Encyclopedia of Communication Theory


Edited by: Stephen W. Littlejohn & Karen A. Foss

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    • Editorial Board

      General Editors

      Stephen W. Littlejohn, University of New Mexico

      Karen A. Foss, University of New Mexico

      Editorial Board

      Brenda J. Allen, University of Colorado Denver

      J. Kevin Barge, Texas A&M University

      Roger de la Garde, Laval University

      Lisa A. Flores, University of Colorado Boulder

      Vijai N. Giri Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur

      Charlotte Kroløkke, University of Southern Denmark

      Mark P. Orbe, Western Michigan University

      James Taylor, University of Montréal

      Ingrid Volkmer, University of Melbourne


      View Copyright Page

      List of Entries

      Reader's Guide


      About the Editors and Editorial Board

      General Editors

      Stephen W. Littlejohn is an adjunct professor of communication and journalism at the University of New Mexico. He is also a communication consultant and mediator. He has a long-standing interest in communication theory, having coauthored Theories of Human Communication, currently going into its 10th edition. In addition to numerous papers and articles, Littlejohn has also coauthored several books, including Moral Conflict: When Social Worlds Collide, Elements of Speech Communication, Persuasive Transactions, Engaging Communication in Conflict: Systemic Practice, Mediation: Empowerment in Conflict Management, Facework: Bridging Theory and Practice, and Communication, Conflict, and the Management of Difference. He received his PhD in communication at the University of Utah.

      Karen A. Foss is a regents professor and a professor of communication and journalism at the University of New Mexico. She earned a PhD in communication from the University of Iowa and an MA in communication from the University of Oregon, and she has been at the forefront of bringing issues of gender and feminist perspectives into the communication discipline. She was named Scholar of the Year at Humboldt State University, a Presidential Teaching Fellow at the University of New Mexico, and Gender Scholar of the Year for 2005 by the Southern Communication Association. She also was awarded the Francine Merritt Award, given by the National Communication Association, for contributions to the lives of women in communication. She is the coauthor of Contemporary Perspectives on Rhetoric, Women Speak: The Eloquence of Women's Lives, Inviting Transformation: Presentational Speaking for a Changing World, Feminist Rhetorical Theories, and Theories of Human Communication, which have consistently defined and challenged the communication discipline.

      Editorial Board

      Brenda J. Allen is an associate dean in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences and a professor in the Department of Communication at the University of Colorado Denver. Her research and teaching areas are organizational communication, social identity, social construction, critical pedagogy, and computer-mediated communication. Among her numerous publications is a groundbreaking book titled Difference Matters: Communicating Social Identity. She is a coeditor of the International and Inter cultural Communication Annual, and she recently received a Master Teacher Award from the Western States Communication Association.

      J. Kevin Barge is a professor of communication at Texas A&M University. He received his MA and PhD degrees from the University of Kansas. His research interests center on developing a social constructionist approach to management and leadership, exploring the role of appreciative forms of communication to transform organizations and articulating the relationship between dialogue and organizing in organizational and community contexts. His research has been published in the Academy of Management Review, Management Communication Quarterly, Journal of Applied Communication Research, The OD Practitioner, Communication Theory, and Communication Monographs.

      Roger de la Garde is a retired professor of sociology, Department of Communication, Laval University (Quebec, Canada). Still active in the academic field, he continues to supervise doctoral theses and remains is editor of the scientific journal Communication, which he cofounded in 1975. Past president of the Canadian Communication Association, his research interests and publications cover popular culture, mass communication, ideology, public discourse, and identity. He has contributed to the Canadian Journal of Communication; Media, Culture & Society; and the Encyclopedia of Television. He is a member of the editorial board of Communication Theory and Cyberlegenda.

      Lisa A. Flores is an associate professor of communication at the University of Colorado Boulder. Her research explores rhetorical dynamics of domination and subordination, principally as linked to race and gender. Current projects include a rhetorical history of Mexican immigrants and Mexican Americans and a rhetorical analysis of contemporary representations of masculinity. Her work has appeared in such places as the Quarterly Journal of Speech, Critical Studies in Media Communication, and Text and Performance Quarterly.

      Vijai N. Giri is an associate professor in the Department of Humanities & Social Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India. HereceivedhisVhD'mlnterpersonalCommunication from Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur in January 2002. He has been teaching undergraduate, postgraduate, and MBA students since 1984. His excellent academic record is evidenced by his many awards and distinctions. To mention a few, he was awarded the National Merit Scholarship and the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) Fellowship, and he has visited Germany several times to conduct his research in the area of organizational-intercultural communication. He has published a book, six book chapters, and about 30 research articles in refereed journals. He is a member of the editorial board of Communication Theory. He worked as the guest editor of International Journal of Communication and ad hoc reviewer of Social Behaviour and Personality: An International Journal. He organizes short-term training programs on Interpersonal Communication for college teachers and middle-level managers. His current research interests include interpersonal, intercultural, and organizational communication.

      Charlotte KroLakke holds a PhD and serves as an associate professor of communication and cultural studies at the Institute of Literature, Culture and Media at the University of Southern Denmark. She is the coauthor of Gender Communication Theories and Analyses: From Silence to Performance and the author of several articles within the areas of computer-mediated communication, gender and technology, and reproductive technology. She is currently working on a project on three-dimensional fetal ultrasound imaging in which focus rests on the ways in which participants assign personhood, gender, and nationality to the fetus. Kroløkke is also board member of the Danish National Gender Association and vice-chair of the board of the Danish National Gender Library, Kvinfo.

      Mark P. Orbe received his PhD from Ohio University and is a professor of communication and diversity in the School of Communication at Western Michigan University where he holds a joint appointment in the Gender and Women's Program. His teaching and research interests center on the inextricable relationship between culture and communication as played out in a number of contexts (intrapersonal, interpersonal, inter-group, mass media). He has presented over 80 papers at regional, national, and international academic conferences, published close to 75 articles in scholarly journals or chapters in edited books. He has also published seven books to date, including the seminal work, Constructing Co-Cultural Theory: An Explication of Culture, Power, and Communication. Orbe is the immediate past editor of The Journal of Intergroup Relations, current coeditor of The International and Intercultural Communication Annual, as well as the guest editor of a Critical Studies in Media Communication special issue on race and reality TV.

      James Taylor is a professor emeritus of communication science at the Universite de Montréal, a department that he initiated as its first chair in 1970. His role in developing communication studies in Canada was recognized by the university at the time of its hundredth anniversary, by naming him one of its pioneers. Author or coauthor of eight books and nearly a hundred published papers, he was honored by being named Fellow of the International Communication Association in 2007. His role in breaking new ground in the development of a theory of communication as the basis of organization has recently been recognized by the holding of a major international conference that addresses this theme in May of 2008. He is now preparing a new book aimed at publication in 2009.

      Ingrid Volkmer is an associate professor of media and communication, University of Melbourne, Australia. She has held visiting appointments at Harvard and MIT. Her main field of interest is the influence of globalization on public cultures of various societies. She has published widely in this area. Among her latest publications are News in Public Memory and an article, “Governing the Spatial Reach: Sphere of Influence and Challenges to Global Media Policy.” Volkmer is an associate editor of the Encyclopedia Globalization and serves as chair of the Philosophy of Communication Division of the International Communication Association and on the advisory board of various journals, such as Global Media & Communication.


      Walid Afifi, University of California, Santa Bárbara

      Brenda J. Allen, University of Colorado Denver

      Mark DaCosta Alleyne, Georgia State University

      Hector Amaya, Southwestern University

      Peter A. Andersen, San Diego State University

      Rob Anderson, Saint Louis University

      Pat Arneson, Duquesne University

      John Arthos, Denison University

      Molefi Kete Asante, Temple University

      Austin S. Babrow, Purdue University

      J. Kevin Barge, Texas A&M University

      Leslie A. Baxter, University of Iowa

      Michael J. Beatty, University of Miami

      Tim Berard, Kent State University

      Teresa Bergman, University of the Pacific

      Joseph A. Bonito, University of Arizona

      Robert Bostrom, University of Kentucky

      Jonathan M. Bowman, University of San Diego

      Oliver Boyd-Barrett, Bowling Green State University

      Janet A. Bridges, Sam Houston State University

      Benjamin J. Broome, Arizona State University

      Larry Browning, University of Texas at Austin

      Tom Bruneau, Radford University

      Judee K. Burgoon, University of Arizona

      Rhiannon Bury, Athabasca University

      Kristina Busse, University of South Alabama

      Milton N. Campos, Universite de Montréal

      Robert E. Carlson, University of Nebraska at Omaha

      John Carr, University of New Mexico

      Donald J. Cegala, Ohio State University

      Briankle G. Chang, University of Massachusetts Amherst

      Karma R. Chavez, University of New Mexico

      Guo-Ming Chen, University of Rhode Island

      Young Cheon Cho, California State University, Chico

      Kenneth N. Cissna, University of South Florida

      Dana L. Cloud, University of Texas at Austin

      Joelle Collier, College of Santa Fe

      Mary Jane Collier, University of New Mexico

      François Cooren, Universite de Montréal

      Steven Corman, Arizona State University

      Patricia Olivia Covarrubias Baillet, University of New Mexico

      Bryan Crable, Villanova University

      Robert T. Craig, University of Colorado Boulder

      Janet M. Cramer, University of New Mexico

      Stuart Cunningham, Queensland University of Technology

      Fabienne Darling-Wolf, Temple University

      John J. Davies, Brigbam Young University

      Dennis K. Davis, Penn State University

      Olga Idriss Davis, Arizona State University

      Roger de la Garde, Laval University

      Sarah Amira De la Garza, Arizona State University

      Stanley A. Deetz, University of Colorado Boulder

      Sarah E. Dempsey, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

      Alan R. Dennis, Indiana University

      Brenda Dervin, Ohio State University

      Elizabeth A. Dickinson, University of New Mexico

      Wimal Dissanayake, University of Hawaii

      Lewis Donohew, University of Kentucky

      Norah E. Dunbar, University of Oklahoma

      Deborah Dunn, Westmont College

      Mohan J. Dutta, Purdue University

      Amy Ebesu Hubbard, University of Hawaii at Manoa

      Eric M. Eisenberg, University of South Florida

      Donald Ellis, University of Hartford

      Valentin Escudero, University of La Coruna

      Lisa A. Flores, University of Colorado Boulder

      Karen A. Foss, University of New Mexico

      Sonja K. Foss, University of Colorado Denver

      Lawrence R. Frey, University of Colorado Boulder

      Shiv Ganesh, Waikato Management School

      Robert H. Gass, California State University, Fullerton

      John Gastil, University of Washington

      Kathleen M. German, Miami University

      Howard Giles, University of California, Santa Bárbara

      Vijai N. Giri, Indian Institute of Technology

      Kharagpur, India

      Daena J. Goldsmith, Lewis & Clark College

      Loril M. Gossett, University of North Carolina at Charlotte

      John O. Greene, Purdue University

      Kathryn Greene, Rutgers University

      Ronald Walter Greene, University of Minnesota

      Cindy L. Griffin, Colorado State University

      Shelton A. Gunaratne, Minnesota State University Moorhead

      Joshua Gunn, University of Texas at Austin

      Eddie Harmon-Jones, Texas A&M University

      Robert Hassan, University of Melbourne

      Michael L. Hecht, Pennsylvania State University

      Dean E. Hewes, University of Minnesota

      Charles A. Hill, University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh

      David Holmes, Monash University

      Youichi Ito, Akita International University

      Ronald L. Jackson II, University of Illinois at Urb ana-Champaign

      Fern L. Johnson, Clark University

      Vamsee Juluri, University of San Francisco

      Min-Sun Kim, University of Hawaii at Manoa

      Young Yun Kim, University of Oklahoma

      D. Lawrence Kincaid, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

      Leanne K. Knobloch, University of Illinois

      Ascan F. Koerner, University of Minnesota

      Cheris Kramarae, University of Oregon

      Gary L. Kreps, George Mason University

      Klaus Krippendorff, University of Pennsylvania

      Charlotte Kroløkke, University of Southern Denmark

      Steve J. Kulich, Shanghai International Studies University

      Teruyuki Kume, Rikkyo University

      John C. Lammers, University of Illinois

      James P. Lantolf, Penn State University

      Kwan Min Lee, University of Southern California

      Wendy Leeds-Hurwitz, University of Wisconsin-Parkside

      Thomas R. Lindlof, University of Kentucky

      Lisbeth Lipari, Denison University

      Stephen W. Littlejohn, University of New Mexico

      Owen Hanley Lynch, Southern Methodist University

      Susan Mackey-Kallis, Villanova University

      Virginia McDermott, University of New Mexico

      Raymie E. McKerrow, Ohio University

      Sara L. McKinnon, University of New Mexico

      Ed McLuskie, Boise State University

      Mark Lawrence McPhail, Western College Program at Miami University

      Robert D. McPhee, Arizona State University

      Sandra Metts, Illinois State University

      Alan C. Mikkelson, Whitworth University

      Tema Milstein, University of New Mexico

      Steven Y. Miura, University of Hawaii at Hilo

      Dreama G. Moon, California State University, San Marcos

      Karen K. Myers, University of California, Santa Bárbara

      Scott A. Myers, West Virginia University

      Charles M. Naumer, University of Washington

      Anne Maydan Nicotera, George Mason University

      Janice M Odom, Valdosta State University

      John G. Oetzel, University of New Mexico

      Mark P. Orbe, Western Michigan University

      Michael M. Osborn, University of Memphis

      Alessandra Padula, Universita degli Studi di L'Aquila

      Saumya Pant, University of New Mexico

      Charles Pavitt, University of Delaware

      Kevin J. Pearce, Bryant University

      Sandra Petronio, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis

      Patrick Lee Plaisance, Colorado State University

      Marshall Scott Poole, University of Illinois

      Michael H. Prosser, Shanghai International Studies University

      Artemio Ramirez, Arizona State University

      Andrew S. Rancer, University of Akron

      Scott Reid, University of California, Santa Bárbara

      Jessica S. Robles, University of Colorado Boulder

      L. Edna Rogers, University of Utah

      Richard A. Rogers, Northern Arizona University

      Michael Roloff, Northwestern University

      Abran J. Salazar, University of Rhode Island

      Jennifer A. Samp, University of Georgia

      Kim Christian Schr⊘der, Roskilde University

      Janice Schuetz, University of New Mexico

      Cliff Scott, University of North Carolina at Charlotte

      John S. Seiter, Utah State University, Logan

      James Shanahan, Fairfield University

      Susan B. Shimanoff, San Francisco State University

      Stuart J. Sigman, Naropa University

      Kami J. Silk, Michigan State University

      Arvind Singhal, University of Texas El Faso

      Michael D. Slater, Ohio State University

      Rachel A. Smith, Pennsylvania State University

      Thomas M. Steinfatt, University of Miami

      Cynthia Stohl, University of California, Santa Bárbara

      Scott R. Stroud, University of Texas-Fan American

      Robert C. Swieringa, Grand Valley State University

      James Taylor, Universite de Montréal

      Hedwig te Molder, Wageningen University

      Jennifer A. Theiss, Rutgers University

      Pradip Thomas, University of Queensland

      Stella Ting-Toomey, California State University at Fullerton

      Karen Tracy, University of Colorado Boulder

      Sarah J. Tracy, Arizona State University

      April Vannini, European Graduate School

      Don Rodney Vaughan, East Mississippi Community College

      Ingrid Volkmer, University of Melbourne

      John T. Warren, Southern Illinois University

      David Weiss, Montana State University Billings

      Olaf H. Werder, University of New Mexico

      Christopher Joseph Westgate, Texas A&M University

      Bryan B. Whaley, University of San Francisco

      Michele White, Tulane University

      Julia T. Wood, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

      Xiaosui Xiao, Hong Kong Baptist University

      Gust A. Yep, San Francisco State University

      Jing Yin, University of Hawaii at Hilo

      Julie Yingling, Humboldt State University


      Communication students frequently approach librarians seeking a source that will provide a ready summary of a particular theory or tradition. Communication scholars also occasionally need a good central reference for their teaching and research. This encyclopedia provides a one-stop source for theories and theoretical concepts and a relatively comprehensive overview of the entire field of communication theory. It is a significant resource because it summarizes in one place the diversity of theory in the communication field. Yet unlike larger topical encyclopedias that try to cover all topics in many volumes, this is a relatively small set focused just on theory. It will provide an excellent starting place for individuals seeking information on the various topics covered. Furthermore, readers will be able to see how topics relate to one another, get a sense of larger traditions and histories, and find a variety of bibliographical sources with which they can begin to expand their reading lists.

      About This Encyclopedia

      This encyclopedia is a two-volume set that, in more than 300 entries, offers current descriptions of the theories that explain numerous aspects of communication and present the background issues and concepts that comprise these theories. These entries have been written by nearly 200 contributors from 10 countries, including Australia, Canada, China, Denmark, India, Italy, Japan, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Entries range in length—from 1,000 to 3,000 words, depending upon the scope and detail required. To ensure adequate coverage, an editorial board of 10 members—also of diverse cultures and countries of origin—was formed to review the entries. All are recognized experts in several areas within communication theory and have contributed significantly to its development. All reviewers are also contributors.

      The entries are written for the introductory reader—students who have little or no background in the topic. For the most part, contributors have avoided unnecessary jargon and defined terms as needed. Although many of the entries require attentive reading, serious readers will find them accessible and informative, and those who want more advanced treatment can pursue further readings or entries in the bibliography. Readers who may have trouble understanding an entry can move to related topics identified in the “See also” sections and then return to the more difficult one.

      We made the decision to feature elements, concepts, dimensions, and traditions of theory, as well as to feature individual theories, as entries. Individual theorists are listed separately with reference to the entries in which their work is discussed. Entries do not include citations, but each lists a few key sources as Further Readings. Cross-references are provided in the “See also” section at the end of each entry. A single classified bibliography of major theoretical works is also included. Readers can access the information in a number of ways:

      • The alphabetical list of entries at the beginning of each volume provides the easiest way for a reader to identify topics of interest. Readers may want to start here by scanning the list of topics to identify those most relevant to their research.
      • The Reader's Guide at the beginning of the set provides a classified list of topics organized around 17 themes. With this guide readers can begin with a broad theme and see which entries relate to it. This guide is also of value for showing connections among theories and for developing a sense of the field as a whole.
      • The alphabetical list of theorists adjacent to the Reader's Guide will be an important index for readers who wish to learn more about individual scholars and their work. This list identifies the entries that cover each theorist's work.
      • The Selected Bibliography of Major Works by Topic, located at the back of Volume 2, will be a vital resource for readers seeking original works. Readers can scan the alphabetical listing of topics to find major works of interest. This tool comes with instructions on how best to use it.
      • The Chronology, located immediately after this introduction, lists major events in the history of communication theory. This tool facilitates an understanding of the various developments in the field of communication as a whole.
      • The index is an obvious method of accessing information. It is a detailed list of topics with page references.

      A Brief History

      Communication as a concept always has been with us, but the origins of the discipline are more recent. In the United States, the humanistic roots of the discipline can be found in the study of rhetoric in ancient Greece and Rome, while the social scientific side typically dates its origins to the rise of studies of mass media, public opinion, propaganda, and persuasion early in the 20th century and especially during World War II. Both strands had a decidedly pragmatic bent: The five canons of rhetoric—invention, organization, style, delivery, and memory—were designed to help a speaker better prepare for and argue a position in the court, the assembly, or at a ceremonial event. Social scientists had a similarly pragmatic concern in understanding the functions and possibilities for communication in advertising, media, and technology as well as in face-to-face contexts.

      Communication theory, then, followed from the pragmatic concerns about the study of communication. At first, communication scholars turned to existing disciplines for theories—not surprising since virtually every discipline concerned with the human being must study communication to some degree. The recognition of social sciences as legitimate disciplines after World War II gave even more credence to the contributions of psychology and sociology for understanding human communicative behavior. European scholars began to influence communication theory in the United States after World War II as well; heavily influenced by Marxist theories, European scholars from a variety of disciplines have been responsible for the introduction of critical-cultural theories and methods into the study of communication.

      Gradually, however, separate communication departments began to form. At first often referred to as departments of speech communication to reflect both the rhetorical and social scientific roots, most departments today are simply called departments of communication or communication studies. In contrast to scholars in related disciplines who tend to consider communication a secondary process for transmitting information about the world, communication scholars see communication as the organizing principle of human social life: Communication constructs the social world rather than simply providing the means for describing that world.

      Of course, theories of communication are not distinctive to the Western tradition and the United States. Virtually every culture has been concerned with the nature and functions of communication, and communication scholars are beginning to integrate theories from a variety of countries and cultures. Feminist scholars have sought to describe ways feminine worldviews might foster different modes of communication since the 1970s. Afrocentric and Asiacentric communication are perhaps the best articulated bodies of work to date that describe the communication assumptions and practices of African Americans and Asians, respectively. Increasingly, then, communication scholars are seeking to understand similarities and differences across cultures and to articulate more nuanced theories to reflect these more comprehensive understandings of how communication works.

      Although the communication field now has the legitimacy and coherence that comes from disciplinary status, it remains a continually evolving and changing discipline. This encyclopedia will offer the student of communication a sense of the history, development, and current status of the discipline with an emphasis on the theories that comprise it. We hope readers in communication will engage these theories in a spirit of ongoing inquiry that is crucial to the continued development of the field. And we hope those in related fields will gain a better understanding of what the communication discipline is all about.


      We are indebted to our editorial board and to all of our contributors, listed by name at the beginning of the encyclopedia. Their expertise, effort, and commitment contributed to the excellence of this project. We are especially indebted to our colleagues in the Communication and Journalism Department at the University of New Mexico who provided guidance and wrote contributions to this work. This work is the product not only of authors and managing editors, but also of a team of professionals at Sage Publications who made the successful completion of the project possible by their many hours of work from its inception to final publication. We want to express particular appreciation to these individuals: Jim Brace-Thompson, Yvette Pollastrini, Laura Notton, Bonnie Freeman, Renee Willers, Kevin Gleason, Sandy Zilka Livingston, Joan Shapiro, and Kate Schroeder. Because of the efforts of all involved, we are confident that this encyclopedia will be an important resource about and reference for communication theories.


      This chronology contains major themes and developments in each period and is not intended to be exhaustive.

      Classical Period

      Foundations of Western thought are established in ancient Greece and Rome.

      • Western debates on epistemology, ontology, ethics, and axiology form the bases of Western philosophy, prefiguring debates about knowledge, being, and values that continue to the present day within communication.
      • Plato and Aristotle lay foundations for classical rhetorical theory.
      • Forensics is established as the field of legal communication.
      • Ancient Greek rhetoricians grapple with what constitutes persuasive technique and skill.
      • Cicero codifies the classical canons of rhetoric—invention (invention), disposition (organization), elocution (style), memoria (memory), and pronunciation (delivery).
      • Cicero and other Romans develop speaking standards consistent with the Roman legal code and delineated legal issues that must be argued.
      • Greeks and Romans such as Theophrastus, Cicero, and Quintilian study gestures as persuasive accompaniment to rhetorical discourses, setting the stage for contemporary studies of nonverbal communication.
      • Augustine writes On Christian Doctrine, which sets out a guide for interpreting scriptures, later to be taken as one of the foundational works in hermeneutics.
      • Eastern religions and philosophies emerge with future implications for how non-Western cultures will come to think about and practice communication. Laozi and Zhuangzi found Taoism, which remains influential in Eastern thought regarding communication, human relationships, and values.
      • The creation of the Vedas through an oral tradition in India provides a basis for religious rituals in the Hindu tradition.
      • The creation of the texts known as Upanis'ads in ancient India form the core of modern Hinduism.
      • Confucius's teaching begins to influence many strands of religion and philosophy, including modern-day ideas about communication.
      • Buddha and his disciplines travel in what is now northern India and Nepal and spread teachings that were later written by disciples and became the foundation of Buddhism.
      • Bhartfhari and Sankara analyze language and speech, providing a foundation for Hindu communication theory.
      • The concept of rasa is developed in the writings of Bharata and Abhinavagupta in India.

      The role of African civilizations in human life, communication, rhetoric, and world history is established.

      • Egyptian and Nubian thought emerge.
      • Imhotep, Ptahhotep, Kagemni, Merikare, and Duauf establish a classical set of philosophies that contribute to Afrocentric ideas about communication.
      1600 to 1700

      The age of rationalism and the Enlightenment begin, as major issues in epistemology are set by philosophers of this period.

      • René Descartes develops ideas about the cognitive and rational basis of human experience, becoming a major influence in Western thought in many branches of science and humanities.
      • Jean-Jacques Rousseau writes about the social contract as a means of establishing order in society, greatly influencing Western concepts of the person and social life.
      • Immanuel Kant extends Western rationalism by integrating ideas about empirical experience and human knowing.
      • John Milton writes Areopagitica, which sets the stage for freedom of speech, leading to much work in public communication in the centuries to come.

      The Reformation, begun a century earlier, contributes to the broadening of reading and the need for textual interpretation.

      • Matthias Flacius, a follower of Luther, develops principles for scriptural interpretation.

      Scholars intensify an interest in gesture and various forms of expression.

      • Charles Darwin writes The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals.
      • Garrick Mallery compares North American Plains sign language with other languages, including that of the deaf.
      • The elocution movement, focusing on the art of expression in public address, anticipates an intense interest in communication as performance in the next century.

      Dialectical thinking emerges, influencing social critiques.

      • Georg Hegel proposes a philosophy of change based on dialectic, which influences Karl Marx and later dialectical and critical schools of thought in communication.
      • Following the ideas of Hegel, Marx publishes social and economic critiques that form the foundation for 20th-century communist and critical thought.
      • Friedrich Nietzsche creates a philosophy of power and self-interest that has influenced social scientific thinking to the present day, including theories of communication.

      Interest in collective action and public communication becomes a topic of scholarly interest.

      • Crowd theories and theories of mass society set the stage for media effects work in the following century.
      • Gabriel Tarde introduces the concept of diffusion of innovations, later to inspire a whole tradition of work in the following century.
      • British utilitarian thinkers such as John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham set the stage for intense interest in public communication and democratic processes.

      Major work centers on the relationship among signs and between signs and signified objects.

      • Charles Sanders Peirce founds the field of semiotics, which continues to influence the study of signs, language, and logic to this day.

      Early persuasion work begins.

      • St. Elmo Lewis proposes a stair-step hierarchical framework for sales.
      1900 to 1910

      Interest in collective action continues.

      • The term fandom comes to be used for sports-club fans and later science fiction fans as well, setting the stage for more recent studies of fans and fandom.
      • Walter Dill Scott begins historic research on advertising.

      Psychoanalysis captures intellectual interest, later to become a major factor in behavioral and social theory.

      • Sigmund Freud publishes landmark works on psychoanalysis, setting a counterpoint to rationalist empiricist philosophies of human agency.
      1910 to 1920

      Interest in nonlinguistic expression continues.

      • Wilhelm Wundt conceives of gestural communication as a universal language.

      Phenomenology becomes a branch of philosophy.

      • Edmund Husserl publishes his philosophy of phenomenology, which later impacts thinking throughout the social sciences and humanities, including communication.

      Psychoanalysis continues with intense interest in hidden processes of human thought and action.

      • Carl Jung's ideas on the collective unconscious open interest in the study of mythology across several fields, including communication.

      Structural theories of language develop.

      • Ferdinand Saussure publishes Course in General Linguistics, providing a foundation for the study of signs and language that remains alive and influential to the present day.

      Studies of collective action turn toward the formal study of organizations.

      • Max Weber publishes The Theory of Social and Economic Organization, a landmark work giving rise to much 20th century thought on institutions and organizations.

      American pragmatism shifts philosophical attention toward practical action.

      • John Dewey introduces the reflecting thinking process in his classic treatise How We Think, which will later have a huge effect on communication, especially group process.

      Attitudes become an object of study, leading the way to serious research and theory development later in the century.

      • William Thomas and Florian Znanicki define attitude as a mental and neural state of readiness.
      1920 to 1930

      Studies of mass media rise.

      • Science fiction fandom becomes apparent.
      • Early media research, based in large part on stimulus-response psychology, assumes powerful media effects leading to the hypodermic needle theory or magic bullet approach.
      • French writers identified film as an art form, referring to it as the “sixth art."
      • Journalist Walter Lippmann asserted that media develop simplistic “pictures” in the public of a complex social world.

      Phenomenology and existentialism advance.

      • Martin Heidegger publishes major philosophical works in the phenomenological tradition, including his classic Being and Time.

      Scholars begin to develop interest in human social behavior and relationships.

      • Early impression formation studies in psychology provide an impetus for ongoing research on how people make attributions and evaluations of others through communication.
      • Martin Buber publishes I and Thou, which is widely translated and influences studies of communication and dialogue throughout the century and beyond.
      • The now famous studies at the Hawthorne Works outside Chicago led to the discovery of the Hawthorne effect, which sparked intense interest in employee-centered approaches to organizational communication.

      Language studies become popular.

      • I. A. Richards publishes foundational work in literary criticism, semiotics, and meaning, influencing theories of communication to the current day.

      Psychologists become intensely interested in how humans think and how cognition relates to behavior.

      • Jean Piaget begins a 50-year investigation into the stages of human cognitive development, influencing cognitive theory in many fields, including communication.
      • B. F. Skinner develops the radical behaviorism project, which will come to have immense influence in the social sciences.

      The critical turn in social theory intensifies.

      • Felix Weil founds the Institute for Social Research at the University of Frankfurt am Main in Germany, providing a home for the well-known Frankfurt School, which led the way in Marxist thinking in the 20th century.
      1930 to 1940

      The first serious work on individual traits begins.

      • Psychologist Gordon Allport advances the concepts of personality and attitudes, which sets the stage for work on communication traits and persuasion.

      Studies on signs, language, and meaning continue.

      • Kenneth Burke begins a career of study and writing on human symbol use and its relationship to identification between persons and groups, later to heavily influence thinking in contemporary rhetoric.
      • Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky publishes highly influential works on human development and language and thought, later to have an impact on critical and linguistic theory.
      • Aleksei Leontiev, a close colleague of Vygotsky, begins work on activity theory, the idea that meanings are created in concrete social-interaction activities.
      • Charles Morris establishes an influential model for dividing semiotics into semantics, syntactics, and pragmatics, which gives rise to interest in studying the pragmatics of language, or how language is used in actual talk.
      • Roman Jakobson defines six functions of language, functions which help further the new pragmatic approach to language and communication.
      • Mind, Self, and Society, based on the lectures of George Herbert Mead, provides the basis of symbolic interactionism, which will have a tremendous impact on social interaction theories of communication.
      • Benjamin Lee Whorf and Edward Sapir develop the ideas now known as linguistic relativity theory.

      Marxist critical theory continues to advance.

      • Antonio Gramsci writes prison notebooks, substantially elaborating and extending Marxist thought, especially the idea of hegemony.
      • Emma Lenayuca put forward an American perspective on Marxism by applying it to peoples in the United States bound culturally to Mexico.

      Studies of media communication grow.

      • The growing popularity of radio raises important research questions about media effects and leads to such studies as Hadley Cantril's famous study of H. G. Wells's War of the Worlds.
      1940 to 1950

      Social scientists look more closely at the influence of culture and situation.

      • David Efron investigates the influence of race and environment on use of gesture.
      • Fernando Ortiz introduces the concept of transculturation, later to influence both cultural and critical studies.

      New major works in phenomenology appear.

      • Maurice Merleau-Ponty begins to publish his ideas about phenomenology.

      Social psychology begins to influence thinking about behavior, social action, and communication.

      • Kurt Lewin, commonly acknowledged as the father of social psychology, develops a field theory of conflict and also explores group influence.

      The power and role of the media are explored.

      • In landmark media-effects studies, Paul Lazarsfeld, Bernard Berelson, and Hazel Gaudet shift the view of media from powerful to limited effects, granting much influence to interpersonal rather than mass channels and leading the way to the two-step and multi-step flow models.
      • Harold Lasswell and Charles Wright identify major functions of the press.
      • The Hutchins Commission publishes A Free and Responsible Press, outlining the normative obligations of journalism to society.

      As the technical challenges of communication increase, mathematical and engineering approaches emerge.

      • Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver publish their classic A Mathematical Theory of Communication, which builds an information theory model of communication.
      • The Macy Conferences on Cybernetics bring together important intellectuals of the era.
      • John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern publish Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, which launches an entire field of investigation on rational behavior, interdependency, and negotiation.

      Applications of dialectical thinking to critical theory become clearer.

      • Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno publish The Dialectic of Enlightenment, giving rise to the theory of the culture industry.
      • Roland Barthes begins to publish critical works related to literature, semiotics, and society, his influence felt throughout the humanities and social sciences today.

      Organizational studies continue.

      • Philip Selznick's studies of leadership and administration bring attention to the relationship between institutions and communities.

      Serious clinical studies of relational communication begin.

      • Jürgen Ruesch and Gregory Bateson introduce the concept of metacommunication, or communication about communication, moving the study of communication beyond superficial ideas about simple message transmission.

      The crucial distinction between sex and gender calls attention to the place and role of women in society.

      • Simone de Beauvoir publishes her landmark treatise, The Second Sex.
      1950 to 1954

      Studies of nonverbal communication develop in earnest.

      • Ray Birdwhistell explores social interaction and becomes known especially for kinesics, the study of symbolic bodily movements.
      • George Träger begins pioneering work into paralanguage and voice quality.

      Attitude change research, particularly in social psychology, becomes a major field of study.

      • Theodore Newcomb publishes a co-orientational model, one of the first relationally oriented approaches, which stimulated much thinking in attitude theory and organizational communication.
      • Carl Hovland and his colleagues begin landmark persuasion studies at Yale University, highly influencing the study of attitude change and persuasion in several disciplines, including communication.
      • Foundational values studies are produced by Talcott Parsons, Clyde Kluchkhohn, Alex Inkeles, Daniel Levinson, and others.

      Studies of media influence intensify.

      • International communication flow studies begin to show a predominant one-way influence of more powerful nations to less powerful ones.
      • Harold Adams Innis publishes landmark works on the biasing effects of the predominant media of an era.
      • Fred Siebert, Theodore Peterson, and Wilbur Schramm publish their classic Four Theories of the Press, outlining various roles media can take in society.

      Rhetorical and language studies broaden to include new forms of discourse and new ways of looking at discourse.

      • Kenneth Burke introduces the concept of dramatism from literary theory, which sparks a long-term multidisciplinary interest in this topic as a way of understanding communication.
      • Ludwig Wittgenstein publishes Philosophical Investigations, leading the way to the study of meaning as intentional communication.

      Cybernetics emerges as an important field.

      • Norbert Wiener publishes highly influential books on cybernetics and society.

      Citizenship is explored.

      • Thomas Humphrey Marshall conceptualizes citizenship, giving rise to ongoing research in this area.

      Group communication studies advance.

      • Robert Bales first develops interaction process analysis, stimulating much research and theory-building in group communication.
      1955 to 1959

      Interpersonal communication studies broaden significantly with the introduction of fresh new approaches.

      • Carl Rogers begins to publish ideas about client-centered therapy, which launches decades of study of person-centered communication and dialogue.
      • Erving Goffman begins publishing a well-known series of books on human interaction and self-presentation that heavily influenced research and theory building in interpersonal communication.
      • George Kelly presents his personal construct theory, which provides the basis for constructivism in the United States.
      • John French and Bertram Raven publish their highly popular model of interpersonal power, positing five sources of power frequently cited in the communication literature.
      • George Homans publishes a foundational article titled “Social Behavior as Exchange,” opening a scholarly movement throughout the social sciences on social exchange theory, which has had a major influence on studies of interpersonal communication.
      • Fritz Heider publishes his acclaimed book The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations.
      • George Träger advances paralinguistics by creating a voice classification system.
      • Edward T. Hall proposes the study of proxemics, or the study of space in communication, in his landmark book The Silent Language.

      Powerful media effects models wane.

      • Joseph Klapper publishes The Effects of Mass Communication, giving credence to the limited-effects theory.
      • Elihu Katz, Jay Blumler, and Michael Gurevitch introduce the uses and gratifications approach to media, leading to a movement of studies on how people choose and use media and the ways in which they become dependent on media.

      Social psychological approaches to attitude and attitude change continue to develop and now begin to have a major impact on the study of persuasion.

      • Leon Festinger begins a visible program of research on cognitive dissonance, which is to have a major impact on persuasion and attitude studies.

      Profound shifts occur in our understanding of language and discourse.

      • Noam Chomsky proposes a new way of thinking about language and thought based in transformational grammar.
      • Stephen Toulmin publishes The Uses of Argument, which is to impact the study of argumentation by directing attention toward informal and away from formal logic.
      1960 to 1964

      Research on persuasion dominates the empirical research agenda.

      • Muzafer Sherif and his colleagues publish their landmark work on social judgment theory.
      • William McGuire proposes inoculation theory to explain resistance to persuasion.

      Alternative approaches to the study of language broaden the study of symbols and communication.

      • Michael M. Osborn, Douglas Ehninger, and others begin a decades-long inquiry into the role of metaphor in language, rhetoric, and communication.
      • Murray Edelman takes a communication perspective in his classic treatise The Symbolic Uses of Politics.
      • Jacques Lacan, already a practicing and controversial psychotherapist, begins a 2-decade series of public seminars in which he connects human subjectivity and the unconscious to language, furthering the poststructuralist move in the study of language and society.
      • Hans-Georg Gadamer completes the first edition of his magnum opus Truth and Method, which would propel hermeneutics into social science and humanities scholarship in the coming decades.
      • J. L. Austin publishes How to Do Things with Words, widely considered the beginning of speech act theory.
      • Basil Bernstein produces his theory-breaking article on elaborated and restricted codes.

      Critical theory begins a significant foray into communication studies.

      • Jürgen Habermas writes his first book, The Structural Transformations of the Public Sphere, published in English in 1989, which creates intense interest in public democratic communication. Habermas's publications, spanning nearly 40 years, make him one of the most influential communication theorists in the critical and pragmatic traditions.
      • Richard Hoggart founds the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies at the Birmingham University in United Kingdom, which will become a base for much influential work on power and cultural production.
      • Scholars begin developing postmodern theory as a counterpoint to modernism and in the process open new questions about truth claims and traditional values.

      Diffusion theory is published.

      • Everett Rogers publishes the first edition of his classic book Diffusion of Innovations.

      The second wave of feminism begins.

      • Betty Friedan publishes The Feminine Mystique.
      • Effects of media on society and human thought are explored.
      • Marshall McLuhan publishes landmark works on the biasing effects of media.
      1965 to 1969

      Qualitative approaches involving careful attention to the details of social life begin to develop.

      • Harold Garfinkel introduces ethnomethodology.
      • Influenced by ethnomethodology, Harvey Sacks lays the foundation for work in conversation analysis.
      • Marvin Scott and Stanford Lyman publish their landmark work on accounts.
      • Dell Hymes proposes an ethnography of speaking, which sparks later interest in the study of cultures in the communication field.
      • ernie Glaser and Anselm Strauss introduce grounded theory.

      Alternative critical theories challenge traditional views of language and discourse in society.

      • Michel Foucault begins a career of writing and study about the relationship of discourse, language, and knowledge to power relations in society.
      • Jacques Derrida first publishes Of Grammatology in French, introducing the idea of deconstruction, which greatly influenced poststructuralist thinking.

      Nonverbal communication studies continue apace.

      • Paul Ekman and Wallace Friesen begin research on types of nonverbal communication, with emphasis on the face and hands.
      • George Träger and others continue work relating paralanguage to animal vocalization.
      • Albert Mehrabian introduces his concept of immediacy, which will have a great effect on the study of nonverbal communication.

      Considerable new thinking about human relationships begins.

      • The pragmatic work of the Palo Alto Group becomes widely known when Paul Watzlawick, Janet Beavin, and Don Jackson write their landmark treatise Pragmatics of Human Communication: A Study of Interactional Patterns, Pathologies, and Paradoxes, which influenced theories of relationships, interpersonal communication, and systems.
      • John Bowlby publishes pioneering work on human relational attachment.
      • With the concept of transparency, Sidney Jourard begins a tradition of research and theory on self-disclosure.

      Cybernetics and system theory gain attention.

      • Ludwig von Bertalanffy popularizes system theory and starts a movement around General System Theory (GST), later inspiring advances in systems theory and complexity theory.

      Rhetorical and discourse studies broaden from traditional concepts to an increasingly wide range of phenomena.

      • Lloyd Bitzer codifies the rhetorical situation, providing a major conceptual center for rhetorical theory.
      • Chaim Perelman and Lucie Olbrechts-Tyteca publish their book, The New Rhetoric.
      • John Searle publishes Speech Acts: An Essay on the Philosophy of Language.

      Major new proposals in media theory develop.

      • Gerbner introduces cultivation theory, which grants heavy television viewing great power to affect individuals' perceptions of the world around them.
      • After studying the 1968 presidential campaign, Maxwell McCombs and Donald Shaw propose an agenda-setting theory of media, which begins a decades-long project to weigh agenda-setting effects.
      • The term johoka is coined in Japan to refer to the use of information technologies and dissemination of information through media to the public, leading to the development of informatization policies in Japan.

      Traditional epistemologies are challenged by social approaches.

      • Peter Berger and Thomas Luckmann publish their highly influential work on the social construction of reality, catalyzing a movement in communication and throughout the social sciences.

      Gender and cultural perspectives start to gain attention.

      • The Combahee River collective begins a womanist movement, later theorized by Patricia Hill Collins, to express the perspectives and experiences of Black women.

      Cognitive studies in communication are born.

      • Jean-Blaise Grize begins a career-long project on the logic of everyday communication, developing the concept of schemes, which will later come to be commonplace in cognitive theories of communication.

      Communication strategy studies gain popularity.

      • Gerald Marwell and David Schmidt identify 16 compliance-gaining strategies, sparking a whole tradition of research on this subject.
      • Richard E. Walton and Robert B. McKersie publish their classic book, A Behavioral Theory of Labor Negotiations, introducing the concepts of distributive and integrative bargaining.
      1970 to 1974

      Major new developments in philosophy and epistemology occur.

      • Thomas Kuhn publishes landmark work, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.
      • Richard Lanigan introduces the field to important philosophical concepts, particularly phenomenology, later to evolve into the field of philosophy of communication.
      • Umberto Maturana and Francisco Verela publish first works on autopoiesis, or self-defining systems, later to impact the study of the cybernetics of knowing.

      Interest in nonverbal communication increases.

      • Canadian linguist Fernando Poyatos shows the relationship between written punctuation marks and paralinguistic characteristics.
      • Fernando Poyatos also coins the term chronemics to capture the role of time in communication.

      Critical theory focuses on language, discourse, and media.

      • The rise of the Birmingham school opens avenues for increased fan studies.
      • Herbert Schiller publishes sharp critiques of
      • U.S. media and cultural hegemony, calling attention of critical scholars to this form of imperialism.
      • Jeremy Tunstall chronicles the global influence of U.S. media.
      • Michael Halliday introduces critical linguistics, greatly influencing critical approaches to discourse analysis.
      • Louis Althusser publishes his highly influential ideas about ideology and state apparatuses.
      • Paulo Freire publishes Pedagogy of the Oppressed in English, giving rise to a more critical approach to communication education and critical theory.

      Interpersonal communication becomes a major emphasis in the field.

      • Irwin Altman and Dalmas Taylor present social penetration theory, which influenced much thinking about relational development and disclosure.
      • Roderick Hart and Don Burks describe rhetorical sensitivity as an ideal approach to framing messages in communication, later to be elaborated by a team of colleagues.
      • Gregory Bateson publishes his landmark treatise Steps to an Ecology of Mind, providing a basis for decades of research on systemic and social approaches to relationships.
      • Harold Kelley stimulates a huge line of work throughout the social sciences on attribution theory, which will come to influence the study of interpersonal communication in the following decades.
      • Michael Argyle and his colleagues explore skilled interaction behavior.
      • Milton Rokeach publishes The Nature of Human Values.

      Gender and feminist studies rise in the communication field.

      • Cheris Kramer (later Kramarae) introduces the idea that women's and men's language may be different, leading the way to genderlect theory.
      • Karlyn Kohrs Campbell publishes her highly influential article on the rhetoric of women's liberation, setting in motion a tradition of feminist rhetorical criticism.
      • French feminism, later to influence U.S. feminist communication thought, begins to develop.

      New methods of discourse and conversation analysis are developed.

      • H. Paul Grice produces his principle of cooperation and identifies conversational maxims, which provide a foundation for the ongoing tradition of conversation analysis.

      Media theory expands.

      • Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann proposes a fresh approach to understanding public opinion known as the spiral of silence.
      • Maxwell McCombs and Donald Shaw's agenda-setting theory elicits a decades-long interest in ways that the media and audiences shape the public agenda of important issues.
      • George Gerbner begins research on cultural indicators, leading to fruitful investigations of media impacts on culture and the development of cultivation theory.
      • The U.S. Surgeon General's 1972 report on television violence stimulates much research interest in the effects of media violence.

      Culture studies enter the picture.

      • Mary Pukui revives interest in ho'oponopono, the traditional form of Native Hawaiian conflict resolution, increasing interest and inquiry into this thoroughly alternative form.
      • Clifford Geertz publishes influential works on the interpretation of cultures, impacting studies in communication and culture.
      • Scholars such as Victor Turner and Richard Schechner highlight performance as integral to human experience, influencing the study of communication and culture.
      • Andrea Rich and Arthur Smith (later Molefi Kete Asante) publish ground-breaking books on interracial communication.

      New rhetorical methods continue to be developed.

      • Ernest Bormann builds on ideas from Robert Bales's work on group communication and popularizes fantasy theme analysis, later to develop this into symbolic convergence theory.
      • Phillip Wander and Steven Jenkins publish the foundational article on ideological rhetoric titled “Rhetoric, Society, and the Critical Response."

      Group influence is studied.

      • Irving Janis introduces the groupthink hypothesis.

      The field of communication begins to look at human developmental issues.

      • Frank Dance and Carl Larson propose a speech theory of human communication.
      1975 to 1979

      Rules theory is introduced to the communication field.

      • W. Barnett Pearce, Vernon Cronen, and colleagues first propose coordinated management of meaning, a highly published and popular theory that will later go through several extensions.
      • A doctoral honors seminar sponsored by the Speech Communication Association provides a springboard for a tradition of work on rules theory.

      Empirical research and theory building on interpersonal processes rise markedly.

      • Charles Berger and colleagues publish first works on uncertainty reduction theory, which will influence several generations of interpersonal communication scholars and stimulate a whole tradition of related theory.
      • Frank Millar and L. Edna Rogers begin a long tradition of research on relational control patterns.
      • Jesse Delia and his colleagues begin developing the theory of constructivism and person-centered communication, which is to become a mainstay in the study of interpersonal communication.
      • Howard Giles begins a program on speech accommodation, which leads to a fruitful 3-decade project and the development of communication accommodation theory.
      • Penelope Brown and Stephen Levinson introduce politeness theory, which will become highly heuristic in stimulating much research in conversation, culture, and interpersonal relations.
      • Nancy Rollins and Kathleen Bahr explore power in interpersonal relations.
      • John Wiemann begins to theorize communication competence.

      Attitude theory and persuasion research remain popular and influential.

      • Martin Fishbein and leek Ajzen propose the theory of reasoned action to explain how attitudes are formed and how they in turn predict behavior.

      Rhetorical methods continue to expand.

      • Karlyn Kohrs Campbell and Kathleen Hall Jamieson elaborate a contemporary version of genre theory in rhetorical studies.

      Concerns for media culture and power relations continue.

      • Oliver Boyd-Barrett defines media imperialism in terms of the international flow of information and influence.
      • James Lull, James Anderson, and others introduce ideas leading to social action media studies.

      Investigations of the discourse of cultural communities, including marginalized groups, receive increasing attention.

      • Michael Omi and Howard Winant introduce racial formation theory.
      • Anthropologists Edwin Ardener and Shirley Ardener propose muted group theory, which will have a major influence on feminist analyses of communication.
      • Gerry Philipsen publishes “Speaking like a Man in Feamsterville,” sparking a tradition of communication ethnographies and leading to a cultural speech codes movement in communication theory.
      • Derrick Bell introduces the first formal statement of critical race theory based on the influential writings of W. E. B. DuBois, Martin Luther King, Jr., César Chávez, and others.

      Poststructuralism and the challenge to stable meaning emerge.

      • Jacques Derrida introduces deconstruction, questioning the stable meaning of words and texts and thereby no stability in being or self.

      Organizational communication becomes increasingly popular subject of theory.

      • John Van Maanen and Ed Schein introduce a model of organizational socialization.
      • Karl Weick publishes his influential book, The Social Psychology of Organizing, which forwards the idea that organizing is an interactional process.

      Work on communication apprehension begins.

      • James McCroskey and his colleagues begin a decades-long research program on social and communicative anxiety.

      Postcolonialism is introduced.

      • Edward Said publishes Orientalism.
      1980 to 1984

      Nonverbal communication studies continue.

      • Adam Kendon studies relationship of gesture and speech.

      Communication trait research explodes.

      • Dominic A. Infante and his colleagues publish initial work on argumentativeness, later expanding this work to include verbal aggressiveness and assertiveness.
      • Donald J. Cegala and his colleagues begin to operationalize the concept of interaction involvement, based on ideas from Erving Goffman.
      • Robert Norton summarizes his research and theory on communicator style in his monograph of the same name, identifying a major thematic area of interest in interpersonal communication.

      European communication theory is “discovered” by North American communication scholars and begins to make a huge impact.

      • Translations of Mikhail Bakhtin's works make his ideas, published during the 20th century, accessible in the English-speaking world.
      • Habermas publishes The Theory of Communicative Action, which greatly influences critical communication theory.
      • Scholars affiliated with science and technology studies, particularly Michel Callon, Bruno Latour, and John Law, begin to study science as symbolic production, leading to a line of work now known as actor-network theory.
      • Stuart Hall broadens the popularity of British Cultural Studies among critical scholars.

      Cognitive theory becomes a serious focus within communication.

      • John O. Greene first proposes action assembly theory, which will later influence thinking about cognitive processes in communication.
      • Sandra Bem first proposes gender schema theory, paving the way for much research in gender and communication.
      • George Lakoff and Mark Johnson publish their highly influential text Metaphors We Live By.

      Media response theories continue to develop.

      • Lewis Donohew and Philip Palmgreen introduce their activation theory of communication exposure.
      • Stanley Fish introduces the idea of interpretive communities in his classic Is There a Text in This Class, later to be applied to media communities by Janice Radway in Reading the Romance.

      Organizational and group communication studies emerge as a major theoretical voice.

      • George Cheney and Philip Tompkins begin to explore rhetorical dimensions of organizational communication, particularly control and identification.
      • Michael Pacanowsky and Nick O'Donnell Trujillo introduce studies of organizational culture, opening great interest in this subject within the field of organizational communication.
      • Dennis Gouran and Randy Hirokawa introduce functional group communication theory.

      System theory exerts serious influence on the study of communication.

      • D. Lawrence Kincaid first proposes convergence theory, an application of cybernetics and information theory to meaning and human understanding.

      A new era of electronic communication stimulates a flood of research and theory on new media.

      • William Gibson coins the term cyberspace in his novel Neuromancer, and the term stuck.
      • Marvin Minsky introduces the term presence to capture the feeling of being transported to another location through telecommunications, a term later to be applied to all virtual environments.

      Rules theory, popularized in the 1970s, becomes codified and well known in the field.

      • Susan B. Shimanoff publishes an influential book on rules theory, codifying the work done in this area to date.

      Interpersonal communication studies intensify.

      • Sandra Petronio begins to develop and later to publish privacy management theory.
      • Edward Jones and colleagues publish their influential theory of self-presentation.
      • Brian Spitzberg, William Cupach, and others present theories of interpersonal communication competence.

      New forms of public and media communication are explored.

      • Jane Mansbridge inspires a tradition of research on local nonadversarial democracy in her classic study of a Vermont town hall meeting.
      • United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization's MacBride Commission first explores issues of media sovereignty, opening increased scholarship on media and globalization.

      The study of environmental communication emerges.

      • Christine Oravec publishes a now-classic study of conservationism and preservationism in the Hetch-Hetchy controversy.

      Feminist studies produce increasing insights about women and communication.

      • Janice Radway conducts ethnographic studies of women's engagement with media.
      1985 to 1989

      Communication scholars first begin to explore the life span perspective.

      • Jon Nussbaum is the first communication scholar to articulate a life span perspective.

      Critical communication theory intensifies its focus on oppressive arrangements, with special attention to particular groups.

      • Fan studies see a shift from a descriptive approach to emphasize the resistive and subversive status of fan communities.
      • Donna Haraway applies Marxist standpoint theory to feminist thought leading to work in communication on feminist standpoint theory.
      • Norman Fairclough introduces critical discourse analysis as a way of uncovering power and ideology in social relations.
      • Tuen Van Dijk expands work on discourse analysis to expose the development of oppressive systems of meaning.
      • Chicana feminist Gloria Anzaldúa creates the theory of borderlands about the Chicana experience, sparking scholarly interest about Mexican American women within the communication field.
      • Peggy Mclntosh forwards ideas about how privilege works, adding additional substance to feminist and critical thought.
      • Gayatri Spivak, Chandra Talpade Mohanty, Trinh F. Minh-ha, and others address postcolonial feminism.
      • Teresa de Lauretis introduces queer theory.
      • The concept of diaspora, originally used in regard to the Jewish people, is revived and applied to all peoples who are dispersed from their original lands.
      • Raymie E. McKerrow codifies critical rhetoric in his well-known article “Critical Rhetoric: Theory and Praxis."

      Dual-processing models of cognition and persuasive communication are developed.

      • Richard Petty and John Cacioppo publish elaboration likelihood theory, which will have a major influence on persuasion research and theory.
      • Shelly Chaiken introduces the heuristic-systematic model of information processing.

      Media choice and use continue as a popular theme in media theory.

      • Dolf Zillman and Jennings Bryant explain media choice in terms of maximizing pleasure and minimizing unpleasant stimuli, leading to the affect-dependent stimulus arrangement theory.

      Culture studies and intercultural communication theory continue to mature.

      • Mary Jane Collier, Michael L. Hecht, and others begin to explore cultural identity formation, leading to a line of research and theory in this area.
      • Guo-Ming Chen and his colleagues begin research and theory building on intercultural communication competence.
      • Stella Ting-Toomey introduces face negotiation theory.
      • Young Yun Kim first presents cross-cultural adaptation theory.

      Serious theoretical attention is given to gender differences in communication.

      • Alice Eagly publishes gender role theory.

      Behavioral-cognitive theories of interpersonal communication continue.

      • Judee K. Burgoon and her colleagues introduce expectancy violations theory.

      Increasing attention is given to global communication.

      • Ulrich Beck proposes a critical paradigm on globalization.
      1990 to 1994

      Performance studies emerges as an important development in communication theory.

      • Dwight Conquergood takes a critical turn in the development of performance ethnography.

      Studies of culture and community expand.

      • Min-Sun Kim and her colleagues introduce culture as an important factor in conversational constraints.
      • Michael L. Hecht relates identity and culture.
      • Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger introduce the concept of communities of practice.
      • Mark Lawrence McPhail introduces complicity theory.

      Discourse theory advances.

      • Margaret Wetherall and Jonathan Potter introduce positioning theory.
      • Larry D. Browning raises awareness of lists as a legitimate and important form of discourse that can be researched and theorized.
      • Frans van Eemeren, Rian Grootendorst, and their colleagues develop the pragma-dialectical approach to argument and argumentative conversation.

      Modern-Postmodern debates dominate critical communication theory.

      • Kimberl Crenshaw introduces the idea of intersectionality, claiming that categories like race and gender cannot be homogenized and challenging essentialist notions of identity.
      • Dana L. Cloud publishes her well-known critique of the materiality of discourse, sparking a lively debate on the nature of discourse and the material world.

      Cognitive approaches to interpersonal communication advance.

      • Austin S. Babrow introduces problematic integration theory.
      • William Gudykunst introduces anxiety/uncertainty management theory.

      Relational communication theory intensifies.

      • Daniel Canary and his colleagues publish initial works on relational maintenance.

      New communications technologies give rise to the study of virtual relationships.

      • Howard Rheingold publishes his book Virtual Community, expanding the discussion of new technologies to digital cultures created in cyberspace.
      • Joseph Walther introduces social information processing theory.
      • Jan Van Dijk publishes The Network Society in Dutch, which would be translated into English later in the decade.
      • Mark Poster announces the arrival of the second media age.

      Group and organizational communication theory explores new directions.

      • Linda Putnam and Cynthia Stohl first articulate bona fide group theory.
      • Stanley A. Deetz publishes his landmark book Democracy and Corporate Colonization of America, opening intense interest in power, domination, and resistance in organizations.
      1995 to 1999

      Traditional definitions of rhetoric are questioned.

      • Sonja Foss and Cindy L. Griffin introduce invitational rhetoric as an alternative to traditional notions of persuasion.

      New developments in media bring about shifts in theoretical attention.

      • Byron Reeves and Clifford Nass introduce media equation theory, suggesting that people treat media as persons.
      • Frank Biocca, Matthew Lombard, and others explore communication in virtual environments.

      Interest in relationships and small groups continues.

      • Leslie A. Baxter and Bárbara Montgomery first articulate the relational dialectics theory.
      • John G. Oetzel introduces culture as a variable into group task work.
      • Peter A. Andersen advances thinking on intimacy in his cognitive valence theory.
      • In a well-known monograph, Charles Berger relates planning to ideas about communication goals.
      • Judee K. Burgoon, Lesa Stern, and Leesa Dillman introduce interaction adaptation theory.
      • David Buller and Judee K. Burgoon introduce interpersonal deception theory.

      Critical attention to discourse continues.

      • Luk Van Lanagenhove and Rom Harre publish their foundational work on positioning theory.
      • Kent Ono and John Sloop identify vernacular discourse as the object of critical rhetorical study.
      • Raka Shome introduces postcolonialism to the communication field with the publication of her germinal essay on this subject.
      • Thomas Nakayama and Robert Krizek introduce Whiteness theory.
      2000 to 2008
      • Julie Yingling extends the relational-dialogical perspective to communication development across the life span.
      • Norah E. Dunbar introduces advances in dyadic power theory.
      • Fan studies moves toward a spectacle-performance paradigm that emphasized the everyday nature of fandom.
      • James Taylor and associates develop a co-orientational approach to organizational communication, bringing a constitutive view of organizational communication to the fore and founding that theoretical perspective known as the Montréal School.
      • James Price Dillard proposes a model of communication goals featuring goals, plans, and action.
      • Patricia Hill Collins integrates and publishes ideas about Black feminist epistemology.
      • Guo-Ming Chen introduces Chinese harmony theory.
      • Andrea Feenberg and Maria Bakardijeva, in separate studies, propose a constructivist critique of technology.
      • Wallid Affifi and Judith Weiner first publish motivated information management theory.
      • Leanne K. Knobloch and Denise Solomon begin to publish work on relational uncertainty.
      • Michael J. Beatty, James McCroskey, and their colleagues put forward a biological approach to communication, which stands in opposition to many social theories in the field.
      • Kwan Min Lee explains how people come to feel presence in virtual environments.
      • Victoria DeGrazia, Jeremy Tunstall, and Mel van Elteren raise awareness of the Americanization of media.
      • Jon Nussbaum and colleagues set forth a broad life span theory that integrates much work in this area and provides a possible umbrella for all communication theory.
      • Karen Tracy advocates the study of ordinary communication practices through action-implicated discourse analysis.
      • Deanna Fassett and John T. Warren bring together critical approaches to communication education and introduce the term critical communication pedagogy.
      • Combining critical and constructivist ideas, Milton N. Campos proposes a theory of the ecology of meanings.
      • Michael D. Slater summarizes work done to refocus media effects theory on reinforcing spirals.
    • Selected Bibliography of Major Works by Topic

      Note: This bibliography includes selected theoretical works. It is not intended to be exhaustive. With a few exceptions, the list does not include textbooks, handbooks, readers, anthologies, literature surveys, histories, commentaries, critiques, secondary sources, restatements, or special journal issues. In addition, works on methodology, research studies, and case studies have generally been excluded.

      How to Use This Bibliography

      This bibliography is intended as a place to find major theoretical works related to topics of interest. Each item in this bibliography is listed only once within a relevant category. General works written by or about theorists of historical import are listed by the theorist's name as a keyword (e.g., Burke, Kenneth). To find several related works, scan the list for several connected topics (e.g., discourse, text, interpretation, hermeneutics, meaning). To expand a reading list beyond what may appear here, look up relevant topics in this encyclopedia and pursue the Further Readings. If you wish to identify several works by a single author, look up the author in the list of theorists at the beginning of this encyclopedia or in the index.


      Giles, H. (2008). Accommodating translational research. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 36, 121–127.

      Giles, H., Coupland, N., & Coupland, J. (Eds.). (1991). The contexts of accommodation. New York: Cambridge University Press.


      McLaughlin, M. L., Cody, M. J., & Read, S. J. (Eds.). (1992). Explaining one's self to others: Reason giving in a social context. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

      Schonbach, P. (1990). Account episodes: The management or escalation of conflict. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

      Scott, M. B., & Lyman, S. M. (1968). Accounts. American Sociological Review, 33, 46–62.

      Sheer, V. C, & Weigold, M. F. (1995). Managing threats to identity: The accountability triangle and strategic accounting. Communication Research, 22, 592–611.


      Parsons, T., & Shils, E. A. (Eds.). (1951). Toward a general theory of action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

      Action Assembly

      Greene, J. O. (1984). A cognitive approach to human communication: An action assembly theory. Communication Monographs, SI, 289–306.

      Greene, J. O. (1997). A second generation action assembly theory. In J. O. Greene (Ed.), Message production: Advances in communication theory (pp. 151–170). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.


      Anderson, J. (1973). A spreading activation theory of memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 22, 261–295.

      Actor-Network Theory

      Latour, B. (2005). Reassembling the social: An introduction to actor-network theory. London: Oxford University Press.

      Law, J., & Hassard, J. (Eds.). (1999). Actor network theory and after. Malden, MA: Oxford.


      Scott, W. D. (1903). The theory of advertising. Boston: Small, Maynard.


      Deutsch, E. (1975). Studies in comparative aesthetics. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press.

      Affect and Social Exchange

      Lawler, E. J. (2001). An affect theory of social exchange. American Journal of Sociology, 107, 321–52.

      African American Identity

      Jackson, R. L. (2002). Exploring African American identity negotiation in the academy: Toward a transformative vision of African American communication scholarship. Howard Journal of Communication, 2, 43–57.


      Asante, M. K. (1990). Kemet, afrocentricity, and knowledge. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.

      Asante, M. K. (1998). The afrocentric idea. Philadelphia: Temple University.

      Asante, M. K. (2003). Afrocentricity. Chicago: AAI Press.

      Asante, M. K. (2008). An Afrocentric manifesto. Cambridge, UK: Polity.

      Conyers, J. L., Jr. (2003). Afrocentricity and the academy: Essays on theory and practice. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.

      Mazama, A. (Ed.). (2003). The Afrocentric paradigm. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.


      Campbell, K. K. (2005). Agency: Promiscuous and protean. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, 2, 1–19.

      Hegde, R. S. (1996). Narratives of silence: Rethinking gender, agency, and power from the communication experiences of battered women in South India. Communication Studies, 47, 303–317.

      Thibault, P. J. (2006). Agency and consciousness in discourse: Self-other dynamics as a complex system. New York: Continuum.

      Agenda Setting

      McCombs, M. E. (1997). New frontiers in agenda setting: Agendas of attributes and frames. Mass Communication Review, 24, 4–24.

      McCombs, M. E., & Shaw, D. L. (1972). The agenda-setting function of mass media. Public Opinion Quarterly, 36, 176–187.


      Infante, D. A., & Wigley, C. J. (1986). Verbal aggressiveness: An interpersonal model and measure. Communication Monographs, 53, 61–69.


      Goodnight, G. T. (1982). The personal, technical, and public spheres of argument: A speculative inquiry into the art of public deliberation. Journal of the American Forensic Association, 18, 1–27.

      Perelman, C, & Olbrechts-Tyteca, L. (1969). The new rhetoric: A treatise on argumentation (J. Wilkinson & P. Weaver, Trans.). Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame.

      Toulmin, S. (1969). The uses of argument. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

      van Eemeren, F. PL, Grootendorst, R., & Henkemans F. S. (1996). Fundamentals of argumentation theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.


      Infante, D. A., & Rancer, A. S. (1982). A conceptualization and measure of argumentativeness. Journal of Personality Assessment, 46, 72–80.

      Rancer, A. S., & Avtgis, T. A. (2006). Argumentative and aggressive communication. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.


      Aristotle. (1998). The Nichomachean ethics (D. Ross, Trans.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

      Aristotle (2006). On rhetoric: A theory of civic discourse (G. A. Kennedy, Trans.). New York: Oxford University Press.

      Aristotle. (2007). Aristotle's metaphysics. Pomona, CA: Pomona Press.

      Cooper, T. (1960). The rhetoric of Aristotle: An expanded translation with supplementary examples for students of composition and public speaking. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.


      Gunaratne, S. A. (2008). Falsifying two Asian paradigms and de-Westernizing science. Communication, Culture & Critique, 1, 72–85.


      Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment and loss: Vol. 1. Attachment. New York: Basic Books. (Original work published 1969)

      Collins, N. T., & Feeney, B. C. (2004). An attachment theory perspective on closeness and intimacy. In D. J. Mashek & Aron, A. (Eds.), Handbook of closeness and intimacy (pp. 163–187). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.


      Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

      Allport, G. (1935). Attitudes. In C. Murchison (Ed.), Handbook of social psychology (pp. 798–844). Worcester, MA: Clark University Press.

      Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

      Katz, D. (1960). The functional approach to the study of attitudes. Public Opinion Quarterly, 24, 163–204.

      Kelman, H. (1958). Compliance, identification, and internalization: The process of attitude change. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 2, 51–60.

      Kiesler, C, Collins, B., & Miller, N. (1969). Attitude change: A critical analysis of theoretical approaches. New York: Wiley.

      Triandis, H. C. (1971). Attitude and attitude change. New York: Wiley.


      Graham, S., & Folkes, V. S. (1990). Attribution theory: Applications to achievement, mental health, and interpersonal conflict. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

      Jones, E. E., Kanouse, D. E., Kelley, H. PL, Nisbett, R. E., Valins, S., & Weiner, B. (1972). Attribution: Perceiving the causes of behavior. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.

      Kelley, H. H. (1971). Attributions in social interaction. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.

      Manusov, V., & Harvey, J. H. (2001). Attribution, communication behavior, and close relationships. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

      Weiner, B. (1974). Achievement motivation and attribution theory. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.


      Jensen, K. B. (1987). Qualitative audience research: Toward an integrative approach to reception. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 4, 21–36.

      Morley, D. (1980). The nationwide audience: Structure and decoding. London: British Film Institute.

      Schreder, K., Drotner, K., Kline, S., & Murray, C. (2003). Researching audiences. London: Arnold.

      Shimpach, S. (2005). Working watching: The creative and cultural labor of the media audience. Social Semiotics, 15, 343–360.


      Holman Jones, S. (2005). Autoethnography: Making the personal political. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 763–791). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

      Pelias, R. J. (2004). A methodology of the heart: Evoking academic and daily life. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.

      Bateson, Gregory

      Bateson, G. (1972) Steps to an ecology of mind. New York: Ballantine Books.

      Bateson, G. (1979). Mind and nature: A necessary unity. New York: E. P. Dutton.

      Wilder-Mott, C, & Weakland, J. H. (Eds.). (1981). Rigor and imagination: Essays from the legacy of Gregory Bateson. New York: Praeger.

      Baudrillard, Jean

      Baudrillard, J. (1975). The mirror of production (M. Poster, Trans.). St. Touis, MO: Telos Press.

      Baudrillard, J. (1981). For a critique of the political economy of the sign (C. Tevin, Trans.). St. Touis, MO: Telos Press.

      Baudrillard, J. (1983). Simulations (P. Toss, P. Patton, & P. Beitchman, Trans.). New York: Semiotext(e).

      Baudrillard, J. (1988). The ecstasy of communication (B. Schütze & C. Schütze, Trans.). New York: Semiotext(e).

      Baudrillard, J. (1994). Simulacra and simulations. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.

      Baudrillard, J. (1998). The consumer society: Myths and structures. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.


      Levinas, E. (1998). Otherwise than being (Alphonso Lingis, Trans.). Pittsburgh, PA: Duquesne University Press.


      Beatty, M. J., McCrosky, J. C, & Floyd, K. (Eds.). (2008). Biological dimensions of communication: Theory, methods, and research programs. Creskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

      Bodary, D. T., & Miller, T. D. (2000). Neurobiological substrates of communicator style. Communication Education, 49, 82–98.

      Churchland, P. M. (1988). Matter and consciousness (rev. ed.). Cambridge, MA: Bradford.

      Floyd, K., Mikkelson, A. C, & Hesse, C. (2007). The biology of human communication (2nd ed.). Florence, KY: Thomson Teaming.

      Lenneberg, E. H. (1978). Biological foundations of language. New York: Academic Press.

      Maturana, H. R., & Varela, F. J. (1987). The tree of knowledge: Biological roots of human understanding. Boston: Shambhala.

      Varela, F. J. (1979). Principles of biological autonomy. New York: North Holland.

      Zuckerman, M. (1995). Good and bad humors: Biochemical bases of personality and its disorders. Psychological Science, 6, 325–332.


      Angelides, S. (2001). A history of bisexuality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

      Black Identity

      Fanon, F. (1967). Black skin, white masks. New York: Grove.

      Gilroy, P. (1993). The Black Atlantic: Modernity and double consciousness. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

      Black Women/Feminism

      Allen, B. J. (2001). Goals for emancipatory research on Black women. In M. Houston & O.I. Davis (Eds.), Centering ourselves: African American feminist and womanist studies of discourse (pp. 21–34). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

      Collins, P. H. (2001). Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment. New York: Routledge.

      Crenshaw, K. (1989). Demarginalizing the intersection of race and sex: A black feminist critique of antidiscrimination doctrine, feminist theory and antiracist politics. University of Chicago Legal Forum, 138–167.

      hooks, b. (1981). Ain't I a woman. Boston: South End Press.

      Bona Fide Groups

      Putnam, T. T., & Stohl, C. (1990). Bona fide groups: A reconceptualization of groups in context. Communication Studies, 41, 248–265.

      Buber, Martin

      Arnett, R. C. (1986). Communication and community: Implications of Martin Buber's dialogue. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.

      Buber, M. (1958). I and thou (2nd ed.; R. G. Smith, Trans.). New York: Scribner. (Original work published 1923)

      Buber, M. (1965). Between man and man (R. G. Smith, Trans.). New York: Macmillan. (Original work published 1947)

      Buber, M. (1965). The knowledge of man: A philosophy of the interhuman (M. Friedman, Ed. & Intro.; M. Friedman & R. G. Smith, Trans.). New York: Harper & Row.


      Chuang, R., & Chen, G.-M. (2003). Buddhist perspectives and human communication. Intercultural Communication Studies, 12(4), 65–80.

      Dissanayake, W. (1983). The communication significance of the Buddhist concept of dependent co-origination. Communication, 8(1), 29–45.

      Dissanayake, W. (2008). The idea of verbal communication in early Buddhism. China Media Research, 4(2), 69–76.

      Burke, Kenneth

      Burke, K. (1931). Counter-statement. New York: Harcourt, Brace. Burke, K. (1935). Permanence and change: An anatomy of purpose. New York: New Republic.

      Burke, K. (1941). The philosophy of literary form. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.

      Burke, K. (1945). A grammar of motives. Berkeley: University of California Press.

      Burke, K. (1966). Language as symbolic action. Berkeley: University of California Press.

      Burke, K. (1969). A rhetoric of motives. Berkeley: University of California Press.

      Burke, K. (1970). The rhetoric of religion. Berkeley: University of California Press.

      Burke, K. (1988). On symbols and society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


      Rifkin, J. (2000). The age of access. London: Penguin.


      Watzlawick, P., Weakland, J., & Fish, R. (1974). Change: Principles of problem formation and problem resolution. New York: W. W. Norton.


      Gleick, J. (1987). Chaos: Making a new science. New York: Viking Penguin.

      Holland, J. (1998). Emergence: From chaos to order. Reading, MA: Perseus.


      Arredondo, F., Hurtado, A., Klahn, N, Najera-Ramirez, O., & Zavella, P. (Eds.). (2003). Chicana feminisms. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

      De La Garza, S. A. (2004). Maria speaks: Journeys into the mysteries of the mother in my life as a Chicana. New York: Peter Lang.

      Flores, L. A. (1996). Creating discursive space through a rhetoric of difference: Chicana feminists craft a homeland. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 82, 142–156.

      Flores, L. A. (2000). Reclaiming the “other”: Toward a Chicana feminist critical perspective. International Journal of Intercultural Rebtions, 24, 687–705.

      Fregoso, R. L. (2003). Mexicana encounters: The making of social identities in the Borderlands. Los Angeles: University of California Press.

      García, A. M. (1989). The development of Chicana feminist discourse, 1970–1980. Gender and Society, 3, 217–238.

      Martinez, J. M. (2000). Phenomenology of Chicana experience and identity. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

      Chicano, Chicana Rhetoric

      Delgado, F. (1995). Chicano movement rhetoric: An ideographic interpretation. Communication Quarterly, 43, 446–455.

      DiCochea, P. R. (2004). Chicana critical rhetoric: Recrafting La Causa in Chicana movement discourse, 1970–1979. Frontiers, 25, 77–92.


      Chen, G. M. (2001). Toward transcultural understanding: A harmony theory of Chinese communication. In V. H. Milhouse, M. K. Asante, & P. O. Nwosu (Eds.), Transcultural realities: Interdisciplinary perspectives on cross-cultural relations (pp. 55–70). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

      Cheng, C. Y. (2006). Toward constructing a dialectics of harmonization: Harmony and conflict in Chinese philosophy. Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 33, 25–59.

      Chinese Culture Connection. (1987). Chinese values and the search for culture-free dimensions of culture. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 18, 143–164.

      Dissanayake, W. (2007). Nagarjuna and modern communication theory. China Media Research, 3(4), 34–41.

      Leung, K., Koch, P. T., & Lu, L. (2002). A dualistic model of harmony and its implications for conflict management in Asia. Asia Pacific Journal of Management. 19(2–3), 201–220.

      Cinema and Film

      Altman, R. (1999). Film/genre. London: British Film Institute.

      Arnheim, R. (1957). Film as art. Berkeley: University of California Press.

      Baudry, J. L. (1986). Ideological effects of the basic cinematographic apparatus. In P. Rosen (Ed.), Narrative, apparatus, ideology: A film theory reader (pp. 286–298). New York: Columbia University Press.

      Bazin, A. (1967). What is cinema? Vol. I. Berkeley: University of California Press.

      Burch, N. (1973). Theory of film practice (H. R. Lane, Trans.). New York: Praeger.

      Davies, R. A., Farrell, J. M., & Matthews, S. S. (1982). The dream world of film: A Jungian perspective on cinematic communication. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 46, 326–343.

      Deleuze, G. (1986). Cinema 1: The movement-image. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

      Deleuze, G. (1989). Cinema 2: The time-image. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

      Eisenstein, S. (1949). Film form: Essays in film theory. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.

      Friedberg, A. (2002). The end of cinema: Multi-media and technological change. In C. Gledhill & L. Williams (Eds.), Reinventing film studies (pp. 438–452). London: Arnold.

      Houston, B., & Kinder, M. (1980). Self and cinema: A transformalist perspective. Pleasantville, NY: Redgrave.

      Jameson, F. (1995). The geopolitical aesthetic: Cinema and space in the world system. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

      Jameson, J. (1990). Signatures of the visible. New York: Routledge.

      Kaplan, E. A. (1983). Women and film: Both sides of the camera. New York: Methuen.

      Kracauer, S. (1960). Theory of film: The redemption of physical reality. London: Oxford University Press.

      Mackey-Kallis, S. (2001). The hero and the perennial journey home in American film. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

      Mayne, J. (1993). Cinema and spectator ship. London: Routledge.

      Metz, C. (1974). Film language: A semiotics of the cinema. New York: Oxford University Press.

      Metz, C. (1982). The imaginary signifier: Psychoanalysis and the cinema (C. Britton, A. Williams, B. Brewster, & C A. Guzzetti, Trans.). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

      Noriega, C. A. (2000). Shot in America: Television, the state, and the rise of Chicano cinema. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

      Sobchack, V. (1992). The address of the eye: A phenomenology of film experience. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

      Stam, R., Burgoyne, R., & Flitterman-Lewis, S. (1992). New vocabularies in film semiotics: Structuralism, post-structuralism and beyond. New York: Routledge.

      Civic Discourse

      Prosser, M. PL, & Sitaram, K. S. (Eds.). (1999). Civic discourse: Inter cultural, international and global media. Westport, CT: Ablex.

      Sitaram, K. S., & Prosser, M. H. (Eds.). (1998). Civic discourse: Multiculturalism, cultural diversity, and global communication. Westport, CT: Ablex.


      Marshall, T. H. (1973). Class, citizenship and social developments. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

      Willis, P. (1977). Learning to labor: How working class kids get working class jobs. New York: Columbia University Press.

      Co-Cultural Theory

      Orbe, M. (1998). Constructing co-cultural theory: An explication of culture, power, and communication. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.


      Bernstein, B. (1964). Elaborated and restricted codes: Their social origins and some consequences. American Anthropologist, 66(6), Pt. 2, 55–69.


      Andersen, P. A. (1998). The cognitive valence theory of intimate communication. In M. T. Palmer & G. A. Barnett (Eds.), Progress in communication sciences: Vol. XIV. Mutual influence in interpersonal communication: Theory and research in cognition, affect, and behavior (pp. 39–72). Stamford, CT: Ablex.

      Eveland, W. P., Shah, D., & Kwak, N. (2003). Assessing causality in the cognitive mediation model: A panel study of motivations, information processing, and learning during campaign 2000. Communication Research, 30, 359–386.

      Fiske, S. T., & Taylor, S. E. (1984). Social cognition. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

      Gardner, H. (1987). The mind's new science: A history of the cognitive revolution. New York: Basic Books.

      Roskos-Ewoldsen, D. R., & Monahan, J. L. (Eds.). (2007). Communication and social cognition: Theories and methods. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

      Sperber, D., & Wilson, D. (1995). Relevance: Communication & cognition (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Blackwell.

      Wyer, R. S., Jr. (1974). Cognitive organization and change: An information processing approach. Potomac, MD: Lawrence Erlbaum.

      Cognitive Dissonance

      Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

      Communication Apprehension

      Daly, J. A., McCroskey, J. C, Ayres, J., Hopf, T., & Ayres, D. M. (Eds.). (1997). Avoiding communication: Shyness, reticence, and communication apprehension. (2nd ed.). Creskill, NJ: Hampton Press.


      Bell, D. (2003). Communitarianism and its critics. New York: Oxford University Press.


      Anderson, B. (1983). Imagined communities. New York: Verso.

      Berkowitz, D., & TerKeurst, J. V. (1999). Community as interpretive community: Rethinking the journalist-source relationship. Journal of Communication, 49, 125–136.

      Depew, D., & Peters, J. D. (2001). Community and communication: The conceptual background. In G. J. Shepherd & E. W. Rothenbuhler (Eds.), Communication and community (pp. 3–21). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

      Joseph, M. (2002). Against the romance of community. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

      Community of Practice

      Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning, and identity. New York: Cambridge University Press.


      Spitzberg, B. H., & Cupach, W. R. (1984). Interpersonal communication competence. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

      Complexity and Organization

      Anderson, P. (1999). Complexity theory and organization science. Organization Science, 10, 216–223.


      Kellermann, K., & Cole, T. (1994). Classifying compliance gaining messages: Taxonomic disorder and strategic confusion. Communication Theory, 4(1), 3–60.

      Wilson, S. R. (2002). Seeking and resisting compliance: Why people say what they do when trying to influence others. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.


      McPhail, M. (1991). Complicity: The theory of negative difference. Howard Journal of Communications, 3, 1–13.

      McPhail, M. (1998). From complicity to coherence: Rereading the rhetoric of Afrocentricity. Western Journal of Communication, 62, 114–140.

      Pfister, J. (2000). Complicity critiques. American Literary History, 12, 610–623.

      Computer-Mediated Interaction

      Riva, G., & Galimberti, C. (1998). Computer-mediated communication: Identity and social interaction in an electronic environment. Genetic, Social and General Psychology Monographs, 124, 434–464.

      Walther, J. B. (1992). Interpersonal effects in computer-mediated interaction: A relational perspective. Communication Research, 19, 52–90.

      Walther, J. B. (1993). Impression development in computer-mediated interaction. Western Journal of Communication, 57, 381–398.

      Walther, J. B. (1996). Computer-mediated communication: Impersonal, interpersonal and hyperpersonal interaction. Communication Research, 23, 3–43.

      Computers and Self

      Lurkle, S. (1984). The second self. New York: Simon and Schuster.


      Bush, R. A. B., & Folger, J. P. (1994). The promise of mediation: Responding to conflict through empowerment and recognition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

      Chun, M. N. (1995). Making peace: Ho'oponopono then and now. Honolulu: Queen Lili'uokalani Trust.

      Hawes, L. C, & Smith, D. H. (1973). A critique of assumptions underlying the study of communication in conflict. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 59, 423–435.

      Lewin, K. (1997). Resolving social conflicts: Selected papers on group dynamics (originally published 1948) and Field theory in social science: Selected theoretical papers (originally published 1951). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

      Miura, S. Y. (2000). The mediation of conflict in the traditional Hawaiian family: A collectivistic approach. Qualitative Research Reports in Communication, 1, 19–25.

      Ruben, B. D. (1978). Communication and conflict: A system-theoretic perspective. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 64, 202–210.


      Chang, H. C. (2008). Language and words: Communication in the Analects of Confucius. In M. K. Asante, Y. Miike, & J. Yin (Eds.), The global intercultural communication reader (pp. 95–112). New York: Routledge.

      Tu, W. (1985). Confucian thought: Selfhood as creative transformation. Albany: State University of New York Press.

      Yum, J. O. (1988). The impact of Confucianism on interpersonal relationships and communication patterns in East Asia. Communication Monographs, 55(4), 374–388.


      Sigman, S. J. (Ed.). (1995). The consequentiality of communication. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.


      Wilson, E. O. (1998). Consilience: The unity of knowledge. New York: Vintage.


      Campos, M. N. (2007). Ecology of meanings: A critical constructivist communication model. Communication Theory, 17,386–410.

      Delia, J. G. (1977). Constructivism and the study of human communication. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 63, 66–83.

      Delia, J. G., O'Keefe, B. J., & O'Keefe, D. J. (1982). The constructivist approach to communication. In F. E. X. Dance (Ed.), Human communication theory (pp. 147–191). New York: Harper & Row.

      Fosnot, C. T. (2005). Constructivism: Theory, perspectives and practice (2nd ed.). Williston, VT: Teachers College Press.

      Von Glasersfeld, E. (1996). Radical constructivism: A way of knowing and learning. London: Routledge.

      Consumption and Identity

      du Gay, P. (1996). Consumption and identity at work. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.


      Bruneau, T. J. (1995). Contemplation: The art of intrapersonal communication. In J. A. Aitken & L. J. Shedletsky (Eds.), Intrapersonal communication processes (pp. 208–217). Plymouth, MI: Midnight Oil Press/Washington, DC: National Communication Association.


      Boyd-Barrett, O., & Thussu, D. (1992). Contra-flow in global news. London: John Libbey.


      Barker, J. (1993). Tightening the iron cage: Concertive control in self-managing teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 38(3), 408–437.

      Beniger, J. R. (1986). The control revolution. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.


      Barnett, G. A., & Kincaid, D. L. (1983). Cultural convergence: A mathematical theory. In W. B. Gudykunst (Ed.), Intercultural communication theory: Current perspectives: Vol. VII. International and intercultural communication annual (pp. 171–194). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

      Cragan, J. F., & Shields, D. F. (1981). Applied communication research: A dramatistic approach. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland.

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      Personal Constructs

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      Miller, T. (1993). The well tempered self: Citizenship, culture, and the postmodern subject. London: Johns Hopkins University Press.

      Mumby, D. K. (1997). Modernism, postmodernism, and communication studies: A rereading of an ongoing debate. Communication Theory, 7, 1–28.


      Chambers, R. (1997). Whose reality counts: Putting the first last. London: Intermediate Technology Publications.


      French, J. R. P., Jr., & Raven, B. (1959). The bases of social power. In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Studies in social power (pp. 150–167). Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research.

      Gruenfeld, D. H., Inesi, M. E., Magee, J. C, & Galinsky, A. D. (2008). Power and objectification of social targets. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 95, 111–127.

      McCabe, D. (2007). Power at work: How employees reproduce the corporate machine. London: Routledge.

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      Rollins, B. C, & Bahr, S. J. (1976). A theory of power relationships in marriage. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 38, 619–627.

      Practical Theory

      Barge, J. K. (2001a). Practical theory as mapping, engaged reflection, and transformative practice. Communication Theory, 11, 5–13.

      Craig, R. T., & Tracy, K. (1995). Grounded practical theory: The case of intellectual discussion. Communication Theory, 5, 248–272.

      Cronen, V. E. (2001). Practical theory, practical art, and the pragmatic-systemic account of inquiry. Communication Theory, 11, 14–35.


      Craig, R. T. (2007). Pragmatism in the field of communication, theory. Communication Theory, 17, 125–145.

      Levinson, S. C. (1983). Pragmatics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

      Watzalawick, P., Beavin, J., & Jackson, D. (1967). Pragmatics of human communication. New York: Norton.


      Lee, K. M. (2004). Presence, explicated. Communication Theory, 14, 27–50.

      Lee, K. M. (2004). Why presence occurs: Evolutionary psychology, media equation, and presence. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 13, 494–505.

      Lombard, M., & Ditton, T. (1997) At the heart of it all: The concept of presence. Journal of Computer-Mediated-Communication, 3(2). Retrieved June 14, 2002, from http://www.ascusc.org/icmc/v013/issue2/lombard.html


      Cohen, B. (1963) The press and foreign policy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

      Gunaratne, S. A. (2002). Freedom of the press: A world system perspective. Gazette, 64, 342–369.

      Gunaratne, S. A. (2005). The Dao of the press: A humanocentric theory. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

      Nordenstreng, K. (2007). Myths about press freedom. Brazilian Journalism Research, 3, 15–30.

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      Petronio, S. (2002). Boundaries of privacy: Dialectics of disclosure. New York: State University of New York Press.

      Private Speech

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      Black, L. L., & Stone, D. (2005). Expanding the definition of privilege: The concept of social privilege. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 33, 243–255.

      Hurtado, A. (1996). The color of privilege. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

      Problematic Integration

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      Process of Communication

      Berlo, D. K. (1960). The process of communication, New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.


      Lasswell, H. (1971). Propaganda technique in World War I. Cambridge: MIT Press.


      Hall, E. T. (1968). Proxemics. Current Anthropology, 9, 83–109.

      Psychoanalysis and Language

      Lacan, J. (1977). Ecrits: A selection. London: Tavistock.


      Ruesch, J. (1973) Therapeutic communication. New York: Norton.


      Asen, R., & Brower, D. C. (2001). Counterpublics and the state. Albany: State University of New York.

      Blair, C. (2001). Reflections on criticism and bodies: Parables from public places. Western Journal of Communication, 65, 271–294.

      Hauser, G. A. (1999). Vernacular voices: The rhetoric of publics and public spheres. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.

      Lessig, L. (2001). The future of ideas: The fate of the commons in a connected world. New York: Random House.

      Mumby, D. K. (2000). Communication, organization, and the public sphere. In P. M. Buzzanell (Ed.), Rethinking organizational and managerial communication from feminist perspectives (pp. 3–23). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

      Negt, O., & Kluge, A. (1993). Public sphere and experience: Toward an analysis of the bourgeois and proletarian public sphere. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

      Warner, M. (2002). Publics and counterpublics. New York: Zone Books.

      Public Opinion

      Crespi, I. (1997). The public opinion process: How the people speak. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

      Herbst, S. (1998). Reading public opinion: How political actors view the democratic process. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

      Katz, D., Cartwright, D., Eldersfeld, S., & Lee, A. M. (1954). Public opinion and propaganda. New York: Dryden.

      Lewis, J. (2001). Constructing public opinion: How political elites do what they like and why we seem to go along with it. New York: Columbia.

      Lippmann, W. (1922). Public opinion. New York: Macmillan.

      Lippmann, W. (1925). The phantom public. New York: Harcourt, Brace.

      Queer Theory

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      Eng, D. L., Halberstam, J., & Munoz, J. E. (Eds.). (2005). What's queer about queer studies now? [Special issue]. Social Text 84–85.

      Leap, W., & Boellstorff, T. (Eds.). (2004). Speaking in queer tongues: Globalization and gay language. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

      Lee, W. (2003). Kuaering queer theory: My autocritography and a race-conscious, womanist, transnational turn. In G. A. Yep, K. E. Lovaas, & J. P. Elia (Eds.), Queer theory and communication: From disciplining queers to queering the discipline(s) (pp. 147–170). Binghamton, NY: Harrington Park Press.

      Munoz, J. E. (1999). Disidentifications: Queers of color and the performance of politics. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

      Murphy, K. P., Ruiz, J., & Serhn, D. (Eds.). (2008). Queer futures: The new homonormativity issue [Special issue]. Radical History Review, 100.

      O'Riordan, K., & Phillips, D. J. (2007). Queer online: Media technology & sexuality. New York: Peter Lang.

      Roscoe, W. (1998). Changing ones. New York: St. Martin's Press.

      Sedgwick, E. K. (1990). Epistemology of the closet. Berkeley: University of California Press.

      Slagle, R. A. (1995). In defense of Queer Nation: From identity politics to a politics of difference. Western Journal of Communication, 59, 85–102.

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      Race and Racism

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      Bell, D. (1987). And we are not saved: The elusive quest for racial justice. New York: Basic Books.

      Delgado, R. (1995). The Rodrigo chronicles: Conversations about America and race. New York: New York University Press.

      Flores, L. A., & Moon, D. G. (2002). Rethinking race, revealing dilemmas: Imagining a new racial subject in Race Traitor. Western Journal of Communication, 66, 181–207.

      Hatch, J. (2003). Reconciliation: Building a bridge from complicity to coherence in the rhetoric of race relations. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 6, 737–764.

      Holling, M. A. (2002). Transformation and liberation amidst racist-assimilationist forces. Review of Communciation, 2(4), 387–391.

      Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). Toward a critical race theory of education. Teachers College Record, 97, 47–68.

      Omi, M., & Winant, H. (1994). Racial formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1990s. New York: Routledge.

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      Smith, A. L. (1973). Transracial communication. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

      Van Dijk, T. (1991). Racism and the press. New York: Routledge.

      Wetherall, M., & Potter, J. (1992). Mapping the language of racism: Discourse and the legitimation of exploitation. Hemel Hempstead, UK: Harvester Wheatsheaf.


      Schräg, C. O. (1992). The resources of rationality. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.


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      Relational Framing

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      Relational Maintenance

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      Dainton, M., & Stafford, L. (1993). Routine maintenance behaviors: A comparison of relational type, partner similarity and sex differences. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 10, 255–271.

      Dindia, K., & Canary, D. J. (1993). Definitions and theoretical perspectives on maintaining relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 10, 163–173.

      Stafford, L., & Canary, D. J. (1991). Maintenance strategies and romantic relationship types, gender and relational characteristics. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 8, 217–242.

      Relational Schemas

      Baldwin, M. W. (1992). Relational Schemas and the processing of social information. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 461–484.

      Relational Turbulence

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      Baxter, L. A. (in press). Voicing relationships. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

      Baxter, L. A., & Montgomery, B. M. (1996). Relating: Dialogues & dialectics. New York: Guilford Press.

      Heider, F. (1958). The psychology of interpersonal relations. New York: Wiley.

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      Gellner, E. (1985). Relativism and the social sciences. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

      Religion and Media

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      Resistance and Ritual

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      Aune, R. K., Levine, T. R., Park, H. S., Asada, K. J. K., & Banas, J. A. (2005). Tests of a theory of communicative responsibility. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 24, 358–381.


      Augustine. (1958). On Christian doctrine (D. W. Robertson Jr., Trans.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

      Bacon, J. (2002). The humblest may stand forth: Rhetoric, empowerment, and abolition. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.

      Bormann, E. G. (1972). Fantasy and rhetorical vision: The rhetorical criticism of social reality. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 58, 396–407.

      Campbell, G. (1963), The philosophy of rhetoric (L. F. Bitzer, Ed.). Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.

      Clark, D. L. (1957). Rhetoric in Greco-Roman education. New York: Columbia University Press.

      Enos, R. L. (1995). Roman rhetoric: Revolution and the Greek influence. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland.

      Foss, S. K., & Griffin, C. L. (1995). Beyond persuasion: A proposal for an invitational rhetoric. Communication Monographs, 62, 2–18.

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      Glenn, C. (1997). Rhetoric retold: Regendering the tradition from antiquity through the renaissance. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.

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      Rhetorical Sensitivity

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      Hart, R. P., Carlson, R. E., & Eadie, W. F. (1980). Attitudes toward communication and the assessment of rhetorical sensitivity. Communication Monographs, 47, 1–22.

      Rhetorical Situation

      Bitzer, L. F. (1968). The rhetorical situation. Philosophy and Rhetoric, 1, 1–14.


      Beck, U. (1986). Risk Society: Towards a new modernity. London: Sage.

      Rogers, Carl

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      Rogers, C. (1980). A way of being. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.


      Cushman, D. P. (1977). The rules perspective as a theoretical basis for the study of human communication. Communication Quarterly, 25, 30–45.

      Cushman, D. P., & Whiting, G. C. (1972). An approach to communication theory: Toward consensus on rules. Journal of Communication, 22, 217–238.

      Shimanoff, S. B. (1980). Communication rules: Theory and research. Beverly Hills: Sage.


      De, S. K. (1963). Sanskrit poetics as a study of aesthetic. Berkeley: University of California Press.


      Kuhn, T. S. (1970). The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

      Pavitt, C. (2001). The philosophy of science and communication theory. Huntington, NY: Nova Science.

      Science Fiction

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      Holstein, J., & Gubrium, J. (2000). The self we live by. Narrative identity in a postmodern world. New York: Oxford University Press.

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      Barthes, R. (1988). The semiotic challenge (R. Howard, Trans.). New York: Hill and Wang.

      Eco, U. (1976). A theory of semiotics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

      Kristeva, J. (1980). Desire in language: A semiotic approach to literature and art. New York: Columbia University Press.

      Leeds-Hurwitz, W. (1993). Semiotics and communication: Signs, codes, cultures. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

      Lotman, Y. M. (1990). Universe of the mind: A semiotic theory of culture (A. Shukman, Trans.). London: I. B. Tauris.

      Sebeok, T. A. (1976). Contributions to the doctrine of signs. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

      Sensation Seeking

      Zuckerman, M. (1994). Behavioral expressions and biosocial bases of sensation seeking. New York: Cambridge University Press.


      Dervin, B., & Foreman-Wernet, L. (Eds.). (2003). Sense-making methodology reader: Selected writings of Brenda Dervin. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

      Snowden, D. J. (2005). Multi-ontology sense making: A new simplicity in decision making. Informatics in Primary Health Care 13 (1, February), 45–54.

      Tracy, S., Karen, M., & Clifton, S. (2006). Cracking jokes and crafting selves: Sensemaking and identity management among human service workers. Communication Monographs, 73, 283–308.

      Weick, K. E. (1995). Sensemaking in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.


      Altman, D. (2001). Global sex. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

      Andersen, P. A. (2006). The evolution of biological sex difference in communication. In D. J. Canary & K. Dindia (Eds.), Sex differences and similarities in communication (pp. 117–135). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

      Butler, J. (1993). Bodies that matter: On the discursive limits of “sex.” New York: Routledge.

      Eagly, A. H. (1987). Sex-differences in social behaviors: A social-role interpretation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

      Sloop, J. M. (2004). Disciplining gender: Rhetorics of sex identity in contemporary U.S. culture. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.


      Bruneau, T. J. (1973). Communicative silences: Forms and functions. Journal of Communication, 23, 17–46.

      Bruneau, T. J. (1985). Silencing and stilling process: The creative and temporal bases of signs. Semiotica, 56, 279–290.

      Clair, R. P. (1998). Organizing silence: A world of possibilities. Albany: State University of New York Press.

      Jaworski, A. (1993). The power of silence: Social and pragmatic perspectives. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

      Houston, M., & Kramarae, C. (1991). Speaking from silence: Methods of silencing and resistance. Discourse and Society, 2, 388–399.

      Situated Learning

      Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. New York: Cambridge University Press.

      Social Action Media

      Schoening, G. T., & Anderson, J. A. (1995). Social action media studies: Foundational arguments and common premises. Communication Theory, 5, 93–116.

      Social Exchange

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      Roloff, M. (1981). Interpersonal communication: The social exchange approach. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

      Social Issues Analysis

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      Bullis, C. (1993). Organizational socialization research: Enabling, constraining, and shifting perspectives. Communication Monographs, 60(1), 10–17.

      Social Judgment

      Sherif, M., & Hovland, C. (1961). Social judgment, assimilation and contrast effects in communication and attitude change. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

      Sherif, C. W., Sherif, M., & Nebergall, R. E. (1965). Attitudes and attitude change: The social judgment-involvement approach. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.

      Social Learning

      Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

      Social Order

      Cooley, C. H. (1902). Human nature and the social order. New York: Scribner's.

      Duncan, H. D. (1962). Communication and social order. London: Oxford University Press.

      Social Penetration

      Altman, I., & Taylor, D. (1973). Social penetration: The development of interpersonal relationships. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.

      Social Perspectives

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      Gergen, K. J. (1999). An invitation to social construction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

      Leeds-Hurwitz, W. (1989). Communication in everyday life: A social interpretation. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

      Longino, H. (2002). The fate of knowledge. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

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      Searle, J. (1995). The construction of social reality. New York: Free Press.

      Sigman, S. J. (1987). A perspective on social communication. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

      Social Support

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      Burleson, B. R., Albrecht, T., & Sarason, I. B. (1994). The communication of social support: Messages, interactions, relationships, and community. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

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      Dance, F. E. X. (1982). A speech theory of human communication. In F. E. X. Dance (Ed.), Human communication theory: Comparative essays (pp. 120–146). New York: Harper & Row.

      Speech Acts

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      Searle, J. (1969). Speech acts. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

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      Spiral of Silence

      Noelle-Neumann, E. (1974). The spiral of silence: A theory of public opinion. Journal of Communication, 24, 43–51.

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      Donaldson, T., & Preston, L. E. (1995). The stakeholder theory of the corporation: Concepts, evidence, and implications. Academy of Management Review, 20, 65–91.

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      Wood, J. T. (2003). From “woman's nature” to standpoint epistemology: Gilligan and the debate over essentializing in feminist scholarship. Women's Studies in Communication, 25, 1–24.


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      Symbolic Convergence

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      Taoism (See also Daoism)

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