delinquency. He finds that both elements of both structural (including subcultural) and control theories interact to explain delinquency likelihood.

      Eve, R. A. (1975). “Adolescent culture”: Convenient myth or reality? A comparison of students and their teachers. Sociology of Education, 48, 152–167.

      In this article, Eve tests whether, as England proposed, adolescents have a distinct subculture from adults. He reports that adolescents differ from adults in their commitment to values that condone deviant behaviors, but that adolescent values derive mainly from those of adults.

      Miller, J. G. (1970). Research and theory in middle-class delinquency. British Journal of Criminology, 10, 33–51.

      Miller provides a comprehensive discussion on how criminological theories explain delinquent behaviors committed by middle-class youths. He includes a comparison of subcultural theories, including England's theory, with learning, control, and social disorganization theories.

      Felson, Richard B., and James T. Tedeschi: Social Interactionist Theory of Violence

      Felson, R. B., & Tedeschi, J. T. (Eds.). (1993). Aggression and violence: Social interactionist perspectives. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

      This edited book is based on a 1991 conference held on SUNY Albany campus titled “Social Interactionist Approaches to Aggression and Violence.” Participants were asked to prepare more elaborated versions of their presentations that were published as book chapters. The result is an interesting collection of studies providing social interactionist explanations for different forms of violence, and they also compare and contrast social interactionism with alternative explanations for violence.

      Tedeschi, J., & Felson, R. B. (1994). Violence, aggression, and coercive actions. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

      This book presents the social interactionist theory of violence, aggression, and coercive actions in great details. The first part includes a careful examination and critique of traditional theories of aggression based on biological, psychological, and criminological perspectives. In the following parts, the authors present their own theory (social interactionism) and a variety of empirical evidence and logical arguments to support it. They also demonstrate how social interactionism can explain specific forms of aggression like family violence and sexual coercion.

      Hagan, John, and Bill McCarthy: Social Capital and Crime

      Hagan, J., & McCarthy, B. (with Parker, P., & Climenhage, J.). (1997). Mean streets: Youth crime and homelessness. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

      In this award-winning book, Hagan and McCarthy outline the development and testing of a social capital theory of crime. This rich field study of adolescents living on the streets of Vancouver and Toronto, Canada, identifies the risk factors that forced youths to abandon the security of home for the mean streets of the city. The book provides rich insight into street culture, the criminal social capital that is vital to survival on the street, and policy interventions toward alleviating homeless in North American cities.

      McCarthy, B., & Hagan, J. (2001). When crime pays: Capital, competence, and criminal success. Social Forces, 79, 1035–1059.

      In this article, McCarthy and Hagan extend work on occupational success with an examination of prosperity in illicit activities. They demonstrate the importance of human and social capital to economic success but also the salience of personal forms of capital. Their study reveals that personal capital—including a heightened ambition for wealth, an inclination toward risk-taking, specialized skills, a willingness to cooperate, and competence—play important roles in both legal and illegal prosperity.

      McCarthy, B., Hagan, J., & Martin, M. J. (2002). In and out of harm's way: Violent victimization and the social capital of fictive street families. Criminology, 40, 831–865.

      McCarthy and colleagues identify in this article different types of relationships that are important to people living on the street. They describe “street families” as fictive kin that serve as a source of social capital to homeless youths. Their study reveals that street families provide greater protection against criminal victimization than do other street associations.

      Krohn, Marvin D.: Networks and Crime

      Krohn, M. D. (1986). The web of conformity: A network approach to the explanation of delinquent behavior. Social Problems, 33, S81–S93.

      This article is mainly a theoretical argument about the effects of multiplex networks on deviance. Here, Krohn focuses on area status and how urban areas are prone to developing higher crime rates due to social distance.

      Krohn, M. D., & Massey, J. L. (1980). Social control and delinquent behavior: An examination of the elements of social bond. Sociological Quarterly, 21, 529–544.

      Krohn introduces his theory of the relationship between networks and deviance in this reading. His main goal is to build on Hirschi's work.

      Krohn, M. D., Massey, J. L., & Zielinski, M. (1988). Role overlap, network multiplicity, and adolescent deviant behavior. Social Psychology Quarterly, 51, 346–356.

      This article establishes more empirical evidence for Krohn's theory. The study examines adolescent's social network multiplexity and the effects on cigarette smoking.

      Krohn, M. D., Stern, S. B., Thornberry, T. P., & Jang, S. J. (1990). Family processes and initiation of delinquency and drug use: The impact of parent and adolescent perceptions. Albany, NY: Rochester Youth Development Study, Hindelang Criminal Justice Research Center, University at Albany.

      This is an empirical study on the effects of parental involvement on adolescent deviance. It concludes that adolescents who have stronger relationships with their parents are less likely to exhibit deviant behavior.

      LaFree, Gary D.: Legitimacy and Crime

      Blumstein, A., & Wallman, J. (Eds.). (2000). The crime drop in America. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

      This collection of readings represents a variety of explanations of the decline in crime in the United States.

      LaFree, G. D. (1998). Losing legitimacy: Street crime and the decline of social institutions in America. Boulder, CO: Westview.

      In this book, LaFree fully explains institutional legitimacy theory.

      Robinson, T. H. (2003). Towards bridging the gap between micro and macro levels of analysis in criminology. Dissertation Abstracts International: The Humanities and Social Sciences, 63, 4101.

      This dissertation provides an extensive analysis of institutional legitimacy theory. It is not an empirical test of the theory, but it examines the logic and theoretical construction of institutional legitimacy theory.

      Thornberry, Terence P.: Interactional Theory

      Jang, S. J. (2002). The effects of family, school, peers, and attitudes on adolescents’ drug use: Do they vary with age? Justice Quarterly, 19, 97–126.

      Jang tested interactional theory's developmental hypotheses about changing influence of four interactional variables (attachment to parents, commitment to school, drug-using peers, and pro-drug attitudes) on drug use across the ages of adolescence. While age-varying effects were found, observed patterns were only partly consistent with the theory.

      Krohn, M. D., Lizotte, A. J., Thornberry, T. P., Smith, C., & McDowall, D. (1996). Reciprocal causal relationships among drug use, peers, and beliefs: A five-wave panel model. Journal of Drug Issues, 26, 405–428.

      Analyzing longitudinal data, Krohn and his colleagues estimated a model of interrelationships among peer drug use, peer reactions to drug use, beliefs about drug use, and adolescent drug use. Findings generally support the hypotheses of reciprocal causal relationships among the variables.

      Thornberry, T. P. (1996). Empirical support for interactional theory: A review of the literature. In J. D. Hawkins (Ed.), Delinquency and crime: Current theories (pp. 198–235). New York: Cambridge University Press.

      This article provides an overview of empirical findings about interactional theory. Given the lack of test of the theory's developmental hypotheses, Thornberry focused on studies examining bidirectional relationships among interactional variables.

      Tittle, Charles R.: Control Balance Theory

      Braithwaite, J. (1997). Charles Tittle's control balance and criminological theory. Theoretical Criminology, 1, 77–97.

      Braithwaite provides one of the first critiques of control-balance theory.

      Hickman, M., & Piquero, A. R. (2001). Exploring the relationship between gender, control balance and deviance. Deviant Behavior, 22, 323–351.

      Hickman and Piquero apply control-balance theory to explain gender differences in crime.

      Piquero, N. L., & Piquero, A. R. (2006). Control balance and exploitative corporate crime. Criminology, 44, 397–430.

      Piquero and Piquero apply control-balance theory to the study of corporate crime.

      18. Theories of White-Collar and Corporate Crime
      Anomie and White-Collar Crime

      Clinard, M. B., & Yeager, P. C. (2006). Corporate crime. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

      This is an updated and well-sourced volume on issues regarding organizational crimes for profit.

      Cullen, F. T. (1984). Rethinking crime and deviance theory: The emergence of a structuring tradition. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Allenhend.

      Cullen took Cloward and Ohlin's theory and applied it to crime generally, showing the importance of differentiating between various types of deviant adaptation.

      Ermann, M. D., & Lundman, R. J. (Eds.). (2002). Corporate and governmental deviance: Problems of organizational behavior in contemporary society (6th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.

      A classic reader revelaing the nature and harms of upperworld illegality.

      Geis, G., Meier, R. F., & Salinger, L. M. (Eds.). (1995). White-collar crime: Classic and contemporary views (3rd ed.). New York: Free Press.

      A good collection of significant contributions to the white-collar crime literature.

      Kwitny, J. (1987). The crimes of patriots: The true tale of dope, dirty money, and the CIA. New York: W. W. Norton.

      This is a good study of how well-integrated actors pursuing legitimate national objectives may engage in serious misconduct.

      Passas, N., & Goodwin, N. (Eds.). (2004). It's legal, but it ain't right: Harmful social consequences of legal industries. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

      This collection of essays illustrates the importance of exploring the concept of white-collar crime beyond legal definitions, while at the same time shunning moralistic and subjective positions. It shows how the pursuit of legitimate economic goals by legal organizations generates consequences more socially harmful than what others call “organized crime.”

      Pontell, H. N., & Geis, G. (Eds.). (2007). International handbook of white-collar and corporate crime. New York: Springer.

      A recent international collection of contributions to the white-collar crime criminology.

      Vaughan, D. (1996). The Challenger launch decision: Risky technology, culture and deviance at NASA. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

      Excellent case study of organizational deviance analyzed through the lens of the anomie tradition.

      Benson, Michael L.: The Collateral Consequences of White-Collar Offending

      Conklin, J. E. (1977). Illegal but not criminal: Business crime in America. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

      This book focuses on the intricacies of various types of business crime, public attitudes toward business crime, and possible mechanisms for control of business crime. The book also discusses specific cases of business crime, as well as offender rationalizations for engaging in such behavior.

      Cressey, D. R. (1953). Other people's money: A study in the social psychology of embezzlement. New York: Free Press.

      Donald Cressey chronicles lengthy prison interviews with incarcerated felons convicted of embezzlement. He contends that three common themes are central to cases of embezzlement for offenders: (1) the existence of financial problems and the opportunity to engage in crime, (2) intricate knowledge of the business environment in order to engage in embezzlement, and (3) rationalizations for engaging in embezzlement.

      Capitalism and White-Collar Crime

      Cullen, F. T., Cavender, G., Maakestad, W. J., & Benson, M. L. (2006). Corporate crime under attack: The fight to criminalize business violence (2nd ed.). Newark, NJ: LexisNexis.

      This book examines one of the most famous cases in the history of corporate crime: the trial of the Ford Motor Company for negligent homicide in the design and manufacture of the Ford Pinto automobile. It includes chapters on the history and contemporary status of the law in regards to corporate crime.

      Friedrichs, D. O. (2007). Trusted criminals: White-collar crime in contemporary society (3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

      This book presents an encyclopedic treatment of the literature on white-collar crime. It covers the history of the concept of white-collar crime, its many different forms and types, theories of white-collar crime, and official reactions to white-collar crime in the criminal justice system.

      Shover, N., & Hochstetler, A. (2006). Choosing white-collar crime. New York: Cambridge University Press.

      This book treats recent developments in white-collar crime. It has particularly good treatments of the effects of globalization on opportunities for white-collar crime and of the differences between elite corporate crime and ordinary white-collar crime.

      Clinard, Marshall B.: The Black Market

      Clinard, M. B. (1983). Corporate ethics and crime: The role of middle management. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

      Based on interview with officials from Fortune 500 companies, Clinard probes how middle managers view ethics and illegal behavior.

      Clinard, M. B., & Yeager, P. C. (1980). Corporate crime. New York: Free Press.

      In this classic study that updates Edwin Sutherland's White Collar Crime, Clinard and Yeager provide systematic empirical information on the extent of corporate illegality. They also develop a framework for understanding why crime flourishes in corporate organizations and explore policies for controlling lawlessness in the upperworld.

      Cressey, Donald R.: Embezzlement and White-Collar Crime

      Cressey, D. R. (1973). Other people's money: A study in the social psychology of embezzlement. Montclair, NJ: Patterson Smith. (Original work published 1953)

      The short monograph demonstrates the use of the technique of analytic induction to study the financial violation of trust.

      Cressey, D. R. (1989). The poverty of theory in corporate crime research. In W. S. Laufer & F. Alder (Eds.), Advances in criminological theory (Vol. 1, pp. 31–56). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

      Cressey's iconoclasm is on display in his powerful criticism of the view that corporations can be treated in criminology as human entities because the criminal law so regards them.

      Cressey, D. R. (1990). Learning and living. In B. Berger (Ed.), Authors of their own lives: Intellectual autobiographies by twenty American sociologists (pp. 235–259). Berkeley: University of California Press.

      Cressey, along with 19 other eminent sociologists, offers autobiographical information about his background and his scholarly work.

      Laub, J. H. (1983). Interview with Donald R. Cressey: March 29, 1979. In J. H. Laub (Ed.), Criminology in the making (pp. 131–165). Boston: Northeastern University Press.

      Cressey responds to a series of questions regarding his life, work habits, and his views of various criminological theories.

      Croall, Hazel: Individual Differences and White-Collar Crime

      Clinard, M. B., & Quinney, R. (1973). Occupational criminal behavior. Criminal behavior systems: A typology (2nd ed., pp. 187–205). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

      Clinard and Quinney introduce two typologies of white-collar crime: occupational crime and corporate crime. They discuss the ability of white-collar offenders to use their role as professionals to monitor and define illegality in their behaviors. Specifically, they focus on the role that professional associations play in monitoring and defining illegality.

      Daly, K. (1989). Gender and varieties of white-collar crime. Criminology, 27, 769–794.

      This is another work that questions the stereotype of the white-collar criminal. Daly examines the socioeconomic status of men and women and demonstrates that a majority of the women employed were clerical workers and most of the men were managers or administrators. Also, she raises questions regarding the relationship between gender, social status, and race in which white-collar criminals get caught and prosecuted.

      Sutherland, E. H. (1940). White-collar criminality. American Sociological Review, 5, 1–12.

      Sutherland discusses crimes that include corporate business violations committed by those of the upper-class for the purposes of developing a more comprehensive theory of criminal behavior. He also examines ways in which upper-class offenders can shape the law and manipulate the system, thus allowing the elites to influence the administration of the law. For this reason, Sutherland's introduction of the term white-collar crime into the criminological community purposely generalizes this concept to focus on powerful corporations and elite offenders.

      Geis, Gilbert: Perspectives on White-Collar Crime Scandals

      Pontell, H. N., & Geis, G. (Eds.). (2007). International handbook of white-collar and corporate crime. New York: Springer.

      White-collar and corporate crimes have recently gained international attention and concern. In this recent text, well-known authorities from around the world contribute original chapters regarding numerous issues in white-collar and corporate crime, many of which relate directly to the global economy.

      Rosoff, S. M., Pontell, H. N., & Tillman, R. (2010). Profit without honor: White-collar crime and the looting of America (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

      This widely cited book provides a substantive and thorough overview of white-collar and corporate crime that incorporates detailed and rich case histories, social and theoretical analysis, and policy discussion.

      Shover, N., & Hochstetler, A. (2006). Choosing white-collar crime. New York: Cambridge University Press.

      Neal Shover and Andy Hochstetler's thesis regarding the “generative worlds” of white-collar offending and issues of rational choice frame this informed and novel theoretical discussion. It updates an enormous amount of research and provides important and new conceptualizations for understanding a broad range of offenses.

      Green, Stuart P.: Moral Theory of White-Collar Crime

      Geis, G., Meier, R., & Salinger, L. (Eds.). (1995). White-collar crime: Classic and contemporary views. New York: Free Press.

      A collaboration of both classic and contemporary literature regarding white collar criminality.

      Green, G. (1997). Occupational crime. Chicago: Nelson Hall.

      Describes white-collar criminality as being largely occupational and used by individuals in their legitimate positions of employment. Examines criminological theory and its application to specific white collar offenses.

      Rawls, J. (1971). A theory of justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

      Examines the concept of social justice through a politically philosophical framework.

      Individual Differences and White-Collar Crime

      Piquero, N. L., & Weisburd, D. (2009). Developmentaltrajectories of white-collar crime. In S. Simpson & D. Weisburd (Eds.), The criminology of white-collar crime (pp. 153–174). New York: Springer.

      Some of the strongest works in this field arise from a wealth of longitudinal research on a dataset of U.S. federal offenders in the 1970s. Piquero and Weisburd's essay summarizes and further develops this earlier work on white-collar criminal careers.

      Shover, N., & Hochstetler, A. (2006). Choosing white-collar crime. New York: Cambridge University Press.

      Shover and Hochstetler, especially in chapters 3 and 5 of their book, provide a thoughtful analysis of white-collar crime and the factors that influence decision making.

      Integrated Theories of White-Collar Crime

      Barak, G. (1998). Integrating criminologies. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

      This book remains the single most thorough survey of the issues involved in integrated theories of crime, authored by a prominent and prolific critical criminologist.

      Friedrichs, D. O. (2010). Trusted criminals: White collar crime in contemporary society (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.

      The text by the author of this entry is the most comprehensive survey of what is known about white-collar crime and its control. It includes a chapter reviewing virtually all theories—including integrated theories—applied to white-collar crime.

      Pontell, H., & Geis, G. (Eds.). (2007). International handbook of white-collar and corporate crime. New York: Springer.

      This handbook, edited by two leading white-collar crime scholars, includes a number of articles of relevance to integrated theories of white-collar crime.

      Schlegel, K., & Weisburd, D. (Eds.). (1992). White-collar crime reconsidered. Boston: Northeastern University Press.

      This collection of articles, originally papers presented at a conference commemorating Edwin H. Sutherland, includes some important contributions by Braithwaite, Coleman, and Vaughan, on integrated theories of white-collar crime.

      Michalowski, Raymond J., and Ronald C. Kramer: State-Corporate Crime

      Kauzlarich, D., & Kramer, R. (1998). Crimes of the nuclear state: At home and abroad. Boston: Northeastern University Press.

      Kauzlarich and Kramer analyze the interaction of state and private entities in facilitating massive environmental crimes spanning many decades, and in doing so both apply and develop concepts relevant to state-corporate crime.

      Kramer, R. C., Michalowski, R. J., & Kauzlarich, D. (2002). The origins and development of the concept and theory of state-corporate crime. Crime and Delinquency, 48, 263–282.

      Kramer et al. chronicle the historical development of the concept of state-corporate crime and discuss its relation to existing criminological theory.

      Michalowski, R. J., & Kramer, R. C. (Eds.). (2006). State-corporate crime: Wrongdoing at the intersection of business and government. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

      This represents the most recent contribution from the progenitors of the concept of state-corporate crime. In collaboration with a number of researchers, they examine a variety of tragic historical events that resulted from a confluence of organizational forces.

      Pontell, Henry N., and Kitty Calavita: Explaining the Savings and Loan Scandal

      Black, W. K. (2005). The best way to rob a bank is to own one. Austin: University of Texas Press.

      Authored by a former savings and loan regulator, this book uses economic and criminological theories to explain how corrupt CEOs and CFOs, with the aid of industry regulators and politicians, perpetrated massive accounting fraud. Special attention is given to Charles Keating.

      Rational Choice and White-Collar Crime

      Benson, M. L., & Simpson, S. S. (2009). White-collar crime: An opportunity perspective. New York: Routledge.

      Provides a detailed analysis of how opportunities available within organizational settings shape the criminal choices that white-collar offenders make.

      Shover, N., & Hochstedler, A. (2006). Choosing white-collar crime. New York: Cambridge University Press.

      Details the factors that “bound” or circumscribe the “rational” choice to engage in white-collar crime.

      Ross, E. A.: Sin and Society

      Borgatta, E. F., & Meyer, H. J. (Eds.). (1959). Social control and the foundations of sociology: Pioneer contributions of Edward Alsworth Ross to the study of society. Boston: Beacon Press.

      This volume contains versions of two of Ross's major works, each edited to half its original length but retaining substantive content and conclusions, as well as the author's distinctive literary style.

      Hertzler, J. O. (1951). Edward Alsworth Ross: Sociological pioneer and interpreter. American Sociological Review, 16, 609–613.

      This review of Ross's life and achievements contains a complete list of all his published works.

      McMahon, S. H. (1999). Social control and public intellect: The legacy of Edward A. Ross. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

      Sean McMahon's intellectual biography traces Ross's career as an activist and academic. The author discusses Ross's major works and makes extensive use of unpublished lectures, speeches, and essays, as well as Ross's letters and correspondence.

      Ross, E. A. (1977). Seventy years of it: An autobiography. New York: Arno Press.

      Originally published in 1936, this illustrated autobiography gives a spirited account of Ross's life as scholar, traveler, activist, and reporter.

      Sutherland, Edwin H.: White-Collar Crime

      Geis, G. (2007). White-collar and corporate crime. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

      Considers the developments in the realm of white-collar crime that have followed in the wake of Sutherland's original work. Discusses definitional issues, research contributions, and the historical background of white-collar crime.

      Sutherland, E. H. (1983). White collar crime: The uncut version. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

      The restored full text of Sutherland's pioneering statement on white-collar crime.

      Vaughan, Diane: The Normalization of Deviance

      Calavita, K., Pontell, H. N., & Tillman, R. (1997). Big money crime: Fraud and politics in the savings and loan crisis. Berkeley: University of California Press.

      In this study of the savings and loan crisis of the 1980s, Calavita, Pontell, and Tillman analyze how deregulation created a criminogenic environment that fostered the commission of various forms of fraud in the thrift industry. What they characterize as collective embezzlement appears to have resulted, in part, from elastic norms in the industry that normalized deviance within savings and loan institutions.

      Kramer, R. (2010). From Guernica to Hiroshima to Baghdad: The normalization of the terror bombing of civilian populations. In W. J. Chambliss, R. J. Michalowski, & R. C. Kramer (Eds.), State crime in the global age (pp. 118–133). Devon, UK: Willan.

      This study analyzes how international outrage over the terror bombing of civilians at Guernica and other places prior to World War II was transformed into general acceptance and support for such practices, including the use of atomic bombs against Japan, by the war's end. Kramer argues that the socially constructed morality of war goals, the instrumental rationality of military bureaucracies, and the legitimation of state violence through the failures of international law combined to normalize the bombing of civilians within the political culture and war planning organizations of the United States and the United Kingdom.

      Pontell, H. N., & Geis, G. (Eds.). (2007). International handbook of white-collar and corporate crime. New York: Springer.

      This book is an outstanding collection of articles on white-collar and organizational crime by internationally renowned scholars. Diane Vaughan's contribution to this volume is a clear, concise overview of her theoretical strategy; the concepts of situated action and the normalization of deviance; and the connection between causes and strategies for social control.

      19. Contemporary Gang Theories
      Bourgois, Philippe: In Search of Respect

      DeKeseredy, W. S., Alvi, S., & Schwartz, M. D. (2006).

      Left realism revisited. In W. S. DeKeseredy & B. Perry (Eds.), Advancing critical criminology: Theory and application (pp. 19–42). Lanham, MD: Lexington.

      This chapter offers readers and researchers alike an in-depth overview of left realism, which is a major subdiscipline of critical criminology.

      DeKeseredy, W. S., & Schwartz, M. D. (2002).

      Theorizing public housing woman abuse as a function of economic exclusion and male peer support. Women's Health and Urban Life, 1, 26–45.

      This article includes an integrated theory of woman abuse in public housing that is heavily influenced by Bourgois's empirical and theoretical work on drug dealing gangs in East Harlem.

      Lewis, O. (1966). La vida: A Puerto Rican family in the culture of poverty—San Juan and New York. New York: Random House.

      Prior to the publication of In Search of Respect, this was the last major ethnographic study conducted in El Barrio, and the culture of poverty theory emerged from this research. This theory is flawed for several reasons, but despite its major shortcomings, it is broadcast locally and nationally by leading radio and television personalities.

      Schwartz, M. D., & DeKeseredy, W. S. (1997). Sexual assault on the college campus: The role of male peer support. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

      This book includes a comprehensive analysis of the ways in which male peer support contributes to sexual assault on the college campus. Rich with theory, this book also includes a review of large-scale survey data gathered in the United States and Canada.

      Waterson, A. (1993). Street addicts in the political economy. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

      Using rich ethnographic data gathered in New York City, Waterston provides a critical criminological description of the ways in which street addicts’ lives are shaped by broader economic, political, and ideological forces.

      Wilson, W. J. (1996). When work disappears: The world of the new urban poor. New York: Knopf.

      This book is essential reading for anyone interested in developing a rich sociological understanding of the relationship between joblessness and drugs in U.S. urban ghettos.

      Gangs and the Underclass

      Hagedorn, J. M. (1988). People and folks: Gangs, crime, and the underclass in a rustbelt city (2nd ed.). Chicago: Lake View Press.

      John Hagedorn's classic ethnographic study of gangs in Milwaukee presents a dramatic look at the structural changes that contributed to gang development and continuity. This book provides a quintessential look at “gangs and the underclass.”

      Moore, J. W. (1978). Homeboys: Gangs, drugs, and prison in the barrios of Los Angeles. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

      Joan Moore's classic book on the lives of Latino gang members in Los Angeles presents an intriguing look at how history, culture, and community structure converge to shape gangs in Los Angeles. The connection between street life and prison for the gangs and their members makes this a particularly interesting read.

      Moore, J. W. (1991). Going down to the barrio: Homeboys and homegirls in charge. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

      This follow-up to Moore's prior work provides additional insight into the lives of male and female gang members, including their involvement in crime, drugs, and violence. This book provides additional insight into Moore's earlier (1978) work.

      Wilson, W. J. (1990). The truly disadvantaged: The inner-city, the underclass, and public policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

      William Julius Wilson provides an intriguing look at the structural conditions contributing to the development of the “underclass.” This classic book provided a foundation for much of the research on neighborhood context and structural disadvantage during the past 2 decades.

      Horowitz, Ruth, and Gary Schwartz: Honor and Gang Delinquency

      Anderson, E. (1999). Code of the street: Decency violence, and the moral life of the inner city. New York:

      W. W. Norton.

      This work extends the idea of normative ambiguity to modern day, inner-city communities. Anderson proposes that individuals in crime-prone, urban neighborhoods have two sets of norms, street and decent, that they utilize depending on where and with whom they are interacting.

      Horowitz, R., & Schwartz, G. (1974). Honor, normative ambiguity and gang violence. American Sociological Review, 39, 238–251.

      This work defines the role of normative ambiguity as it relates to the causes of gang violence. Horowitz and Schwartz explain that gang violence is the result of the interpersonal conflict that arises when a gang member's honor is impugned and the resulting disrespect causes the individual to break from the conventional normative response, thereby responding in a manner that would value criminal and violent behavior.

      Jankowski, Martin Sanchez: Islands in the Street

      Jankowski, M. S. (2002). Representation, responsibility and reliability in participant-observation. In T. May (Ed.), Qualitative research in action (pp. 144–160). London: Sage.

      This chapter highlights some of the important elements and responsibilities of a researcher conducting participant-observation, such as that done for Islands in the Street. Jankowski argues that participant-observers have a tremendous responsibility to the groups they study because there is limited opportunity for reliability of findings to be confirmed since replication is nearly impossible. Because there is rarely replication of participant-observations, groups under study must be represented to the public as accurately and fairly as possible.

      Jankowski, M. S. (2003). Gangs and social change. Theoretical Criminology, 7, 191–215.

      Jankowski explains how American gangs have responded to environmental and social changes over five different eras and that urban characteristics have a significant impact on structural elements of gang membership. In doing so, he further differentiates gang behaviors from other social actions.

      Klein, Malcolm W., and Cheryl L. Maxson: Street Gang Structure and Organization

      Spergel, I. A. (1995). The youth gang problem. New York: Oxford University Press.

      Also considered one of the preeminent gang scholars in the field, Spergel provides an exhaustive and intricate analysis of gangs and gang research. In chapter 6 specifically, Spergel discusses at length gang structure and organization, how it differs across gangs, how it develops and evolves, and the many and varied gang typologies already in existence.

      Starbuck, D., Howell, J. C., & Lindquist, D. J. (2001).

      Hybrid and other modern gangs. Juvenile Justice Bulletin, Youth Gang Series. Washington, DC: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

      A collaborative piece from a widely published gang researcher and a retired gang unit sergeant, this article calls attention to—and describes the recent proliferation of—a new gang type: the “hybrid” gang. With characteristics such as a mixture of racial/ethnic groups, an amalgam of symbols and graffiti from various gangs, shifting membership patterns, and frequent merging and splintering among gangs, the authors discuss the importance in recognizing this gang type as distinct from the more traditional gangs.

      Weisel, D. L. (2002). The evolution of street gangs: An examination of form and variation. In W. L. Reed & S. H. Decker (Eds.), Responding to gangs: Evaluation and research (pp. 25–65). Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.

      Utilizing data collected from a large-scale survey of police department and in-depth interviews with gang members in two large cities, this article describes different gang types in terms of their characteristics, organizational dimensions, and criminal versatility. The author also observes a great deal of agreement between the two data sources on many of the organizational and structural features of gangs.

      Maxson, Cheryl L.: Gang Migration Theorizing

      Klein, M. W., & Maxson, C. L. (2006). Street gangs: Patterns and policies. New York: Oxford University Press.

      This book is a current and thorough review of the available research on many aspects of gangs. In particular, chapter 1 offers a good summary of the work on prevalence, proliferation, and migration.

      Maxson, C. L. (1998). Gang members on the move: Juvenile justice bulletin. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

      This article is the original explication of Maxson's work on gang migration. It includes more in-depth findings of the original 1992 study conducted by the University of Southern California.

      Maxson, C. L., Woods, K. J., & Klein, M. W. (1995). Street gang migration in the United States. Unpublished final report, Los Angeles Social Science Research Institute, University of Southern California.

      This unpublished report is the basis for the larger University of Southern California study on gang migration. This report provides a longer treatment of the study methods and findings.

      Short, James F., Jr.: Gangs and Group Processes

      Decker, S. H., & Van Winkle, B. (1996). Life in the gang: Family, friends, and violence. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

      Scott Decker and Barrik Van Winkle interviewed 100 current members in St. Louis to capture intricate details of gang life. Many of these details illuminate Short's key contention that group processes dictate individual crime and delinquency. A key concept the authors offer is how gang involvement perpetuates a constant threat, which often prompts violence.

      Short, J. F., Jr. (1998). The level of explanation problem revisited: The American Society of Criminology 1997 Presidential Address. Criminology, 36, 3–36.

      In this article, Short calls attention to the level of explanation problem in criminology on the largest of platforms—the 1997 presidential address to the American Society of Criminology. Short acknowledged the importance and advances in individual-level research, but that the field “must be sensitive to context” (p. 28).

      Thornberry, T. P. (1987). Toward an interactional theory of delinquency. Criminology, 25, 863–891.

      Terence Thornberry, the principal investigator of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's longitudinal Rochester, New York, site, introduced a bidirectional model of juvenile delinquency. Thornberry called for a merging of major theories at the three levels of explanation and later went on to write Gangs and Delinquency in Developmental Perspective (2003) based on the Rochester gang youth.

      Vigil, James Diego: Multiple Marginality Theory

      Vigil, J. D. (2004). Gangs and group membership: Implications for schooling. In M. A. Gibson, P. Gandara, & J. P. Koyama (Eds.), School connections: U.S. Mexican youth, peers, and school achievement (pp. 87–106). New York: Teachers College Press.

      This additional work by Vigil further examines the relationship between gang membership and schooling.

      Vigil, J. D., & Long, J. M. (1990). Emic and etic perspectives on gang culture: The Chicano case. In C. R. Huff (Ed.), Gangs in America (pp. 55–68). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

      This is another work that explains a methodological approach to studying gangs. Utilizing this method, to examine Chicano gangs, it outlines characteristics of gangs and gang members.

      20. Theories of Prison Behavior and Insurgency
      Colvin, Mark: Social Sources of the New Mexico Prison Riot

      Colvin M. (1981). The contradictions of control: Prisons in a class society. The Insurgent Sociologist, 11, 33–45.

      An early publication on prison riots, in this article, Colvin provides an interpretation of the New Mexico Prison riot from a conflict perspective. It offers a critical analysis of how economic and political changes following World War II altered the relationship between the inmate social structure and administrative control structure.

      Colvin, M. (1982). The 1980 New Mexico prison riot. Social Problems, 29, 449–462.

      In this article, Colvin provides a concise overview of the historical context that led up to the riot at the Penitentiary of New Mexico. An emphasis is placed on how political and ideological influences increased the disorganization of both the administrative control structure and the inmate social system.

      Colvin, M., Cullen, F. T., & Vander Ven, T. (2002).

      Coercion, social support, and crime: An emerging theoretical consensus. Criminology, 40, 19–42.

      This article provides an overview of how changes in the levels of coercion and support in the environment can influence criminal behavior in general. This theory is applied to the prison environment to explain riots in Colvin (2008, see entry reference section).

      DiIulio, J. (1987). Governing prisons: A comparative study of correctional management. New York: Free Press.

      Dilulio suggests that understanding prison management is most pertinent to explaining prison disorganization and violence. Unlike Colvin, DiIulio suggests that effective prison management can control even the most unruly inmate populations and that prison violence is primarily the result of failed management.

      Useem, B., & Kimball, P. (1989). States of siege: U.S. prison riots, 1971–1986. New York: Oxford University Press.

      This book provides a narrative review of riots that occurred from 1971 to 1986 in order to examine the historical and contextual factors that encourage prison uprisings. Similar to DiIulio, Useem and Kimball argue that riots are caused primarily by administrative breakdown, not the organization of prisoners. Similar to Colvin, they also place high importance on the historical and political context the preceded the riots.

      Useem, B., & Reisig, M. D. (1999). Collective action in prisons: Protests, disturbances, and riots. Criminology, 37, 735–760.

      This article examines factors that cause riots, protests and disturbances. In particular, it investigates the influence that both managerial practices and inmate organization have on collective action.

      DiIulio, John J., Jr.: Prison Management and Prison Order

      DiIulio, J. (1989). Managing constitutionally. Society, 26(2), 81–82.

      A response to Toch's (1989) review (see below).

      Reisig, M. (1998). Rates of disorder in higher-custody state prisons: A comparative analysis of managerial practices. Crime and Delinquency, 44(2), 229–244.

      An empirical test of DiIulio's theory using data from prison employees.

      Stohr, M. K., Loverich, N. P., Menke, B. A., & Zupan, L. L. (1994). Staff management in correctional institutions: Comparing DiIulio's “control model” and “employee investment model” outcomes in five jails. Justice Quarterly, 11(3), 471–497.

      An empirical test of DiIulio's theory using data collected from employees of different jails.

      Toch, H. (1989). Being tough versus being fair. Society, 26(4), 84.

      A response to DiIulio (1989, see above).

      Toch, H. (1989). Review of Governing Prisons: A comparative study of correctional management. Society, 26(2), 86–88.

      A book review and criticism of Governing Prisons.

      Useem, B., & Reisig, M. (1999). Collective action in prisons: Protests, disturbances, and riots. Criminology, 37(4), 735–759.

      An empirical test of administrative control theory and it relevance for inmate collective action.

      Giallombardo, Rose: Women in Prison

      Casey-Acevedo, K., & Bakken, T. (2001). The effect of time on the disciplinary adjustment of women in prison. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 45, 489–497.

      The authors present a study of female inmates who spent time in a maximum security prison. They examine adaptation to prison and disciplinary infractions over time.

      Greer, K. R. (2000). The changing nature of interpersonal relationships in a women's prison. Prison Journal, 80, 442–468.

      In this article, the author interviews female inmates to gain insight into the subcultures that exist in women's correctional facilities. Results indicate that women in prison do still form subcultures reminiscent of those found in early research, but the structure of the subcultures seems to be changing.

      Maeve, M. K. (1999). The social construction of love and sexuality in a women's prison. Advances in Nursing Science, 21, 46–65.

      Using interviews with female inmates, the author presents a summary of the development and types of relationships in a women's prison. Findings indicate that relationships in prison generally reflect the types of relationships found outside of prison.

      Goffman, Erving: Asylums

      Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. New York: Doubleday Anchor.

      In this seminal work by Goffman, he presents a dramaturgical approach to understanding social action. The theatrical metaphor implies that the self develops in response to performing for others and simultaneously observing and responding to the direction others give; social life is literally a stage. It can also be argued that this book forms the basis of Goffman's theory of interaction.

      Goffman, E. (1967). Interaction ritual: Essays on face-to-face behavior. New York: Doubleday Anchor.

      The concept of “face” is defined and shown how it conforms individual behavior into socially acceptable forms. Taken with The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, this book is often viewed as another step toward Goffman's theory of interaction order.

      Goffman, E. (1974). Frame analysis: An essay on the organization of experience. New York: Harper & Row.

      The “frame” metaphor is used to address the individualist dilemma and show how structures (i.e., frames) can organize human experiences. When read with The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life and Interaction Ritual, this book can be seen to round out Goffman's theory of interaction.

      Irwin, John, and Donald R. Cressey: Importation Theory

      Irwin, J. (1980). Prisons in turmoil. Boston: Little, Brown.

      In this book, Irwin traces the historical changes in prison paradigms and discusses how prisoners cope with the hardships of institutional life.

      Irwin, J. (2005). The warehouse prison: Disposal of the new dangerous class. Los Angeles: Roxbury.

      In this book, Irwin discusses how prisons have become a receptacle for incapacitating society's most disadvantaged citizens. He discusses the idea that prisons have lost their capacity to reform inmates.

      Irwin, J., & Cressey, D. R. (1962). Thieves, convicts and the inmate subculture. Social Problems, 10, 142–155.

      In this article, Irwin and Cressey first developed and explained the importation model. The authors describe their model and discuss the three unique prison subcultures.

      Kruttschnitt, Candace, and Rosemary Gartner: Women and Imprisonment

      Kruttschnitt, C., & Gartner, R. (2005). Marking time in the golden state: Women's Imprisonment in California. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

      This book gives a detailed account of Kruttschnitt and Gartner's study of the California Institution for Women and Valley State Prison for Women.

      McCorkel, Jill: Gender and Embodied Surveillance

      Gartner, R., & Kruttschnitt, C. (2004). A brief history of doing time: The California Institution for Women in the 1960s and the 1990s. Law and Society Review, 38, 267–304.

      This article discusses the experiences of women prisoners under a penal discourse of rehabilitation in the 1960s compared to the penal discourse characterized by “get tough” sentiments.

      Hannah-Moffat, K. (2004). Losing ground. Social Politics: State, and Society, 11, 363–385.

      In this article, Hannah-Moffat discusses the results of a study of 144 women parole candidates and their parole board decisions. Decisions and discussions are examined in the broader context of gender-responsive policy and how risk is reframed.

      McKim, A. (2008). Getting gut-level. Gender and Society, 22, 303–323.

      This article discusses penal governance of women in a mandated, community-based drug treatment program.

      Pollack, S. (2005). Taming the shrew: Regulating prisoners through women-centered mental health programming. Critical Criminology, 13, 71–87.

      In this article, Pollack discusses the new women-centered mental health agenda that the Correctional Service of Canada has implemented. Pollack discusses that, despite this progressive rhetoric, these processes still serve to regulate women rather than empower them.

      Prison Insurgency Theory

      Useem, B., & Goldstone, J. A. (2002). Forging social order and its breakdown: Riot and reform in U.S. prisons. American Sociological Review, 67, 499–524.

      Their most recent work extends their state-centered theory of collective behavior to look at the role of prison administrators and political officials in breaking down and/or restoring social order inside of prisons. They examine two riots from the 1990s, including one at Rikers Island in New York and the other in private prisons in New Mexico.

      Useem, B., Graham-Camp, C., & Camp, G. M. (1996). Resolution of prison riots: Strategies and policies. New York: Oxford University Press.

      The authors examine the stages before, during, and after prison riots. The authors provide real life strategies for policy makers and prison administrators to prevent and deal with these situations.

      Useem, B., & Kimball, P. A. (1987). A theory of prison riots. Theory and Society, 16, 87–122.

      The authors put forth a theory of prison violence based on the social-psychological variable of identification. Moreover, they use identification to explain the intensity and duration of prison riots.

      Useem, B., & Reisig, M. D. (1999). Collective action in prisons: Protests, disturbances, and riots. Criminology, 37, 735–759.

      In this article, the authors explore riots as well as lesser forms of collective behavior inside of prisons, such as protests, work stoppages, and general disturbances. The authors test whether inmate-balance theory or administrative-control theory provide the best explanation for these actions.

      Sykes, Gresham M.: Deprivation Theory

      Giallombardo, R. (1966). Society of women: A study of a women's prison. New York: Wiley.

      Giallombardo's work is a useful contrast to Sykes's work due to her focus on women (versus Sykes's focus on men). Her research also occurred within the same general time frame as Sykes's study, allowing more direct comparisons between the two studies.

      Hagan, J. (1995). The “imprisoned society”: Time turns a classic on its head. Sociological Forum, 10, 519–525.

      In this review essay, Hagan revisits Sykes's classic work and discusses the applicability of his perspective several decades later. The evolution of correctional facilities and changes to inmate populations and prison administrators forces consideration of whether the deprivations and cultural adaptations described by Sykes remain fully applicable.

      Toch, Hans: Coping in Prison

      DiIulio, J., Jr. (1991). Review: Understanding prisons: The new old penology. Law and Social Inquiry, 16, 65–99.

      A review of Coping: Maladaptation in Prisons and two other studies carried out during the same time period.

      Summers, R., & Dear, G. E. (2003). The prison preference inventory: An examination of substantive validity in an Australian prison sample. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 30, 459–482.

      An empirical test of the validity of Toch's prison preference inventory.

      Toch, H. (1981). Inmate classification as a transaction. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 8, 3–14.

      Toch outlines his perspective on inmate classification.

      Wright, K. (1988). The relationship of risk, needs, and personality classification systems and prison adjustment. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 15, 454–471.

      An empirical test of the predictive validity of the prison preference inventory.

      21. Theories of Fear and Concern about Crime
      Altruistic Fear

      Madriz, E. (1997). Nothing bad happens to good girls: Fear of crime in women's lives. Berkeley: University of California Press.

      In this book, Esther Madriz explores fear of crime among a group of urban women suing qualitative techniques. She details the negative consequences of higher levels of personal fear felt by women, which is relevant to gendered patterns in fear for others. She also discusses women's altruistic fear.

      Snedker, K. A. (2006). Altruistic and vicarious fear of crime: Fear for others and gendered social roles. Sociological Forum, 21, 163–195.

      In this essay, Karen Snedker explores fear for others through qualitative interviews of male and female urban residents. She documents the gender differences in altruistic and vicarious fear and the behavioral consequences of fear for others.

      Warr, M., & Ellison, C. G. (2000). Rethinking social reactions to crime: Personal and altruistic fear in family households. American Journal of Sociology, 106, 551–578.

      In this essay, Mark Warr and Christopher Ellison provide an in-depth quantitative analysis of altruistic fear within the household. They report different types of altruistic fear: spousal and parental. This seminal piece has spurred research on altruistic fear.

      Chiricos, Ted: Racial Threat and Fear

      Chiricos, T., Hogan, M., & Gertz, M. (1997). Racial composition of neighborhood and fear of crime. Criminology, 35, 107–131.

      This is the first article by Chiricos and colleagues to address the issue of racial threat. It demonstrates a relationship between the perceived racial composition of neighborhoods and fear of crime. However, it does not include a racial threat measure beyond racial composition.

      Chiricos, T., McEntire, R., & Gertz, M. (2001). Perceived racial and ethnic composition of neighborhood and perceived risk of crime. Social Problems, 48, 322–340.

      This article probably provides the fullest explication of the racial threat thesis. It also presents empirical evidence linking minority presence to victimization risk.

      Chiricos, T., Welch, K., & Gertz, M. (2004). Racial typification of crime and support for punitive measures. Criminology, 42, 359–389.

      This represents probably the most explicit test of the racial threat hypothesis at the individual level. It includes specific, individual-level measures of both the association of minorities with crime and punitive sentiments.

      Crawford, C., Chiricos, T., & Kleck, G. (1998). Race, racial threat, and sentencing of habitual offenders. Criminology, 36, 481–511.

      This article represents Chiricos's first effort to directly measure racial threat. It connects county-level indicators of racial threat with the use of Florida's habitual offender law. The results are somewhat counterintuitive but not inconsistent with the racial threat thesis.

      Collective Security/Fear and Loathing

      Black, D. (1980). The manners and customs of the police. New York: Academic Press.

      Black discusses the history of the police and the function of the police and law in contemporary society. He introduced the concept of self-help, which he argues is a decentralized form of social control. When the people are threatened by crime and when people cannot rely on the government for protection, they take individual measures in the form of gun ownership to protect themselves. This concept of self-help is closely related to the concept of informal security.

      Waskow, A. I. (1966). From race riot to sit-in, 1919 and the 1960s. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.

      Elaborating Max Weber's thesis of the state with the monopoly of legitimate use of physical force, Waskow discusses the unique situation of U.S. private gun ownership and its use. He predicted that American society was moving in the direction of a “state” in the Weberian sense in the mid-1960s, with inclination to concentrate the use of physical force in the hands of governmental agencies.

      Ferraro, Kenneth F.: Risk Interpretation Model

      Ferraro, K. F. (1995). Fear of crime: Interpreting victimization risk. Albany: SUNY Press.

      This is the work in which Ferraro spells out the foundations for his risk interpretation model.

      Hale, C. (1996). Fear of crime: A review of the literature. International Review of Victimology, 4, 79–150.

      In this article, Hale undertakes a thorough review of the literature regarding fear of crime. While over a decade old, th