Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment


Edited by: David Levinson

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      General Editor

      David Levinson

      Editorial Board

      Anita Neuberger Blowers

      University of North Carolina – Charlotte, Department of Criminal Justice

      Eve Buzawa

      University of Massachusetts – Lowell, Department of Criminal Justice

      Ric Curtis

      John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Department of Anthropology

      Harry Dammer

      Niagara University, Department of Criminal Justice

      Obi N. I. Ebbe

      University of Tennessee – Chattanooga, Department of Sociology, Anthropology, and Geography

      Frank Horvath

      Michigan State University, School of Criminal Justice

      Phyllis Schultze

      Rutgers University, Law Library

      Larry Sullivan

      John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Lloyd Sealy Library

      List of Entries

      Reader's Guide

      This list is provided to assist readers in locating articles on related topics. It classifies articles into thirteen general topical categories: Crimes and Related Behaviors, Law and Justice, Policing, Forensics, Corrections, Victimology, Punishment, Sociocultural Context and Popular Culture, International, Concepts and Theories, Research Methods and Information, Organizations and Institutions, and Special Populations. Some article titles appear in more than one category.


      Alcatraz:Partial text of letter smuggled by an unknown prisoner to the San Francisco Call Bulletin

      Alcohol:Association of alcohol with conflict and violent crime

      Animals in Criminal Justice:Pigs and goats on the loose in rural Europe, 1906 illustration

      Anthropology, Forensic:Bullet trajectory

      Armed Robbery:Bank camera records an armed robbery

      Arrest Clearance:Percentage arrested for violent crimes, United States

      Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) Program:Variation in detected cocaine/crack use

      Assassination:Archduke Ferdinand and his wife

      Assault:Victimization rates per 1,000

      Assault:Rates of assault by gender, age, and race/ethnicity

      Auburn State Prison:Plan of the prison

      Banditry:Robin Hood Motel in Buena Park, California

      Banditry:Pancho Villa and fellow bandits pose in Mexico

      Bribery:Teamster president Jimmy Hoffa is caught on camera, 1950s

      Bullying:Three children bullying a fourth at Castle Combe Village School in England

      Campus Crime:Jeanne Ann Clery (1966–1986) was murdered as she slept in her dorm room

      Capital Punishment:Electric chair at Sing Sing

      Caribbean:Cocaine seizures

      Caribbean:Marijuana seizures

      Caribbean:Number of police officers

      Cartographic School of Criminology:Early example of the cartographic analysis of crime

      Charge Attrition:Typical dispositions of 100 felony arrests

      Child Homicide:Homicide victimization rates by age

      Child Maltreatment:Eleven-year-old Joe Roach was found chained to his bed

      Child Sexual Abuse:Types of child sexual abuse

      Child Sexual Abuse:Oprah Winfrey testifies before the Senate Judiciary Committee, 1991

      Child Sexual Abuse:Neuropsychiatric symptoms of sexually abused children

      China:Public trial in Tanshan

      Cinema:Marlon Brando as Don Corleone in The Godfather

      Civil Law Legal Traditions:Representation of the original text of the Code of Hammurabi

      Comic Books:Fictional crime fighters Batman and Robin

      Commercial Sex Industry:Girls and women in Calcutta march to protest child prostitution

      Community Policing:Cover from the December 1930 issue of the New York City police journal Spring 3100

      Comparative Policing:European police uniforms

      Confession:Truman Capote testifies before the Senate Judiciary Committee, 1966

      Consumer Fraud:Bruce Jenner at a news conference regarding a suit against General Mills

      Corporal Punishment:Schoolmaster spanks a pupil (undated book engraving)

      Costs of Crime:Costs

      Costs of Crime:Cost of society's response to crime

      Costs of Crime:Losses per criminal victimization

      Costs of Crime:Aggregate annual costs of criminal victimization

      Court Structure:Court personnel

      Crime Laboratory:FBI pathologist examines evidence

      Crime Reports and Statistics:FBI's definition of Part I offenses

      Crime Reports and Statistics:Part I crimes for selected cities, 1999

      Crime Reports and Statistics:Self-reported delinquency questions

      Crime Reports and Statistics:Creative approach to reporting incarceration figures, 1910–1930

      Criminal Insanity:John Hinckley in a self-photograph

      Criminal Justice:The façade of the U.S. Supreme Court Building in Washington, D.C.

      Criminal Trial:A jury listens to testimony in the 1913 trial of Hans Schmidt

      Criminalistics:Marijuana and paraphernalia

      Criminalistics:Revolvers and ammunition rounds

      Criminalistics:DNA double helix

      Cruel and Unusual Punishment:Various means of torturing prisoners at Auburn Prison, mid-1800s circular

      Cybercrime:Summary of existing federal laws applied to cybercrime

      Cybercrime:Federal criminal code related to computer crime

      Death Row:The controversial Death Row Marv toy

      Defense Counsel System:Famed defense attorney Johnnie Cochran

      Detection of Deception:An FBI recruit undergoes a polygraph test

      Devil's Island:Main detention house and courtyard, 1934

      DNA Testing:RFLP test results in a rape case

      DNA Testing:Results of polymarker and DQ-alpha tests

      DNA Testing:STR test results

      Driving Under the Influence:Public relations poster from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska

      Drug Trafficking:Coca leaf production, 1990

      Drug Trafficking:Coca leaf production, 1999

      Drug Trafficking:Drug smuggling routes from Afghanistan into Western Europe

      Drug Trafficking:Number of people in U.S. state or federal prisons or local jails, in millions

      Drug Trafficking:Drug offenders imprisoned in U.S. federal and state prisons

      Drugs:Worldwide potential illicit drug production

      Drugs:Dock worker in Thailand injects himself with heroin

      Eastern State Penitentiary:Interior hallway

      Economic Theories of Crime:Robberies in New York City, 1970–1999

      Economic Theories of Crime:Police officers in New York City, 1970–1999

      Economic Theories of Crime:Unemployment rate in New York City, 1970–1999

      Environmental Design:Sketch of traffic access to Five Oaks neighborhood, Dayton, Ohio

      Euthanasia:Dr. Jack Kevorkian enters the Oakland County Courthouse in Pontiac, Michigan, 1999

      Eyewitness Testimony:Training for police officers involves observing facial attributes

      Family Strengthening:A father and son participate in a family strengthening program

      Federal Bureau of Investigation:The first man listed as most wanted by the FBI

      Feuding:Feuding and other forms of killing

      Financial Costs and Benefits of Crime Prevention:Summary of developmental crime prevention programs

      Financial Costs and Benefits of Crime Prevention:Summary of correctional intervention programs

      Firearms Identification:Rifling in the barrel of a firearm

      Firearms Identification:A bullet firing from the barrel of a firearm

      Firearms Identification:Microscopic markings on two fired cartridges

      Firearms Identification:Distance determination test

      Firearms Identification:Ejection pattern test

      Foot Patrol:Advertisement for police boots from The Police Review, 1898

      Foot Patrol:The foot patrolman's greatest problem, from the August 1939 issue of the New York City police journal Spring 3100

      Forensic Science:Human skull

      France:North African immigrants are arrested for illegally entering France from Italy

      Gated Communities:Five Oaks in Dayton, Ohio

      Geographic Information Systems:Area 27—Repeat address drug arrests, 1997 and 1998

      Geographic Information Systems:Repeat address drug arrests, 1997

      Geographic Information Systems:Repeat address drug arrests, 1998

      Germany:Crime rates, prison population, and suspected criminals

      Germany:Violent offenses

      Germany:Total number of recorded crimes plus prisoners

      Germany:Total number of prisoners

      Grand Jury:Dishwasher Jesus Perez outside the grand jury room after testifying about the murder of Robert F. Kennedy

      Great Britain:British criminal justice officer uniforms, 1934

      Halfway House:Comparing halfway houses and community residential treatment centers

      Hate Crimes:Tattoo of John William King, convicted of murder

      Homicide Investigation:Medical examiner and homicide detectives examine a body

      Human Rights:Demonstrators in London support the extradition of General Augusto Pinochet

      India:Police officers at the funeral for Indira Gandhi, 1984

      Informants:Mafia informant Joseph Valachi at the Queens County District Attorney's Office in New York City, 1963

      International Imprisonments:Prisoner rate per 100,000 inhabitants, Italy

      International Imprisonments:Prisoner rates across the world

      International Imprisonments:Prisoner rate per 100,000 inhabitants, France

      International Imprisonments:Prisoner rate per 100,000 inhabitants, Greece

      International Imprisonments:Prisoner rate per 100,000 inhabitants, Germany

      International Imprisonments:Prisoner rate per 100,000 inhabitants, Austria

      International Imprisonments:Prisoner rate per 100,000 inhabitants, Portugal

      International Imprisonments:Prisoner rate per 100,000 inhabitants, Finland

      International Imprisonments:Prisoner rate per 100,000 inhabitants, Japan

      International Imprisonments:Prisoner rate per 100,000 inhabitants, Australia

      International Imprisonments:Prisoner rate per 100,000 inhabitants, United States

      Interrogation:Homicide detectives in San Francisco with a 19-year-old youth

      Japan:Subway workers in Tokyo mark the fifth anniversary of the 1995 nerve gas attack

      Judicial Selection Methods:For trial courts

      Judicial Selection Methods:For appellate courts

      Juvenile Court:Gale Sayers of the Chicago Bears talks with youths, 1972

      KGB:President Vladimir Putin of Russia, in 1998 when he was director of the Russian Federal Security Service

      Kidnapping:A wanted poster appealing for information about the whereabouts of Charles A. Lindbergh, Jr.

      Latin America, Crime and Violence in:Median homicide rates, United Nations

      Latin America, Crime and Violence in:Median homicide rates, World Health Organization

      Latin America, Crime and Violence in:Median robbery rates, United Nations

      Latin America, Crime and Violence in:Percentage of the public victimized by any crime over five years, 1989–1996

      Latin America, Crime and Violence in:Significant determinants of victimization in Latin American cities

      Latin America, Crime and Violence in:Percentage of men and women victimized by violence in urban areas, 1989–1996

      Latin America, Crime and Violence in:Income distribution and international homicide rates, 1965–1994

      Latin America, Crime and Violence in:Income distribution and robbery rates, 1970–1994

      Latin America, Crime and Violence in:Expenditure on criminal justice functions, police, 1994

      Latin America, Crime and Violence in:Expenditure on criminal justice functions, court and corrections, 1994

      Latin America, Crime and Violence in:Percentage of victims satisfied with the police after reporting burglaries and contact crimes, 1996

      Latin America, Crime and Violence in:Percentage of victims who say they reported crime to the police, 1989–1996

      Life-Course Theories:Arrest distribution, by age

      Literature, True Crime:A scene from a 1951 production of The Children's Hour

      Media:A London “bobby” reads about the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, 1963

      Mentally Ill Offenders:The conceptual overlap between crime and mental illness

      Mentally Ill Offenders:A Soviet army deserter confined to a mental hospital in Vilnius, Lithuania, 1990

      Military Justice:Promotional drawing supporting the role of the military police

      Miranda Rights:John Birch Society sign

      Miranda Rights:Placard of the Miranda warnings that must be read upon arrest

      Missing Children:Suspect wanted for questioning

      Missing Children:Posting on the back of an IRS mailer

      Neighborhood Watch Programs:Warning notice, Cornwall, England

      New Generation Jail:Diagram showing the central control room, public areas, and cells

      Odontology:Dental radiograph taken during a forensic autopsy (postmortem evidence)

      Odontology:Dental radiograph taken during a person's lifetime (antemortem evidence)

      Odontology:Digital superimposition of the antemortem filling on the autopsy radiograph

      Odontology:Dental stone casts of a suspect's teeth

      Odontology:A human bite mark on skin

      Odontology:Image of the biting edges of the suspect's teeth placed next to bite mark injury pattern

      Organized Crime—United States:Al Capone on his way to the federal penitentiary in Atlanta, 1932

      Piracy, Sea:Pirate flag on a sailboat in the Caribbean, 1990s

      Plea Bargaining:Percentage of felons convicted in state courts, 1996

      Police Corruption:Cartoon from the March 1930 issue of the New York City police journal Spring 3100

      Police Information Systems:Common information systems used by police agencies

      Police Privatization:Sworn officers and security officers, 1965–1995

      Police Selection and Training:A technique to be used in controlling offenders removed from vehicles

      Police Strategies and Operations:Police officer uses his hand-held communication device

      Political Corruption:Spiro T. Agnew, 1968

      Poverty:Illustration from Oliver Twist

      Prison Overcrowding:State and federal sentencing guidelines

      Prison Population in the United States:Number of prison and jail inmates, 1910–2001

      Prison Reform:Attica prisoners give the Black Power salute, 1971

      Prison Systems:A page from the Kansas State Penitentiary Report, 1887–1888

      Prison Systems:A page from the Folger Adam Company catalog, 1967

      Private Security:Wanted poster for the Wild Bunch train robbers, Pinkerton Agency, late 1800s

      Prosecutor:Independent Counsel Kenneth Starr testifies before the House Judiciary Committee, 1998

      Public Housing:Poster distributed by New York City, 1939

      Race and Sentencing:Sixty-four African American soldiers court-martialed at Fort Sam Houston in August 1917

      Rape:Women in Melbourne, Australia, march in June 1985

      Religious Deviance:A page from The History of the Inquisition, 1731

      Repeat Victimizations:Percentage of all crimes that are repeat victimizations

      Repeat Victimizations:Percentage of crime that is repeat victimization

      Riots:Students and police confront one another during the Paris student riots, May 1968

      Road Rage:Cover from the October 1939 issue of the New York City police journal Spring 3100

      Royal Canadian Mounted Police:Insignia worn by the men and women of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police

      San Quentin:Gas chamber at San Quentin, 1960

      Scientific Evidence:A match between broken ends of a handcuff link; a crystal formed from cocaine

      Securities Fraud:Michael Milken, the so-called Junk Bond King, leaves the U.S. District Court in New York City, 1989

      Sentencing:Demonstrators in New York protest the sentencing of the Chicago Seven, February 1970

      Sentencing Guidelines:Duration of sentence in months according to the Minnesota Sentencing Guidelines grid

      Sentencing Guidelines:Terms used in describing sentencing structures

      Sentencing Guidelines:Jurisdictions with sentencing guidelines

      Sexual Violence:A South Korean woman in Seoul tries to access a homepage listing sex offenders

      Shoplifting:A woman is caught on a hidden video camera

      Smuggling:An Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms agent displays guns used as evidence

      Solovetsky Island:Russian author Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, 1974

      Spectator Violence:Worldwide incidence of footballrelated violence, as reported in English newspapers

      Spectator Violence:Selected incidents at which serious crowd violence was reported

      Spectator Violence:Number of football-related murders, as reported in English newspapers

      Spectator Violence:Trends in the occupational class of employed English football hooligans, 1968–1998

      Sport Violence:A “calling card” used by gangs of British football (soccer) hooligans

      Statistical Methods and Models:Frequency distribution of offenses committed by the criminals in the study

      Statistical Methods and Models:Table of correlation coefficients

      Street Youth:A group of youths fight in the street in Margate, England, early 1990s

      Terrorism:Photos of Osama bin Laden posted by INTERPOL four days after the attack of September 11, 2001

      Victim/Witness Protection:Pilot Floyd Carton testifies before a U.S. Senate subcommittee, 1988

      Video and Computer Games:Youths playing video games in an arcade in Los Angeles, California, 1982

      Vigilantism:Bernhard Goetz, the so-called Subway Vigilante, awaiting trial, 1985

      Women in Policing:A female police officer in southern England is honored for her bravery

      Women in Prison:Female prisoners, 1977–2000

      Wrongful Convictions:Frequency of errors in cases found to be wrongful convictions (Bedau and Radelet study)

      Wrongful Convictions:Frequency of errors in cases found to be wrongful convictions (Harmon study)

      Wrongful Convictions:The Innocence Protection Act

      Appendix 1, Careers in Criminal Justice:Jobs in Law Enforcement (Federal Level)

      Appendix 1, Careers in Criminal Justice:Jobs in Law Enforcement (Local, County, State)

      Appendix 1, Careers in Criminal Justice:Jobs in Courts

      Appendix 2, Careers in Criminal Justice:Jobs in Corrections and Rehabilitation


      Abadinsky, Howard

      St. Xavier University, Chicago

      Abotchie, Chris

      The University of Ghana at Legon, Accra

      Acker, James R.

      University at Albany, State University of New York

      Adamoli, Sabrina

      University of Trento, Italy

      Alpert, Geoffrey P.

      University of South Carolina

      Alvarado, Rose

      University of Utah

      Ammar, Nawal

      Kent State Univesity

      Anderson, Tammy L.

      University of Delaware

      Andreas, Peter

      Brown University

      Andresen, W. Carsten

      Rutgers University

      Armstrong, Gaylene Styve

      Arizona State University West

      Arrigo, Bruce A.

      University of North Carolina–Charlotte

      Azaola, Elena

      Center for Higher Studies and Research in Social


      Bachar, Karen J.

      University of Arizona

      Bailey, Frankie Y.

      University at Albany, State University of New York

      Baird-Olson, P. Karren

      California State University, Northridge

      Bakken, Timothy

      United States Military Academy at West Point

      Balboni, Jennifer M.

      Northeastern University

      Barak, Gregg

      Eastern Michigan University

      Barlow, Felicia M.

      Silver Spring, Maryland

      Baron, Stephen W.

      Queen's University

      Bartol, Curt R.

      Castleton State College

      Batton, Candice

      University of Nebraska–Omaha

      Bazemore, Gordon

      Florida Atlantic University

      Belknap, Joanne

      University of Colorado–Boulder

      Benavides, Amy J.

      National Institute of Justice Journal

      Bennett, Ingrid

      University at Albany, State University of New York

      Berg, Bruce L.

      California State University, Long Beach

      Berlet, Chip

      Political Research Associates

      Best, Joel

      University of Delaware

      Birx, H. James

      Canisius College and Harvard University

      Blair, John P.

      East Lansing, MI

      Block, Walter

      Loyola University of New Orleans

      Blowers, Anita Neuberger

      University of North Carolina at Charlotte

      Bolen, Rebecca M.

      Boston University

      Bommarito, Christopher R.

      Michigan State Police

      Bosworth, Mary

      Fordham University

      Bourchier, David

      University of Western Australia

      Bowers, Michael

      University of Southern California School of Dentistry

      Bracey, Dorothy H.

      John Jay College of Criminal Justice

      Brand-Ballard, Jeffrey

      University of Wisconsin–Eau Claire

      Brannigan, Augustine

      University of Calgary

      Brightman, Hank J.

      Saint Peter's College

      Brockett, Ramona

      Northern Kentucky University

      Brodie, Neil

      University of Cambridge

      Brody, David C.

      Washington State University–Spokane

      Brooks, Marvie

      John Jay College of Criminal Justice

      Brown, Michelle

      Indiana University

      Bryant, Clifton D.

      Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

      Cajner Mraović, Irena

      Police College, Zagreb, Croatia

      Carey, Henry F.

      Georgia State University

      Carlson, Jonathan C.

      University of Iowa

      Carlton, Suzanne E.

      Flinders University of South Australia

      Casey-Acevedo, Karen

      Lynn University

      Cassis, Viola R.

      University of Calgary

      Chamard, Sharon

      Rutgers University–Newark

      Chermak, Steven

      Indiana University

      Clear, Todd R.

      John Jay College of Criminal Justice

      Clifford Wittekind, Janice E.

      Auburn University

      Clowers, Marsha

      John Jay College of Criminal Justice

      Cohen, Bernard

      Queens College and Graduate Center–CUNY

      Cohen, Mark A.

      Vanderbilt University

      Cole, Bankole A.

      University of Lincolnshire and Humberside

      Colwell, Kevin

      ChildTrauma Academy, Houston

      Conger, Dylan

      Vera Institute of Justice

      Connolly, Anthony J.

      Australian National University

      Cook, Jr., William J.

      Westfield State College

      Corell, Ann Palker

      ChildTrauma Academy and Sam Houston State University

      Coston, Charisse T. M.

      University of North Carolina at Charlotte

      Courtright, Kevin E.

      Edinboro University of Pennsylvania

      Cox, Stephen M.

      Central Connecticut State University

      Crews, Gordon A.

      Jacksonville State University

      Cromwell, Paul

      Wichita State University

      Curry, G. David

      University of Missouri–St. Louis

      Dammer, Harry R.

      Niagara University

      Davis, Mark

      Justice Research & Advocacy, Inc.

      Davis, Robert C.

      Vera Institute of Justice

      Decker, Scott H.

      University of Missouri–St. Louis

      Delaney, Tim

      Canisius College

      Deosaran, Ramesh

      University of the West Indies

      Dobbs, Rhonda R.

      Florida State University

      Dolin, Benjamin R.

      Ottawa, Canada

      Dominguez, Renee Z.

      ChildTrauma Academy and La Rabida Children's Hospital

      Donati, Federica

      Hatfield, United Kingdom

      Dorne, Clifford K.

      Saginaw Valley State University

      Dunham, Janice K.

      City University of New York

      Dunning, Eric

      University of Leicester

      Ebbe, Obi N. I.

      University of Tennessee–Chattanooga

      Ellwanger, Steven J.

      Washington State University

      Ensley, David

      Florida Department of Corrections

      Erez, Edna

      Kent State University

      Erickson, Patricia E.

      Canisius College

      Erickson, Steven K.

      State Universtiy of New York at Buffalo

      Eriksen, Shelley

      California State University, Long Beach

      Ewing, Charles Patrick

      State University of New York at Buffalo

      Fagan, Abigail A.

      University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia

      Fajnzylber, Pablo

      Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

      Farrell, Amy S.

      Northeastern University

      Farrell, Graham

      University of Cincinnati

      Farrington, David

      Cambridge University

      Finckenauer, James O.

      Rutgers University

      Finkelhor, David

      Crimes Against Children Research Center

      Fishbein, Diana

      Research Triangle Institute

      Flanagan, Timothy James

      State University of New York–Brockport

      Flango, Victor Eugene

      National Center for State Courts

      Flannery, Daniel J.

      Kent State University

      Flavin, Jeanne

      Fordham University

      Fleisher, Mark S.

      Illinois State University

      Forrest, Beth

      Boston University

      Forst, Brian

      American University

      Fox, James

      Northeastern University

      Frost, Natasha A.

      City University of New York

      Gainey, Randy R.

      Old Dominion University

      Garner, R. L.

      Sam Houston State University

      Garvey, Stephen P.

      Cornell Law School

      Girgen, Jen


      Givens, Beth

      Privacy Rights Clearinghouse

      Goldfarb, Phyllis

      Boston College Law School

      Golub, Andrew

      National Development and Research Institutes, Inc.

      Gonzalez, Delmira

      Safe Horizon

      Goode, Erich

      University of Maryland, College Park

      Gordon, Michael S.

      Friends Research Institute

      Gottfredson, Don M.

      Rutgers University

      Gover, Angela R.

      University of South Carolina

      Green, Penny

      University of Westminster, London

      Greene, Dana

      City University of New York

      Greene, Helen Taylor

      Old Dominion University

      Greene, Susan

      University of California at Santa Cruz

      Gregory, Carol R.

      University of Delaware

      Griffith, Roberta E.

      Northeastern University

      Grometstein, Randall

      Northeastern University

      Guerette, Rob T.

      Rutgers University–Newark

      Haas, Kenneth C.

      University of Delaware

      Hagan, Frank E.

      Mercyhurst College

      Hagan, John

      Northwestern University and the American Bar


      Hale, Donna C.

      Shippensburg University

      Hanson, Roger A.

      International Judicial Consultant

      Harmon, Talia Roitberg

      Niagara University

      Harrison, Lana D.

      Center for Drug and Alchohol Studies

      Hartley, Roger E.

      University of Arizona

      Heath-Thornton, Debra

      Roberts Wesleyan College

      Hemmens, Craig

      Boise State University

      Heraux, Cedrick G.

      Michigan State University

      Hirschi, Travis

      University of Arizona

      Holden, Livia S.

      School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London

      Holley, Glen

      Florida Department of Corrections

      Holzman, Harold R.

      U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development

      Homant, Robert J.

      University of Detroit Mercy

      Horvath, Frank

      Michigan State University

      Hoshi, Akemi

      University of Massachusetts–Lowell

      Hostetter, Edwin C.

      Western Maryland College

      Hummer, Don

      University of Massachusetts–Lowell

      Hunt, Dennis R.

      University of Southern Mississippi

      Immarigeon, Russ

      Hillsdale, New York

      Ireland, Timothy O.

      Niagara University

      Israel, Mark

      Flinders University

      Jacoby, Joseph E.

      Bowling Green State University

      James, Earl W. Krueger

      American Academy of Forensic Sciences

      Jensen, Vickie

      California State University, Northridge

      Johnson, Bruce D.

      National Development and Research Institute

      Johnson, Ida M.

      University of Alabama

      Johnston, Amanda Jill

      Brunswick, Maine

      Jones-Brown, Delores D.

      John Jay College of Criminal Justice

      Jordan, Casey

      Western Connecticut State University

      Karmen, Andrew A.

      John Jay College of Criminal Justice

      Kelly, William E.

      Auburn University

      Kemp, Quinn

      Emory University

      Kennedy, Leslie W.

      Rutgers University

      Keown, Leslie-Anne

      University of Calgary

      Kerker, Sindee

      Lynn University

      Killoran, Katherine B.

      John Jay College of Criminal Justice

      Kinlock, Timothy W.

      Friends Research Institute, Inc. and University of Baltimore

      Kirchmeier, Jeffrey L.

      City University of New York School of Law

      Kiriakova, Maria

      John Jay College of Criminal Justice

      Kleinig, John

      John Jay College of Criminal Justice

      Klerks, Peter

      Dutch National Police Academy

      Kohn, Livia

      Boston University

      Kolpacki, Thomas A.

      Ann Arbor Police Department

      Koski, Douglas D.

      University of New Hampshire

      Koss, Mary P.

      University of Arizona

      Kuhn, André

      University of Lausanne

      Kury, Helmut

      Max Planck Institute

      Latessa, Edward J.

      University of Cincinnati

      LeBeau, James L.

      Southern Illinois University at Carbondale

      LeBel, Thomas P.

      University at Albany, State University of New York

      Lederman, Daniel

      The World Bank

      Lee, Yung Hyeock

      Michigan State University

      Leo, Richard A.

      University of California, Irvine

      Leone, Matthew C.

      University of Nevada

      Levin, Jack

      Northeastern University

      Levine, James

      John Jay College of Criminal Justice

      Levinson, David

      Berkshire Publishing Group LLC

      Livingstone, Ken

      University of Leicester, Scarman Centre

      Lord, Vivian B.

      University of North Carolina–Charlotte

      Lovell, Jarret S.

      Rutgers University

      Loayza, Norman

      The World Bank

      Lucas, Ann M.

      San Jose State University

      Luckenbill, David F.

      Northern Illinois University

      Ludy-Dobson, Christine

      ChildTrauma Academy, Houston

      Lurigio, Arthur J.

      Loyola University Chicago

      MacKenzie, Doris Layton

      University of Maryland

      Maguire, Kathleen

      University at Albany, State University of New York

      Mahan, Sue

      University of Central Florida at Daytona Beach

      Mallory, Stephen L.

      University of Southern Mississippi

      Manatu-Rupert, Norma

      John Jay College of Criminal Justice

      Mann, David

      Baylor College of Medicine and ChildTrauma Academy

      Manning, Peter

      Northeastern University

      Marenin, Otwin

      Washington State University

      Marshall, Chris E.

      University of Nebraska at Omaha

      Marshall, Ineke Haen

      University of Nebraska at Omaha

      Massoglia, Michael

      University of Minnesota

      Maxwell, Christopher D.

      Michigan State University

      Mays, G. Larry

      New Mexico State University

      McCarthy, Bill

      University of California at Davis

      McCoy, Candace

      Rutgers University

      McDevitt, Jack

      Northeastern University

      McKee, Adam J.

      University of Southern Mississippi

      McNeil, Tiffany Lin

      University of Colorado–Boulder

      McShane, Marilyn D.

      Prairie View A&M University

      Meehan, Kevin E.

      California State University, Fullerton

      Meesig, Robert T.

      Grand Valley State University

      Menski, Werner F.

      University of London, School of Oriental and

      African Studies

      Mentor, Kenneth W.

      New Mexico State University

      Meredith, Tammy

      Applied Research Services, Inc.

      Messina, Nena P.

      UCLA Integrated Substance Abuse Program

      Messner, Steven F.

      University at Albany, State University of New York

      Meyer, Jon'a F.

      Rutgers University–Camden

      Mitchell, Kimberly J.

      Crimes Against Children Research Center

      Mocan, H. Naci

      University of Colorado at Denver

      Montgomery, Jr., Reid H.

      University of South Carolina

      Morgan, Kathryn D.

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      Arizona State University

      Mutchnick, Robert J.

      Indiana University of Pennsylvania

      Muzzatti, Stephen L.

      McKendree College

      Nasheri, Hedieh

      Kent State University

      Nelke, Connie F.

      ChildTrauma Academy and Baylor College of Medicine

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      University of the South Pacific

      Obembo, Jean-Pascal

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      Rutgers University

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      University at Albany, State University of New York

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      Criminal Justice Consulting Corp.

      Pease, Ken

      University College, London

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      ChildTrauma Academy and Children's Mental Health Services

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      Sam Houston State University

      Rush, Jeffrey P.

      University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

      Ryder, Judith Anne

      City University of New York

      Salinas, Patti Ross

      Southwest Texas State University

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      University of Notre Dame

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      University of Durham, United Kingdom

      Savelsberg, Joachim J.

      University of Minnesota

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      ChildTrauma Academy, Houston

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      Justice Policy Institute

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      Rutgers University

      Schlegel, Kip

      Indiana University

      Schneider, Stephen

      Nathanson Centre for the Study of Organized Crime

      and Corruption

      Schulz, Dorothy Moses

      John Jay College of Criminal Justice

      Schwartz, Martin D.

      Ohio University

      Sellers, Christine S.

      University of South Florida

      Sexton, Ellen

      John Jay College of Criminal Justice

      Sherley, Alison J.

      Rutgers University

      Shkutzko-Penola, Diane T.

      John Jay College of Criminal Justice

      Siegel, Jay A.

      Michigan State University

      Silverman, Eli B.

      John Jay College of Criminal Justice

      Simon, Rita J.

      American University

      Skotnicki, Theodore P.

      Niagara County Community College

      Sloan III, John J.

      University of Alabama at Birmingham

      Smartt, Ursula

      Thames Valley University

      Smithey, Martha

      University of New Hampshire

      Smrkovski, Lonnie L.

      Institute for Forensic Voice and Tape Analysis

      Snedker, Karen A.

      New York University

      Solomon, Shellie E.

      21st Century Solutions, Inc.

      Sousa, Jr. William H.

      Rutgers University

      South, Scott J.

      University at Albany, State University of New York

      Spalek, Basia

      University of Birmingham

      Speckin, Erich

      Speckin Forensic Laboratories

      Speir, John

      Applied Research Services, Inc.

      Spunt, Barry

      John Jay College of Criminal Justice

      Stack, Steven

      Wayne State University

      Stamatel, Janet P.

      University of Chicago

      Steen, Sara

      University of Colorado–Boulder

      Stein, Abby

      John Jay College of Criminal Justice

      Stenius, Vanja

      Rutgers University

      Stern, Any

      Lynn University

      Stern, Vivien

      King's College London

      Stone, Mischelle Taylor

      Michigan State University

      Stroshine, Meghan

      Northeastern University

      Strouthes, Daniel P.

      University of Wisconsin–Eau Claire

      Sullivan, Larry E.

      John Jay College of Criminal Justice

      Sullivan, Mara M.

      Contemporary Guidance Services, Inc.

      Sundt, Jody L.

      Southern Illinois University

      Sutton, Mike

      Home Office Policing and Reducing Crime Unit

      Swahn, Monica H.

      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

      Sylvia, Polly

      John Jay College of Criminal Justice

      Tangney, June Price

      George Mason University

      Taylor, David Bruce

      Niagara University

      Taylor, Dorothy L.

      University of Miami

      Terry III, W. Clinton

      Florida International University

      Thomas III, George C.

      Rutgers University School of Law

      Thompson, William C.

      University of California, Irvine

      Thornton, William E.

      Loyola University–New Orleans

      Thurman, Quint C.

      Southwest Texas State University

      Tipton, Jeffrey A.

      South Carolina Department of Public Safety

      Toole, Mark L.

      United States Military Academy

      Torrens, Desirae

      Contemporary Guidance Services, Inc.

      Townshend, David G.

      Mason, Michigan

      Travis III, Lawrence F.

      University of Cincinnati

      Turner, Mark

      University of Canberra

      Turner, Susan


      Uchida, Craig D.

      21st Century Solutions, Inc.

      Uggen, Christopher

      University of Minnesota

      Urbina, Martin G.

      University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee

      Van Brunschot, Erin

      University of Calgary

      Van Ness, Shela

      University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

      Vander Ven, Thomas

      Ohio University

      Varano, Sean P.

      Michigan State University

      Varano, Tracy A.

      Northeastern University

      Varma, Kimberly N.

      Brock University

      Voigt, Lydia

      Loyola University–New Orleans

      Volpe, Maria R.

      John Jay College of Criminal Justice

      Wagner, Suzanne C.

      Niagara University

      Wallace, Donald H.

      Central Missouri State University

      Wallace, Harvey

      California State University, Fresno

      Wallenstein, Martin

      John Jay College of Criminal Justice

      Weise-Pengelly, Carrie A.

      Niagara University

      Welch, Michael

      Rutgers University

      Wells, Gary L.

      Iowa State University

      Welsh, Brandon C.

      University of Massachusetts, Lowell

      Welton, Mark

      United States Military Academy at West Point

      Wendel, Travis

      John Jay College of Criminal Justice

      Wherry, Vern B.

      Mercyhurst College

      White, Jonathan R.

      Grand Valley State University

      Wice, Paul B.

      Drew University

      Williams, Daniel R.

      Attorney, New York Capial Defender Office

      Williams III, Frank P.

      Prairie View A&M University

      Williams, Vergil

      University of Alabama

      Williams Reid, Lesley

      Georgia State University

      Williamson, Harold E.

      University of Louisiana at Monroe

      Wilson, David B.

      George Mason University

      Withrow, Brian L.

      Wichita State University

      Wolak, Janis

      Crimes Against Children Research Center

      Wylie-Marques, Kathryn

      John Jay College of Criminal Justice

      Yu, Olivia

      University of Texas at San Antonio

      Ziedenberg, Jason

      Justice Policy Institute

      Zorza, Joan

      Domestic Violence Report and Sexual Assault Report

      Zupan, Linda L.

      Northern Michigan University


      David Levinson, Editor

      The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the spread of anthrax through the mail, and the constant threat of new attacks have given crime and punishment a new meaning. Words and phrases such as crime scene investigation, criminal profiling, bioterrorism, behavioral forensics, surveillance abuse, toxicology, and victim rights that most of us heard only in television crime dramas or read in mysteries are now part of the daily lexicon. The tragedy of these attacks and the continuing threat posed by domestic and international terrorism make this encyclopedia all the more necessary, as we all need to know and understand more about crime and punishment to make informed decisions as citizens in the twenty-first century.

      While these threats are new to U.S. citizens, it is worth remembering that since well before the Judeo-Christian tale of Adam and Eve's banishment from the Garden of Eden, the commission of crimes and the punishments that result from them have been part of the human story and the human experience. In the United States and many other nations, crime has always been a major personal issue. An enormous percentage of societal resources is devoted to preventing and controlling crime, prosecuting those accused of committing crimes, and rehabilitating and punishing criminals. In the United States, federal, state, and local governments spend over $130 billion per year on law enforcement, the courts and legal services, and corrections. Individual victims of crime pay as well, to the tune of over $20 billion per year in property and cash losses, medical expenses, and loss of pay. The cost of fighting terrorism will drive these costs up even further. In 2001, the Postal Service asked for $5 billion to prevent the future spread of bioterrorism agents through the mail.

      Although most people never come into contact with the criminal justice system, they fear crime and the danger it poses to their well-being. As many entries in this encyclopedia show, much about criminal behavior is to some extent predictable; however, crime can also be random and the effects devastating not only to the victims but to entire communities. The events of September 11 have changed life in the United States. Smaller events often have a lasting impact as well. Even in the small town of Great Barrington, Massachusetts, where the Berkshire Publishing Group is located and where people leave their doors unlocked and keys in the car, major crimes do strike. In 1991, Wayne Lo, a student at the local college, shot five people on campus, killing two. Throughout the 1990s, despite a dramatic decline in the crime rate, this widespread fear of crime was continually fed by nonstop coverage in the news media and by the depiction of crime in literature, film, and on television.

      This means, of course, that there is an enormous amount of information available about crime and efforts to control crime. This information comes from many sources—sociological surveys, ethnographic observation, government reports, clinical interviews, evaluation research, media reports, crime fiction, and true crime literature, among others. The goal of the Encyclopedia of Crime and Punishment is to bring together, in a single publication, knowledge from these various sources to provide readers with a comprehensive, authoritative, and twenty-first century reference resource on crime and punishment. The title Crime and Punishment was chosen carefully, because it conveys both the current emphasis on the use of punishment to control crime and the complexity of both topics as set forth in Fyodor Dostoyevsky's Crime and Punishment.

      Our goal in developing this encyclopedia is to survey the entire field of criminal justice. We believe this is a valuable and appropriate goal because other reference works focus only on specific parts of the field—law and justice, criminology, forensics, crimes, criminals, and so on. With such a broad topic, this specialization makes good sense, but there is also a need for a general reference work like this one to serve the needs of all libraries—including ones that do not require specialized reference works—and the needs of general readers who want access to broad information that is up-to-date and trustworthy.

      Our decision to base this work in the field of criminal justice rather than in law or criminology was a deliberate one. Criminal justice is a relatively new field, but it is now the one field that encompasses all of the interest groups involved in crime, justice, and punishment: criminology, forensics, penology, police science, criminal law, victimology, and corrections. It has expanded rapidly over the past twenty-five years, is one of the fastest—perhaps the fastest—growing disciplines in the academic world, and attracts a wide range of scholars and professionals. The September 11 attacks have led many to pursue education and careers in criminal justice, and it is no exaggeration to predict that as time goes on, the majority of criminal justice teachers and professionals will be graduates of criminal justice programs.

      The encyclopedia is of great professional value and also is of use and interest to high school students and the public. Criminal justice researchers and professionals can refer to the encyclopedia for up-to-date and trustworthy information about many topics. High school students interested in a career in criminal justice will find the encyclopedia a useful overview of the entire field. Students in criminal justice, law, sociology, political science, and other disciplines will find it an accessible entry point into the vast and ever-expanding literature on crime and punishment. Journalists and the general public can use it as a source of background information and context for the many aspects of crime and punishment that regularly come to public attention through mass media. Helping citizens to understand crime and crime prevention is a major rationale for the encyclopedia.

      The focus of the encyclopedia is the United States and the current situation, although considerable attention is also given to other nations, to global issues, and to the past as a context for the present. For example, while drug trafficking and use are major factors in crime in the United States, we also include several articles on international drug trafficking, Latin America, Mexico, and organized crime on a global scale. When a user reads about the history of British foot patrols in the mid-1800s, he or she will find that community policing, a major initiative of the 1980s, is really not new at all.


      We take a broad view of crime and punishment, and rather than becoming involved in the debate over what is crime, punishment, justice, and so forth, we have instead chosen to provide coverage for all topics that experts believe fall under the rubric of criminal justice. The 439 entries cover twelve major themes:

      • Crimes: Eighty entries cover specific crimes, categories of crimes, and related behaviors such as piracy, homicide, cybercrime, antisocial personality disorder, illicit antiquities, and civil disobedience. Each article defines the crime or topic, traces its history, provides information about rates, offenders, victims, and the effect on society, and also discusses efforts to prevent and control the crime.
      • Law and Justice: Seventy-two entries cover law, justice, and judicial systems. Included here are thematic articles covering major types of legal systems such as civil law and socialist legal traditions; major concepts such as mercy; major forms of justice such as restorative and retributive justice; specific legal principles such as due process and the exclusionary rule; specific forms of punishment or correction such as parole, boot camps, scared straight programs, and shame penalties; and features of the legal system such as court structures, defense attorney, and public defender.
      • Policing and Forensics: Fifty entries cover myriad aspects of policing and forensics, including the nature of police forces and police work, criminal investigation, arrest and arrest procedures, field and laboratory studies, and evidence.
      • Corrections: Fifty-one entries concern the field of corrections and cover the different approaches used including new generation jails, the prison industrial complex, and prison privatization; correctional officers; prisoners and life in prison; and specific programs such as day release and electronic monitoring.
      • Victimology: Nine entries cover the relatively new theme of victimology and include both a general overview and more focused entries on topics such as victim needs and victim rights.
      • Punishment: Twelve entries cover the types of punishments used throughout history and in the contemporary criminal justice system. Included are entries on torture, shunning, and vengeance, as well as entries on such methods as community service, intermediate sanctions, and capital punishment.
      • Social/Cultural Context: Forty articles cover what may be broadly labeled the sociocultural context of crime and punishment. Included under this rubric are major antecedents of criminal behavior such as poverty and the use of alcohol and drugs; ethnicity and race and their links to crime, corrections, and the administration of justice; and the symbolic and popular depiction of crime and punishment by the media and in film, television, and literature.
      • Nations/Regions/Religions: Twenty-seven entries profile crime and criminal justice in specific nations such as Great Britain and China, specific regions such as Latin America, and major world religions such as Islam and Christianity.
      • Concepts and Theories: Fifty-eight entries cover the major concepts, models, and theories that provide the framework for the explanation, prevention, and control of crime. These include general models such as integrative theories, moral panic, and radical criminology, and theories such as deterrence theory, biological theories, and broken windows theory.
      • Studying Crime and Punishment: Ten articles cover the strategies, methods, and information used by researchers and other experts to study crime. Included are articles on the Uniform Crime Reports and the National Criminal Victimization Survey, two information sources that play a major role in public discourse about crime.
      • Organizations and Institutions: Twenty-three entries describe major criminal justice associations such as the British Society of Criminology, government agencies such as the FBI and Scotland Yard, international organizations such as INTERPOL, and institutions that have played a major role in the development of criminal justice, such as Devil's Island, Solovetsky Island, and Tucker State Farm.
      • Special Populations: Twenty entries cover crime and punishment issues as they apply to specific populations such as women, children and youths, and African Americans. Specific populations are addressed also in many other articles.

      In order to fully cover these themes, we have purposefully chosen not to include separate biographical entries covering famous criminologists, law enforcement officials, and criminals, and we have controlled the quantity of statistics presented, although many entries do contain statistical tables, charts, and graphs. Important personages are not ignored but are discussed in context in the relevant articles, and interested readers can find additional biographical information and statistics in other sources (including on the Web).

      Criminal justice is a continually growing and changing field, and, not surprisingly, there are disagreements among experts on a number of issues. We have sought to bring debates and alternative views to the reader's attention by asking contributors to cover alternative views fully and fairly, but not to continue the debate in their articles. We have also purposefully included articles on controversial topics such as blackmail (should it be a crime?), peacemaking criminology, and risk (as the concept is used or misused in criminal justice).

      Global Coverage

      Crime, crime prevention, and crime control are now global phenomena, with developments in one nation or the policies of an international criminal justice organization potentially influencing all other nations. We cover these cross-national and global dimensions of crime in several ways. First, the profiles of crime and punishment in specific regions and nations highlight similarities and variations around the world. In these entries, we have purposefully chosen not to follow a gazetteer formula but instead have allowed contributors to emphasize what is most important for readers to know about crime and punishment in the nation or region. Second, the entries on major world religions point out how beliefs about the law, justice, crime, and punishment continue to influence secular systems of criminal justice around the world. Third, an explicitly global or regional perspective is taken in a number of entries, such as those on drug trafficking, illicit antiquities, women and crime in global perspective, comparative law and justice, and INTER-POL. Fourth, many entries include information about topics across nations and regions. Fifth, the chronology places major events in the history of crime and punishment from around the world in historical perspective. Finally, our contributors include experts from sixteen nations, including Australia, Brazil, Croatia, Italy, Germany, Canada, Great Britain, and France.

      Organization and User AIDS

      The entries are organized A–Z. They are extensively cross-referenced, and “blind” entries are included to direct the reader to general topics covered in specific entries and to subjects with common, alternative names. Readers can use the index in Volume IV and the Reader's Guide in the front of each volume to find entries of interest to them. The Reader's Guide classifies the entries into the thirteen thematic categories.

      Sidebars and Illustrations

      The encyclopedia contains nearly 400 sidebars, photos, drawings, charts, tables, and graphs. The sidebars consist mainly of primary text from a variety of sources—prisoner dialogues, novels, government reports, ethnographic reports, media reports, and legal documents—that highlight and make real the variety of crimes, punishments, and approaches to justice found across cultures and over time in the human experience. These range from a partial list of children deported to Nazi death camps as part of the Nazi genocide to an eyewitness description of seventeenth-century bastinado punishment in China, and from Dickens' description of the training of young thieves in Oliver Twist to a woman describing the humiliation of marital rape. There are also brief “factoids” that bring to the immediate attention of the reader significant, striking facts covered in more detail in the entries.


      The following appendixes point readers to more information on criminal justice topics:

      • Appendix 1: Careers in Criminal Justice
      • Appendix 2: Web Resources for Criminal Justice
      • Appendix 3: Professional and Scholarly Associations
      • Appendix 4: Selected Bibliography

      A chronology listing important events in the history of crime and punishment appears at the end of each volume.


      There are many people to acknowledge and to thank for helping to bring this encyclopedia to life in only eighteen months, what we think must near record time for such a large and complex work. To start at the beginning, we want to acknowledge the wisdom of Blaise Simqu and Rolf Janke at Sage for establishing Sage Reference and choosing Crime and Punishment as their first major publication. Sage has a long and distinguished record in the criminal justice world (both academic and applied), and this encyclopedia is perfect for their program. At Sage, we also want to thank Jerry Westby for his support and help with headword development and contributor recruitment, Diana Axelsen for the smooth management of the production process, Vince Burns, senior development editor, copy editors Linda Gray and Kate Peterson, proofreader Jamie Robinson, and Sara Gutierrez (Rolf's assistant) for handling numerous administrative and editorial matters. Our thanks as well to Tim Giesen of Straight Line Design for his fine work on designing and typesetting the interior of the book, and to indexer Mary Mortensen, who developed the exhaustive index and added her sharp eye to the final proofreading process.

      The nearly 400 editors and authors who have organized and written this encyclopedia also deserve much praise and thanks. They are an interdisciplinary and international team that includes scholars with expertise in anthropology, sociology, history, law, criminal justice, economics, political science, police science, forensics, and library science; and experts who work in the criminal justice field as attorneys, law enforcement officers, forensic scientists, and program administrators. I especially want to recognize the work of the eight members of the editorial board who developed the list of topics to be covered, recommended many of the contributors, and reviewed the entries: Anita Blowers, Eve Buzawa, Ric Curtis, Harry Dammer, Obi Ebbe, Frank Horvath, Phyllis Schultze, and Larry Sullivan. Their reviews were especially thorough and thoughtful and have enabled us to produce a work that is thorough, up-to-date, and trustworthy. Special thanks also go to Phyllis Schultze at Rutgers and Larry Sullivan at John Jay for opening up their library collections to us. We also want to thank Marvie Brooks at John Jay for bringing to our attention a number of primary sources that provided interesting and unique sidebar material.

      As usual, this was a team effort at Berkshire Publishing. Robin O'Sullivan coordinated the project from start to completion, Marcy Ross ably managed the copyediting process, and Karen Christensen kept us all on target. Robin deserves special thanks for her diligence and good cheer in recruiting and working with the editors and contributors and developing her identity as “Robin of Berkshire” throughout the criminal justice community.


      About the Editor

      David Levinson is a well-known editor of major print reference publications and a respected cultural anthropologist specializing in contemporary social issues. For twenty years, he was the chief administrator at a major research institute at Yale University, and he has personally overseen and edited thirty-seven volumes—some 10 million words, or the equivalent of the Encyclopedia Britannica— in the past eight years. Levinson has a unique ability to synthesize and organize vast bodies of information. He has published widely on ethnicity, social problems, and human relationships and is “well known for his multivolume encyclopedic works that describe world cultures” (Choice 1998).

      After completing his Ph.D. dissertation, a definitive study of cross-cultural research methods still in print as Toward Explaining Human Culture, Levinson was for twenty-one years on the staff, and later vice president, of the Human Relations Area Files (HRAF) at Yale University. HRAF was founded in 1949 as a research institute that to collect, organize, and distribute information on the countries and cultures of the world. In addition to responsibility for book publishing program of HRAF, he helped to develop the CrossCultural CD and the Electronic HRAF and has acted as consultant on other electronic projects. He also holds a master's degree in public administration from New York University.

      After leaving HRAF in 1995 to found Berkshire Reference Works with Karen Christensen, Levinson continued as a research associate and senior editor of American Immigrant Cultures, a project he had begun at HRAF as an extension of the Encyclopedia of World Cultures. His work as an anthropologist has focused on social problems and cross-cultural understanding. His first work, a study of the Bowery in New York, was published when he was still an undergraduate. He has published and taught on topics including ethnic relations, multiculturalism, substance abuse, homelessness, violence against women and children—including Family Violence in Cross-Cultural Perspective (Sage 1989). He has written dozens of scholarly articles, including the lead article in a UN Refugees issue on ethnic relations.

      In 1992, he was a visiting scholar at the National Museum of Ethnology in Kyoto, Japan, and he has received research grants from the Connecticut Humanities Council and the National Institutes of Mental Health.

      Levinson currently serves as Berkshire's president and project director for several major reference works in progress. These include the six-volume Encyclopedia of Modern Asia and three new volumes in the ongoing Religion & Society series: the Encyclopedia of Religion and War, the Encyclopedia of Religious Rituals, and the Encyclopedia of Religious Freedom. Berkshire is also at work on additional reference works for Sage, including the Encyclopedia of Community, the Encyclopedia of Leadership, and the Encyclopedia of Homelessness.

      Other reference publications edited by Levinson include the Encyclopedia of Human Emotions, the Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology, the Encyclopedia of Marriage and the Family, and the Encyclopedia of World Sport.

    • Appendix 1: Careers in Criminal Justice

      Many careers are available in criminal justice for individuals with an appropriate educational background in criminal justice, criminology, sociology, political science, psychology, social work, and other liberal arts and human services. In addition to traditional governmental employment opportunities in law enforcement, the courts, and corrections, positions are now available in the private sector. The job diversity in the field, both professional and nonprofessional, offers rewarding careers that contribute to societal goals, such as preventing crime, protecting citizens, administering justice, and rehabilitating offenders. The closely related areas of enforcement, the courts, probation, institutional training and treatment, parole, and aftercare services all provide a wide range of opportunities.

      Occupations in criminal justice require maturity, dedication, emotional stability, and personal integrity. Other important characteristics include the ability to exert authority in a sensible manner, effective interpersonal and communication skills, a genuine interest in and concern for people and their problems, and the desire to help others fit into society.

      Criminal Justice Career Education

      Depending on the type of job, a high school diploma, some community college, or a college degree is necessary to qualify for an entry-level position. In certain areas of the United States, a high school diploma may enable a person to secure a position such as correctional officer, jail officer, children's institution attendant, police officer, and deputy sheriff. Over the past twenty years, however, an increasing number of law enforcement and correctional agencies have acknowledged the importance of a college education in criminal justice and now require an associate degree for entry-level employment. A bachelor's degree is ordinarily needed for positions in probation and parole, while juvenile justice correctional agencies usually require a bachelor's or master's degree.

      Many colleges and universities offer bachelor's degree courses that provide criminal justice internships with federal, state, or local agencies. A sampling of opportunities includes internships with U.S. Customs, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, state law enforcement offices, and local police departments and youth correctional facilities.

      Internships in criminal justice serve many purposes. Students learn about the daily workings of a criminal justice agency and see how their coursework relates to the actual operation of the criminal justice system. They also find out how their skills and abilities fit into a job in criminal justice. Students can make valuable connections for jobs and learn more about areas of criminal justice in which they want to focus. Indeed, internships are mutually beneficial to students and organizations. However, not all internship placements are equally beneficial. For this reason, the internship program must ensure that the interns find the best placements for their future career goals and that they avoid being made little more than low-paid or unpaid gofers.

      Choosing a Career in Criminal Justice

      There is an important question to be considered when choosing a career in the field of criminal justice: “Do I have the credentials, or am I willing to obtain the credentials needed to obtain a position with a desired agency?” (Taylor 1999: 117) Once these questions are answered, the following steps are helpful in setting realistic career goals:

      • matching personal skills with available positions,
      • locating those positions,
      • composing an enticing résumé and perfect cover letter, and
      • obtaining and preparing for interviews.
      Determining Occupational Ambitions

      The first step in determining your occupational ambitions is deciding what kind of job you want. What sort of work would be interesting and challenging and would make use of your special skills? This question can be answered by taking an assessment of yourself, considering your personal likes and dislikes. In this assessment, interpersonal, writing, and computer skills should also be evaluated. Other questions for consideration are as follows: What type of criminal justice agency are you interested in? Where do you want to live? What kind of climate do you prefer? To conduct a personal assessment, Taylor (1999: 116–117) suggests the following list of factors that are essential to experiencing satisfaction in a career:

      Finance is the first important area to consider. What are your financial requirements regarding housing, transportation, and family support (if applicable)? How much money do you want to make in the future? Next consider your personal preferences. Do you like working alone or interacting with others? Do you enjoy working on computers? How much supervision do you prefer? Do you like assisting others in dealing with and solving their problems? How much job-related traveling do you want to do? Would you consider job training that required long periods away from your family? Are you interested in graduate education to help you advance to a supervisory or executive position?
      The second important area for consideration is your abilities and deficiencies related to the skills required for your chosen discipline. Some of the questions you should ask yourself are the following: Are you relaxed when interacting with others? Is it easy for you to socialize or converse with people of different social and ethnic-racial backgrounds? Are you a self-starter with leadership abilities? Are you good at creating ideas and managing projects? Are you able to identify and solve problems? Are you deadline conscious, or do you procrastinate? How well do you work under pressure?
      The third important area to consider is job requirements that you may not be able to fulfill that have no bearing on your skills, such as things you cannot or will not do because they conflict with your moral code. For example, if you are considering a job in law enforcement, could you actually shoot someone? Do you believe in capital punishment? If not, could you be involved in sending someone to prison who may be executed?
      The final area to consider is geographic location. The necessary questions to ask yourself are: Do you want to stay in your hometown or state? Are you willing to relocate? If so, to what area? Do you prefer a warm, cold, or temperate climate? Do you prefer urban, suburban, or rural living? Can you afford to live in the geographic area that you prefer?

      Once you have a fairly good perception of your vocational aspirations, the next step is to determine the type of employment that suits you.

      Employment Positions in Criminal Justice Settings

      A career in law enforcement offers challenges and variety found in few other areas of work. In the United States, there are some 40,000 separate law enforcement agencies representing municipal, county, state, and federal governments. of these, approximately 39,750 are local, 200 are state, and 50 are federal agencies with a combined total of over a half-million employees (Thurman et al. 2000: 166). Each of the fifty states employs the number of court-related personnel suitable to its own local needs. The occupations associated with corrections are related to the confinement, rehabilitation, and parole of offenders. The jobs may be divided into custodial, rehabilitative, and administrative positions (Donovan 1992: 119).

      In federal law enforcement, average entry-level jobs start at approximately $35,000, but some agencies like the U.S. postal inspectors and U.S. marshals may have an average starting pay of $38,000. “Salaries for local, county, and state law enforcement jobs, on the average, start at $25,000 to $30,000, and the associated fringe benefits (a take-home vehicle, a bullet-proof vest and other equipment, a uniform allowance, tuition reimbursement, educational incentive pay, bilingual incentive pay, paid insurance, paid holidays and vacation, a 401-k or 401-h pension plan, accumulation of sick leave and compensatory time, family benefits, early retirement, and the chance to take promotional exams early) are also very appealing” (O'Connor 1999: 3). The possibility of eventually earning an annual salary of six figures as the police chief of a major metropolitan police department is an additional incentive to begin in a lower paying job. For court-related jobs, such as probation and parole officers, salaries vary from $24,000 to $34,000. However, federal probation officers are paid the highest starting salaries, depending on prior experience in investigative work. The average pay for jobs in the correctional institutions varies tremendously, depending on the location of the facility. For example, in New York the starting pay is $30,000, while pay in Arkansas starts at a low $13,000 (O'Connor 1999: 3). Salary increases and merit raises are common in corrections until you are making approximately $35,000 by your fifth year. O'Connor (1999: 3) suggests that large agencies with many job titles be considered because with time it is possible to gain the highest income. Nonetheless, it is good to keep in mind that the agencies offering the jobs with the highest income are usually located in the bigger cities where the murder rate is higher than the mortality rate.

      Tables 1 to 4 provide a list of jobs, basic requirements, and average 2001 salaries for entry-level positions in law enforcement, the courts, and corrections. Jobs in law enforcement at the federal level fall under the General Schedule, or GS, system (GS-1 to GS-15) and are the salaries consistent throughout the United States. The local, county, and state law enforcement, courts, and corrections salary scales presented are for the states in the Southeast region: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee.

      Future Issues

      Education is an issue that is likely to be important in future employment in criminal justice. For many reasons, the two-year community college degree is presently becoming a requirement for entry-level positions in the criminal justice area, especially in corrections. For example, the increase of privatization of prisons and in abuse complaints filed by inmates have brought to the forefront the necessity for a higher level of professional when overseeing the prison population.

      Table 1. Jobs in Law Enforcement (Federal Level)
      Avg. 2001 SalaryJobsBasic Requirements
      $36,792Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms InspectorU.S. citizen; 18 years old; bachelors degree
      $35,677Border Patrol AgentU.S. citizen; 1821 years old; high school diploma
      $37,907Criminal Investigator, Immigration and Naturalization ServicesU.S. citizen; 1835 years old; bachelors degree/3 yrs. exp.
      $35,677Customs InspectorU.S. citizen; 21 years old; high school diploma
      $35,677Customs Parole OfficerU.S. citizen; < 35 years; high school diploma
      $38,173Deputy U.S. MarshalU.S. citizen; 2135 years old; 3 yrs. exp. in law enforcement
      $35,226Federal Protective OfficerU.S. citizen; 21 years old; high school diploma
      $35,677Customs ExaminerU.S. citizen; 21 years old; high school diploma
      $36,792Internal Revenue InspectorU.S. citizen; 2135 years old; bachelors degree
      $35,667Officer, U.S. Secret ServiceU.S. citizen; 21 years old; (uniformed division) high school diploma
      $36,792Postal InspectorU.S. citizen; 2134 years old; bachelors degree/3 yrs. exp.
      $38,173Special Agent, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and FirearmsU.S. citizen; 2135 years old; bachelors degree/3 yrs. exp.
      $37,907Special Agent, CustomsU.S. citizen; < 35 years old; bachelors degree/2 yrs. exp.
      $36,792Special Agent, Drug Enforcement AdministrationU.S. citizen; 2134 years old; bachelors degree
      $42,039Special Agent, FBIU.S. citizen; 2334 years old; masters or law degree
      $36,792Special Agent, Internal Revenue ServiceU.S. citizen; 2134 years old; bachelors degree
      $39,404Special Agent, Secret ServiceU.S. citizen; 2135 years old; bachelors degree/3 yrs. exp.
      Source: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. (2001)
      Table 2. Jobs in Law Enforcement (Local, County, State)
      Avg. 2001 SalaryJobsBasic Requirements
      $96,400Chief Deputy, Sheriffs Dept.U.S. citizen; 2-yr. college degree; pass a Civil Service examination and 25 yrs. as sergeant or lieutenant
      $76,900Sheriffs DeputyU.S. citizen; 2129 years old; high school diploma
      $37,200Sergeant, Sheriffs Dept.U.S. citizen; 2-yr. college degree; pass a Civil Service examination and 35 yrs. as a deputy sheriff
      $44,850Police MajorU.S. citizen; 2-yr. college degree; pass a Civil Service examination and 25 yrs. as a police captain
      $40,000Police CaptainU.S. citizen; 2-yr. college degree; pass a Civil Service examination and 3 yrs. exp. as a police lieutenant
      $34,200Police LieutenantU.S. citizen; 2-yr. college degree; pass a Civil Service examination and 25 yrs. exp. as a police sergeant
      $29,000Police SergeantU.S. citizen; high school diploma; some college credits; pass a Civil Service Exam.; 35 yrs. exp. as a police officer
      $21,540Police OfficerU.S. citizen; 2029 years old; high school diploma; some college credits;
      $19,600Police Dispatcher21 years old; high school diploma; pass a Civil Service examination
      $57,000State Police SergeantU.S. citizen; 2-yr. college degree; pass a Civil Service examination and 35 yrs. exp. as state police officer
      $40,000State Police OfficerU.S. citizen; 2129 years old; high school diploma; pass a Civil Service examination
      $26,100CriminalistU. S. citizen; 21 years old; bachelors degree and pass a Civil Service examination
      $23,964Evidence TechnicianU.S. citizen; 21 years old; 2-yr. college degree and 2 yrs. exp. as a police officer
      $20,604Fingerprint TechnicianU.S. citizen; 21 years old; high school diploma and 1-yr. exp. in fingerprinting
      Source: Miami-Dade Police Department, Miami, Florida, 2001.

      Another new issue is language skills. Because the country is becoming more multi-ethic and multilingual, especially in major cities, candidates for entry-level criminal justice positions are required to at least be bilingual (speaking English and Spanish) to develop effective communication skills with the various ethnic and racial populations that coexist in America.


      When choosing a career in criminal justice, it is always best to set realistic career goals. There are a variety of criminal justice occupations available, but to be successful in your search, you must first determine the type of position you want, locate the position, match your skills with available positions, write a résumé and a cover letter, and prepare for interviews. In addition to the traditional ways to locate employment (though your college career office, personal contacts, newspaper ads), the Internet offers a new source of information about employment opportunities. There are a number of Web sites that post jobs available throughout the United States and that allow you to list your résumé. Three of the most popular ones are http://Monster.com, http://HotJobs.com, and Yahoo! Classifieds. You can also learn about additional sites at your school's career center or library. Regardless of the path you choose, as you proceed into the workforce, periodically assess your personal aspirations, skills, and geographic choices, which may change over time and expand your horizons and lead you to develop new professional careers in the field of criminal justice.

      Table 3. Jobs in Courts
      Avg. 2001 SalaryJobsBasic Requirements
      $26,000Bailiff21 years old; high school diploma; pass a Civil Service examination
      $54,000Court Administrator21 years old; from bachelors to masters degree to L.L.B. or J.D. degree
      $22,118Court Clerk 121 years old; high school diploma and 1 yr. of general office experience
      $23,939Court Clerk 221 years old; high school diploma and 1 year exp. as a court clerk
      $38,650Court Lawyer /Court Legal Advisor 121 years old; L.L.B. or J.D. degree and admission to the bar
      $38,551Trial Court Staff Attorney21 years old; L.L.B. or J.D. degree and admission to the bar
      $42,192Sr. Trial Court Staff Attorney21 years old; L.L.B. or J.D. degree and admission to the bar
      $5,000Law Clerk18 years old; law student or L.L.B. or J.D. degree
      $26,000Paralegal Assistant21 years old; L.L.B. or J.D. degree
      $27,105Law Librarian 121 years old; masters degree in library science
      $29,782Law Librarian 221 yeas old; masters degree in library science or L.L.B. or J.D. degree
      $32,727Law Librarian 321 years old; L.L.B. or J.D. degree
      $22,956Legal Secretary 121 years old; high school diploma
      $27,708Legal Secretary 221 years old; high school diploma and 2 yrs. exp. as a legal secretary
      $15,000Legal Stenographer18 years old; high school diploma or graduation from business school
      $30,000Legal Transcriber21 years old; high school diploma and 13 years clerical experience
      $24,835Probation Officer21 years old; bachelors degree
      $30,000Court Interpreter21 years old; bachelors degree and bilingual or multilingual
      $29,000Judicial Assistant21 years old; bachelors degree
      $24,500Corrections OfficerU.S. citizen; 21 years old; high school diploma
      Source: Miami-Dade, 11th Judicial Circuit Court, Miami Florida, 2001.
      Table 4. Jobs in Corrections and Rehabilitation
      Avg. 2001 SalaryJobsBasic Requirements
      $ 24,500Correction Captain22 years old; high school diploma; 2 yrs. exp. as a correction officer
      $ 23,000Correction Officer21 years old; high school diploma
      $ 24,500Correction Counselor21 years old; bachelors or masters degree in related field
      $ 20,400Correctional Property Custodian21 years old; high school diploma
      $ 22,800Commissary Supervisor21 years old; high school diploma
      $ 19,500Cook21 years old; high school diploma
      $ 45,000Clinical Psychologist21 years old; Ph.D. or Psy.D. degree
      $135,000Psychiatrist21 years old; medical degree
      $ 29,400Chaplain21 years old; ordained minister
      $ 22,500Recreation Leader21 years old; 21 years old; 2-yr. degree or bachelors degree in recreation
      $ 24,500Social Group Worker21 years old; bachelors degree with major in social science
      $ 32,300Teacher21 years old; bachelors degree with state certification
      $ 24,500Vocational Instructor21 years old; certification by the Department of Education
      $ 89,350Administrative Director21 years old; bachelors degree in criminal justice or sociology
      $ 22,600Prisoner-Classification Interviewer21 years old; bachelors degree in social work
      Source: Department of Corrections, Miami-Dade County, Florida, 2001.
      Dorothy L.Taylor
      Further Reading
      Donovan, Raymond.(1992).Criminal Justice Careers Guidebook.Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
      O'Connor, Tom.(1999).Guide to Online Job Searching.Rocky Mount, NC: North Carolina Wesleyan College Press.
      Taylor, Dorothy.(1999).Jumpstarting Your Career: An Internship Guide for Criminal Justice.Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
      Thurman, Quint, LeeParker, and RobertO'Block. (2000).Criminal Justice Research Sources.Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.
      U.S. Office of Personnel Management.(2001).2001 General Schedule Rates Pay for Law Enforcement Officers.Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor.

      Appendix 2: Web Resources for Criminal Justice

      A comforting concept for many people is the understanding that an educated person is not so much one who knows all the answers as one who knows where to find the answers. Increasingly, answers are sought with the aid of the Internet. In their various consumer technology surveys, PricewaterhouseCoopers reports that home Internet access is especially high in Canada (48 percent) and the United States (43 percent). About one-third of the population in Australia, Germany, and the United Kingdom has Internet access from home, as do about one-sixth of the French (PricewaterhouseCoopers 1999, 2000a, 2000b). But even more interesting than the number of people accessing the Internet from home is what they are seeking with that access.

      When people go online from home, the majority are doing so for purposes of researching information or to send or receive e-mail (electronic mail). Interactive entertainment, reading magazines and newspapers online, and conducting online banking or investing are less frequently listed reasons for accessing the Internet at home (PricewaterhouseCoopers 1999, 2000a). However, although more people in more countries are using the Internet as an information source, they are not necessarily doing so in an efficient and effective manner. The Internet can be an important—even primary—tool for everyone, but accomplishing that goal requires knowledge and skills that people often learn, if they learn them at all, through trial and error rather than through a diligent and comprehensive process. Too often, the result is a “Web surfer” who relies on the one or two search engines, Web sites, and surfing tricks that were found early in the person's introduction to the Internet. So far as the surfer knows, there is no reason to go beyond the familiar, even though the familiar may not provide the accurate, comprehensive, and timely information that most people would like to have. Part of the problem is not knowing what is available on the Internet, or not knowing how to access the most relevant and appropriate information available.

      Introducing the WEB

      The “Internet” is the general term used to describe a network of computers that allows users to access and use information available on any of the computers linked to the network. The main technologies available through the Internet are e-mail, mailing lists, Multi-User Dimensions (MUDs), Usenet, Internet Relay Chat (IRC), and the World Wide Web (WWW). William Stewart provides a helpful review of each of these technologies at his Living Internet Web site (http://www.livinginternet.com), and it is appropriate to understand that reference to the Internet is to much more than any one of its individual components. Specifically, the World Wide Web (or, simply “the Web”) is not synonymous with the Internet; it is only one aspect of it.

      If you need some background on Internet basics, there are several Web sites that provide simple information about the Internet and the Web. Beginners Central (http://www.northernwebs.com/bc/), Internet 101 (http://www.internet101.org), and Webmonkey Guide (http://hotwired.lycos.com/webmonkey/guides/) are especially popular and helpful. If you prefer to start with traditional print documents, most bookstores have a wide selection of Internet beginners’ books.

      All Internet technologies are important to understand, and each can be helpful, informative, and entertaining. However, the specific focus here is with the World Wide Web and the resources it provides. It is assumed that the reader can use a Web browser such as Microsoft Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator. There is, however, one basic concept that deserves discussion here, because it can impact one's ability to find information on the Web. Even first-time Web users know that “clicking” on certain words or graphics will take them somewhere new. What they may not understand is that their trip has been accomplished with the aid of an “address” that tells the Web browser where to take them. That address is a Uniform Resource Locator (URL), and it is important to understand how it is structured.

      Reading a Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

      Preparing a traditional print document about what is available on the Web is difficult, because what is available on the Web is in a constant state of flux. When a print document suggests a particular site, the reader runs the risk that by the time he or she visits it, the site may no longer have the same content or can no longer be reached at the “address” provided. Despite the validity of such a concern, there are ways to lessen the problem.

      More important than realizing that the content of a Web page may change is knowing how to get to the page in the first place. People expect and prefer that content on the page expand and be kept current, but if the directions to that page are not accurate, interested Web surfers may never find the information to begin with, or may not be able to return to a page where helpful information was previously found. The best way to handle this problem is to understand the way Web addresses—URLs—are constructed, so that one can make educated guesses at where to find desired information.

      URLs function on the Web in the way street addresses or telephone numbers function in the physical world. The task of visiting or calling one's friend Jane, knowing only that she lives in Atlanta, would be daunting. In the same manner, knowing that there is information available on the Web relevant to one's term paper topic on the death penalty is of little use unless there is also a convenient way to find that information. Thus, URLs get their name because they allow people from anywhere in the world (they are “uniform”) to “locate” desired “resources” available on the Web. For example, someone interested in visiting the Web site for the Sage Publications Reference Group, the publisher of this encyclopedia, would use the URL http://www.sagereference.com.

      All URLs have a standard structure (see Cottingham 2001; Haynal 2000) that follows this pattern:

      protocol: http://www.domain.suffix/directory/document

      The “protocol,” which defines the type of Internet connection being sought, is typically “http” for people using the Web. In fact, it is now so commonly assumed that this is the type of connection Web surfers are using that it is not even necessary to enter “http” into the address when the URL is typed. Instead, most URLs are entered into the Web browser as simply http://www.domain.suffix. In fact, even the www is often assumed, so that one can usually reach a Web site like the one for the Sage Reference Group by simply typing “http://www.sagereference.com” in the address box of a browser such as Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator.

      The “directory” and “document” segments of a URL identify where a particular Web page is found on the computer at the domain site. When a Web page cannot be found, it is often because changes have been made to this part of the URL. The http://www.domain.suffix segment is reasonably stable today, because schools (“edu” suffix), companies (“com”), and government agencies (“gov”) have secured their preferred domain name. But the owners of that school, company, or agency Web site may change how they structure their site or change the names of the directories and folders where a particular document or information is held.

      Understanding this aspect of URLs is the key to tracking down potentially useful information that can no longer be found with the URL one first used. For example, suppose the URL http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/history.html is said to be a great source of information about the history of the death penalty, but a Web browser gives the message that the Web page cannot be found. This does not necessarily mean that the information is no longer available. It is more likely that the information has been moved to a different location or been given a different name, but is still at the http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org site. Knowing how URLs are structured and knowing that information may be moved about at the main site, one can simply go to the http://www.domain.suffix part of the URL (http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org in this case) and look for links to information about the history of the death penalty.

      Searching the Web

      Although it is good to know how one might find information at a Web site even when a given URL is no longer active, a more typical problem is having no idea where to begin finding information on the Web in the first place. To find out what is available on the World Wide Web, it is necessary to use a “search engine” that locates documents on the Internet and indexes them according to words and topics covered.

      When people are asked to name their three favorite search engines for finding information on the Web, some cannot remember the names (or may not know what a search engine is) and others come up with only one or two examples (e.g., Yahoo, Excite, AltaVista). The respondents often explain that a search with just one engine provides so many “hits,” or individual responses, that they do not have a reason to use additional search tools. But therein lies the problem: There are millions of Web documents at millions of Web sites around the world, and because no single search engine has indexed all these documents, the use of just one or two search tools may not provide the best information—despite what appear to be a large number of results.

      To learn the differences among search engines, meta-search engines, subject indexes, directories, and other search tools, as well as how to use each tool, complete the tutorials at the ICYouSee Guide to the World Wide Web (http://www.ithaca.edu/library/Training/ICYouSee.html). This Web site is helpful for everyone, but if you prefer examples that are more directly linked to criminal justice, follow the Search Engine Guide tutorial (http://www.virtualchase.com/Search_Engines/index.html) offered by The Virtual Chase Web site.

      Search Engine Watch (http://www.searchenginewatch.com) has found that search engines vary quite a bit in the number of Web pages they have indexed. In 2001, for example, the search engine Northern Light (http://www.northernlight.com) had indexed over 250 million Web pages, while Google (http://www.google.com) was indexing over 705 million pages. A search using Northern Light will find some very good Web pages related to a given topic, but an additional search with Google may find still others. of course, the number of pages indexed cannot be the only criterion for choosing a search tool. For example, while Northern Light has indexed fewer pages than Google, the Northern Light search is likely to produce more topic-specific documents (e.g., articles, newspaper stories) and has a very useful “folder” function to help narrow the search.

      The point is not to rely on just one tool when searching the Web. Instead, one should read descriptions of and reviews about the various search tools and find ones that are most likely to meet one's particular needs. The descriptions at Search Engine Watch (http://www.searchenginewatch.com/links) explain how each search tool is set up and suggests how each might be useful (e.g., HotBot, http://www.hotbot.lycos.com, and Northern Light are described as favorites with researchers). Reviews such as CNET's Ultimate Guide to Search (http://www.cnet.com) identify the top search sites and provide reasons for their ranking. Also, be on the lookout for search tools that specialize in particular areas of interest. Crime Spider (http://www.crimespider.com), for example, searches for crime and law enforcement sites and conveniently categorizes topics under major headings and subheadings.

      Evaluating What You Find

      In some ways, finding information relevant to one's topic is the easy part of using the Web; determining the value of what one has found is more difficult. Presumably, the researcher judges information from any source by considering factors such as the source's credentials regarding the topic, what biases the authors might have, and whether it is possible to get independent verification of the information in the source. The researcher should be no less diligent and critical when using information from the Web.

      There are several Web sites devoted to criteria used to evaluate Web content. An efficient way to find many of these resources is to review a bibliography of such sites. Three especially comprehensive bibliographies are the Checklist for Evaluating Web Resources (http://library.usm.maine.edu/guides/webeval.html), the Bibliography on Evaluating Internet Resources (http://www.lib.vt.edu/research/libinst/evalbiblio.html), and Kathy Schrock's Guide for Educators (http://school.discovery.com/schrockguide/eval.html). These and other sites provide suggestions about resource evaluation that can be separated into five categories:

      • Authority. Does the author (or organization, company, agency) have appropriate credentials to provide information on this topic?
      • Objectivity. Is the information presented in a fair and unbiased manner, or is it designed to sway opinion?
      • Currency. Is the source updated frequently enough to assure timely information and up-to-date links?
      • Verifiability. Can the information be verified with at least one other independent and reputable source?
      • Quality. Does the Web site suggest a sense of pride and responsibility on the author's part by being well organized, easily navigated, and one that follows basic elements of style and grammar?

      The purpose of evaluating Web resources is not simply to discard those that fail to meet the criteria one chooses for the evaluation. Instead, the evaluation allows one to use the information found on the Web page in an appropriate context. Information found on a Web site with an obvious political bias might still be useful, as might information found at sites where it is difficult to identify the author or the last time the page was updated. The key to using information from any Web site (or anywhere else for that matter) is always to subject the information to a critical thinking process.

      Using the WEB

      If they understand a little about how the Web is structured and how information on it can be found and evaluated, criminal justice teachers, students, and practitioners can make use of a wealth of Web-based resources.

      Web Resources for Criminal Justice Teachers

      Teachers in higher education have many duties and interests in common: They have a responsibility to provide students with current, accurate, and interesting information in their courses; most belong to professional organizations related to their specialty area; and they try to keep current with the research in their teaching and research areas. Traditional resources such as print media, videos, the U.S. Postal Service, telephones, workshops, and trips to conferences have enabled teachers to accomplish all of these tasks. Web resources are a new addition to—though not a replacement for—these teaching resources.

      Using the Web to develop, supplement, and deliver course material is possibly one of the most appealing opportunities Internet technology provides. There are at least two ways to enhance teaching using the Web. The first involves using the Web as a source of information for lecture material, using it to see how others have structured similar classes, and using it to identify course-related resources to which the teacher can direct students. A second aspect involves using the Web to actually deliver some or all of the course material.

      Using the Web to Support Course Content

      An ever-increasing number of criminal justice professors are developing Web sites that have appeal beyond their own campuses. In some instances, the sites are helpful because they provide broad coverage of nearly the entire field (e.g., Greek's Criminal Justice Page at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/cjlinks and Gerstenfeld's CJ Links Index at http://cjwww.csustan.edu/cj/links.html). Others have a more narrow focus that can assist in developing lecture material or preparing to teach a new course (e.g., Hoffman's Crime Theory site at http://www.crimetheory.com, Reichel's Comparative Criminal Justice site at http://cjed.com/ccjs/ccjhome.htm, and Dreveskracht's Criminal Justice History Resources at http://arapaho.nsuok.edu/~dreveskr/cjhr.html-ssi).

      Professor Tom O'Connor's Criminal Justice Mega-Links site (http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor) is clearly one of the most helpful sites for instructors and students alike. For over fifteen different courses (e.g., Police in Society, Criminology, Eyewitness Testimony, Criminal Profiling), O'Connor provides such items as Internet resources for the course, a copy of the course syllabus, lecture notes, and sample exams. His site is useful for teachers looking for ideas about how to structure a new course or how to add an online component to an existing course.

      The Web resources provided by colleagues invariably include links to other Web sites that are helpful in developing class activities such as debates, role-playing, and mock trials. For example, in addition to traditional sources on the death penalty, students preparing for a classroom debate on the topic should be told to visit key Web sites such as the Death Penalty Information Center (http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org) and the other sites listed at Professor Vanderhoof's Death Penalty Resources (http://www.uncp.edu/home/vanderhoof/death.html). The ability of Web-based resources to be quickly and continually updated means students will have access to the most current information available on a topic, and class debates or discussions will have a “current events” element that is often missing when only print media are used.

      In addition to the efforts of colleagues, course content support for criminal justice is also provided at commercial, government, and nonprofit organization sites. Many courses taught in the criminology and criminal justice area generate enough sales that publishers are able to provide online support for textbooks. Prentice Hall (http://vig.prenhall.com) has quite a few “companion Web sites” to support their textbooks, as do Allyn and Bacon (http://www.ablongman.com/gallery) and Wadsworth (http://www.wadsworth.com/criminaljustice_d). A hyperlink list of criminal justice textbook publishers is provided at http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/linklist.htm#PUB. Online support for textbooks not only provides instructors with additional resources for teaching the class but also will often include online projects that can be assigned to encourage students to read, study, and interact with the textbook.

      When preparing course material on a specific criminal justice topic, it may be helpful to visit government and organization Web sites that are linked to that topic. Important government sites include the National Criminal Justice Reference Service (http://www.ncjrs.org), the National Institute of Justice (http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij), the U.S. Department of Justice (http://www.usdoj.gov), the Bureau of Justice Statistics (http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs), and the Office of Justice Programs (http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov). Easy access to all U.S. government sites is found at FirstGov (http://www.firstgov.gov). For links to government sites in other countries, visit the University of Michigan's Document Center at http://www.lib.umich.edu/govdocs/foreign.html.

      Using the Web for Course Delivery

      Today, courses can be taught completely online (as in a distance education course), or a traditional on-campus course might have an online component. Colleges and universities often have contractual arrangements with companies such as eCollege (http://www.ecollege.com); interested teachers should contact their school administrators to identify any required procedures. However, instructors wishing to try an online course offering (when contractual obligations at the college or university allow) can create a free Blackboard course at http://www.blackboard.com. An article by William Klemm (2001) in the online journal The Technology Source provides step-by-step instructions for creating an online course.

      Even instructors who do not plan to offer an online course may be interested in having an online component added to a traditional course. An easy way to do this is to start with assignments that have students complete online tutorials or visit interactive sites. For example, the award-winning tutorial Anatomy of a Murder: A Trip through Our Nation's Legal System (http://library.thinkquest.org/2760/homep.htm) allows the student to follow the story of a defendant as he is processed through the justice system. Because every aspect of the fictional story is researched and legally accurate, instructors can be assured that the students will have an enjoyable learning experience. Students may also enjoy taking a virtual tour of the U.S. Supreme Court building at http://oyez.nwu.edu/tour or visiting a virtual crime lab at http://www.hbo.com/autopsy/index.html. Conducting a search (e.g., “criminal justice” AND “tutorial”) with several different search engines can identify other tutorials and activities.

      Using the Web for Course Management

      Most publishers now provide course management software when their textbooks are adopted for use in an instructor's class. However, teachers looking for other options will find quite a variety available on the Web. There are a number of grading software programs, but not many Web sites where one can conduct grade book management online. Three services worth looking at are ClassBuilder (http://www.classbuilder.com), Grade Source (http://www.gradesource.com), and Gradesheet (http://gradesheet.com).

      Using the Web for Collegiality

      Professional organizations such as the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences (http://www.acjs.org), the American Society of Criminology (http://www.asc41.com), the American Correctional Association (http://www.corrections.com/aca), and the International Association of Chiefs of Police (http://www.theiacp.org) all have information at their Web sites about the organization, its activities, and how to join. Conduct a search (e.g., “professional organizations” AND “criminal justice”) with a few search engines to find a more complete listing of organizations of possible interest to criminal justice academicians and practitioners.

      Using the Web to Keep Informed

      It seems likely that most of the primary journals in criminology and criminal justice will retain their print format, but they may also start providing an electronic version of current or back issues. However, tight library budgets may mean that new journals will use the less expensive electronic format for distribution to libraries and individuals. The move toward distribution via the Web can already be seen with several criminal justice journals:

      http://AllLaw.com provides a comprehensive list of all law journals available online at http://www.alllaw.com/journals_and_periodicals/legal, and most Sage Publications journals (e.g., Crime & Delinquency, Criminal Justice, The Prison Journal) are available online. Check for specific titles at http://www.sagepub.com.

      Web Resources for Criminology and Criminal Justice Students

      Students taking courses in criminology or criminal justice are often interested in resources that can assist them in their studies and help them find a career. The Web provides assistance in both areas.

      Using the Web as a Study Aid

      It is often difficult enough to keep pace with readings in the textbook and reviewing lecture notes without voluntarily adding tasks from the Web. But differences in learning styles mean that some people are better able to retain information if it has been presented in a variety of ways. Textbooks, lectures, class discussions, role-playing, simulations, and videos are some of the ways that information is presented in a classroom setting, and these techniques provide a nice variety of options that try to reach all learning styles. However, the Web is increasingly accepted as yet another viable method for information delivery that may make learning easier or more enjoyable for some students.

      Even if instructors are not encouraging the use of Internet technologies for learning about crime and justice, students may find the Web, especially, to be of assistance in learning and retaining information. For example, the user-friendly Criminal Justice System Image Map (http://talkjustice.com/cjimap.htm) allows quick access to key information about each stage in the criminal justice process by simply clicking on an area in the map. Such helpful sites can be found by checking criminal justice links at comprehensive pages such as Criminal Justice Education (http://www.cjed.com/links.htm) and Criminal Justice Resources (http://www.lib.msu.edu/harris23/crimjust/comp.htm).

      Most students are expected to write term papers or research papers, especially in upper-level courses. Professors often assume that students have learned research and writing skills in other courses, and they may not use class time to explain such things as how to find information in the library or on the Web, how to prepare a literature review, how to prepare in-text citations and a reference list, or how the paper itself should be organized and presented. These are areas in which the Web provides helpful information by way of tutorials, checklists, and even online slide presentations.

      Examples of research aids on the Web include the Criminal Justice Research tutorial at library.albany. edu/subject/tutorials/criminal and the WWW Research Methods tutorial at http://sociology.camden.rutgers.edu/main.html. Students can learn about doing research on the Web with Tyburski's Teaching Internet Research Skills tutorial (http://www.virtualchase.com/researchskills). They can get advice on writing a literature review from a library guide at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (http://www.uah.edu/library/guides/litrev.html), or follow slide show directions prepared at Mississippi State University (http://www.ais.msstate.edu/aee/3203/ppslides/LitRev/index.htm). Students can make sure they have used the correct citation format as required by their professor by reviewing requirements for that style at Citation Style Guides (http://juno.concordia.ca/services/citations.html) or—if using the American Psychological Association style—by following an interactive demonstration for the APA style (http://writing.colostate.edu/demos/source_demos.htm). They can check a paper's organization and presentation using advice from the Guide to Grammar and Writing (ccc.commnet. edu/grammar) and the Writing Center (http://www.urich.edu/~writing/wweb.html). Those who enroll with Daily Grammar (http://www.dailygrammar.com) will receive e-mails with grammar lessons to improve writing skills; those who want to learn copyediting principles can follow the self-help guide provided by ACE Copyediting (http://www.acecopyediting.com).

      These Web sites are simply examples of the type of information available to assist students with the research and writing process. Conducting searches (e.g., “writing term papers”) with several search engines (or using the Google or Yahoo directories) will identify other similar sites. For a broader range of Web resources to assist in any aspect of being a student, it will be hard to find a more complete listing than those at the Study Guides and Strategies site (http://www.iss.stthomas.edu/studyguides).

      Several Web sites also provide interactive experiences that may be especially appealing to students interested in criminology and criminal justice. View evidence files and participate in virtual crime-solving at Crime Scene (http://www.crimescene.com) or work on unsolved crimes at Unloved Crimes (http://www.unlovedcrimes.com) or solve mysteries at sites such as Forensic Files (http://www.discoverlearning.com/forensic/docs/index.html) or Fugitive Hunter (http://www.fugitivehunter.com) or MysteryNet (http://www.mysterynet.com)

      Using the Web to Find a Career

      The Web has become a popular tool for looking for a career. A student's on-campus career services center should still be one of the first and earliest stops in that quest, but the Web is an excellent tool as well.

      The career-search process begins with preparing resumes, writing cover letters, and practicing for interviews. The Web provides many resources to help with each of these tasks. The University of Minnesota's Resume Tutor (http://www1.umn.edu/ohr/ecep/resume) and The Resume and Cover Letter Writing site (http://www.career.indstate.edu/yes/rescov.html) from Indiana State University are good starting places. But one can quickly find many such sites by consulting a directory like that at http://About.com (http://careerplanning.about.com/careers/careerplanning/mbody.htm) or at Google (http://directory.google.com/Top/Business/Employment/Careers).

      Interviews for police officer positions are rather unusual among job interviews. Rather than a traditional one-on-one interview or a phone interview (although some departments use one or both of these), interviews for law enforcement often take place before a panel of department officers. The “grilling” conducted at the oral boards is difficult to prepare for, and there is not much advice on the Web or anywhere else. Asking current officers in the department about that department's process is often the best bet. For information on the more traditional interviews, check Job-Interview (http://www.job-interview.net), which has information on all aspects of an interview, from tips on what to wear to what the best time of day is for an interview. One can also practice interviewing with the site's “mock job interview.” http://EmployU.com provides Interviewing Techniques and Tactics (http://www.employu.com/jobhunt/jhintrview.asp), and there are good interviewing tips at MyJobSearch (http://www.myjobsearch.com/cgi-bin/mjs.cgi/interview/tips.html).

      After writing a resume and cover letter, it is time to find out who is hiring. A general search (e.g., “employment opportunities”) with several search engines will find more sites than anyone can reasonably visit. There are, however, Web sites that are geared more toward criminal justice positions and employers. For example, Government Jobs (http://www.govtjobs.com/index.html) concentrates on public sector jobs (cities, counties, and states) and can be searched by job type (see the criminal justice listings) or by state. It is even possible to arrange to receive an e-mail when job listings change. The University of South Carolina's College of Criminal Justice (http://www.sc.edu/career/cj/cjccr-web.html) provides a useful listing of key sites in general, and highlights sites that have actual job listings. http://GovtJob.net has a section on public safety and criminal justice employment (http://www.govtjob.net/PS/public_safety.htm) that lists current state and local government job openings around the country. USA Jobs (http://www.usajobs.opm.gov) is the U.S. Government's official site for jobs and employment information and is a necessary stop for people seeking federal employment. Other sites focus on specific careers:

      There is, of course, a danger in relying too heavily on the Web when searching for a job. The sites mentioned here (and others that can be found with simple searches) are certainly helpful and should be one tool used when seeking employment. But it is also important to be familiar with local resources and procedures, and that is best accomplished by making personal contact with the agencies and employers where employment is sought.

      Web Resources for Criminal Justice Practitioners

      The Web clearly has benefits for teachers and students interested in criminal justice, but it also has wonderful resources for people employed elsewhere in the criminal justice profession. Criminal justice practitioners include those in law enforcement, courts, corrections, and several types of social service agencies (e.g., victim services). There are Web resources relevant to each of these broad areas and to the many specific positions within each area. Two topics that overlap the various employment areas and provide an overview of how the Web can assist people engaged in the justice process are (1) career improvement and advancement and (2) research endeavors.

      Career Improvement and Advancement

      Regardless of a practitioner's formal academic background, many careers require additional education or training in order to advance within that career or to move to different jobs within an agency. Most often, the additional knowledge and skills are achieved through in-service training classes, but there may be occasions where an employee needs to find opportunities that are not available through the agency or from a local source. O'Connor's Guide to Distance Education in Criminal Justice (http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/disted.htm) is the single most useful site for identifying academic programs with online courses, and his Criminal Justice Technology page (http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/download.htm) suggests links to, among other things, interactive training.

      The Open Directory Project (http://dmoz.org/Society/Law/Law_Enforcement/Training) lists law enforcement training opportunities that include online, CD, and interactive options. Searches (e.g. “law enforcement” AND “online training”) at several search engines will identify other sites. http://PoliceTraining.net (http://www.policetraining.net) provides a comprehensive calendar of law enforcement training opportunities where one can browse the calendar by month, topic, or location.

      Many professional organizations also provide training opportunities to their members. Even if that training is not available online, the organization's Web site is likely to have information about the training courses or workshops. For example, the American Jail Association provides its training calendar for each year (http://www.corrections.com/aja/ajatraining.html), as does the International Association of Chiefs of Police (http://www.theiacp.org/training). The American Correctional Association is providing online training services and certification (http://www.corrections.com/aca/profdev.html), and the American Probation and Parole Association (http://www.appa-net.org) explains its various training institutes and seminars. Information about training for lawyers and other court personnel can be found at the American Bar Association (http://www.abanet.org).

      Research Endeavors

      Much to the surprise and chagrin of many criminal justice employees, supervisors will occasionally ask the employee to undertake a research project. The research might be used to apply for a grant, evaluate a program, justify a budget item request, or simply to be part of the supervisor's speech at a local civic club. The problem, from the employee's perspective, is that the required college research class was taken many years ago and much of what was learned about the research process—and especially about statistical analysis—was long forgotten.

      The Web cannot complete the research for the employee, but it can provide resources that might refresh his or her memory from an earlier research methods class or provide direction and structure for the research process. One site especially may provide all the information needed: Bill Trochim's Center for Social Research Methods (trochim.human.cornell. edu). This remarkably complete and user-friendly site includes everything from definitions of terms to a research methods tutorial. Skeptics about the usefulness of the Web for accomplishing research tasks need only visit Trochim's Selecting Statistics page (http://trochim.human.cornell.edu/selstat/ssstart.htm), where the user simply makes choices (e.g., Does the user have one, two, or more variables? Does the user distinguish between dependent and independent variables?) in order to arrive at a page that identifies the appropriate statistical measure (e.g., regression coefficient, Somers's d, Spearman's rho) for the research design.

      Trochim's site is an excellent starting place (and may be the only site needed), but if the research is specifically a program evaluation, the BJA Evaluation Web Site (http://www.bja.evaluationwebsite.org) must be visited. This site provides a variety of resources for evaluating criminal justice programs and includes instructional materials to assist in planning, designing, and conducting these evaluations.

      Those who need a refresher on probability and statistics can try the interactive module provided by the Defense Acquisition University (http://cne.gmu.edu/modules/dau/stat). Will a random sample be required? Research Randomizer (http://www.randomizer.org) can help. The list of links at Methods, Statistics, and the Research Paper (http://www.trinity.edu/mkearl/methods.html) provides a good indication of the resources available on the Web to assist people who are engaged in a variety of research projects.

      Keeping Current

      The Web provides seemingly unlimited resources for criminal justice teachers, students, and practitioners. However, given the changing nature of the Web, an important concern is how one keeps up with important developments and new resources. One method is to subscribe to mailing lists that provide e-mails with information about these developments and resources. Subscribing to several, all of which are free, can help one stay current:

      JustInfo: The National Criminal Justice Reference Service provides this electronic newsletter about new publications, grants and funding opportunities, and other news and announcements related to criminal justice. Subscribe at http://virlib.ncjrs.org/JUSTINFO.asp to receive the e-mailed newsletter on the first and fifteenth of each month.

      TVC Alert: The Virtual Chase provides a weekday research news bulletin that notifies subscribers about sources and research strategies related to the legal profession. It is especially helpful for keeping current with search engine developments. Subscribe at http://www.virtu-alchase.com/tvcalert.shtml to receive this weekday email bulletin.

      The Scout Report: This is a weekly publication that offers a selection of new and newly discovered Internet resources of interest to researchers and educators. Those who subscribe, at http://scout.cs.wisc.edu/misc/lists, can choose from among mailing list types.

      Although it is not always a substitute for old-fashioned library grunt work, the World Wide Web has become a powerful resource for students, teachers, and practitioners of criminal justice.

      Philip L.Reichel
      Further Reading
      Cottingham, Scott.(2001).“Internet 101: About the Web.”http://www2.famvid.com/i101/internet101.html
      Haynal, Russ.(2000).“How to Read a URL.”http://www.navigators.com/url.html
      Klemm, William R.(2001).“Creating On-line Courses: A Step-by-Step Guide. The Teaching Source.”http://horizon.unc.edu/TS/default.asp?show=article&id=861
      PricewaterhouseCoopers.(1999).“1999 Consumer Technology Survey.”http://www.pwcglobal.com
      PricewaterhouseCoopers.(2000a).“Canadian Consumer Technology Study 2000”.http://www.pwcglobal.com
      PricewaterhouseCoopers.(2000b).“2000 Consumer Technology Survey.”http://www.pwcglobal.com
      Stewart, William.(2000).“Why the Internet Is Important: Growth Rates.”http://www.livinginternet.com

      Appendix 3: Professional and Scholarly Associations

      This appendix is a list of names and Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) of major associations that serve the needs of professionals and scholars in the criminal justice world. The associations are categorized as pertaining to criminal justice and criminology, corrections, forensics, law, policing, or security. We have tried to include all major associations as well as some that are more focused. The emphasis is on those in the United States, but we have also included some associations in other nations and a number whose membership is international. The purpose of this list is to provide users of the encyclopedia with access to additional information that is often available through professional and scholarly associations.

      Criminal Justice and Criminology

      Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences (ACJS) http://www.acjs.org

      American Criminal Justice Association—Lambda Alpha Epsilon http://www.acjalae.org

      American Society of Criminology (ASC) http://www.asc41.com

      Australian and New Zealand Society of Criminology http://www.gu.edu.au/school/ccj

      British Society of Criminology http://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/ss/bsc/homepage/HOMEPAGE.HTM

      Canadian Criminal Justice Association (CCJA) http://home.istar.ca/~ccja/angl/index.shtml

      Criminal Justice Distance Learning Consortium (CJDLC) http://cjcentral.com/cjdlc

      European Academy of Criminology http://www.euroacademy.it

      European Society of Criminology http://www.esc-eurocrim.org

      Institute for Criminal Justice Education, Inc. (ICJE) http://www.icje.org

      John Howard Society of Canada http://www.johnhoward.ca

      National Association of Blacks in Criminal Justice http://www.nabcj.org

      National Criminal Justice Association (NCJA) http://www.ncja.org

      Southern Criminal Justice Association (SCJA) http://www.scja.net


      American Correctional Association http://www.aca.org

      American Correctional Heath Services Association (ACHSA) http://www.corrections.com/achsa/index.html

      American Jail Association http://www.aja.org

      National Correctional Recreation Association http://www.ncracentral.com


      American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors (ASCLD) http://www.ascld.org

      American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) http://www.aafs.org

      American Board of Criminalists http://www.criminalistics.com/ABC

      American College of Forensic Examiners http://www.acfe.com

      American Polygraph Association http://www.polygraph.org

      American Society of Questioned Document Examiners (ASQDE) http://www.asqde.org

      Evidence Photographers International Council, Inc. http://www.epic-photo.org

      High Technology Crime Investigation Association (HTCIA) http://www.htcia.org

      International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR) http://www.iacr.org

      International Association of Arson Investigators http://www.fire-investigators.org

      International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts (IABPA) http://www.iabpa.org

      International Association of Computer Investigative Specialists (IACIS) http://www.cops.org

      International Association of Crime Analysts http://www.iaca.net

      International Association of Financial Crimes Investigators http://www.iafci.org


      American Bar Association, Criminal Justice Section http://www.abanet.org/crimjust

      American Judges Association (AJA) http://aja.ncsc.dni.us

      Association of Federal Defense Attorneys (AFDA) http://www.afda.org

      Association of Trial Lawyers of America (ATLA) http://www.atlanet.org

      Canadian Bar Association (CBA) http://www.cba.org

      Canadian Council on International Law http://www.ccil-ccdi.ca

      Conference of State Court Administrators (COSCA) http://cosca.ncsc.dni.us

      Indigenous Bar Association (IBA) http://www.indigenousbar.ca

      International Association of Law Enforcement Planners http://www.ialep.org

      Justice Research and Statistics Association http://www.jrsa.org

      Law and Society Association http://www.lawandsociety.org

      National Association for Court Management (NACM) http://www.nacmnet.org

      National Association for Youth Justice (UK) http://www.nayj.org.uk

      National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers http://www.criminaljustice.org

      National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) http://www.naag.org

      National Association of Women Judges (NAWJ) http://ncsc.dni.us/nawj/

      National District Attorneys Association (NDAA) http://www.ndaa.org

      National Lawyers Association (NLA) http://www.nla.org

      National Legal Aid and Defender Association (NLADA) http://www.nlada.org

      Professional Bail Agents of the United States http://www.pbus.com

      Society of Professionals in Dispute Resolution http://www.spidr.org

      The European Law Students' Association International http://www.lns.nl/elsa

      The Law and Society Association http://www.lawandsociety.org

      Victim-Offender Mediation Association http://www.voma.org

      World Wide Legal Information Association http://www.wwlia.org


      American Police Association http://www.police-association.org

      American Society of Law Enforcement Training (ASLET) http://www.aslet.org

      Association of Certified Fraud Examiners http://www.cfenet.com

      Association of Public-Safety Communications Officials http://www.apcointl.org

      Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police http://www.cacp.ca

      Canadian Society for the Investigation of Child Abuse http://www.csica.zener.com

      Concerns of Police Survivors, Inc. (COPS) http://www.nationalcops.org

      FBI Agents Association http://www.fbiaa.org

      Federal Law Enforcement Officers Association (FLEOA) http://www.fleoa.org

      International Association for Property and Evidence (IAPE) http://www.iape.org

      International Association of Campus Law Enforcement Administrators (IACLEA) http://www.iaclea.org

      International Association of Chiefs of Police http://www.theiacp.org

      International Conference of Police Chaplains http://www.icpc4cops.org

      International Foundation for Protection Officers (IFPO) http://www.ifpo.com

      International Union of Police Associations http://www.iupa.org

      Law Enforcement Alliance of America (LEAA) http://www.leaa.org

      Narcotic Enforcement Officers Association (NEOA) http://www.neoa.org

      National Association of Police Organizations (NAPO) http://www.napo.org

      National Association of School Resource Officers (NASRO) http://www.nasro.org

      National Drug Enforcement Officers Association http://www.ndeoa.org

      National Native American Law Enforcement Association http://www.foxvalleytech.com/nnalea

      National Organization of Black Law Enforcement Executives (NOBLE) http://www.noblenatl.org

      National Sheriffs Association http://www.sheriffs.org

      National Tactical Officers Association http://www.ntoa.org

      Police Executive Research Forum (PERF) http://www.policeforum.org

      Police Foundation http://www.policefoundation.org

      Police Supervisors Association http://www.policesupervisors.org

      Police USA http://www.policeusa.com

      Police Writers Club http://www.policewriter.com

      Society of Police Futurists International (PFI) http://www.policefuturists.org


      Applied Computer Security Associates http://www.acsac.org/acsa.html

      International Computer Security Association http://www.icsa.net

      Security Industry Association (SIA) http://www.siaonline.org

      Information Systems Audit and Control Association http://www.isaca.org

      Appendix 4: Selected Bibliography

      The following list of publications has been selected by the editors as a basic reading list for those seeking a general introduction to many of the basic topics in the field of criminal justice. The list contains mainly books, both classic and more recent (some of which surely will become classics), that provide general overviews of the topic that are accessible to the general reader. Many of these publications will lead the reader further into the literature on the topic. We have by design not included textbooks, monographs, narrowly focused edited works, and journal articles. Inclusion in this list is not meant to imply that the publication is the “best” nor even that it is “better” than some others on the topic. It simply means that the publication seems to the editors a good introduction to the topic and a helpful entry point into the literature.

      Selected Bibliography
      Abadinsky, Howard.(1991).Law and Justice: An Introduction to the American Legal System.Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
      Abramson, Jeffrey.(1994).We, the Jury: The Jury System and the Ideal of Democracy.New York: Basic Books.
      Acker, James R., Robert M.Bohm, and Charles S.Lanier, eds. (1998).America's Experiment With Capital Punishment: Reflections on the Past, Present, and Future of the Ultimate Penal Sanction.Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.
      Adler, Freda.(1975).Sisters in Crime: The Rise of the New Female Criminal.New York: McGraw-Hill.
      Anderson, Nels.(1927).The Hobo: The Sociology of the Homeless Man.Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
      Barkan, Steven, and LynneSnowden. (2001).Collective Violence.Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
      Barry, Brian M.(1989).Theories of Justice.Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
      Battin, Margaret Pabst.(1994).The Least Worst Death: Essays in Bioethics on the End of Life.New York: Oxford University Press.
      Bazemore, Gordon, and MaraSchiff, eds. (2001).Restorative Community Justice: Repairing Harm and Transforming Communities.Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.
      Beaumont, Gustave de, and Alexisde Tocqueville. ([1833]1964).On The American Penitentiary System and its Applications in France.Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.
      Beccaria, Cesare.([1764]1880).On Crimes and Punishments. Trans. by James Anson Farrer. London: Chatto and Windus.
      Becker, Howard S.(1963).Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance.New York: Free Press.
      Beckett, Katherine.(1997).Making Crime Pay: Law and Order in Contemporary American Politics.New York: Oxford University Press.
      Bedau, Hugo Adam, ed. (1997).The Death Penalty in America: Current Controversies.New York: Oxford University Press.
      Bentham, Jeremy.([1789] 1970).An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. Reprint.Darien, CT: Hafner Publishing.
      Berlet, Chip, and Matthew N.Lyons. (2000).Right-Wing Populism in America: Too Close for Comfort.New York: Guilford Press.
      Black, Charles L., Jr.(1981).Capital Punishment: The Inevitability of Caprice and Mistake.New York: W. W. Norton.
      Blumstein, Alfred, and JoelWallman, eds. (2000).The Crime Drop in America.New York: Cambridge University Press.
      Bosworth, Mary.(1999).Engendering Resistance: Agency and Power in Women's Prisons.Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.
      Braithwaite, John.(1989).Crime, Shame and Reintegration.New York: Cambridge University Press.http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511804618
      Bugliosi, Vincent, and CurtGentry. (1996).Helter Skelter: The True Story of the Manson Murders.
      16th ed.
      New York: Bantam Books.
      Campbell, Anne.(1984).Girls in the Gang: A Report from New York City.Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell.
      Capote, Truman.(1966).In Cold Blood: A True Account of a Multiple Murder and Its Consequences.New York: Random House.
      Carlen, Pat(1988).Women, Crime, and Poverty.Philadelphia: Open University Press.
      Carr, Caleb.(1994).The Alienist.New York: Bantam Books.
      Carson, Rachel.(1962).Silent Spring.Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
      Chambliss, William J.(1999).Power, Politics and Crime.Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
      Chermak, Steven M.(1995).Victims in the News: Crime and the American News Media.Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
      Chesney-Lind, Meda.(1997).The Female Offender: Girls, Women, and Crime.Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452232157
      Christianson, Scott.(1998).With Liberty for Some: 500 Years of Imprisonment in America.Boston: Northeastern University Press.
      Cleckley, Hervey M.(1976).The Mask of Sanity: An Attempt to Clarify Some Issues About the SoCalled Psychopathic Personality.
      5th ed.
      St. Louis, MO: C. V. Mosby.
      Clemmer, Donald.(1958).The Prison Community.New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston
      Clinard, Marshall B.(1952).The Black Market: A Study of White Collar Crime.New York: Holt.
      Clinard, Marshall B., and Peter C.Yeager. (1980).Corporate Crime.New York: Free Press.
      Cohen, Albert K.(1955).Delinquent Boys: The Culture of the Gang.New York: Free Press.
      Cohen, Stanley.(1990).Folk Devils and Moral Panics: The Creation of the Mods and Rockers.Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell.
      Count, E. W.(1994).Cop Talk: True Detective Stories from the NYPD.New York: Simon & Schuster.
      Curran, Daniel J., and Claire M.Renzetti. (2001).Theories of Crime.Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
      Currie, Elliott.(1998).Crime and Punishment in America.New York: Metropolitan Books.
      Daly, Kathleen.(1994).Gender, Crime, and Punishment.New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
      David, Rene, and John E. C.Brierley. (1978).Major Legal Systems of the World Today: An Introduction to the Comparative Study of Law.
      2d ed.
      London: Stevens.
      Decker, Scott H., and BarrikVan Winkle. (1996).Life in the Gang: Family, Friends, and Violence.New York: Cambridge University Press.http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139174732
      DiIulio, John J., Jr.(1987).Governing Prisons: A Comparative Study of Correctional Management.New York: Free Press
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      1795 BCE–1750 BCE Hammurabi reigns as the king of Babylonia, setting down a code of laws known as the Code of Hammurabi—the earliest written code that specifies prohibited behaviors. The Code of Hammurabi of Babylon recognizes over two dozen capital crimes, creates punishments for offenders, and introduces the law of retaliation, as in “an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.”

      1650–1300 BCE The Hebrews, or the Israelites, migrate into Egypt and develop the Mosaic Law or the Law of Moses, considered to be a covenant between humans and God.

      1000 BCE The ancient Hindu concept of dharma (generally, the belief that certain eternal truths maintain the world) and principles of law become the foundation of classical Indian law.

      624 BCE The law of Draco is commissioned by the ancient Greeks to codify the oral law and customs of the land.

      451–450 BCE The Twelve Tables are drawn up in the first attempt by the Romans to codify their laws.

      4th century BCE Chinese author Sun Tzu, in his The Art of War, surveys the customs of sparing the wounded and elderly and develops a concept of command responsibility for violations.

      4th century BCE In Athens, magistrates begin criminal trials by reading the charge and asking the defendant if he admits his guilt. Confessions relieve the defendant of the need to submit a formal statement of denial and typically result in less than the maximum penalty.

      270 BCE Asoka comes to the Indian throne and promulgates thirty or forty edicts, which represent the earliest extant law records of Buddhism.

      2nd century Roman tribunes (magistrates) preside over public trials conducted before crowds of spectators. If a defendant denies a crime three times, the tribune proceeds to a hearing that takes place before a formal assembly of the people. The assembly decides by majority vote whether guilt has been established and what punishment is to be imposed.

      200 BCE The concept of war crimes is mentioned in the Hindu Code of Manu.

      44 BCE Julius Caesar is assassinated, an event that later becomes famous as a model of political betrayal.

      28 BCE During the reign of Augustus, the Roman army is used as a police force.

      1750 BCE

      14 BCE in Rome, Augustus develops the Vigiles or night watchers, the first recorded civilian public law enforcement unit largely responsible for public safety and social control.

      1st century CE Pliny the Elder warns of improper mixing and measurement of medicines, and he denounces the common practice of including additives such as wood, sulphur, and ashes in consumergrade honey.

      14–41 CE Ancient Roman emperors such as Tiberius (14–37 CE) and Caligula (37–41 CE) rely on banishment and executions to eliminate political opponents.

      66–70 CE The Sicarii, a religious sect whose members are active within zealot struggles in Palestine, use terrorist tactics that are also directed against Jewish moderates.

      5th century The Ordinances of Manu, part of classical Indian law, warns sinners of the necessity of expiating their misdeeds and attaches a purifying effect to confession and repentance.

      518–618 During the Sui dynasty, codified Chinese law provides for more lenient penalties for those who confess truthfully and voluntarily.

      6th century Boethius writes the Consolation of Philosophy while awaiting execution under Theordoric the Ostrogoth.

      604 Laws written by King Æthelberht set payment for crimes according to culpability; more serious injuries require paying a higher wergild.

      618–907 During the Tang Dynasty in China, a comprehensive legal code is established, the fundamental elements of which are retained by subsequent dynasties. Confessions of guilt are extracted through an inquisitorial process that includes a closely monitored system of torture.

      701 The first ritsu, the ancient penal code of the Shinto religion in Japan, is compiled in six volumes, together with the Taihôryô, the collection of laws, in eleven volumes.

      c. 890 Alfred the Great sets forth an early theory of justice with his decree: “Judge very evenly; do not judge one judgment to the rich, another to the poor; nor judge one to your friend, another to your foe.”

      c. 950 In England, the King appoints a “shire-reeve” to sustain his interests in the shire (equivalent to a county) through maintaining the peace, collecting taxes, checking on the local militia, and crime control. The shire-reeve is a precursor to the office of the sheriff.

      c. 1000 During the Middle Ages, dishonest vendors place kittens in burlap sacks (referred to as pokes) that are supposed to contain piglets; thus the customer is charged for expensive livestock only to receive an item of little value (this is also the origin of the phrases “pig in a poke” and “don't let the cat out of the bag”).

      1066 King Alfred establishes the Frankpledge system in England, a method of law enforcement that relies on self-help and mutual aid of extended families living in close proximity.

      1100s The Fourth Lateran Council led by Pope Innocent III convenes and develops a new inquisitorial system of justice.

      1100 The Muslim (Moghul) rulers of India establish Islamic criminal law as the official law.

      1100 In Burma, Buddhist law becomes dominant.

      1116 King Henry I of England pens his Leges Henrici, which redefines offenses as crimes against the king or government, thus refocusing justice away from concern for the victim.

      1138 The earliest infanticide law is passed, when the court in Hangzhou, China, prohibits the killing of infants and orders the establishment of foundling hospitals.

      1166 King Henry II of England creates the Grand Jury to help his prosecutors.

      1215 In England, the Magna Carta forces King John to acknowledge the right of every freeman to own property, to leave and return to the kingdom, and to retain fundamental “liberties, rights, and concessions.”

      1252 Pope Innocent IV authorizes the use of torture as a means of extracting confessions.

      1268 The first prosecution for initiating an unjust war is reported when Conradin von Hohenstaufen is convicted and executed in Naples. Von Hohenstaufen is tried by his own nation's court for violations of the law of his country.

      1275 In England, the bail system is statutorily defined within the Statute of Westminster.

      1326–1327 During the reign of Edward III of England, complete madness is first recognized as a defense to a criminal charge.

      1349 The first vagrancy statute appears in England, making it a crime to give alms to anyone who is able to work yet unemployed. It also becomes a crime to refuse work or abandon a job without permission.

      1431 Joan of Arc confesses to avoid being burned at the stake; she is ultimately executed after she recants her confession.

      1450–1750 A witch craze sweeps across Europe, with 100,000 people tried for the crime of witchcraft.

      1474 The first true trial of an international nature for war crimes is that of Peter von Hagenbach, tried in Breisach, Germany, for atrocities committed in an attempt to subdue Breisach by force.

      c. 1486 The Malleus Maleficarum is published by Dominican friars Sprenger and Kramer, serving as a handbook “proving” the existence of witches and the ways in which to deal with them.

      1500s The Statute of Uses is enacted, allowing landowners to sell property to agricultural workers and other persons not of the “landed gentry” classes. It is incumbent upon the buyer to inspect the property for defects, and to ensure that the seller actually possesses clear title to the land, exemplifying the Latin phrase caveat emptor(“let the buyer beware”).

      1500s The English lock up their poor in institutions known as “workhouses” and hold their criminals in Bridewells. The Bridewells and galley ships of Europe demand hard labor of convicts.

      1500s Late in the century, the Dutch establish the rasphuis for men and the spinhuis for women in Amsterdam, putting their inmates to work at rasping wood and spinning flax.

      1500s In Europe, poaching, piracy, and sabotage plague merchants. Bands of thieves and bandits roam the countryside and the seas, and people turn to private security measures to protect their economic interests.

      1539 In France, a new ordinance provides for several modifications to the inquisitorial system.

      1593 The Protestants of Amsterdam build a house of correction for women.

      1558–1603 During the rule of Queen Elizabeth of England, roughly a dozen common law crimes, including murder, treason, larceny, robbery, burglary, rape, arson, and thirty additional statutory crimes, are punishable by execution.

      1600s English colonists in the United States adapt English criminal justice practices to the New World. In need of a policing body for crime control and order maintenance, colonists import the office of the sheriff into America.

      1600s Both England and colonial America pass criminal offender statutes that impose strict penalties on repeat offenders.

      1600s France establishes a centralized police force.

      1603 The Protestants of Amsterdam build a house of correction for men.

      1624 England passes its first infanticide law, which renders the concealment of the death of a newborn bastard presumptive of murder.

      1625 The Dutch legal scholar Hugo Grotius, considered to be the founder of modern international law, is able to collect various historical writings on the customs and usages of warfare in a treatise, The Law of War and Peace.

      1641 The “Capital Laws” of Massachusetts, strongly influenced by the Puritans, proscribe idolatry, witchcraft, blasphemy, murder, manslaughter, poisoning, bestiality, sodomy, adultery, “manstealing” (i.e., kidnapping), bearing false witness in capital cases, conspiracy, and rebellion.

      1642 The Plymouth colonists order that anyone who lacks a means of support has to leave town.

      1647–1691 Community vigilantes conduct eighty-three witchcraft trials in colonial New England.

      1656 The French create the largest and most complex web of carceral institutions when Louis XIVth establishes the Hôpital Général hospital-prison complex.

      1661 The term smugglers (also written as “smuckellors”) is used to describe those who have begun to defy trade regulations and “to steal and defraud His Majesty of His Customs.”

      1670 In England, the argument that juries have a right to nullify laws begins when Bushell's Case is decided.

      1681 English Quaker William Penn is granted land in America and founds Pennsylvania. A political and religious reformer, his Great Act or Law makes hard labor at a house of correction the principal punishment for most crimes and restricts the death penalty to the crimes of treason and murder. He also grants considerable religious freedom to all Christians in the colony.

      1682 France passes the first nationwide law restricting the possession of arsenic to certain trades and professions.

      1692 During the witch trials in Salem, Massachusetts, alleged witches are arrested, tried, and found guilty. Accused witches are told they will live if they confess but will be executed if they do not.

      1693 Philosopher John Locke, writing on the subject of cruelty (in Some Thoughts Concerning Education), warns that children who delight in torturing animals may be predisposed to engage in interpersonal violence later in life. Research over 250 years later confirms his prediction.

      1700s Prisoners in the British Empire are given a chance to earn their release from prison, and inmates in the United States are allowed to work to pay for their incarceration.

      1700s Smuggling is the most popular method of importing a variety of commodities (tea, silks, spices, tobacco, alcohol) into England.

      1703 In Rome, Pope Clement XI builds the famous Michel Prison as a house of correction for younger offenders with separation, silence, work, and prayer emphasized.

      1713 In a sign of revolts to come later in the century, a crowd of citizens from Boston begins rioting, angry because some of the local merchants are exporting corn and increasing prices during a time of food shortages.

      1718 In a new approach to crime prevention, England begins transporting all felons serving sentences of three years or more to New South Wales (Australia).

      1733 The British Parliament authorizes magistrates to appoint chaplains to all prisons.

      1740s Laws are passed by states in the American south authorizing slave patrols to quell insurrections, protect people from fleeing slaves, search “Negro” residences for firearms, and flog runaway slaves.

      1750 In response to the proliferation of crime in London, magistrate Henry Fielding and his brother, Sir John Fielding, organize a group called the Bow Street Runners, who, acting as constables, run to the scene of crimes to investigate and apprehend criminals.

      1760s Vigilantism first appears in the South Carolina backcountry in communities without formal law enforcement.

      1762 In his Contrat social, French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau singles out the Corsicans in Europe as the one people fit to produce just laws.

      1764Dei delitti e delle pene (Treatise on Crimes and Punishments) by Cesare Beccaria is published. It initiates a spirit of criminal law reform in America and is also the origin of the classical theory of crime, which suggests that people choose to commit crime after weighing the benefits and costs of their actions.

      1774 The Declaration of Rights of the First Continental Congress includes trial by peers as a “great and inestimable privilege.” The colonists were influenced by the concept of the jury trial, which came to the colonies from England.

      1774 The first prison riot reportedly takes place in Simsbury, Connecticut.

      1787 Philadelphia emerges as the center of criminal and penal reform in the United States when Quakers and other philanthropists found the first prison reform organization—the Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons. In the same year, physician Benjamin Rush publishes “Enquiry into the Effects of Public Punishments Upon Criminals and Upon Society,” which advocates rehabilitation rather than punishment.

      1789 The Judiciary Act sets the original size of the U.S. Supreme Court as a chief justice and five associate justices. It establishes the nature and jurisdiction of the appellate and trial courts and creates the offices of United States attorney, attorney general, and marshal. The act also creates a three-tiered federal judicial structure (district courts, circuit appellate courts, and the Supreme Court).

      1789 The United States Congress creates the office of federal marshal to provide support to the federal courts, execute orders handed down by the judges, and enforce many judiciary acts.

      1789An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation and Moral Calculus, by Jeremy Bentham, are published in England. Bentham, along with Beccaria, is a founder of the classical theory of crime.

      1790 The Walnut Street Jail opens in Philadelphia, the first jail to model itself on the beliefs of Early Quaker reformers. A four-tier classification of prisoners is instituted: those sentenced to confinement only, the misdemeanor class, the probationary class, and the repeat offender class. Offenders are given an opportunity to reflect on their guilt and repent by being placed in isolation with a Bible and receving regular visits from the warden and a minister.

      1791 Several amendments to the U.S. Constitution pertain to crime and punishment. The First Amendment protects the freedom of Americans to speak, assemble, associate freely, and practice their religion without undue restrictions from the government. The Second Amendment protects “the right of the people to keep and bear arms.” The Fourth Amendment protects the right of citizens to be free from “unreasonable searches and seizures” by governmental officials. The Fifth Amendment commands that no person “shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself.” The Sixth Amendment provides that each criminal defendant “shall enjoy the right … to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.” The Eighth Amendment expressly bars “cruel and unusual punishments.”

      1791 In France, the French Code tries to implement Beccaria's theory of equality and proportionality in judicial proceedings.

      1793 The terms terrorism and terrorist are coined during the French Revolution and used to describe the actions of the revolutionary government that ruled the people through a Reign of Terror.

      1794 To protest an excise tax on domestically produced whiskey, 100 men attack a U.S. marshal serving delinquent taxpayers with court summonses. President Washington leads a militia of 15,000 soldiers to quell the Whisky Rebellion. The event marks the beginning of a continuing conflict between the U.S. government and individuals over taxes on items such as alcoholic beverages and cigarettes.

      1794 The Pennsylvania legislature passes a law that abolishes the death penalty for all crimes except the newly created offense of first-degree murder. Pennsylvania is the first jurisdiction in the United States to distinguish between different degrees of murder.

      1795 President George Washington pardons the only two individuals convicted in the so-called Whiskey Rebellion of 1794.

      1797 New York State opens Newgate Prison, the first of its kind to pattern itself after the Pennsylvania model.

      1798 The United States Congress passes the Alien and Sedition Acts to control espionage in the face of foreign threats.

      1800s The watch system is developed to patrol at night and protect property in larger cities of England.

      1803 The Supreme Court issues its famous decision of Marbury v. Madison, the seminal case concerning judicial review that drew direct inspiration from Alexander Hamilton's exposition of that power in The Federalist No. 78.

      1804 The French Code Napoléon is set forth and is especially influential in continental Europe and Latin America. It is meant to be an easily read and understood handbook that will allow citizens to figure out for themselves their legal rights and obligations.

      1819 Auburn Prison opens in New York State as a maximum security prison for men. It is renamed the Auburn Correctional Facility in 1970.

      1819 The U.S. Supreme Court decision of McCulloch v. Maryland reveals the true positive power of judicial review through the Constitution's “necessary and proper” clause.

      1817 The nation's first good time law is created in New York, allowing prisoners who behave well to receive a reduction in sentence.

      1825 Prison labor from Auburn State Prison is used to build Sing Sing Prison, which opens in Ossining, New York.

      1827 France publishes its first national report on criminal statistics—the Compte. It is this work that is used by the early researchers of the cartographic school of criminology.

      1828 The first modern police department in London provides mechanisms for both internal and external review of citizens' complaints about police misconduct.

      1829 Sir Robert Peel, credited as the founder of modern policing, develops the London Metropolitan Police Force.

      1829 New York State becomes the first state to collect court statistics.

      1829 Eastern State Penitentiary opens outside Philadelphia.

      1830s The concept of conditional liberty is developed in France as an intermediary step between prison confinement and complete freedom.

      1830s The theory of indeterminate sentencing starts to take form during the progressive era, when education of inmates begins to be more widespread.

      1830s Charles Dickens's early works (the so-called Newgate Novels), including Oliver Twist, focus on London crime and criminals.

      1831Recherches sur le penchant au crime aux différents ages by Belgian mathematician Adolphe Quételet is published in France. The book marks the beginning of the use of statistics to study crime.

      1832 The enactment of the Anatomy Laws in Britain makes the taking of corpses from graves illegal.

      1832 Plea bargains become common in Boston, Massachusetts, when public ordinance violators can expect less severe sentences if they plead guilty.

      1833 After an Irishman kills a man in Charleston, Massachusetts, enraged citizens smash and burn the Irish section of town while troops stand by and do nothing.

      1834 Massachusetts is the first state to collect police data, although they are data only about crimes where the criminal is caught and convicted.

      1835 New York is the first state to end public executions.

      1835 Samuel Colt receives a patent in Britain and France for his multiple-chamber, rotating cylinder that is the basis of the six-shooter. He receives a patent in the United States in 1936. Versions of the revolver and his rifle are adopted by the U.S. Army, and the revolver becomes the weapon of choice in the West.

      1836 The first reliable method for detecting arsenic in human remains is developed.

      1839 Great Britain publishes its first official crime data.

      1839 The first women's prison in America, Mt. Pleasant, opens at Sing Sing in New York State.

      1840s The term terrorism begins to refer to the actions of revolutionaries opposed to governments.

      1840 England suspends transportation of convicts to New South Wales, Australia, and all transported convicts are now sent to Van Diemen's Land or Norfolk Island.

      1841 Edgar Allan Poe, known for his tales of horror and his poetry and inventor of the “mystery,” publishes “The Murders in the Rue Morgue,” the first of his “tales of ratiocination” featuring the amateur sleuth, Monsieur C. Auguste Dupin.

      1843 The M'Naghten case formally establishes an insanity defense for those with cognitive impairment. English and American courts embrace the M'Naghten Rule as a test for insanity until the middle of the twentieth century.

      1844 The first metropolitan police department in the United States is established in New York City, to deal with rioting, the growth of the slums, immigration, and rising crime. It is modeled after the police reforms that had taken place in England.

      1844 The New York Prison Association (NYPA) is founded, laying a foundation for the parole systems and prison treatment programs of the latter nineteenth century.

      1844 The Association of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions for the Insane (AMSAII), a precursor of the American Psychiatric Association, is formed to further moral treatment for the insane and to fight the view that criminality and insanity are directly related.

      1846 The first prison library in New York State is established at Sing Sing.

      1848 The Marxist/conflict theory of crime emerges with the publication of Karl Marx's Communist Manifesto, stating that crime is a function of class struggle.

      1850 A private detective agency, Pinkerton's, provides private watchmen, railroad security, and intelligence gathering for the Union Army.

      1850 As part of the 1850 U.S. Census, citizens are asked if they were convicts or if any family members were in prison.

      1852 The French Devil's Island prison complex begins operation in French Guiana.

      1852 The state of California purchases over 400 acres of land on Quentin Point in Marin County to build San Quentin Prison.

      1853 The British Parliament passes the Penal Servitude Act, which ends the practice of sending criminals to the American colonies and Australia and enables prison inmates to be released on a ticket of leave.

      1856 Many seafaring nations sign the Declaration of Paris, making the use of privateers illegal. Notable exceptions who do not sign the treaty are Spain and the United States.

      1858 The Joliet Correctional Center, the oldest maximum security prison in Illinois, opens.

      1860s The unique nature of each individual's fingerprints is accidentally discovered by British civil servant William James Herschel in India when he collects and compares prints of Indians applied to official documents. When his findings are later confirmed, the use of fingerprints to identify criminals becomes standard police practice.

      1860 Under British influence, the secular Indian Penal Code becomes the official law of India.

      c. 1861 The term Mafia is first used in Italy to refer to organized crime groups in Sicily.

      1863 Cesare Lombroso publishes a pamphlet on his theory of crime (known as biological positivist theory), stating that some people have biological and mental traits that make them prone to crime. His initial study is expanded into L'uomo delinquente (The Criminal Man).

      1863 Jean Henri Dunant establishes the International Committee of the Red Cross.

      1864 The Geneva Convention (“Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field”) is the first in a series of multinational legal instruments with potentially worldwide application for the protection of war victims.

      1865 Congress recognizes the need for special measures to suppress counterfeiting by creating the Secret Service under the Secretary of the Treasury.

      1865 The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) begins carrying out some of the worst acts of bloodshed and terrorism in American history.

      1865 U.S. President Abraham Lincoln is shot on April 14 by John Wilkes Booth in Washington, D.C., and dies the next day.

      1866Crime and Punishment, the classic novel by Russian author Fyodor Dostoyevsky, is published. It focuses on the student Raskolnikov's act of murder and the aftermath of his crime, including his imprisonment.

      1867 Canada's Constitution Act gives the federal government exclusive rights and powers to legislate criminal law. It defines and establishes the division of power and authority between the federal and provincial levels of government.

      1868 The United States Supreme Court decision in Regina v. Hicklin becomes the foundation of early American obscenity law and establishes the guidelines for determining whether a work in question may be legally restricted.

      1868 The due process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment is ratified and provides, in part, that “[no] state shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law.”

      1870s Vagrancy statutes, often called “tramp acts,” are aimed at those who use the railroads to cross the country without paying for their rides.

      1870 The American Prison Association is founded in the United States. In 1954, its name is changed to the American Correctional Association.

      1870 The U.S. Congress mandates that the U.S. attorney general collect crime statistics.

      1870 Prison reformers convene in Cincinnati, Ohio, at the National Congress on Penitentiary and Reformatory Discipline.

      1871 The Virginia Supreme Court states in Ruffin v. Commonwealth that the inmate is a “slave of the state” with only those rights that the state chooses to give him.

      1873 The first penal institution for female offenders opens in Indiana.

      1873 Canada's first Prime Minister, Sir John A. MacDonald, founds the North-West Mounted Police (NWMP) force to control growing lawlessness in Saskatchewan and Alberta.

      1876 The first reformatory opens in Elmira, New York. By 1913, almost twenty states have built correctional facilities based on this model.

      1877 New York institutes the first indeterminate sentencing law and other states quickly follow suit.

      1881 U. S. President James Garfield is shot on July 2 by Charles Guiteau in Washington, D.C., and dies on September 19.

      1882 On April 3, Jesse James is shot and killed by Robert Ford, who claims the $10,000 reward on James's head. James and his James-Younger gang were legendary outlaws, robbing stagecoaches, trains, and banks in the American West.

      1882 Roy Bean (c. 1825–1902), a saloon keeper in Vinegarroon, Texas, is appointed justice of the peace and begins a career in which he promotes himself as “The Law West of Pecos.” In fact, he had no legal training and dispensed justice in an arbitrary and capricious manner.

      1884 The United States Supreme Court in Hopt v. People of Territory of Utah rules that the federal courts must enforce strictly the common law rule prohibiting the use of confessions extracted by physical force or threats of violence.

      1885 Raffaele Garofalo first uses the term criminology to refer to the scientific study of crime and criminals.

      1886Professional Criminal of America by New York City Chief of Detectives Thomas F. Byrnes (1842–1910) is published. It is a catalogue of photographs and descriptions of all arrested criminals in New York City to be used by law enforcement agencies and banks to prevent crime.

      1887 Sir Arthur Conan Doyle introduces the detective Sherlock Holmes in the short story “A Study in Scarlet,” published in Beeton's Christmas Annual.

      1888 Between August and December, five prostitutes are murdered and their bodies mutilated by “Jack the Ripper” in London. The crime is never solved, and various suspects have been “convicted” in print over the years. A crude and early use of what later is called criminal profiling is used in the case when the chief police surgeon, Dr. Phillips, tries to guide investigators by inferring personality characteristics of Jack the Ripper from the wounds that had been inflicted on the victim.

      1888 New York's Elmira Reformatory is the first correctional program to incorporate the idea of shock incarceration programs.

      1890 The first execution by electric chair takes place on August 6 at Auburn Prison in New York. The model used at Auburn is designed by Harold P. Brown—an inventor working at Thomas Edison's research laboratory.

      1890 The New York City Police Department begins using crime maps.

      1890 The United States federal government passes the Sherman Antitrust Act, intended to prevent price fixing and the formation of monopolies.

      1891 The Office of the Pardon Attorney in the U.S. Department of Justice is established to administer the pardon process.

      1892 The Canadian Criminal Code becomes the first example of a merging of common and statute criminal law by a self-governing jurisdiction of the British Empire.

      1892 The Police and Prison Cyclopedia by Lawrence, Massachusetts, police officer George Hale is published. Based on survey research of police departments around the world, it provides a wealth of information on law enforcement rules and procedures, police personnel, and criminology. It is the first police science encyclopedia.

      1892 On August 4, in Fall River, Massachusetts, Andrew and Abby Borden are killed. Andrew's daughter Lizzie is charged with the murders but is acquitted in June. Despite the acquittal, Lizzie Borden is generally believed to have killed her father and stepmother.

      1893 Publication of Hans Gross's Criminal Investigation helps to establish the science of forensics, especially in terms of a cross-transfer of evidence.

      1893 The International Association of Chiefs of Police is founded.

      1895 The United States Supreme Court in Sparf and Hansen v. United States decides that juries “have the physical power to disregard the law,” but they do not have the “right to decide the law according to their own notions or pleasure.”

      1896 The United States Supreme Court rules in Plessy v. Ferguson that desegregation (“separate but equal”) does not violate the U.S. Constitution.

      1896 The Canadian Bar Association is formed. In 1921, it will be incorporated by a special act of Parliament.

      1897 Interest develops in sociological explanations for crime with the publication of Emile Durkheim's work on social order and suicide in France.

      1899 The first juvenile court is created in Illinois with passage of the Juvenile Court Act.

      1900s The early part of the century is dubbed the “Golden Age” of crime and detective fiction. In the novels of writers such as Agatha Christie, Dorothy Sayers, and Ellery Queen, clues are provided to the reader, who is challenged to solve the mystery before the fictional detective does so.

      1900 The German Civil Code of 1896, a historically oriented, scientific, and professional document that assumes that lawyers will be needed to interpret and apply the law, takes effect.

      1900 August Vollmer, Chief of Police of Berkeley, California, introduces the English technique of the systematic classification of known offender motives in the United States.

      1901 U.S. President William McKinley is shot in Buffalo, New York on September 6 by anarchist Leon Czolgosz. He dies on September 14.

      1903 The first inmates are transferred to Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary in Kansas.

      1903The Great Train Robbery is the first blockbuster in the cine-crime genre, depicting the criminal justice system as hypocritical and all-accepting of the criminal underworld. It features the first scene in which a cowboy points his gun barrel straight at the camera and pulls the trigger.

      1904 Upton Sinclair, an author and social activist, writes The Jungle, about abuses and health hazards in the meat processing industry.

      1904 The British Government introduces the first Criminal Code of Nigeria. One of the customary practices defined as criminal in the Criminal Code of 1904 is polygamy (bigamy), a normative behavior in Nigeria.

      1905 The efforts of moral progressives and industrialists leads to the creation of the Pennsylvania State Police, the first state police force.

      1906 The U.S. Congress passes the Pure Food and Drug Act. It establishes an agency to evaluate the health and safety of foodstuffs and medical products. The act outlaws the interstate sale of substances that are adulterated or whose contents are mislabeled, and it requires that addictive drugs must be labeled as “habit-forming.”

      1906 China launches an anti-opium campaign. To ensure trade with that country, the U.S. government bans the importation of all opium into the United States.

      1907 The National Council on Crime and Delinquency is founded.

      1907 The Children's Aid Society brings suits against various New York City cinemas for “imperiling the morals of young boys.” Supreme Court Justice O'Gorman enforces an 1860 “blue law” and forces the closure of cinemas on Sundays.

      1908 In the Oregon Supreme Court case Muller v. Oregon, Louis Brandeis's legal brief on women's health plays a key role in limiting excessively long workdays.

      1908 The Bureau of Investigation is created to conduct Department of Justice investigations and later becomes the FBI.

      1908 The Penal Code is adopted as the basic source of criminal law in Japan.

      1909 The United States Supreme Court in Weems v. United States holds that a sentence of twelve to twenty years at hard labor, with ankle and wrist chains to be worn during the entire service of the sentence and perpetual loss of civil rights, is too harsh a punishment for being an accessory to falsification of a government document.

      1910 The White Slave Traffic Act (Mann Act) criminalizes prostitution, making it a federal crime to transport women across state lines for immoral purposes.

      1910 Alice Stebbins Wells becomes the first full-time paid policewoman in America.

      1912 Twelve countries, including the United States, sign the Hague Convention, which agrees to restrict opium and cocaine production.

      1912 The first public defender office in the United States that gives legal assistance to the poor in the criminal field is established in Oklahoma.

      1913 The Huber Law passes in Wisconsin, the first state to authorize work release programs.

      1914 The United States Supreme Court holds in Weeks v. United States that evidence illegally obtained by federal law enforcement officers is not admissible in a federal criminal trial.

      1914 Congress passes the Harrison Act, the model for all subsequent drug legislation. This law requires persons who produce, sell, or distribute opium and its derivatives (which includes morphine and heroin), as well as cocaine, to register with the Treasury Department and pay taxes on the transactions.

      1915–1918 In the first major genocide of the twentieth century, Muslim Turks kill about 1.5 million Armenian Christians in Turkey. The killings are directed by the Young Turks who seized power from the Ottoman Sultan in 1913. The killings take place through mass marches, starvation, mass executions, and rapes. Some Armenians are forced to work as slaves and some children are taken from their families and forcibly converted to Islam.

      1915 Alice Stebbins Wells establishes the International Association of Policewomen (IAP). The organization is later incorporated and becomes the International Association of Women Police (IAWP).

      1916 Dutch Marxist Willem Bonger argues that, by its nature, capitalism created a strong desire for material accumulation, and that this is the cause of much crime.

      1917 The Illinois Supreme Court, in People v. Munday, calls for an outright ban on still and newsreel photography in the state courts.

      1918 The first criminology textbook in the United States, Criminology, by Maurice Parmelee, is published.

      1918 The Criminal Code is written and adopted in Indonesia with minimal amendments by the independent state. It includes a range of provisions criminalizing criticism of the government and other activities usually categorized as political.

      1919 In one of the greatest sports scandals in history, the Chicago White Sox throw the World Series when eight players are bribed by New York organized crime figure Arnold Rothstein, who hoped to make a fortune by betting on the series. The scandal damaged the careers of the players and the reputation of baseball, but Rothstein escaped prosecution.

      1920s Widespread use of the patrol car changes the mode of policing from foot to motor patrol, thereby reducing face-to-face contact between police and the citizenry.

      1920s The “tough guy” genre of detective fiction emerges in the form of detectives created by writers such as Raymond Chandler and Dashiell Hammett.

      1920 Passage of the Eighteenth Amendment and the onset of Prohibition criminalizes the sale and consumption of alcohol in the United States and gives a major boost to organized crime, which imports “bootlegged” liquor.

      1920 The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) assumes federal policing duties across the entire country of Canada.

      1920 The Criminal Justice Section of the American Bar Association is founded.

      1922 England passes a new “felony of infanticide” law, which reduces fatal assault of a newborn to manslaughter.

      1922 The advent of talking motion pictures results in a quasi-governmental entity, “Motion Picture Producers and Distributors Association (MPPDA), created to establish a list of sex- and crimescene “do's,” “don'ts,” and “be carefuls” for movie-makers.

      1923 The International Criminal Police Organization is established to provide law enforcement agencies with information they can use to prevent international crime.

      1923 The new Russian government takes control of the Solovetsky monastery in the Gulag Archipelago and converts it into a prison camp.

      1923 The Frye standard is first articulated in an appellate case, Frye v. United States. It requires that scientific testimony be based on a method or technique that is “generally accepted” by the “relevant scientific community.”

      1924 Edwin Sutherland, the leading criminologist of the first half of the twentieth century, writes Criminology, one of the earliest and most prominent textbooks published in the field. Now in its eleventh edition, the book, with later coauthors added, is still in print.

      1924 J. (John) Edgar Hoover is appointed as the head the Federal Bureau of Investigation. He remains director until his death in 1972, and the FBI remains the leading law enforcement agency in the United States.

      1924 Mary Hamilton is appointed head of the new Women's Police Bureau of the New York City Police Department. She is the first female police officer to head a field unit. In 1918, Ellen O'Grady had been appointed deputy police commissioner.

      1925 The United States Congress passes [the Federal Probation Act], authorizing the use of probation in the federal courts.

      1925 Theodore Dreiser publishes An American Tragedy, a novel based on the true story of the Chester Gillette-Grace Brown murder case in 1906.

      1926 The state of New York mandates a sentence of life imprisonment for third-time offenders. Other states follow this lead and enact mandatory sentencing for repeat offenders.

      1927The Hobo: The Sociology of the Homeless Man by Nels Anderson is published. It provides a firsthand account of hobo life in the United States.

      1928 Illinois develops a risk assessment instrument for predicting future crime to determine parole eligibility for inmates.

      1928A Panorama of the World's Legal Systems by John Henry Wigmore is published. The book provides a framework for classifying and comparing legal systems across nations and eras.

      1928 The International Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare is enacted.

      1929 Leaders of several major crime organizations in the United States meet in Atlantic City. The meeting marks the emergence of national organized crime in the United States, with the leaders dividing the nation into territories and agreeing to cooperate with one another.

      1929 President Herbert Hoover appoints George W. Wickersham, the attorney general, to chair the National Commission on Law Observance and Enforcement (NCLOE). The Wickersham Commission begins a critical examination of the U.S. criminal justice system. By the early 1930s, reports by the commission lead the way to broad reforms.

      1929 Congress passes legislation creating the first federally funded drug treatment programs, called “narcotic farms,” which are mandatory residential treatment facilities.

      1930 The Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Reporting Program is established as the first system in the United States for recording crimes known to the police.

      1931 Al Capone, the Chicago organized crime leader and a worldwide symbol of organized crime in America, is prosecuted by the Internal Revenue Service for tax evasion, convicted, and sentenced to eleven years in prison. He is released in 1939 suffering the effects of tertiary syphilis and dies at home in 1947.

      1931 Attica is built as a correctional facility in upstate New York, at a cost of $9 million, making it the most expensive facility of its day. It is one of the last so-called big house prisons built in the United States.

      1932 The United States Supreme Court decision in Sorrells v. United States first recognizes the federal entrapment defense.

      1932 The United States Supreme Court creates a narrow rule in Powell v. Alabama to require a state to provide counsel for defendants in death penalty cases when the defendants are unable to afford counsel and unable to represent themselves.

      1932 Charles Lindbergh, Jr., the son of American aviation pioneer Charles Lindbergh and his wife Anne, is kidnapped and found dead in the woods near their home in New Jersey. In 1935, Bruno Richard Hauptmann is tried and convicted of the kidnapping and murder. The federal government enacts the Lindbergh Act, making kidnapping punishable by life imprisonment.

      1933 The Arkansas penal facility is moved to Tucker State Farm, which later gains notoriety for its harsh treatment of prisoners.

      1933 The United States Army officially transfers ownership of Alcatraz to the U.S. Department of Justice for use as a federal penitentiary. Notorious inmates include Al Capone, George “Machine Gun” Kelly, and Robert Stroud, also known as “The Birdman of Alcatraz.”

      1933 England, the country that developed the grand jury, abolishes it by Act of Parliament.

      1934 In an effort to control organized crime and widespread bank robberies, the National Firearms Act regulates the possession of submachine guns, silencers, and several other weapons.

      1934 On July 22, FBI agents shoot and kill John Dillinger, the bank robber and jail escapee, dubbed “Public Enemy Number One” by FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover. The FBI's failure to capture and hold him earlier had damaged the agency's reputation, which was rehabilitated to some degree by his killing.

      1936 The United States Supreme Court in Brown v. Mississippi rules that the confessions of three farmhands who were coerced and tortured by police to confess to the murder of a white farmer are unconstitutional.

      1937 The Law and Society Association is founded.

      1937 The worst single atrocity of World War II takes place when the Japanese military executes about 300,000 Chinese in Nanking, the capital of China. The event becomes notorious as the Rape of Nanking.

      1937 The Housing Act of 1937 establishes public housing in the United States, and local governments are given the responsibility for providing public housing residents with the full gamut of municipal services, including police protection.

      1937 The American Bar Association passes Canon 35, recommending the prohibition of all motion picture and still cameras in the courtroom. Later, they broaden the recommendation to include television.

      1937 The American Criminal Justice Association, Lambda Alpha Epsilon, is founded.

      1937The Professional Thief, by Edwin H. Sutherland, is published.

      1938 The United States Supreme Court in Johnson v. Zerbst holds that indigent federal defendants prosecuted for federal crimes involving incarceration are entitled to appointed counsel under the Sixth Amendment.

      1938 The Federal Arms Act requires the licensing of firearm manufacturers and dealers.

      1938 Robert K. Merton's influential article “Social Structure and Anomie” first appears in the American Sociological Review, explaining that some people are at greater risk for involvement in deviance than others. His writings become the roots of strain theory and anomie theory.

      1938–1945 The Nazi Holocaust takes place in Europe. About 6 million people are killed, many in Nazi concentration camps. Most of those killed are Jews as part of Adolf Hitler's “Final Solution,” but Gypsies, homosexuals, and the disabled are also executed.

      1939 Indiana becomes the first state in the United States to follow the Scandinavian model by prohibiting the driving of a motor vehicle with a blood-alcohol level above a specific concentration, although this concentration is set at the extremely high level of .15 percent.

      1939 The concept of white-collar crime is first introduced in the social sciences by Edwin Sutherland, in a presidential address to the American Sociological Association. He later publishes a pioneering book on the subject, White Collar Crime (1949). Sutherland also makes his first formal statement of differential association theory, in which he posits that crime is learned in the same way that any other behavior is learned.

      1939 Missouri becomes the first state to adopt a merit selection process (often referred to as the “Missouri Plan”) for selecting judges.

      1939 Kidd publishes Police Interrogation, the first American police interrogation manual, exhorting American police in the new science of modern interrogation.

      1940s Las Vegas emerges as a gambling center when organized crime figures Meyer Lansky and Bugsy Siegel invest in casinos. Siegel is killed by the mob in 1947 for skimming profits from the casinos.

      1940s Motorized patrols become increasing popular in the United States, replacing foot patrols in many cities.

      1940 The National Sheriffs'Association is founded.

      1940 The United States Supreme Court in Chambers v. Florida holds that the use of mental torture, accompanied by threats of violence, is enough to justify the suppression of a confession.

      1941 National Association of College Police Officials is founded. The organization later changes its name to Society for the Advancement of Criminology. In 1958, it becomes the American Society of Criminology.

      1941 Hervey Cleckley's The Mask of Sanity is published, offering one of the earliest and most extensive clinical descriptions of the antisocial personality and psychopath syndrome. It remains in print through five subsequent editions.

      1942 The United States Supreme Court decides in Betts v. Brady that it is not necessary for a state to select a court-appointed attorney for a poor person who is charged with a state felony.

      1942 Fred Inbau publishes the first edition of his seminal interrogation manual, Lie Detection and Criminal Interrogation.

      1942Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas, by Clifford R. Shaw and Henry D. McKay, is published.

      1943 The United States Supreme Court in Mallory v. United States rules that confessions obtained after “unreasonable delay” in taking suspects to court for arraignment cannot be used as evidence in a federal court.

      1944 The United States Supreme Court in Korematsu v. United States upholds against a constitutional challenge the detention of Japanese Americans on grounds no more substantial than their race.

      1944 Congress enacts Rule 53 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, banning radio broadcasting and taking photographs in any criminal trial in federal courts. In 1962, Rule 53 is amended to include television under the prohibition.

      1944 C. Gray and G. Kopp develop a device capable of displaying speech visually, a sound spectrograph.

      1944 In Ashcroft v. Tennessee, a case in which a suspect confessed after thirty-six hours of continuous interrogation under the glare of bright lights, the United States Supreme Court rules that intense psychological pressure, even in the absence of physical brutality, can render a confession inadmissible.

      1945 Allied leaders meet in London and agree upon an ad hoc tribunal for prosecution of German war criminals. The statute agreed upon becomes the Charter of the International Military Tribunal (IMT) sitting at Nuremberg. About 200 Nazi doctors, lawyers, SS leaders, generals, and diplomats are tried.

      1946 The “Blast Out” riot takes place at the federal prison of Alcatraz. It requires military intervention and forty-eight hours to subdue the uprising and regain control of the institution.

      1946 The United Nations affirms for the first time in a General Assembly motion that genocide is a war crime under international law.

      1946 The National Association of Claimants' Compensation Attorneys is founded. In 1972, it will become the Association of Trial Lawyers of America.

      1947 Edwin Sutherland, who developed differential association theory, publishes his classic Principles of Criminology textbook, in which he advances nine formal propositions to explain crime.

      1947 Congress enacts the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) to ensure that pesticides are being used in a manner consistent with their labeling.

      1948 The United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide is adopted by the General Assembly. It is entered into force in 1951.

      1948 The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is proclaimed by the U.N. General Assembly. It specifies in Article 5 that “no one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment.”

      1948 Mohandas Gandhi, the leader of India's independence movement and an advocate of civil disobedience, is assassinated by Nathuram Godse, a Hindu nationalist who opposes Gandhi's policy of religious toleration.

      1949 The United Nations Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea, Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, and the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War are adopted. They are entered into force in 1950.

      1949 The death penalty is abolished in West Germany with the new German Basic Constitution.

      1949 The United States Supreme Court in Wolf v. Colorado applies the Fourth Amendment to the states, incorporating it into the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.

      1949White Collar Crime, by Edwin Sutherland, is published and makes the study on nonviolent crimes part of the criminological enterprise.

      1949 The United Nations Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others is adopted by the General Assembly. It is entered into force in 1951.

      1950s Early television crime dramas such as Dragnet depict law enforcement officials as honest, clean-cut, and always successful.

      1950s The “police procedural” phase of crime fiction emerges with an emphasis on how police officers and detectives solve crimes.

      1950Unraveling Juvenile Delinquency, by Sheldon Glueck and Eleanor Glueck, is published.

      1951 American Academy of Forensic Sciences is founded in Chicago, Illinois, and begins publication of the Journal of Forensic Science (JFS).

      1951 Congress enacts the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ), a common criminal code for all military services.

      1951 The independent government of Indonesia abolishes the customary law courts and adopts a uniform system of courts for the whole country.

      1952 The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax Division of the Internal Revenue Service is formed. It is later renamed the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms and becomes a bureau of the Treasury Department in 1972.

      1953 The French penal colony known as Devil's Island off the coast of northern South America closes.

      1953 Namibia passes a law that allows community service to replace prison sentences of up to five years.

      1953 The work of James D. Watson and Francis H. C. Crick results in discovery of the content, structure, and function of the DNA molecule. DNA analysis is subsequently used to identify perpetrators of crimes.

      1953–1969 During the so-called Warren Court era, named after Chief Justice Earl Warren, the Supreme Court publishes a number of opinions that expand the civil rights of several groups of people, including students, the mentally ill, racial minorities, criminal defendants, and prisoners.

      1954 The United States Supreme Court in Durham v. United States holds “that an accused is not criminally responsible if his unlawful act was the product of mental disease or mental defect.”

      1954 The United States Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education declares that separate but equal classroom instruction amounts to racial discrimination and is, therefore, unconstitutional.

      1955Delinquent Boys: The Culture of the Gang, by Albert Cohen, is published. It relies heavily on Robert K. Merton's writings but also expands strain theory.

      1955 The first live broadcast of a trial takes place in Texas.

      1955 A newly revised Criminal Code is established in Canada.

      1956 FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover initiates the FBI's Counterintelligence Program, known by the acronym COINTELPRO. It is designed to disrupt the Communist Party in America.

      1957 The United States Supreme Court in Roth v. United States establishes a uniform system of guidelines for defining obscenity.

      1957 The United Nations Convention on Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners is approved.

      1958 The United States Supreme Court holds in Trop v. Dulles that loss of nationality—resulting from a conviction of desertion by military court-martial during wartime—is too severe a penalty and is therefore cruel and unusual punishment.

      1958 Congress passes the Delaney Amendment. Named for former Congressman James Delaney of New York, the law prohibits any carcinogenic chemical additives in foodstuffs.

      1959 The Parole Act in Canada creates the National Parole Board (NPB). This board makes the decision of whether to grant, deny, or revoke parole for all federal inmates.

      1959Five Families: Mexican Case Studies in the Culture of Poverty, by Oscar Lewis, is published. It sets forth the controversial idea that poor, marginalized peoples in urban society develop a cultural system based on poverty.

      1960s As part of the “Great Society” movement, the United States government funds a number of extensive research programs regarding the increasing problem of estrangement between the public and the police.

      1960s American crime television shows such as The Andy Griffith Show often depict police officers in the community and portray officers as friendly and helpful.

      1960s The United States Supreme Court under Chief Justice Earl Warren develops the law regarding due process, a previously neglected area of criminal justice.

      1960s Women are first allowed to attend meetings of the American Society of Criminology. By 2000, one-third of its membership is female.

      1960 The United States Supreme Court in Elkins v. United States prohibits the introduction of illegally seized evidence in federal prosecutions, regardless of whether the illegality was committed by state or federal agents.

      1960 The United States Supreme Court in Dusky v. United States establishes the definition of competency to stand trial.

      1961 The United States Supreme Court in Mapp v. Ohio extends the exclusionary rule concerning the use of illegally obtained evidence to the states. The Court establishes the basic parameters of illegal search and seizure.

      1961 The Vera Institute of Justice in New York City establishes the first bail reform project that emphasizes the use of non-monetary release criteria. The Manhattan Bail Project's success sparks nearly 200 similar programs in cities across the country.

      1961 Attorney General Robert Kennedy recommends creating halfway houses with federal funds, especially grants from the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration and the Office of Economic Opportunity.

      1961 The United States Supreme Court in Culombe v. Connecticut uses a “totality of circumstances” test to insure a voluntary confession.

      1961 The first U.S. aircraft is hijacked on May 1 when Puerto Rican–born Antuilo Ramierez Ortiz forces a National Airlines plane to fly to Havana, Cuba, where he is granted asylum.

      1962 The United States Supreme Court in Manual Enterprises v. Day decides that the new obscenity standard requires sexual material to be both “patently offensive” and absent any significant value.

      1962 The American Law Institute adopts the Model Penal Code, which permits a substantial impairment of a person's mental faculties as sufficient to meet the test of insanity rather than a showing of total incapacity.

      1962 The Indonesian police are formally militarized and placed under the authority of the armed forces.

      1962 Frank Morris, John Anglin, and Clarence Anglin engineer one of the most famous escape attempts in prison history from Alcatraz. The three men are believed to have drowned.

      1962 The U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia in Fulwood v. Clemmer rules that correctional officials must recognize the Muslim faith as a legitimate religion and not restrict those inmates who wish to hold services.

      1962 The United States Supreme Court in Baker v. Carr announces the “one person, one vote” doctrine to mandate reapportioning electoral districts.

      1963 The Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences is founded. Originally designed for police educators, by 2001 it is the largest criminal justice association in the United States.

      1963 Alcatraz is closed as a federal maximum security facility and is replaced by a new facility in Marion, Illinois.

      1963 The United States Supreme Court, in the landmark case of Gideon v. Wainwright, decides that indigent defendants are constitutionally entitled to free legal counsel.

      1963 U.S. President John F. Kennedy is assassinated on November 22 by Lee Harvey Oswald in Dallas, Texas. Oswald is shot and killed two days later by Jack Ruby while being taken from prison.

      1963 The Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences is founded.

      1963 The Equal Pay Act makes wage discrimination based on sex illegal.

      1963Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance, by Howard S. Becker, is published. It becomes an important statement on the definitions and meanings of deviance.

      1964 American legal scholar Herbert L. Packer publishes his discussion of the crime control model and the due process model as two interrelated value systems that drive the operation of the criminal process.

      1964 The Civil Rights Act is passed to protect individual employees from discrimination based on race, sex, religion, and ethnicity. Title VII of the Act prohibits “disparate treatment.”

      1964 Under the Criminal Justice Act in the federal court system, indigent representation is provided by federal defender organizations or by panel attorneys, who are private attorneys appointed on a case-by-case basis.

      1964 The first electronic monitoring system is used to monitor the location of mental patients, parolees, and volunteers in Boston, Massachusetts.

      1964 The United States Supreme Court in Malloy v. Hogan establishes that the Fifth Amendment's self-incrimination clause applies to the states as well as to the federal government.

      1964 The American Law Institute (ALI) develops the new Model Penal Code that offers a tempered view on insanity.

      1964Report of the President's Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, by the Warren Commission, is published. It fails to resolve questions about a conspiracy to kill Kennedy, and, in fact, leads to even more conspiracy theories about his assassination.

      1965 The formalized practice of diversion as an acceptable activity of the justice system originates in Genesee County, Michigan.

      1965 The United States Supreme Court holds in Estes v. Texas that the right to a public trial belongs to the defendant alone and not to the media.

      1965 Tucker State Farm officials are restricted from using corporal punishment in Talley v. Stephens when Federal Judge J. Smith Henley requires that adequate safeguards be established for the convicts.

      1965 Congress passes the Federal Prisoner Rehabilitation Act, which provides work release, furloughs, and community treatment centers for federal minimum-security prisoners.

      1965 The Watts Riot in Los Angles reveals that citizens of the Watts area are suffering from unemployment, poor housing, inadequate transportation, and poor medical and social services. By the end of the riot, 4,000 people are arrested, 34 killed, and hundreds injured.

      1965 While in prison, Malcolm X writes The Autobiography of Malcolm X (with Alex Haley). It becomes the best-known example of prisoner literature of the 1960s and 1970s in which African American prisoners react to oppression while in prison.

      1966 Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus orders an investigation into allegations of extortion, misuse of state property, and inmate drunkenness at penal institutions.

      1966 The United States Supreme Court in Pate v. Robinson holds that where there exists a “bona fide doubt” as to the defendant's present sanity, a hearing must be held to prevent infringement upon the defendant's constitutional right to comprehend and assist in his or her own defense.

      1966 Robert Burgess and Ronald Akers propose integrating principles of behavioral learning theory into differential association theory; the result is what they call “differential associationreinforcement theory.”

      1966 The United States Supreme Court decision in Miranda v. Arizona establishes specific procedural guidelines for the police to follow when informing criminal suspects of their Constitutional rights, after taking individuals into custody and before interrogating them. The procedures have come to simply be called Miranda warnings.

      1966 The United States Supreme Court in Kent v. U.S. extends limited due process guarantees to juveniles.

      1966 In Canada's House of Commons, the government introduces and passes Bill C-168, which limits capital murder to the killing of on-duty police officers and prison guards.

      1966 In New York City, the Civilian Complaint Review Board is established. It survives only four months but receives 422 complaints in that period.

      1966In Cold Blood: A True Account of a Multiple Murder and Its Consequences, by Truman Capote, is published. The first true-crime book that is acclaimed as a literary genre, it uses narrative techniques to tell the story of a murder case in Kansas.

      1966 The United Nations International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is adopted by the General Assembly. It is entered into force in 1976.

      1967 The U.S. Department of Labor begins to fund pretrial diversion programs for offenders.

      1967The Subculture of Violence: Towards an Integrated Theory in Criminology, by Marvin E. Wolfgang and Franco Ferracuti, is published. The subculture of violence theory becomes both influential and controversial in criminology.

      1967 An influential report by the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice documents the widespread use of plea bargaining and recommends formal recognition of its use.

      1967 Congress passes the Wholesome Meat Act, effectively ensuring that all meat and associated products meet federal regulatory standards for safety.

      1967 In the Road Safety Act, the United Kingdom prohibits driving with a blood-alcohol level of .08 percent.

      1967 Detroit experiences a massive race riot when police raid five drinking and gambling establishments. Eighty-two African Americans are arrested during the raids. Angry citizens attack police cars with rocks, smash windows, and loot businesses.

      1968 The Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act and the Gun Control Act are passed, overhauling federal firearms legislation. These laws also give federal jurisdiction for criminal use of explosives to the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms.

      1968 The Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) is created as the division of the United States Department of Justice responsible for providing funding assistance to law enforcement agencies.

      1968 The National Institute of Justice is created as the research and development branch of the United States Department of Justice.

      1968 The United States Supreme Court in Duncan v. Louisiana rules that the right to a trial by jury is a fundamental right that is also binding on state court systems.

      1968 The American Psychology–Law Society (AP–LS) is founded to humanize the law through the values and insights of psychology.

      1968 The Indianapolis Police Department becomes the first police force in the United States to assign women to full-time field patrol.

      1968 Civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. is assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee, by James Earl Ray.

      1969 The United States Supreme Court in Chimel v. California establishes a guiding definition for allowing the police to search the area immediately within the suspect's control, once an arrest has been made.

      1969 Harvard students riot at University Hall, protesting the presence of the Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC) on campus.

      1969 The German Criminal Code introduces a number of sociotherapeutic prisons or prison units (Sozialtherapeutische Anstalten) into the prison systems.

      1969 John Bowlby publishes the first of his attachment trilogy, Attachment, followed in 1973 by Separation, and in 1980 by Loss. In these books, he rejects the psychoanalytic notion that children's emotional problems are the result of their internal conflicts.

      1969 The United States Supreme Court in Boykin v. Alabama reverses the conviction of a man who had received five death sentences after pleading guilty to five counts of robbery because the trial judge had not ensured that the guilty pleas were voluntary.

      1969 The American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (AAPL) is established for psychiatrists who dedicate a significant portion of their professional activities to forensic psychiatry.

      1969 The Security Industry Association is founded.

      1969 In August, seven people are brutally slain in the Tate-LaBianca killings in southern California. Charles Manson, the leader of a local cult, and several Manson “family” members are charged, convicted, and sentenced to life in prison. Mason remains a cult figure while in prison and is routinely denied parole.

      1970s Community-based mediation initiatives give rise to alternative dispute resolution, designed to find better, more efficient, and less expensive alternatives to traditional litigation.

      1970s American television crime shows emphasize law and order, perhaps reflecting a public desire for stability in a time of social change. The law and order emphasis continues in the 1980s.

      1970s Following the civil rights and feminist movements, female and African American detectives appear more often in crime fiction.

      1970 The Police Foundation is founded (as the Police Development Fund).

      1970 The Bank Secrecy Act, the first piece of American legislation to identify cash movements, is enacted.

      1970 The Narcotic Control Act in Canada is designed to control the flow of narcotics by making narcotic offenses a federal crime.

      1970 The United States Supreme Court in Brady v. United States rules that is acceptable to reward with reduced penalties those defendants who plead guilty.

      1970 The United States Supreme Court in Carolina v. Alford rules that defendants may plead guilty without admitting culpability, meaning they can plea bargain even when they feel they are factually innocent.

      1970 Congress, with strong support from the Justice Department, enacts the District of Columbia

      Court Reform Act, which contains the nation's first preventive detention statute.

      1970 The United States Marshals Service begins operating a federal witness-protection program.

      1971 Howard Teten, who had developed a technique that would eventually evolve into criminal profiling, completed the first profile by the FBI to be provided to a local law enforcement agency.

      1971 The Bail Reform Act in Canada is enacted to prevent unnecessary detention of accused persons.

      1971 The first recognized modern-day women's shelter, Chiswick's Women's Aid, opens in England.

      1971 A prisoner uprising at the Attica Correctional Facility in New York claims the lives of eleven prison employees and twenty-nine inmates.

      1971 The American War on Drugs is officially declared during President Nixon's term to communicate the government's zero tolerance for illegal drugs.

      1971 In the United Kingdom, the Misuse of Drugs Act distinguishes between the possession and trafficking of illegal drugs and establishes a range of penalties for the offenses proscribed.

      1971 The United States Supreme Court in Santobello v. New York rules that defendants are entitled to legal remedy if prosecutors break conditions specified in plea bargains.

      1972 The new FBI Academy in Quantico opens, and a new division of the FBI is created and headquartered at Quantico. Jack Kirsch heads this new department, the Behavioral Sciences Unit.

      1972 Title IX of the Education Amendments prohibits discrimination in education benefits based on race, religion, sex, or ethnicity.

      1972 The first hotline for battered women is started by Women's Advocates in St. Paul, Minnesota.

      1972 The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) begins the official collection of detailed information about certain criminal offenses, both attempted and completed, that concern the general public and law enforcement. The NCVS is administered by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, an agency of the U.S. Department of Justice.

      1972 The United States Supreme Court in Morrissey v. Brewer sets parole violation procedures.

      1972 The United States Supreme Court in Furman v. Georgia declares that the arbitrary way the death penalty is being used violates the Eighth Amendment and constitutes cruel and unusual punishment.

      1972 Alcatraz is turned over to the National Park Service as part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area. It opens to the public the following year and becomes a popular tourist destination.

      1972 British criminologist Stanley Cohen publishes his book Folk Devils and Moral Panics.

      1972 The United States Supreme Court in Papachristou v. City of Jacksonville voids that city's vagrancy ordinance.

      1972 Oscar Newman, an architect and university professor, publishes a seminal study of crime in New York City's high-rise public housing, titled Defensible Space.

      1972 The United States Supreme Court in Cruz v. Beto rules that it is discriminatory and a violation of the Constitution to deny a Buddhist prisoner the right to practice his or her faith in a comparable way to members of the major religious denominations.

      1972 The United States Supreme Court in Barker v. Wingo adopts a balancing test in determining whether the defendant's speedy trial rights have been violated.

      1972 The Criminal Justice Act of 1972 and the Powers of Criminal Courts Act establish the legal origins of community service in the United States. Both make it possible for judges to invoke creative individualized penalties mandating labor performed in the community.

      1972 “Bloody Friday” occurs in Northern Ireland on July 21 when an Irish Republican Army (IRA) bomb attack kill eleven people and injures 130 in Belfast.

      1972 On September 5, eight Palestinian “Black September” terrorists seize eleven Israeli athletes in the Olympic Village in Munich, West Germany. Nine of the hostages and five terrorists are killed when German troops storm the plane.

      1972 The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on Their Destruction is signed by the United States, Russia, and Great Britain.

      1972 The content of American television crime dramas becomes more violent, a trend that continues for the next three decades.

      1973 The Knapp Commission Report on Police Corruption is published and reveals widespread corruption in the New York City police department.

      1973 The United States Supreme Court in Miller v. California decides that obscenity is now to be defined not using a national standard but on the basis of local community standards.

      1973 Ronald Akers introduces the social learning theory of deviance in his book Deviant Behavior: A Social Learning Approach.

      1973The Gulag Archipelago, by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, formerly a political prisoner on Solovetsky Island in Siberian Russia, is published.

      1973 The United States Supreme Court in United States v. Robinson establishes the right of police to automatically search an arrested person regardless of the offense, immediately following a lawful arrest.

      1973 The United States Supreme Court in Roe v. Wade rules that the state cannot interfere with a woman's decision to have an abortion unless it has a compelling reason to do so.

      1973 The first Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics is published, a reference tool that provides comprehensive data on crime and criminal justice-related issues in the United States.

      1973 The American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors begins to form when thirty crime laboratory directors from across the United States are brought together by FBI director Clarence Kelly. The society is incorporated in 1976 with Briggs White, the director of the FBI Laboratory, as the first chairman.

      1973 The Rehabilitation Act, later amended in 1980, prohibits discrimination against handicapped individuals by the federal government, federal contractors, and recipients of federal aid.

      1973 Governor Nelson Rockefeller of New York ushers in mandatory minimum sentences, presenting them as vital tools in the war against drugs. These statutes specify a certain amount of time, usually of considerable length, that an offender must serve.

      1973 The lockdown, a disciplinary and protective measure taken by the prison administration in which all the inmates are confined to their cells twenty-four hours a day and leave only for meals, is first used at San Quentin.

      1974Obedience to Authority, by Stanley Milgram, is published. It reports the results of psychological research suggesting that individuals will cause serious harm to others under authoritarian conditions.

      1974 The U.S. Congress passes the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act (JJDPA).

      1974 The American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors is founded.

      1974 Congress enacts the Federal Speedy Trial Act, imposing time limits for criminal prosecutions in federal courts.

      1974 On August 8, Richard M. Nixon resigns as president of the United States rather than face impeachment for his role in the cover-up in the Watergate scandal. He is replaced by Gerald Ford, who had been appointed vice president to replace Spiro Agnew. Agnew had resigned in the face of corruption charges dating to when he was governor of Maryland. Nixon escapes criminal prosecution when Ford issues him a blanket pardon.

      1974 The United States Supreme Court in Wolff v. McDonnell decides that before a prisoner can be deprived of good time (time taken off the end of a sentence for good behavior) because of alleged rule violations, there must be some due process.

      1975 The National Organization for Victim Assistance (NOVA) is founded to help unify the diverse energies of what had become the victim movement.

      1975 Former U.S. Attorney General John Newton Mitchell is convicted of perjury, obstruction of justice, and conspiracy for his role in the Watergate scandal. He serves nineteen months in prison and is the only attorney general in U.S. history to serve time in prison.

      1975 Metropolitan Correctional Centers, based on the new generation jail model, are opened in New York City, Chicago, and San Diego.

      1975 Robert Heck develops the Patrol Emphasis Program, which encourages agencies to use crime analysis information, together with other strategies, to manage calls-for-service and increase the quality of the preliminary investigation process.

      1975–1979 An estimated two million people die in Cambodia from starvation, overwork, and executions at the direction of Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot, who seeks to create a Communist farming society.

      1976 The federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) makes it a crime to indiscriminately dispose of wastes that pose significant risks for human health and for the general environment.

      1976 The first major judicial decision concerning passive euthanasia in the United States is decided in the case of Karen Quinlan, who is diagnosed as brain dead following an overdose of drugs. Quinlan is taken off artificial life support but lives for some time, confounding both supporters and critics of euthanasia.

      1976 The House of Commons in Canada passes Bill C-84 on a free vote, abolishing capital punishment from the Canadian Criminal Code and replacing it with a mandatory life sentence without possibility of parole for twenty-five years for all first-degree murders.

      1976 The Juvenile Awareness Project, which later evolves into Scared Straight Programs, begins at New Jersey's Rahway State Prison to make juveniles aware of what being in prison is like.

      1976 The U.S. Supreme Court in Meachum v. Fano holds that a prisoner has no due process rights before being transferred to a harsher prison.

      1977 U.S. Congress passes the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, which prohibits the payment of bribes in order to obtain business contracts.

      1977 The Parole Act is amended to allow Canadian provinces to establish their own parole boards for provincial inmates.

      1977 Oklahoma adopts the first statute authorizing execution by lethal injection in 1977, and the first such execution takes place in Texas in 1982. At the start of the twenty-first century, lethal injection is the primary or exclusive method of execution in almost all of the states and under federal law.

      1977 Oregon becomes the first state to pass a law mandating arrest when a law officer has probable cause to believe that a misdemeanor domestic violence crime has been committed.

      1977 A federal court rules in Theriault v. Carlson that the First Amendment does not protect socalled religions that are obvious shams, that tend to mock established institutions, and whose members lack religious sincerity. This is one of the first cases to shift the tide away from decisions in favor of inmates' religious rights.

      1977 The U.S. government emulates German and British examples by developing the Delta Force as a division capable of operating as a counterterrorist component.

      1977 Florida begins a yearlong experiment, allowing cameras in the courtroom without the consent of the parties if the judge agreed to allow them.

      1977 California is the first state to return to the use of determinate sentencing with passage of the Determinate Sentencing Law.

      1978 The American Correctional Association begins offering a national accreditation program for adult and juvenile corrections, through the Commission on Accreditation for Corrections.

      1978 In New York, Remove Intoxicated Drivers (RID) is founded as a large-scale nationwide nonprofit organization actively campaigning against drunk driving.

      1978 The United States Supreme Court in Woodson v. North Carolina rejects a mandatory death sentence law for convictions of first-degree murder.

      1978 The National Coalition Against Domestic Violence (NCADV) is founded with the goal of becoming the voice of the battered women's movement in America.

      1978 The Pregnancy Discrimination Act forbids discrimination in employment based on the basis of pregnancy, childbirth, and related conditions.

      1978 The Royal Commission on Criminal Procedure is set up under Sir Cyril Philips in Great Britain.

      1978 The United States Supreme Court in Bellew v. Georgia rules that six is the lower limit for a jury.

      1978 Reverend Jim Jones and his 900 followers commit mass suicide in Guyana. The event brings much media and public attention to religious cults around the world.

      1978 The United States Supreme Court rules in Bordenkircher v. Hayes that prosecutors may threaten to bring additional charges against defendants who refuse to bargain as long as those charges are valid.

      1978 The United Kingdom outlaws terrorism.

      1978 The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act is passed to control suspected terrorist activity in the United States. The act enlarges the surveillance authority of the government and is further expanded in 1994.

      1979 In China, the National People's Congress (NPC) enacts the first Criminal Code and Criminal Procedure Code in the nation's history. Most of the laws and decrees promulgated since 1949 remain in force. In 1997, the Criminal Code is amended.

      1979 Dan White murders San Francisco Mayor George Moscone and councilman and gay activist Harvey Milk. His defense, later labeled the “Twinkie defense,” is that he stopped eating normally and went on a junk food diet that included Coca-Cola, chocolate candy, and Twinkies.

      1979 The United States Supreme Court in Gannett Co. v. DePasquale affirms the proposition that the Sixth Amendment right to a public trial belongs to the criminal defendant alone and not to the press or the public.

      1979 Sweden becomes the first country to prohibit corporal punishment in all sectors of society, including in the home and in schools.

      1979 The United States Supreme Court in Bell v. Wolfish rules that pretrial detainees held in jails, who are still legally “innocent,” have no more rights than those convicted and that only those rights “consistent with their confinement” will be recognized.

      1980s In the biggest series of white-collar crimes in American history, the “Great Savings and Loan Scandal” reflects increased criminal opportunity resulting from an economic crises and deregulation.

      1980s Foot patrols return to favor in American cities under the label of community policing.

      1980 The U.S. Supreme Court in U.S. v. Mendenhall establishes the “free to leave” test for determining if a person has been arrested.

      1980 Wisconsin becomes the first state to enact a “crime victims' bill of rights.”

      1980 A race riot occurs in Miami, Florida, in response to the acquittal by an all-white jury of four white police officers charged with beating a black businessman to death.

      1980 Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) is founded by the mother of a young woman killed by a repeat drunk driver who received lenient treatment in the court system.

      1981 A new Code of Criminal Procedure in Indonesia (replacing the colonial code of 1848) attempts to improve the rights of detainees by imposing time limits to detention and forbidding the use of torture to extract confessions.

      1981 John Hinckley shoots President Ronald Reagan in a scenario attributed to his twenty-six viewings of the 1976 movie Taxi Driver. Hinckley successfully uses the substantial capacity test as his defense at his trial for the attempted assassination. Hinckley is found not guilty by reason of insanity.

      1981 The United States Supreme Court in Chandler v. Florida holds that there is no absolute ban on cameras in the courtroom and that the defendant must show actual adverse impact on the trial in order to win.

      1981 The American Jail Association is founded.

      1981 Peter Barnett, Ed Blake, and Robert Ogle, Jr. each present papers at the American Academy of Forensic Sciences annual meeting that criticize the FBI crime lab's practices. They are charged with misrepresenting the lab and its practices but are subsequently cleared.

      1981 President Anwar Sadat of Egypt is assassinated on October 6 by soldiers who are secretly members of the Takfir Wal-Hajira sect.

      1982 The Missing Children's Act authorizes the FBI's National Crime Information Center to take missing children reports.

      1982 The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms becomes Part I of the Constitution Act. For the first time in Canada, the Constitution includes guarantees of certain rights and freedoms, which, except with certain limitations, have to be observed by all who make or administer the law.

      1982 James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling popularize the broken windows theory of crime control in an article in the Atlantic Monthly.

      1982 Congress enacts the Pretrial Service Act mandating the establishment of pretrial services programs in each federal judicial district.

      1982 Congress passes the Federal Victim and Witness Protection Act in order to provide model legislation for the states to improve and safeguard the victims' role in the criminal justice system without encroaching upon the constitutional rights of the defendant.

      1982 California voters approve Proposition Eight, which includes a “victims' bill of rights.”

      1982 The Barbados-based Regional Security System (RSS) is formed as a Caribbean regional alliance to combat drug trafficking.

      1982 President Ronald Reagan appoints a Presidential Commission on Drunk Driving to systematically survey state laws and local programs addressing the problem of drinking and driving.

      1983 The first boot camp programs for adults are implemented in Georgia and Oklahoma. Boot camp programs for juveniles do not become popular until the 1990s.

      1983 The Convention on Cultural Property Implementation Act passes, allowing the U.S. government to impose import restrictions on certain classes of archaeological or ethnographic material.

      1983 The stabbing deaths of officers at a federal penitentiary in Marion, Illinois, compels administrators and critics to argue the need for a facility specifically designed to hold violent, disruptive inmates. This moment is widely regarded as the birth of supermax prisons.

      1984 The federal Bail Reform Act, designed to reduce pretrial crime, allows bailees to be detained and presented to federal marshals who ensure that they appear in court.

      1984 The United States Supreme Court holds in Massachusetts v. Sheppard that evidence obtained by the police acting in good faith on a search warrant issued by a neutral and detached magistrate, which is ultimately found to be invalid, may nonetheless be admitted at trial.

      1984 The United States Supreme Court in Strickland v. Washington holds that a defendant's right to counsel is violated if the trial attorney's performance is deficient and that deficiency prejudices the defendant.

      1984 The United States Supreme Court in Nix v. Williams creates an “inevitable discovery” exception to the Miranda requirements. Under Nix, a confession obtained in violation of Miranda is still admissible in a criminal prosecution if it appears that evidence from the confession would ultimately have been discovered as police continued to investigate the case.

      1984 Congress passes the Insanity Defense Reform Act, which requires defendants to plead insanity as an affirmative defense and to prove the defense with a standard of clear and convincing evidence.

      1984 The Federal Uniform Drinking Act provides federal highway funds only to states that raise their drinking age to twenty-one.

      1984 The Missing Children's Assistance Act leads to establishment of the federally supported National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC).

      1984 President Ronald Reagan announces the formation of the National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime (NCAVC). Reagan identifies the primary mission of this new center as the identification and tracking of serial killers.

      1984 The Netherlands institutes the first needle exchange program in Amsterdam in an attempt to stem the rising number of hepatitis cases related to injection drug use.

      1984 The Sentencing Reform Act creates the United States Sentencing Commission, abolishes federal parole, and narrows judicial discretion at sentencing through the use of standardized sentencing ranges.

      1984 Washington State enacts the first truth-in-sentencing law, and the federal government passes the Comprehensive Crime Control Act. These drastically restrict or eliminate parole and goodtime credits.

      1984 The federal Family Violence Prevention and Services Act sets aside significant resources for shelters.

      1984 The Victim of Crimes Act (VOCA) secures federal commitment to victim assistance programs by establishing the first national Crime Victims Fund for state and local victim service programs.

      1984 The Cable Communications Policy Act regulates various aspects of the cable television industry and includes provisions that protect the privacy of individual cable subscribers' records.

      1984 The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act is passed, protecting a broad range of computers that facilitate interstate and international commerce and communications.

      1984 On June 5, Sikh separatists in India seize the Golden Temple in Amritsar, India. One hundred people die when Indian security forces retake the Sikh holy shrine. On October 31, Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi is assassinated by bodyguards.

      1984 The United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment is adopted by the General Assembly. It is entered into force in 1987.

      1985 The Australian government officially implements harm reduction policies with the introduction of its National Campaign against Drug Use, largely in response to the AIDS epidemic.

      1985 The United States Supreme Court in Tennessee v. Garner establishes the minimum legal standard that deadly force cannot be used against a non-dangerous fleeing felon.

      1985 The Young Offenders Act passes in Canada, raising the age of minimum criminal responsibility to twelve years old for all provinces and territories. It also sets the age of adult criminal culpability at eighteen years old across the country.

      1985 The Controlled Drugs (Penalties Act) in the United Kingdom increases the maximum sentence for trafficking to life imprisonment.

      1985 In Portland, Oregon, Penny E. Harrington becomes the first woman chief of police of a major city in the United States.

      1986 President Ronald Reagan declares a “War on Drugs,” proposing huge increases in federal expenditures devoted to the drug problem.

      1986 The Immigration Reform and Control Act prohibits discrimination against qualified aliens as well as discrimination based on national origin.

      1986 The Money Laundering Control Act, part of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act, makes money laundering a federal crime.

      1986 The Firearms Owner's Protection Act amends the Gun Control Act of 1968 to permit the interstate sale of rifles and shotguns provided they are unloaded and not readily accessible.

      1986 The United States Supreme Court in Batson v. Kentucky rules that prosecutors can no longer exclude blacks from juries simply because of the color of their skin.

      1986 Congress enacts the Electronic Communications Privacy Act in an effort to strike a workable balance among the privacy interests of telecommunications users, the business interests of service providers, and the legitimate needs of government investigators.

      1986 Jeanne Clery is murdered while she sleeps in her dormitory room at Lehigh University. Her death sparks a grassroots effort by her parents, eventually resulting in federal legislation forcing colleges and universities to publicly report criminal incidents occurring on their campuses.

      1986 William Rehnquist becomes chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court when Warren Burger retires. President Reagan's crime control agenda is supported by the Court's commitment to strengthening the criminal justice system.

      1986 The Career Criminals Amendment Act amends the federal criminal code to provide increased criminal penalties for any person who transports firearms or ammunition in interstate or foreign commerce if such person has multiple convictions for serious drug offenses and/or violent felonies.

      1987 British Society of Criminology meets for the first time in the United Kingdom.

      1987 East Germany (German Democratic Republic–GDR) abolishes the death penalty.

      1987 The United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT) is entered into force on June 27.

      1987 The United States Supreme Court in McCleskey v. Kemp considers statistical data that indicates that the race of the defendant and the race of the victim are factors that influence whether the death sentence is given.

      1987 The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) establishes the Drug Use Forecasting (DUF) program to measure trends in illicit drug use in ten geographically diverse, predominantly large American cities (or counties).

      1987 The United States Supreme Court in Turner v. Safley establishes a “balancing test” to decide between the legitimate interests of inmates and the correctional facility.

      1987 The United States Supreme Court in O'Lone v. Estate of Shabazz rules that depriving an inmate of attending a religious service for “legitimate penological interests” is not in violation of the First Amendment.

      1987 The first DNA dragnet, chronicled in Joseph Wambaugh's book The Blooding, helps police solve two murders in Leicester, England.

      1988 A documentary by Errol Morris titled The Thin Blue Line elicits additional information by real players in the case of Adams v. Texas, resulting in a virtual confession by the person actually responsible for the murder for which Randall Adams was convicted. The film becomes the basis for Adams's appeal from death row and eventually results in his complete exoneration.

      1989 The United States Supreme Court in Stanford v. Kentucky holds that the Eighth Amendment is not violated when the death sentence is given to individuals who were sixteen or older when they committed their offense.

      1989 The United States Supreme Court in Penry v. Lynaugh declines to hold that the execution of a mentally retarded individual is a violation of the Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

      1989 The United States Supreme Court in Duckworth v. Eagan asserts that it is not necessary for police to read Miranda warnings in the same words used in the Miranda decision itself.

      1990s American television crime dramas focus heavily on the day-to-day nature of police and legal work and on the lives of police officers. Shows such as Law & Order are touted as being more realistic than early television crime genres.

      1990 Congress passes the Student Right to Know and Campus Security Act. The legislation forces colleges and universities receiving federal financial aid to publicly report criminal incidents that occur on their campuses. It is later amended and renamed the Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act (1998).

      1990 The Hate Crime Statistics Act is passed by Congress, mandating that a database of crimes motivated by religion, ethnic, racial, or sexual orientation be collected.

      1990 Famous works by Vermeer and Rembrandt are stolen from the Isabella Stewart Gardiner Museum in Boston.

      1990 California passes the nation's first antistalking law, and other states quickly follow suit.

      1990 The Victims' Rights and Restitution Act incorporates a bill of rights for federal crime victims and codifies services that Congress determined should be available to victims of crime.

      1990 The Americans with Disabilities Act prohibits discrimination against handicapped individuals by all state and local governments.

      1990 The United Nations convention on Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners is approved by the General Assembly.

      1991 Four white Los Angeles police offices are videotaped beating Rodney King, a black motorist. The incident sets off a national outcry about police brutality toward blacks and other minorities.

      1991 The United States Supreme Court rules in Wilson v. Seiter that an individual inmate's conditions should meet “standards of decency.”

      1991 The United States Supreme Court rules in Groves v. U.S. that a police officer cannot be allowed to risk the lives of innocent people when pursuing an offender for a minor infraction.

      1991 The American Psychology–Law Society Committee on Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists votes to approve a broad definition of forensic psychology, encompassing expertise in both civil and criminal domains of professional practice and research.

      1991 The United States Supreme Court in Payne v. Tennessee achieves a measure of headway in the promotion of victims' rights by permitting the use of “victim impact” evidence.

      1992 The acquittal of the Los Angeles police officers accused of beating Rodney King leads to prolonged rioting in the city. Nearly sixty people are killed, more than 2,300 injured, more than 6,000 arrested, and more than a half billion dollars worth of destruction occurs before the National Guard and police take back control of the streets after days of looting and destruction.

      1992 On a remote ridge in northern Idaho, a weeklong standoff between white supremacist Randy Weaver and federal agents ends in a shootout in which an FBI sniper shoots and kills Weaver's wife, Vicky. The Ruby Ridge confrontation began a week earlier when federal marshals tried to arrest Weaver for failing to appear in court on weapons charges. At that time, a gun battle erupted between marshals and Weaver's fourteen-year-old son, resulting in the deaths of Weaver's son and a marshal.

      1992 The United Nations Security Council establishes an ad hoc tribunal, which becomes the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTFY). It has jurisdiction over crimes that are unquestionably violations of customary international law.

      1992 Canada's Corrections and Conditional Release Act sparks new interest in the operations and outcome of day parole, by redefining its purpose to be “preparation of offenders for full parole or statutory release.”

      1992 The Anti-Car Theft Act makes armed carjacking a federal offense under certain conditions such as causing the victim serious bodily harm or death, and taking a motor vehicle that has been transported, shipped, or received in interstate or foreign commerce from the person by force, violence, or intimidation.

      1992 The United Nations adopts the Rome Convention as an international standard relating to piracy, in the wake of an attack on the Achille Lauro.

      1992 Attorneys Barry Scheck and Peter Neufeld found the Innocence Project at the Benjamin N. Cardozo Law School at Yeshiva University in New York City. Relying on postconviction DNA testing and other evidence, the project works to reverse wrongful convictions of death row inmates and to pass legislation toward the same end.

      1992 On April 10, former Panama leader Manuel Noriega is convicted in a U.S. court of drug trafficking, money laundering, and other crimes and sentenced to forty years in prison. He had been captured by U.S. troops in Panama and brought to the United States for trial. He is the only foreign head of state brought by U.S. forces to the United States and the only one tried in a U.S. court.

      1993 The United States Supreme Court ruling in Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals becomes the new precedent for admissibility of scientific evidence.

      1993 The Family and Medical Leave Act protects employees of both genders by allowing twelve weeks of unpaid leave during a twelve-month employment period for the birth or placement of a child, the care of an immediate family member with a serious health condition, and/or the employee's own medical care for a serious health condition.

      1993 ATF and FBI agents are involved in a fifty-one-day standoff with a group of Branch Davidians led by David Koresh at a compound in Waco, Texas. After tear gas is injected into the compound, over seventy occupants die from fires and self-inflicted gunshot wounds.

      1993 The Criminal Justice Act (CJA) in Great Britain reduces bail and approves bail and probation hostels.

      1993 The World Trade Center in New York City is damaged on February 26 by a car bomb planted by Islamic terrorists in an underground garage. The bomb kills six people and injures 1,000.

      1994 A “three-strikes law” is enacted in California. This law provides that a repeat violent offender will served a minimum of twenty-five years and up to life after he or she has been convicted three times for a violent offense.

      1994 The Brady Handgun Violence Protection Act (Brady Law) passes, requiring a mandatory fiveday waiting period for handgun purchases.

      1994 Congress passes the Violence Against Women Act, which is signed into law by President Clinton. The bill provides more than $1 billion in funding to assist shelters, train law enforcement personnel and judges, and support programs addressing crimes against women.

      1994 Capital punishment is abolished in Italy under all circumstances.

      1994 A convicted pedophile who rapes and kills seven-year-old Megan Kanka inspires “Megan's Law,” which requires that communities be notified of sex offenders living in the neighborhood.

      1994 Passage of the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act adds 100,000 new police officers to police departments across the United States over a six-year period and expands the number of federal capital offenses from two to fifty-eight. The crime bill also adopts a “three strikes and you're out” provision that imposes lengthy sentences for repeat offenders. In addition, the act also sets aside $4 billion in federal prison construction funds. To be eligible for these monies, called Truth in Sentencing Incentive Funds, states must guarantee that certain violent offenders will serve 85% of their sentences.

      1994 The Administrative Maximum Security Penitentiary (ADX) in Florence, Colorado, becomes the first supermaximum security federal facility built solely for the consolidation of disruptive inmates in the Federal Bureau of Prisons.

      1994 The Telemarketing Fraud Act passes, designed to shut down dishonest telemarketing schemes.

      1994 In mass political violence in Rwanda, some 800,000 Tutsis are killed by Hutu soldiers.

      1995 Timothy McVeigh kills 168 people and wounds hundreds more in the Oklahoma City bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building.

      1995 The 1994 film Natural Born Killers (based partially on the real-life crime spree of Charles Starkweather and Caril Fugate) is cited as the inspiration for two Oklahoma teens who embark on a deadly crime spree, traveling through two states, robbing and shooting innocent victims along the way.

      1995 The televised trial of former football star O.J. Simpson is viewed by people around the world. Simpson is found not guilty of killing his former wife and her friend. The trial raises various issues about criminal justice in the United States, including the role of racism and public opinion, as well as jury competence. The case also demonstrates how crucial it is that a crime scene investigation be careful, accurate, and thorough (particularly in terms of forensic serology). Although blood found at the site of the two murders contained Simpson's DNA, the issues of contamination, mishandling, and reliability concerning genetic evidence resulted in a “not guilty” verdict in the criminal trial, but not in the following civil trial.

      1995 The National Center for Women and Policing (NCWP) is established by the Feminist Majority Foundation.

      1995 Nelson Mandela, the first president of the new South Africa, appoints the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) to investigate the crimes of apartheid.

      1995 Several Caribbean countries sign a treaty commonly known as the Shiprider Agreement in which they agree to six counternarcotic measures: shipboarding, shiprider, pursuit, entry-toinvestigate, overflight, and order-to-land.

      1995 In Japan, the Aum Shinri Kyo cult launches a nerve gas attack in a Tokyo subway station, killing twelve people and wounding several thousand. Cult leader Shoko Asahara is arrested, convicted, and sentenced to life imprisonment.

      1996 The Anti-Terrorist and Effective Death Penalty Act sharply limits prisoners'ability to file more than one habeas corpus petition, thereby streamlining the conviction and execution process. The act adds penalties for arson and other explosives violations. It gives the secretary of state the authority to designate foreign terrorist organizations and prohibit U.S. citizens and institutions from conducting business and providing funds to such organizations.

      1996 Congress votes to stop funding the postconviction defender organizations that have played a vital role in representing death row inmates; similarly, lawmakers enact the Prison Litigation Reform Act that significantly curtails prisoners' rights.

      1996 Theodore Kaczynski, the notorious “Unabomber,” is arrested, ending the nation's longest, most expensive hunt for a serial killer. Kaczynski orchestrated sixteen Unabomber attacks between 1978 and 1995. In a plea bargain, he is sentenced to life imprisonment without the possibility of parole.

      1996 The Church Arson Prevention Act further bolsters existing laws regarding church burning and desecration. It is enacted following a series of dozens of fires at rural black churches in the South.

      1996 The National Institute of Justice establishes the Crime Mapping Resource Center and funds several research projects intended to advance the usefulness of computer-based crime analysis.

      1996 The federal government passes the Interstate Stalking Punishment and Prevention Act.

      1996 The United States Supreme Court in Whren v. U.S. validates the long-standing police practice commonly referred to as pretextual stops.

      1996 Congress passes the Prisoner Litigation Reform Act, making it more difficult for prisoners to file suits challenging conditions in prison and limiting the ability of lower federal court judges to intervene in the management of prisons through injunctive relief.

      1996 The Domestic Violence Offender Gun Ban prohibits anyone convicted of a misdemeanor domestic violence offense from owning a gun.

      1996 The Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act is passed and gives the government increased authority to restrict entry to the United States and also increases the government's surveillance power.

      1996 The Special Rapporteur on Prisons and Conditions of Detention in Africa is appointed, after criminal justice reform became a focus of activity in several countries in sub-Saharan Africa.

      1996 At a seminar in Kampala, Uganda, representatives from forty African nations produce the Kampala Declaration, which sets out a broad reform agenda covering both prison conditions and the use of prison in Africa.

      1997 A Juvenile Justice Law is passed by Parliament in Indonesia and signed by President Soeharto.

      1997 The American Bar Association calls for a temporary halt to executions while states put in place policies to ensure fairness and to minimize the risk of executing the innocent.

      1997 The Drug Use Forecasting program evolves into the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM) program.

      1997 The National Institute of Justice establishes the Crime Mapping Research Center to promote the use of crime mapping in local police departments.

      1997 The Crime Sentences Act in Great Britain introduces for the first time, mandatory sentences for drug offending.

      1997 The FBI identifies thirteen STR (short tandem repeat) DNA loci that it deems appropriate for forensic testing.

      1998 Congress passes the Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act, making identity theft a federal felony.

      1997 The FBI and ATF join together to form the formation of a National Integrated Ballistic Information Network, known as NIBIN.

      1997 The international terrorist and assassin Carlos (Ilich Ramirez Sanchez, known as “Carlos the Jackal”) is convicted in France of murdering two French law enforcement agents in 1975 and sentenced to life in prison. His best-known achievement was kidnapping eighty-one OPEC oil ministers in Vienna in 1975 and extorting at least $5 million from Arab governments for their release.

      1998 The Digital Millennium Copyright Act protects video and computer game manufacturers against Web sites and Internet service providers that host sales of pirated software.

      1998 In order to guarantee safe access to the Internet by minors, the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act is passed. It bars Internet sites from collecting personally identifiable information from children under thirteen without parental consent.

      1998 The death penalty in Canada is abolished with the passage of legislation removing all references to capital punishment from the National Defence Act.

      1998 There are significant moves towards the creation of an International Criminal Court (ICC) at The Rome Conference, which ends with 122 countries voting for establishing the ICC, to be situated at The Hague.

      1998 Under the new Sex Offender Treatment Act in Germany, secure custody for sex offenders (Special Secure Units) is increased.

      1999 Two students, Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris, open fire on other students and staff at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, killing thirteen and wounding twenty-six.

      1999 Criticism of aggressive crime control measures increases when Amadou Diallo, an African immigrant, is killed in a barrage of forty-one bullets fired by New York City police who mistake him for a suspected armed rapist.

      1999 In near-simultaneous attacks on U.S. embassies in Nairobi, Kenya, and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, 224 people are killed. The terrorist network of Osama bin Laden is accused by the United States of masterminding the bombings.

      1999 In Seattle, Washington, a meeting of the World Trade Organization is disrupted by political protests and riots.

      2000 Barry Scheck, Peter Neufeld, and Jim Dwyer publish Actual Innocence, a study of sixty-five cases in which DNA testing proved that a person convicted of a felony was innocent. Fifteen of the sixty-five wrongful convictions resulted, in whole or in part, from a false confession.

      2000 Congress sets a .08 percent BAC level as the national standard for alcohol-impaired driving.

      2000 A class action lawsuit brought by surviving inmates and their families of the Attica uprising in 1971 against New York is settled with an award of $8 million to those who had been hostages and $4 million to cover legal fees.

      2000 The Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act (RLUIPA) is signed into law, assuring that those confined in government institutions such as prisons will be protected in the practice of their faith.

      2000 Sponsors of the Victims' Bill of Rights Amendment to the Constitution withdraw it from consideration when it becomes apparent the amendment will not receive the requisite two-thirds majority vote for approval.

      2000 A trial judge in New York issues a watershed ruling recognizing a presumptive free speech right under the First Amendment to televise court proceedings. New York joins the forty-seven other states permitting television cameras in the courtroom and the thirty-seven other states permitting televised trials, when it allows television coverage of the trial of four New York City police officers accused of murdering Amadou Diallo, an unarmed African.

      2000 Nintendo, Sega of America, and Electronic Arts sue Yahoo! in federal court for running a “cyber flea market” for counterfeit video games.

      2000 Michael McDermott, a forty-two-year-old employee of Edgewater Technology in Wakefield, Massachusetts, opens fire on his coworkers, killing seven.

      2000 British physician Harold Shipman is convicted of murdering 15 female patients and forging the will of one. In Britain's largest serial killing, police believe that Shipman killed as many as 150 patients. Nearly all were elderly women living alone, whom Shipman visited at home and injected with morphine.

      2001 The Association of Caribbean Commissioners of Police (ACCP) collectively adopts community policing as a “modernized” policing mission.

      2001 A religious riot occurs in Nigeria between Christians and Muslims. The riot begins when Muslims attack Christians protesting the adoption of Islamic law in Nigeria. After a week of hostility, the riots spread to the eastern part of the country, leaving 300 dead and several buildings destroyed by fire.

      2001 In June, Timothy McVeigh, who had been convicted of the 1995 Oklahoma terrorist bombing that killed 167 people, is executed by lethal injection at the federal facility in Terre Haute, Indiana. He is the first person executed for a federal crime in thirty-eight years.

      2001 On September 11, planes are hijacked by Muslim terrorists in the United States and crashed into the two towers of the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, D.C. A fourth plane, thought to be headed for the U.S. Capitol building, crashes in rural Pennsylvania. The dead on the planes and in the two collapsed World Trade Center towers and the Pentagon are estimated at about 3,500. The attack leads to a worldwide antiterrorism effort led by the United States, the military aspect of which begins on October 7 with a missile and air attack on Afghanistan military and communications centers by American and British forces.

      2001 On November 13, Attorney General John Ashcroft issues an order that physicians are to be punished for participating in assisted suicides. The order is meant to end euthanasia in Oregon.

      2002 Investigations begin into the bankruptcy of Enron, the seventh-largest company in the United States. The Justice Department and four congressional committees look into whether Enron and Arthur Anderson LLP, its auditing firm, defrauded investors and employees who held stock in the company. It remains to be seen how Enron's ties to both Repbulican and Democratic politicians will affect the political landscape.

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