21st Century Communication: A Reference Handbook

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Edited by: William F. Eadie

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  • Front Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: The Discipline of Communication

    Part II: Approaches to the Study of Communication

    Part III: Key Processes of Communication

    Part IV: Forms and Types of Communication

    Part V: Key Characteristics of Messages

    Part VI: Key Communication Relationships

    Part VII: Factors Affecting Communication

    Part VIII: Challenges and Opportunities for Communication

    Part IX: Media as Communication

    Part X: Communication as a Profession

    Part XI: Journalism

    Part XII: Public Relations

    Part XIII: Advertising

    Part XIV: Media Management

  • Editorial Board

    Sherwyn P. Morreale, PhD, is Director of Graduate Studies in Communication at the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs. For 8 years, she served as associate director of the National Communication Association (NCA), where she worked actively to promote communication pedagogy and research. She has authored or coauthored 20 refereed scholarly articles in national and regional journals, 13 books and monographs, and 14 book chapters. She has made 140 presentations at national and regional conventions and numerous workshops on communication assessment, curriculum development, and public speaking on campuses across the country. She has just completed a handbook for graduate students in communication, distributed nationally to all graduate programs, and Pathways to Communication Careers in the 21st Century (7th ed.), intended for undergraduates. She also recently wrote two encyclopedia entries on the nature of communication competence and two articles for NCA's leading journal, Communication Education, one on the centrality of communication education and the other on the nature of the basic communication course. In the past year, she worked with NCA to produce new editions of three publications on communication assessment, including Assessing Motivation to Communicate (2nd ed.), Large Scale Assessment of Oral Communication: K–12 and Higher Education (3rd ed.), and The Competent Speaker Speech Evaluation Program (2nd ed.). She is presently working on two book projects, a public speaking textbook and a coauthored scholarly book on organizational trust, and on a major review of communication assessment for Communication Education, as well as several other research studies. In her capacity as Graduate Director at University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, she presently teaches Introduction to Graduate StudyinCommunication, Advanced Communication Theory, a seminar in Communication Competence, and a seminar in Organizational Communication with the campus chancellor, Dr. Pamela Shockley. She received her PhD from the UniversityofDenver.

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    Preface

    The discipline of communication has grown in popularity from the time professors of journalism and speech decided, in the mid-1960s, that the term communication was an excellent general descriptor for the theory and research that each group aspired to create. Over time, the two groups grew closer together and began to recognize significant overlap in their theoretical and research interests, but there were also differences in their traditions that kept them apart. While both groups agreed that communication is a practical discipline, journalism professors focused a great deal of their attention on the education of media professionals. Speech professors, on the other hand, often were more oriented to the liberal arts and valued the fact that communication could be approached from a variety of traditions, including the arts, humanities, social sciences, and even the sciences.

    A key term in 21st-century communication, however, is convergence. Not only are media and technology converging with each other to produce new means of communicating but also individuals are increasingly using both new and existing communication tools to create new forms of communication. And this convergence forces the various “camps” within the communication discipline to draw on each other's theories and research methods to keep up with explaining the rapidly changing communication environment.

    This convergence of ideas and theories provides a space to challenge conventional ways of thinking about the communication discipline, and that's what I've attempted to do in these volumes. I wasn't alone in my concerns: When I first accepted the assignment to serve as Editor, I immediately convened several informal groups of scholars at a professional meeting to discuss how I should approach this task. Uniformly, these scholars said, “The ways we talk about our discipline are tired—look for different ways to approach the material that needs to be covered in such a work.” And they said, “Even though we've relied on contexts of communication (interpersonal, group, organizational, public, and mass communication) to describe ourselves over the years, this contextual approach hasn't served us very well.” So I looked for another way, one that would not only honor the diversity of the study of communication but also integrate that diversity into a coherent form.

    In the end, following the sections that introduce the discipline and a number of different approaches to studying communication phenomena, I divided communication study into four basic properties: (1) the different processes that people typically use to accomplish the task of communicating with each other (such as message creation, information processing, and identity construction); (2) the forms and types of communication (such as conversation, public speaking, interviewing, and decision making) that are commonly encountered in everyday life; (3) the characteristics (such as strategy, style, and the interplay of verbal and nonverbal codes) that a communicator must consider in creating messages; and (4) how communication changes depending on the nature of the relationships (such as familial, work, and romantic) that individuals build and maintain through these various processes, forms, and types and carefully or not so carefully constructed messages. To these, I added a number of factors that influence how we communicate (such as gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and globalization), as well as a number of topics that could be considered to be both challenges and opportunities for communicators (such as communication competence, sexual harassment, deception, and bias).

    While media topics are not ignored in Volume 1, they are the centerpiece of Volume 2. The study of media has been somewhat more organized than has been the study of the communication process more generally, and there are a number of widely recognized theories of media as communication for which considerable knowledge has been generated through various research studies. The first section of Volume 2 presents a number of these theories and approaches (such as agenda setting, cultivation, uses, and gratifications), as well as topics related to how people use technology in the communication process.

    The remainder of Volume 2 focuses on communication as a profession and the various professional courses of study in the communication discipline: journalism, public relations, advertising, and media management. The curricula for these programs of study contain courses that are commonly taught across much of the United States, and so I tended to organize the topics in these areas around those common course titles. These sections are most in keeping with the Sage Publications editors' original concept for the 21st Century reference work series, to have topics tied to course titles in the curriculum discussed in essays of approximately the same length (about 7,000 words per essay) and to have them provide comprehensive coverage of each topic, along with suggestions for further reading should the reader wish to pursue the topic in greater depth.

    But because the communication discipline consists of diverse approaches, these chapters are written in diverse styles and from different points of view. I am extremely pleased both with the quality of the authors that I was fortunate to recruit to write for this work and with the quality of the work that those authors produced. I asked the author(s) of each chapter to cover the chapter's topic in a comprehensive manner, to write from that author's knowledge and experience with the topic, and to provide a perspective that readers (both students and their professors) might find to be unique. And the authors took advantage of that challenge, producing approaches that range from personal history to advice giving to vivid descriptions of research and, yes, essays resembling traditional reviews of literature. In many cases, authors sought to place the knowledge that they were discussing into new forms or to make new connections that might not have been made before. This work is no compendium of highlights from textbooks; rather, it reads more like a series of opening-day lectures, where the professor attempts to engage students with the course material. I see the differences in style and approach as both representing the diversity of the communication discipline and also pointing to the strength we obtain from gathering together such a variety of approaches and viewpoints.

    Perhaps I have a somewhat unique perspective on this material. I was trained in the speech tradition of the field; my undergraduate degree is in speech, but my doctorate is in communication, from one of the first departments to call itself by that name. I have served not only in traditional professor roles but also as Associate Director of the National Communication Association, the largest of the communication scholarly societies, where I found myself working on projects to the benefit of the entire discipline and explaining our discipline to a variety of external audiences. And now I am serving as Professor of Journalism and Media Studies, and although my colleagues still think of me as “that speech guy,” they also allow me from time to time to push them toward the convergence of ideas that I described above. We are a long way from that convergence, but my, admittedly biased, hope is that our two traditions will continue to look for what unites us rather than what divides us.

    No enterprise of this size and scope can be the product of one person. I appreciate very much the invitation from Sage Publications to edit this work, the vision of Jim Brace-Thompson of Sage's Reference Division in creating this series of works and seeing them to fruition. Sara Tauber served ably as Development Editor, even through a pregnancy and the early infancy of her child. Leticia Gutierrez and Laura Notton provided a multitude of behind-the-scenes technical assistance to me and to the authors. Kate Schroeder and her staff provided efficient and effective production services to make the completed work a reality.

    I also would like to thank the individuals (too numerous to name, but you know who you are) who advised me on creating the structure for the work. Sherwyn Morreale, my former colleague from our days together at the National Communication Association, and Glen Broom, my present-day colleague, agreed to assist as associate editors, and they helped me refine the chapter structure and to generate ideas for the chapter authors. They also each wrote an excellent chapter for this work.

    In fact, 21st Century Communication: A Reference Handbook would not exist were it not for the generous and high-quality contributions of the many authors who agreed to participate in creating it. I frequently received comments that the idea behind this work was a wonderful and needed one, and when authors agreed to write they did so enthusiastically. That enthusiasm shows in their work.

    I want to thank in particular my colleagues and the administration at San Diego State University. The administration recognized this project as being an important one and allowed me to work on it as a significant part of my scholarly duties. My colleagues across the campus, in the School of Journalism and Media Studies, the School of Communication, and the Department of Marketing, not only encouraged me, but many of those talented individuals also contributed chapters.

    Finally, editing such a large project can become obsessive at times (maybe even most of the time). I am grateful to friends and family (and you, too, know who you are) for putting up with my obsession, for worrying about me at the times when the workload was at its peak, and for listening to me endlessly and supporting me all the same.

    21st Century Communication has been a labor of love on the part of many people. I hope that the love and care that went into its creation comes through to its readers.

    William F.Eadie

    About the Editors

    Editor-in-Chief

    William F. Eadie is Professor of Journalism and Media Studies at San Diego State University. His teaching and research interests include the development of theories of media and communication, the history of the communication discipline, and the role of media in social influence campaigns. He also served as director of San Diego State's School of Communication between 2001 and 2005. Prior to arriving at San Diego State, he was Associate Director of the National Communication Association (NCA) in Washington, D.C., where he worked with researchers and promoted communication research to a variety of audiences. His other faculty appointments have been at Ohio University and California State University, Northridge, and he has served as adjunct visiting faculty at the University of Minnesota; University of Maryland; University of California, Los Angeles; and California State University, Los Angeles. He served as the first editor of Journal of Applied Communication Research after it became an NCA publication, and he has been an advocate for the application of communication research in ways that affect the lives of ordinary people. He also has served as president of the Western States Communication Association and as president of its auxiliary, the Executives Club, and he is currently serving as editor of WSCA News, the association's e-newsletter. He has received the NCA Golden Anniversary Award for a journal article that was judged to be outstanding and NCA's Samuel J. Becker Award for Distinguished Service to the Communication Discipline, and he has been elected a member of the national honorary societies Phi Kappa Phi, Golden Key, and Phi Beta Delta. With Paul Nelson, he coedited two books for SAGE: The Language of Conflict and Resolution (2000) and The Changing Conversation in America: Lectures From the Smithsonian (2001). His next book project is tentatively titled When Communication Became a Discipline, and it will focus on the period from the mid-1960s through the mid-1970s, when both the journalism and the speech fields adopted the term communication to describe scholarly work in those fields. He received his PhD in communication from Purdue University and his bachelor's and master's degrees in speech from the University of California, Los Angeles.

    Associate Editor

    Glen M. Broom, PhD, is Professor Emeritus, School of Journalism and Media Studies, San Diego State University (1979–2007) and Adjunct Professor, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia (2003–present). He began his career in 1963 at the University of at Urbana-Champaign as Assistant Extension Editor in the Cooperative Extension Service. His work included an assignment as a radio consultant with the U.S. Agency for International Development in Amman, Jordan. He moved to Chicago in 1968, becoming the part owner, vice president, and director of public relations of the Chicago-based management consulting and training firm Applied Behavioral Science, Inc. He left the company to pursue his PhD in Mass Communication at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. He joined the UW–Madison faculty as the head of the public relations sequence (1975–1979). He also has been a visiting professor at the University of Texas at Austin and universities in Brisbane, Sydney, and Melbourne, Australia. He is a coauthor of Effective Public Relations (6th–9th eds., 1985–2006), author of Cutlip and Center's Effective Public Relations (10th ed., 2009), and coauthor of Using Research in Public Relations (1990). He also has written more than 50 scholarly journal articles, convention papers, and book chapters. He was awarded the Pathfinder Award (1986) by the Institute of Public Relations, named Outstanding Educator (1991) by the Public Relations Society of America, and presented the Jackson, Jackson and Wagner Behavioral Science Prize (1993) by the Public Relations Society of America Foundation. At San Diego State University, he was selected three times as the outstanding journalism/communication professor (1989, 1995, and 2006) and named outstanding professor and faculty commencement speaker for the College of Professional Studies and Fine Arts (1993). The School of Communication selected him as faculty commencement speaker in 2003. He earned his BS and MS degrees from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

    Editorial Board

    Sherwyn P. Morreale, PhD, is Director of Graduate Studies in Communication at the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs. For 8 years, she served as associate director of the National Communication Association (NCA), where she worked actively to promote communication pedagogy and research. She has authored or coauthored 20 refereed scholarly articles in national and regional journals, 13 books and monographs, and 14 book chapters. She has made 140 presentations at national and regional conventions and numerous workshops on communication assessment, curriculum development, and public speaking on campuses across the country. She has just completed a handbook for graduate students in communication, distributed nationally to all graduate programs, and Pathways to Communication Careers in the 21st Century (7th ed.), intended for undergraduates. She also recently wrote two encyclopedia entries on the nature of communication competence and two articles for NCA's leading journal, Communication Education, one on the centrality of communication education and the other on the nature of the basic communication course. In the past year, she worked with NCA to produce new editions of three publications on communication assessment, including Assessing Motivation to Communicate (2nd ed.), Large Scale Assessment of Oral Communication: K–12 and Higher Education (3rd ed.), and The Competent Speaker Speech Evaluation Program (2nd ed.). She is presently working on two book projects, a public speaking textbook and a coauthored scholarly book on organizational trust, and on a major review of communication assessment for Communication Education, as well as several other research studies. In her capacity as Graduate Director at University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, she presently teaches Introduction to Graduate StudyinCommunication, Advanced Communication Theory, a seminar in Communication Competence, and a seminar in Organizational Communication with the campus chancellor, Dr. Pamela Shockley. She received her PhD from the UniversityofDenver.

    About the Contributors

    Robert R. Agne is Assistant Professor of Communication at Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama. His research interest is in the communicative challenges people face in various interactional settings. Much of his work has focused on the telephone negotiations between the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Branch Davidians during the siege outside Waco, Texas, in 1993. Other studies have examined friendship interaction, mediation training, parasocial relationships through blog postings, 911 telephone calls, and social interaction among psychic readers. He received his PhD in 2003 from the University of Colorado, Boulder.

    Alan B. Albarran is Professor and Director, Center for Spanish Language Media, University of North Texas. His research and teaching interests are in the management and economics of the communication industries. He served as editor of the International Journal on Media Management from 2006 to 2008 and editor of the Journal of Media Economics from 1997 to 2005. He is the author of seven books: Handbook of Media Management and Economics; Management of Electronic Media; Media Economics: Understanding Markets, Industries and Concepts; Global Media Economics; Understanding the Web: Social, Political and Economic Dimensions of the Internet; The Radio Broadcasting Industry; and Time and Media Markets. He has conducted workshops and given lectures in several countries, including Spain, Italy, Germany, France, Sweden, Finland, the United Kingdom, Switzerland, Mexico, Portugal, China, Taiwan, Russia, and Colombia. In 2008, he received the Award of Honor given by the Journal of Media Economics recognizing his lifetime achievement in the field. His professional experience includes work at six radio and two television stations, as well as industry consulting. He received his PhD from the Center for Spanish Language Media, MA from The Ohio State University, and BA from Marshall University.

    Bradly Alicea is currently a research associate in the MIND Lab at Michigan State University. He earned his master's degree in anthropology and zoology from the University of Florida in 2002. He has done research in a number of areas, including human-computer interaction, bioinformatics, and evolutionary biology. His PhD in media and information from Michigan State University is nearing completion.

    James A. Anderson, Professor of Communication, University of Utah, is the author/coauthor/editor of 16 books, including Communication Research: Issues and Methods (1987), Mediated Communication: A Social Action Perspective (Sage, 1988), Communication Theory: Epistemological Foundations (1996), The Organizational Self and Ethical Conduct (2001), and Media Violence and Aggression (Sage, 2008). His 100-plus chapters, articles, and research monographs are in the areas of family studies, cultural studies, media literacy, organizational studies, communicative ethics, methodology, and epistemology. He is a fellow and past president of the International Communication Association. He has been the editor of Communication Yearbook and Communication Theory, associate editor of Human Communication Research, and guest editor of Communication Studies and American Behavioral Scientist, as well as a member of the editorial board of seven other journals. He is currently Executive Editor of the Rocky Mountain Communication Review. His forthcoming titles from Sage include works on mediated communication research methods and theory. He earned his PhD from the University of Iowa.

    Edward C. Appel, Department of Communication and Philosophy, Lock Haven University, received his PhD in rhetoric and communication from Temple University (1984) and an MDiv from the Lancaster Theological Seminary (1985). He is the author of eight journal articles, all pertaining to Kenneth Burke and dramatism. He has served as associate editor of the Quarterly Journal of Speech and as conversation editor and associate editor of the KB (Kenneth Burke) http://Journal.org In addition to teaching, he has had practical experience in public address as a Supply Preacher in the Presbyterian Church USA.

    Edd Applegate is Professor of Advertising at Middle Tennessee State University. He has written several books on advertising. He has contributed more than 75 articles and chapters to various books and encyclopedias. He has written more than 25 refereed articles for academic journals and proceedings. His research focuses on the history of advertising and journalism as well as the history of advertising education. He received his doctorate from Oklahoma State University.

    J. Kevin Barge is Professor of Communication at Texas A&M University. His research interests center on developing a social constructionist approach to management and leadership, exploring the role of appreciative forms of communication to transform organizations, and articulating the relationship between dialogue and organizing in organizational and community contexts. His research has been published in the Academy of Management Review, Management Communication Quarterly, Journal of Applied Communication Research, The OD Practitioner, Communication Theory, and Communication Monographs. He received his MA and PhD degrees from the University of Kansas.

    Mariaelena Bartesaghi is Assistant Professor of Communication at the University of South Florida. She has explored the impact of social construction in communication in Communication Yearbook (2008) and in a chapter of Socially Constructing Communication (2009), both coauthored with Theresa Castor. Her work in language and social interaction examines the therapeutic as discourse of authority that is continuously reconstructed in institutional talk and text. She received her PhD from the University of Pennsylvania.

    Wayne A. Beach is a professor in the School of Communication, San Diego State University; adjunct professor in the Department of Surgery, School of Medicine; and member, Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego. His research reveals a particular concern with health and illness, including long-term investigations of how family members talk through cancer on the telephone, medical interviewing in preventive and oncological care, and related illness dilemmas (e.g., bulimia, obesity, chest pain, cancer diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis). External funding for his research has been awarded from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the American Cancer Society, and several philanthropic foundations in San Diego. His current work examines how patients make available and oncologists respond to fears, uncertainties, and hopes about cancer. Among other projects, he is also collaborating with professional theater groups in a production documenting how family members communicate about and manage cancer. Additional information is available at http://advancement.sdsu.edu/marcomm/features/2008/cancer.html. He earned his PhD in 1981 from the University of Utah.

    Steven A. Beebe is Regents' Professor and Chair of the Department of Communication Studies and Associate Dean of the College of Fine Arts and Communication at Texas State University–San Marcos. He is the author or coauthor of 12 widely used communication textbooks, most of which are in multiple editions. His research has appeared in Communication Education, Human Communication, American Communication Journal, Communication Quarterly, Communication Research Reports, and numerous other communication journals. He's received his university's highest awards for both research and service and was named Outstanding Communication Professor in America by the National Speaker's Association. He received his PhD in 1976 from the University of Missouri–Columbia.

    George Belch is Professor of Marketing and Chair of the Marketing Department at San Diego State University, where he teaches strategic marketing planning, integrated marketing communications, and consumer/customer behavior. Prior to joining San Diego State, he was a member of the faculty in the Graduate School of Management, University of California, Irvine. He has been a visiting professor in the Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies at the University of California, San Diego. Before entering academia, he was a marketing representative for the E.I. DuPont Company. He also worked as a research analyst for the DDB Worldwide advertising agency. He received his PhD in marketing from the University of California, Los Angeles.

    Michael Belch has been Professor of Marketing at San Diego State University since 1976. Prior to obtaining his PhD, he was employed by the General Foods Corporation as a marketing representative. He received his BS degree from The Pennsylvania State University and his MBA from Drexel University. He obtained his PhD from the University of Pittsburgh with a major in consumer behavior and a minor in social psychology.

    Karla Mason Bergen is Assistant Professor of Communication and Coordinator of Women's Studies at the College of Saint Mary in Omaha, Nebraska. Her research is focused on family communication and the social construction of identity, specifically how women communicatively negotiate unconventional identities. She has studied identity construction of female professors, lesbian families, and, most recently, women in commuter marriages and has published several articles and book chapters based on her research. She earned her PhD from the University of Nebraska–Lincoln.

    Frank Biocca is the AT&T Chair of Telecommunication, Information, and Media. He directs the networked Media Interface and Network Design (MIND) Lab. He is interested in how mind and media can be coupled to extend human cognition and enhance human performance. His current projects include research on the psychology of presence in virtual environments, spatial cognition and information organization in high-bandwidth and mobile system collaborative augmented-reality systems, and work on adapting interfaces to cognitive styles and subcultural differences. Among his books is the award-winning Communication in the Age of Virtual Reality. He has patents on augmented reality technology and more than 150 publications and has participated in the introduction of the first portable computer.

    Corey Bohil is a cognitive psychologist with a background in classification and decision making, cognitive modeling, and human-computer interaction. He has worked on research projects exploring body-worn interfaces, augmented-reality navigation aids, and psychophysiologi-cal responses to virtual stimuli. His industry experience includes serving as a cognitive scientist for Perceptive Sciences Corporation in Austin, Texas, where he designed and implemented usability studies for numerous prominent software development companies. As the manager of the Michigan State University MIND Lab, he is involved in all phases of experimentation concerning uses of technology to augment cognitive/behavioral task performance, including spatial learning, embodied cognition, procedural and explicit learning, and telepresence.

    Carl Botan has four decades of practice and academic research experience in public relations, strategic communication, and political campaigns. His current focus is on the use of strategic communication campaigns to address terrorism and other homeland security issues in both the United States and the developing world. In particular, he studies ways to ethically integrate strategic communication campaigns into domestic preparedness, training, and education efforts addressing both terrorism and natural disasters. He has won numerous awards, including designation as Australia's 1998 Outstanding Scholar-Practitioner in Public Relations, and the Outstanding Research Achievement Award and the Book of the Year Award, both from the public relations division of the National Communication Association. His best-known books are Public Relations Theory, Public Relations Theory II (both with Vincent Hazleton) and Investigating Communication (with Larry Frey and Gary Kreps).

    Samuel D. Bradley is Assistant Professor of Advertising at Texas Tech University. He runs a psychophysiology lab designed to study attention, emotion, and memory in response to advertising and other mediated messages. He earned his PhD in mass communications and cognitive science at Indiana University in 2005.

    Dawn O. Braithwaite is a Willa Cather Professor and Professor of Communication at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln. Her research focuses on how persons in personal and family relationships communicate during times of family transitions and challenges. She has published four books and 70 articles and chapters. She received the National Communication Association's Brommel Award for Family Communication and the University of Nebraska–Lincoln College of Arts and Sciences Award for Outstanding Research and Creative Achievement in the Social Sciences. She is a past president of the Western States Communication Association and will be the National Communication Association's president in 2010. She received her PhD in 1988 from the University of Minnesota.

    Barry Brummett is the Charles Sapp Centennial Professor in Communication and Department of Communication Studies Chairat the University of Texas—Austin. Among his publications are A Rhetoric of Style (Southern Illinois University) and Rhetorical Homologies (University of Alabama). He is a specialist in the rhetoric of popular culture and in the theories of Kenneth Burke. He earned his PhD in 1978 at the University of Minnesota.

    Patrice M. Buzzanell is Professor and Redding Fellow in the Department of Communication. Her research interests coalesce around issues of gender in the workplace, with emphasis on career, leadership, and work-family processes. She received her PhD from Purdue University.

    Karlyn Kohrs Campbell is Professor of Communication Studies at the University of Minnesota. She is the author of Man Cannot Speak for Her: A Critical Study of Early Feminist Rhetoric (2 vols., 1989) and coauthor of Deeds Done in Words: Presidential Rhetoric and the Genres of Governance (1990), Presidents Creating the Presidency (2008), The Interplay of Influence: News, Advertising, Politics, and the Mass Media (6th ed., 2006), Critiques of Contemporary Rhetoric (1997), and The Rhetorical Act (4th ed., 2008) and editor of Women Public Speakers in the United States, 1800–1925 (1993) and Women Public Speakers in the United States, 1925–Present (1994). Her awards include a fellowship at the Shorenstein Center of the Kennedy School at Harvard, the National Communication Association Distinguished Scholar Award, the Woolbert Award for scholarship of exceptional originality and influence, and NCA's Golden Anniversary Monograph Award. She is the University of Minnesota 2002 Distinguished Woman Scholar in the Humanities and Social Sciences.

    Gennadiy Chernov is an assistant professor in the School of Journalism, University of Regina. His research interests include mass communication theory, the psychological mechanisms of media effects, and agenda-setting theory. He received his PhD from the University of Oregon.

    Clifford G. Christians is the Charles H. Sandage Distinguished Professor and Research Professor of Communications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He is Director of the Institute of Communications Research and holds joint appointments as Professor of Media Studies and Professor of Journalism. He has authored or coauthored numerous books and essays on communication ethics; his research specialty is universals in media ethics. He received his PhD in communications in 1974 from the University of at Urbana-Champaign.

    Kenneth N. Cissna is a professor and chair of the Department of Communication at the University of South Florida, where he teaches undergraduate and graduate courses in interpersonal communication, group communication, and dialogue theory and practice. He has published scores of scholarly book chapters and journal articles and six books, including Applied Communication in the 21st Century, which received the 1995 Outstanding Book Award from the Applied Communication Division of the National Communication Association (NCA); Moments of Meeting: Buber, Rogers, and the Potential for Public Dialogue (with Rob Anderson); Dialogue: Theorizing Difference in Communication Studies (Sage, with Rob Anderson and Leslie A. Baxter), and, most recently, the Handbook of Applied Communication Research (with Lawrence Frey). He served as editor of the Journal of Applied Communication Research and of the Southern Communication Journal, and with Rob Anderson, he recently coedited a special issue of Communication Theory on “Fresh Perspectives in Dialogue Theory.” He is a past president of both the Florida Communication Association and the Southern States Communication Association (SSCA). His awards include SSCA's 2007 T. Earle Johnson—Edwin Paget Distinguished Service Award and NCA's 2008 Gerald M. Phillips Award for Distinguished Applied Communication Scholarship. He earned his PhD in 1975 from the University of Denver.

    Andrew Cline is Assistant Professor of Journalism at Missouri State University. His fields of study are rhetoric and political science. His research focuses on the rhetorical aspects of the interaction of the news media and politics, including examining persuasive intention and bias. He earned his PhD in the interdisciplinary program at the University of Missouri–Kansas City.

    William R. Cupach is a professor in the School of Communication at Illinois State University. His research pertains to problematic interactions in interpersonal relationships, including contexts such as embarrassing predicaments, relational transgressions, interpersonal conflict, and obsessive relational pursuit. He is a coauthor or coeditor of four scholarly books on “the dark side” of communication and relationships. He is a past president of the International Association for Relationship Research. He received his PhD in Communication Arts and Sciences from the University of Southern California.

    Melbourne S. Cummings is graduate professor of Communication and Culture at Howard University in Washington, D.C. She received her PhD in Speech and Intercultural Communications from University of California, Los Angeles. She currently teaches and directs theses and dissertations in the areas of African American and intercultural communications. She has also written and published in these areas of rhetoric and culture as well as curriculum development in African American discourse. She serves as mentor to doctoral students interested in entering the professoriat and has served on the advisory council of the National Communication Association's Preparing Future Faculty, the Legislative Council, as well as Chair of the Affirmative Action Committee, and the Black Caucus. At the National Association's conventions, she has been awarded two of their highest awards: The Robert Kibler Memorial Award for service to the organization and the MENTOR AWARD for her work with doctoral students and young African American faculty in the field of communications. Her publications appear in several refereed disciplinary journals and anthologies.

    Dale Cyphert, PhD, is an associate professor in the Department of Management at the University of Northern Iowa. With degrees in speech, rhetoric and public relations, her career has included managerial positions in public relations, personnel, retail operations, and workplace training. Specializing in cross-cultural rhetorical theory, her research focuses primarily on variations in decision-making norms across differing socioeconomic groups. Current projects include the definition and development of communication competence in business organizations, methods of improving virtual team decision-making communication, the management of collaborative writing, and the use of communication to enforce or change a community's decision-making norms.

    Sandra Davidson, PhD, JD, is Associate Professor of Journalism and Adjunct Associate Professor of Law at the University of Missouri. She is the attorney for the Columbia Missourian. Her academic writings include “From Spam to Stern: Advertising Law and the Internet,” in Advertising and the Internet: Theory and Research (2007), and “Journalism: The Lifeblood of a Democracy” and “Journalism: Legal Situation,” published in The International Encyclopedia of Communication, edited by Wolfgang Donsbach (2008).

    Hugo de Burgh is Professor of Journalism at the University of Westminster, Special Professor of Investigative Journalism at Tsinghua University (PRC 985 International Leading Scholar Programme Second Round/Specialist Plan for the Introduction of Key Knowledge and Talents), and Director of the China Media Centre, London. Among his recent books are Investigative Journalism (2nd ed., 2008), China: Friend or Foe? (2006), and Making Journalists: Diverse Models, Global Issues (2005) (the internationalization of journalism, including Latin America, the Arab World, Africa, Continental Europe, India, and the United States).

    Brenda Dervin is a professor in The Ohio State University School of Communication and Joan N. Huber Fellow in Social and Behavior Sciences. Her research focuses on improving methodological approaches, particularly interviewing, for studying and understanding audiences and users. She formerly worked as a public information officer.

    Marcia Watson DiStaso is Assistant Professor of Public Relations in the College of Communications at Pennsylvania State University. She serves as a board member of the International Public Relations Research Conference, and her research focuses on investor relations as well as other issues important to public relations, such as research and new technologies. She received her PhD in communication from the University of Miami.

    Rebecca L. Dohrman is a doctoral student in the Department of Communication who focuses on gender, alternative organizations, and entrepreneurship. She received her MA from Saint Louis University.

    Debbie S. Dougherty is an associate professor in the Department of Communication at the University of Missouri. Her research interests focus on organizational power, particularly as it relates to sexual harassment and to emotions at work. She received her PhD in 2000 from the University of Nebraska–Lincoln.

    Bonnie J. Dow is Associate Professor and Chair of Communication Studies and Associate Professor of Women's and Gender Studies at Vanderbilt University. She is the author of Prime-Time Feminism: Television, Media Culture and the Women's Movement Since 1970 (1996) and a coeditor (with JuliaT. Wood) of The SAGE Handbook of Gender and Communication (Sage, 2006). Her research interests include analysis of women's public address and feminist criticism of the mass media. She earned a doctorate in speech communication from the University of Minnesota in 1990.

    Robert Dowling has been a reporter and editor for four decades and is a visiting professor at Tsinghua University in Beijing, where he helped launch a Global Business Journalism program for the School of Journalism and Communications. He is also the editorial adviser to Caijing, China's leading business magazine. Before his retirement from Business Week in 2007, he was the international managing editor of the magazine from 1991 to 2006 and assistant managing editor for ethics and training. He served as the magazine's European economic correspondent and Washington economic and monetary correspondent. He has been an editor and reporter for the American Banker, Baltimore Sun, and The Hartford Times and a reporter for UPI (United Press International). He is a board member of the Overseas Press Club (OPC) and serves on its Freedom of the Press Committee. During his editorship, Business Week won 16 awards for best economic, foreign affairs, and environmental coverage from the OPC. He is a frequent commentator on international economic and media trends.

    Steve Duck is the Daniel and Amy Starch Distinguished Research Chair at the University of Iowa and the author or editor of more than 50 books, the latest being (with David McMahan) Sage's new hybrid text Basics of Communication: A Relational Perspective.

    Amy S. Ebesu Hubbard is an associate professor in the Department of Speech at the University of Hawai'i at Mānoa. She earned her PhD in communication from the University of Arizona.

    Timothy Edgar is an associate professor and director of the graduate program in health communication at Emerson College, where he teaches social marketing and behavioral and communication theory. He also has a secondary appointment as an associate adjunct clinical professor in the Department of Public Health and Family Medicine at the Tufts University School of Medicine. His career has been devoted to conducting research on the use of communication and social marketing strategies to motivate changes in health-related risk behaviors. Prior to joining the Emerson faculty, he was a senior study director at Westat in Rockville, Maryland for 9 years. While at Westat, he was an evaluator for the VERB™ campaign. He has a PhD from Purdue University.

    Janis L. Edwards is Associate Professor of Communication Studies at the University of Alabama, where she teaches courses in rhetorical criticism, political communication, and visual communication. She has twice chaired the NCA Visual Communication Division, and her research on political cartoons and other visual artifacts has been published in a variety of journals and in the books Defining Visual Rhetoric and Visual Rhetoric: A Reader in Communication and American Culture. She is the author of Political Cartoons in the 1988 Presidential Campaign: Image, Metaphor, and Narrative. She received a PhD in 1993 from the University of Massachusetts.

    John M. Eger is Van Deerlin Endowed Chair of Communication and Public Policy and Executive Director of the International Center for Communications at San Diego State University. He has taught media technology in a global environment, trends in technology and public policy, government telecommunications, and international communications for more than 16 years. A former advisor to two presidents and director of the White House Office of Telecommunications Policy (OTP), he helped spearhead the restructuring of America's telecommunications industry and initiated the development of an Asian Basin secretariat on telecommunications. This effort resulted in the formation of the Pacific Telecommunications Council. As the head of CBS Broadcasting International, he negotiated a groundbreaking agreement with China Central Television (CCTV) for commercial television. He was also responsible for the development of the prize-winning home video documentary series World War II With Walter Cronkite; the inauguration of live and tape-delayed, inflight programming on domestic and international aircraft; and satellite delivery of The CBS Evening News With Dan Rather to Paris and Tokyo.

    Peter Ehrenhaus is Professor and Chair in the Department of Communication and Theatre at Pacific Lutheran University, Tacoma, Washington. He has written extensively about the cultural legacies of the Vietnam War, through projects concerned with the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, the Tomb of the Unknown for the Vietnam War, and the uses of Holocaust memory and American memory of the Second World War to circumvent “the Vietnam syndrome.” He is currently working on several projects concerned with memory of race lynching in America. He has a PhD from the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.

    Lisa Farinelli (PhD, Arizona State University, 2008) is an assistant professor of Speech Communication at Augustana College. Her research program emphasizes issues of emotional communication and conflict dynamics in personal relationships. Her most recent work has centered on the mental health context, with a focus on parents' (a) care-giving practices and (b) verbal and nonverbal emotional expressions with children who have mental illnesses.

    Kathleen Fearn-Banks, atenured associate professor, joined the Department of Communication, University of Washington (Seattle) after more than 25 years in the communications professions—as a feature writer at the Los Angeles Times, a news writer/producer/reporter for KNXT-TV (now KCBS) in Los Angeles, and a publicist and media relations manager for NBC Television Network. She was Vice President of Development and Public Relations for The Neighbors of Watts, a nonprofit entertainment industry, which raised funds for day care centers in underprivileged areas. She is the author of three editions of Crisis Communications: A Casebook Approach, published first in 1996, with a fourth edition to be published in 2010. The Historical Dictionary of African-American Television was published in 2006.

    Edward Jay Friedlander is Professor of Mass Communications at the University of South Florida. He is the coauthor of three journalism textbooks, including Feature Writing for Newspapers and Magazines: The Pursuit of Excellence. The textbooks have been used by students at more than 250 colleges and universities in the United States, including 25 large state universities and numerous private universities such as Harvard. The books also have been used by dozens of universities in Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America. He has been a reporter for newspapers in Wyoming, Pennsylvania, Colorado, and Arkansas, and his freelance work has appeared in 40 other newspapers and a dozen national and regional magazines. He received his doctorate from the University of Northern Colorado, his master's degree from the University of Denver, and his bachelor's degree from the University of Wyoming.

    Robert H. Gass received his PhD from the University of Kansas and is a professor of Human Communication Studies at California State University, Fullerton. His areas of expertise are argumentation, persuasion, social influence, and compliance gaining. He has published two texts (with co-author John Seiter) and over 70 scholarly articles, book chapters, conference proceedings, and professional papers. His recent research has focused on credibility in public diplomacy, visual persuasion, and interpersonal influence. His textbook with John S. Seiter, Persuasion, Social Influence, and Compliance Gaining, is now in its third edition.

    Salma I. Ghanem is Professor and Chair of the Department of Communication at the University of Texas–Pan American. Her research interests include first-and second-level agenda setting, coverage of the Middle East, and political communication. She has a PhD from the University of Texas at Austin.

    John O. Greene is currently a professor in the Department of Communication at Purdue University. His research interests lie in interpersonal communication, nonverbal communication, and communication and aging. His approach to these areas of study is that of cognitive science. He is a past editor of Human Communication Research, a recipient of the National Communication Association's Charles H. Woolbert Award, and a two-time winner of the Gerald R. Miller Book Award. He earned his PhD in communication from the University of Wisconsin–Madison.

    Lynne Schafer Gross has taught radio-television production and theory courses at California State University, Fullerton (where she was the vice chair of the Communications Department), Pepperdine University, Loyola Marymount University, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), University of Southern California, and Long Beach City College. She is the author of 12 books and numerous journal and magazine articles, many of which deal with radio and TV programming. She is currently Associate Producer for the instructional video series Journeys Below the Line and in the past was Program Director for Valley Cable TV. She has served as producer for several hundred television programs, including the series From Chant to Chance for public television, Effective Living for KABC, and Surveying the Universe for KHJ-TV. Her consulting work includes projects for Children's Broadcasting Corporation, RKO, KCET, CBS, the Olympics, Visa, and the Iowa State Board of Regents. It has also taken her to Malaysia, Swaziland, Estonia, Russia, Australia, and Guyana, where she has taught radio and television production and consulted on film planning and postproduction equipment. She is active in many professional organizations, serving as Governor of the Academy of Television Arts and Sciences and President of the Broadcast Education Association. The awards she has received include the Rosebud Award for Outstanding Media Arts Professor in the California State University System, the Frank Stanton Fellow for Distinguished Contribution to Electronic Media Education from the International Radio and Television Society, and the Distinguished Education Service Award from the BEA. She received her doctorate from UCLA.

    Laura K. Guerrero is a professor in the Hugh Downs School of Human Communication at Arizona State University in Tempe. She has published extensively in the areas of nonverbal and relational communication. Her work on nonverbal communication includes articles and chapters focusing on issues such as attachment, conflict, emotion, and intimacy. She has also published three books on nonverbal communication—Nonverbal Communication in Relationships (with Kory Floyd), The Nonverbal Communication Reader (with Michael Hecht), and Nonverbal Communication (with Judee Burgoon and Kory Floyd). She has a PhD from the University of Arizona.

    Soo-Hye Han is a doctoral candidate in communication studies at the University of Texas at Austin. She is studying political language, campaign discourse, and media effects.

    Robert L. Heath is Professor Emeritus at the University of Houston and Academic Consultant, University of Wollongong, Australia. He has published 14 books, including Terrorism: Communication and Rhetorical Perspectives (2008), Today's Public Relations (2006), Encyclopedia of Pubic Relations (2005), Responding to Crisis: A Rhetorical Approach to Crisis Communication (2004), and Handbook of Public Relations (2001). He also recently coedited Communication and the Media (2005), volume 3 of the series Community Preparedness and Response to Terrorism. He has contributed chapters and articles on issues management, public relations, crisis communication, risk communication, environmental communication, emergency management, rhetorical criticism, and communication theory. He is a coeditor of the forthcoming Handbook of Crisis and Risk Communication and coauthor of the forthcoming Strategic Issues Management (2nd ed.). He received his PhD in 1971 from the University of Illinois.

    Bettina Heinz is an associate professor in the School of Communication and Culture and Associate Dean of the Faculty of Social and Applied Sciences at Royal Roads University in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. Her scholarship focuses on culture and communication, with particular focus on language, gender identity, and sexual orientation. She is a past chair of the Caucus on Gay and Lesbian Concerns of the National Communication Association and a past member of the NCA L/G/B/T Division Committee on L/G/B/T Communication Scholarship. She obtained her PhD in communication studies from the University of Nebraska–Lincoln in 1998.

    John Allen Hendricks is Professor of Communication and a former chairperson of the Department of Communication and Theatre at Southeastern Oklahoma State University. He has published numerous articles, chapters, and essays in journals, encyclopedias, and books on media policy, media regulation, media history, and political communication. He holds a PhD in mass communication from the University of Southern Mississippi.

    Dale A. Herbeck is currently a professor in the Communication Department at Boston College, where he teaches courses in communication law, cyber law, and freedom of expression. He is a coauthor of Freedom of Speech in the United States, a past editor of the Free Speech Yearbook, and a former chair of the Commission on Freedom of Expression of the National Communication Association. He holds a PhD in communication studies from the University of Iowa.

    Fred E. Jandt is Professor of Communication and Dean, Palm Desert Campus, California State University, San Bernardino. He was formerly Professor of Communication and Director of Faculty Development and Research at State University of New York, College at Brockport. He has also been a visiting professor at Victoria University of Wellington in New Zealand. His areas of interest are intercultural and international communication, negotiation and mediation, and computer-mediated communication. His books include Win-Win Negotiating (1985), which has been translated into eight languages, and An Introduction to Intercultural Communication: Identities in a Global Community, now in its sixth edition (Sage, in press). He is also a coeditor, with Paul B. Pedersen, of the Sage book Constructive Conflict Management: Asia-Pacific Cases. He has a PhD from Bowling Green State University.

    Sharon E. Jarvis is Associate Professor of Communication Studies and Government at the University of Texas atAustin, where she is also Associate Director for Research at the Annette Strauss Institute for Civic Participation. She has a PhD from the University of Texas at Austin.

    Eui Jun Jeong is a PhD student in the Department of Telecommunication, Information Studies, and Media at Michigan State University. He was a senior researcher at the Korea Game Development and Promotion Institute from 2001 to 2004. His main interests are the educational effects of games on users and the applicability of interactive new media in education and health. His interests include education-applied technology, human-computer interaction, virtual reality, social network, and human cognition.

    Donald W. Jugenheimer recently retired as Professor and Chair, Department of Advertising, Texas Tech University. He currently holds the position of principal and partner at In-Telligence Inc. He does research in advertising media, management, and the future of media. He has experience in advertising, media planning, and administration. He has a PhD in communications from the University of Illinois.

    Jennifer A. Kam is currently a PhD candidate in the Communication Arts and Sciences Department at the Pennsylvania State University, where she has taught intercultural communication, interpersonal communication, and public speaking. Her areas of research comprise interpersonal communication, family and life span communication, and culturally grounded health promotion. She received her MA in 2004 from San Diego State University.

    William M. Keith is Professor of Communication at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee. He is the author of Democracy as Discussion (2007) and was a coeditor, with Alan Gross, of Rhetorical Hermeneutics (1998). He holds a PhD from the University of Texas at Austin.

    David Klowden is Senior Copywriter at The Lambesis Agency. He has worked on campaigns for Hitachi, Skyy Vodka, Bebe, Campari, and The Natural Resources Defense Council. Prior to his career in advertising, he taught writing and cultural studies at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), San Diego Mesa College, and Southwestern College. He is currently writing his second novel, which he hopes will be better than his first. He graduated Summa Cum Laude with a BA in creative writing from UCSD, where he also received his MA and CPhil in composition.

    James F. Klumpp is Professor of Communication at the University of Maryland. He is a rhetorical critic with research interests in argumentation, political communication, and the history of American speaking. He was formerly Director of Debate and Forensics at the University of Minnesota, Wayne State University, and the University of Nebraska. He is a former president of the American Forensic Association, former editor of Argumentation and Advocacy, and former director of the National Communication Association/American Forensic Association Summer Conferenceon Argumentation. His publications include the coauthored Public Policy Decision Making: Systems Analysis and Comparative Advantages Debate. He earned his PhD in 1973 from the University of Minnesota.

    Timothy C. Laubacher is a brand strategist for B&a, an advertising agency in Columbus, Ohio. His research while a student at Ohio State University focused on mass and interpersonal mediated communication. Specifically, his research attempted to measure the concept of presence using psychophysiological methods. Now, working in the advertising industry, he is responsible for keeping the customers' perspectives at the forefront of all advertising messaging through planning and conducting advertising research. He earned an MA in mass communication from Ohio State University in 2006.

    Suman Lee is an assistant professor in the Greenlee School of Journalism and Communication at Iowa State University. His research focuses on international public relations, image/reputation building process, public diplomacy, and international newsworthiness. His articles appeared in Public Relations Review, Corporate Reputation Review, International Communication Bulletin, Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, and Public Relations Quarterly. He served as an editorial assistant for Communication Research and has professional experience in public relations at Samsung, Seoul, Korea. He has a PhD from Syracuse University.

    Mark Leff, 2008–2009 Fulbright Fellow at the Television and Journalism Studies School of the Communication University of China in Beijing, began teaching broadcast news at Ohio University's E. W. Scripps School of Journalism in 2002, after working in radio and television news for more than 30 years. His career began in San Francisco radio news and also included on-air and producing work in Seattle, Washington, Columbus, Ohio, New York, London, Rome, and Atlanta, Georgia. At the national/international level, he worked for TVN, NBC News, and Visnews (now Reuters Television) and was one of the original employees at CNN, where he wrote, produced, and voiced the 365-part This Day/This Century series, which was aired throughout 1999. He worked with Shanghai Television and China Central Television at the 2001 APEC summit in Shanghai and has made award-winning documentaries in Georgia and Ohio.

    Lara Lengel began her research on transnational communication and computer-mediated communication when she was a Fulbright Scholar in Tunisia (1993–1994). She is Chair and Associate Professor, Department of Interpersonal Communication, Bowling Green State University. Her books, including Computer-Mediated Communication: Social Interaction on the Internet (with C. Thurlow and A. Tomic, Sage), and numerous articles appearing in, among others, Text and Performance Quarterly, Gender and History, and Convergence: The Journal of Research into New Media Technologies address transnational and intercultural communication, and information technology in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). She presented at the United Nations World Summit on the Information Society in Tunis and has codi-rected nearly $500,000 of federal grant programs in the MENA on environmental communication and women, democracy, and media.

    Timothy R. Levine is Professor of Communication at Michigan State University. He has published more than 70 original research articles on topics including deception, interpersonal communication, persuasion, and culture. His methodological papers focus on statistical analysis, measurement validation, and experimental research design. He is a founding coeditor of Communication Methods and Measures. He obtained his PhD from Michigan State University.

    Fang Liu is an assistant professor at the University of North Texas. His research interests center on economics and management of the media and telecommunication industries. In particular, he is interested in the management implications of new media technologies for market structure and firm strategy. Some of his recent research projects include cable system diversification into high-speed Internet access and telephony, predictors of the video window and financial performance of motion pictures in the home video market, strategic alliances between broadcast television networks and Internet firms, and value chain analysis of cable-based Video-on-Demand. He earned his PhD from Michigan State University, MA from University of Florida, and BA from Tsinghua University.

    Erina L. MacGeorge is Associate Professor of Communicationat Purdue University (West Lafayette, Indiana). Her research focuses onthe role of communication in coping with problems, including advice, comforting, and prayer. She obtained her PhD from the University of Illinois in 1999.

    Josina M. Makau is a former arts and humanities dean. She is currently Professor of Philosophy and Communication and Co-Coordinator of the Program in Practical and Professional Ethics at California State University, Monterey Bay. She has published more than three dozen book chapters, articles, and reviews related to communication ethics, law, and moral reasoning. She is one of nine scholars selected for inclusion in Exploring Communication Ethics: Interviews With Influential Scholars in the Field. A past Communication Ethics Commission Chair and Editor of Ethica, her recognitions include Communication Ethics Conference Scholar-in-Residence; Duquesne University's Scholar Award for Excellence in Ethics Education for the Mind, Heart, and Soul; the H.A. Wichelns Award for Scholarship in Speech and Law; and Ohio State University's Alumni Teaching Award. She earned an MA inphilosophy from the University of California, Los Angeles and MA and PhD in rhetoric from the University of California, Berkeley.

    Jennifer A. Malkowski received her MA in communication in 2008 from the School of Communication at San Diego State University. Her research focuses on the intersection of rhetoric, political communication, health communication, and public policy in order to illuminate how public discourse influences everyday experiences. Her work has been presented on top paper panelsatboth national and regional conferences, and her political communication research has been recognizedby a Dean's AwardatSan Diego State University for its cross-disciplinary appeal. She currently teaches at the University of San Diego and at Grossmont Community College.

    Charles Marsh is an associate professor and William Allen White Foundation Professor at the School of Journalism and Mass Communications at the University of Kansas. His articles on classical rhetoric and public relations have appeared in Public Relations Review, Journal of Mass Media Ethics, and Written Communication. With David Guth and Bonnie Poovey Short, he is the coauthor of three textbooks: Public Relations: A Values-Driven Approach; Adventures in Public Relations: Case Studies and Critical Thinking; and Strategic Writing: Multimedia Writing for Public Relations, Advertising and More. He has a PhD from the University of Kansas.

    Maxwell McCombs holds the Jesse H. Jones Centennial Chair in the School of Journalism at the University of Texas at Austin. A cofounder of agenda-setting theory, his research is focused on the explication of this theory and other aspects of political communication. He has a PhD from Stanford University.

    James E. McNay is a California-based teacher and writer. At Brooks Institute, he was the founding program director of the visual journalism program, where he taught for 7 years. Previously, he directed the photojournalism program at San Jose State University's School of Journalism. He was the first college instructor to receive the summer fellowship in the National Geographic photography department. As a journalist, he worked as a staff photographer for The Houston Post and The Daily Iberian in New Iberia, Los Angeles. He is a past president of the National Press Photographers Association (NPPA) and continues as a regular participant on the Black Team of the Eddie Adams Workshop. He writes regularly for the Sports Shooter Web site (http://www.sportsshooter.com) with the intention of helping emerging photographers break into the profession.

    Brad Mello joined the National Communication Association (NCA) in July 2008, after 13 years of teaching at Trinity University, Washington, D.C. At NCA, he is responsible for supporting members as they strive to provide the highest quality instruction in communication. He assists efforts to develop and assess communication curricula. He works to encourage talented undergraduates to attend graduate school in many ways, including supporting the work of NCA student honoraries and clubs. Finally, he serves as an advocate for the discipline through outreach to other educational organizations in the District of Columbia area. He received his BA and MA from Penn State University and his PhD from the University of Oklahoma.

    Michelle Miller-Day is Associate Professor of Communication Arts and Sciences at Pennsylvania State University, where she teaches family communication, mother-daughter communication, interpersonal communication, and qualitative research methods. Her current research interests include studying the ways in which communication in personal relationships affect health and well-being. Her work has been published in outlets such as Journal of Applied Communication Research, Journal of Family Communication, Health Communication, Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, and Qualitative Inquiry. She received her PhD in 1995 from Arizona State University.

    Melanie Morgan is currently Associate Professor of Communication at Purdue University. Her primary research interest explores cognitive factors underlying communication skill development and message production. Her research has focused on the production of complex messages in a variety of areas, including aging, family, legal, and scientific contexts. Recent publications have appeared in the Journal of Communication, Communication Studies and the Southern Journal of Communication. She is the author of Presentational Speaking: Theory and Practice (5th ed.). She holds a PhD in communication studies from the University of Kansas.

    Timothy P. Mottet is Professor and Henry W. and Margaret Hauser Endowed Chair in Communication at the University of Texas–Pan American, Department of Communication. Listed among the top 50 most published scholars in the discipline between 1996 and 2001, his research appears in Communication Education, Communication Quarterly, Communication Research Reports, Journal of Psychology, and Psychological Reports. He is a coauthor or coeditor of three books. While a faculty member at Texas State University–San Marcos, he received two of the three highest awards the university presents to faculty members, including the Presidential Award for Excellence in Research (in 2005) and Service (in 2006). He received his EdD from West Virginia University in 1998.

    Barbara Mueller is Professor of Advertising in the School of Journalism and Media Studies at San Diego State University. In addition to numerous book chapters and articles in professional journals, she is the author of Communicating With the Multicultural Consumer: Theoretical and Practical Perspectives (2008) and Dynamics of International Advertising: Theoretical and Practical Perspectives (2004) and coauthor (with Katherine Toland Frith) of Advertising and Societies: Global Issues (2003). She received her PhD from the University of Washington.

    Sam Chege Mwangi is an assistant professor at the A. Q. Miller School of Journalism and Mass Communications at Kansas State University, where he teaches newswriting and international communication courses. He has served as a resident fellow at the Kettering Foundation researching international journalism and has also worked as a media consultant for UNESCO in the Caribbean. He earned his PhD in journalism and mass communications from the University of South Carolina.

    John Nerone is Professor of Communications and Media Studies in the College of Media at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He writes about media history, freedom of expression, and the public sphere, and is the author of four books and numerous articles, including Violence Against the Press (Oxford, 1994), Last Rights (Illinois, 1995), and, with Kevin Barnhurst, The Form of News: A History (Guilford, 2001).

    Kristen Michelle Norwood is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Communication Studies at the University of Iowa. Her research centers on close personal relationships and gender and communication. She earned her MA in communication from the University of Arkansas in 2006.

    H. Dan O'Hair is Professor in the Department of Communication at the University of Oklahoma. His teaching and research interests include organizational communication, health systems, risk communication, and patient care communication processes. He has published more than 80 research articles and scholarly book chapters in communication, health, management, and psychology journals and volumes and has authored and edited 16 books in the areas of communication, business, and health. He is one of the founding directors of the Southwest Program for Pancreatic Cancer at the University of Oklahoma and was a cochair of the Pancreatic Cancer Progress Group at the National Cancer Institute. He has served on the editorial boards of more than 20 research journals and is a past editor of the Journal of Applied Communication Research, published by the National Communication Association. In 2006, he served as president of the National Communication Association.

    Kent A. Ono is Professor of Communications and Asian American Studiesat the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. His written and edited work includes Shifting Borders: Rhetoric, Immigration, and California's Proposition 187(with John M. Sloop, 2002),Asian American Studies After Critical Mass(2005), A Companion to Asian American Studies(2005), and Asian Americans and the Media(with Vincent Pham, 2008). Heisapast chairofthe Critical and Cultural Studies Division of the National Communication Association; a former director of the Cultural Studies Graduate Program at the University of California, Davis; and a coeditor of the “Critical Cultural Communication” book series. He has a PhD from the University of Iowa.

    Charles B. Owen is Director of the Media and Entertainment Technologies Lab and Associate Professor of Computer Science and Engineering at Michigan State University. His research focuses on solutions in computer gaming, augmented reality systems, and human-computer interaction. His work includes fundamental inventions in display calibration, system integration, and application design. He has more than 60 publications and has authored a book on multimedia stream correlation. He has also been the recipient of numerous awards for teaching excellence.

    Megan J. Palamé is a graduate student in the MA Program in Health Communication at Emerson College. She has a BA from the University of Buffalo.

    Caren E. Palevitz is pursuing her master's degree at the University of Georgia. She is primarily interested in the intersection of relational communication and computermediated communication. Since beginning her master's program, she has researched the interplay of compulsive Internet use and interpersonal relationships and looks forward to beginning work on social-networking sites and relationships. She completed her BA in 2007 at the University of Georgia.

    John V. Pavlik is Professor and Chair of the Department of Journalism and Media Studies at the School of Communication, Information and Library Studies, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, where he is also Director of the Journalism Resources Institute. He is Chair of the editorial board for Television Quarterly: The Journal of the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences. He was awarded the Fulbright Distinguished Chair in Media Studies at the Academy of Fine ArtsVienna (Austria), 2007–2008. His research focus is new media technology. His books include Converging Media (coau-thored with Shawn McIntosh, 2004), Journalism and New Media (2001), and New Media Technology: Cultural and Commercial Perspectives (1998). In collaboration with Steven Feiner, computer science professor at Columbia University, he developed the situated documentary, a new type of documentary using mobile-augmented reality technology. His PhD and MA in mass communication are from the University of Minnesota. He is a 1978 graduate of the School of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Wisconsin at Madison.

    Eric E. Peterson is a professor at the University of Maine, where he teaches in the Department of Communication and Journalism. His research and teaching interests are in narrative performance, media consumption, and communication diversity and identity. He is best known in performance and storytelling for his work on theory and methodology and for his coauthored publications with Kristin M. Langellier on narrative performance, family storytelling, and personal narrative, including their book, Storytelling in Daily Life: Performing Narrative (2004). He earned his PhD in speech communication at Southern Illinois University in 1980.

    Marshall Scott Poole is Professor of Communication and Senior Research Scientist at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. His research interests include group and organizational communication, information systems, collaboration technologies, organizational innovation, and theory construction. He is the author of more than 125 articles and book chapters. His articles have appeared in Communication Monographs, Human Communication Research, Quarterly Journal of Speech, Communication Research, Small Group Research Management Science, Organization Science, Information Systems Research, MIS Quarterly, and Academy of Management Review, among others. He has coauthored or edited 10 books, including Theories of Small Groups: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, Organizational Change and Innovation Processes: Theory and Methods for Research, and The Handbook of Organizational Change and Innovation. He has been named Fellow of the International Communication Association and Distinguished Scholar of the National Communication Association. He obtained his PhD from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1980.

    W. James Potter is a professor in the Department of Communication at the University of California, Santa Barbara, where he teaches courses in media literacy, media content, and media effects. He has also taught at Western Michigan University; Florida State University; Indiana University; University of California, Los Angeles; and Stanford University. He is a former editor of the Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media. He is the author of numerous scholarly articles and book chapters and a dozen books, including the following Sage-published titles: Media Literacy (4th ed.), On Media Violence, Theory of Media Literacy: A Cognitive Approach, How to Publish Your Communication Research (edited with Alison Alexander), and The 11 Myths of Media Violence. He holds a PhD in communication and another in instructional systems.

    Linda L. Putnam is Professor in the Department of Communication at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Her research focuses on negotiation and organizational conflict, discourse and negotiation, and language analysis in organizations. She is a past president of the International Association for Conflict Management and former director of the Program on Conflict and Dispute Resolution at the George Bush School of Government and Public Service, Texas A&M University. She has a PhD from the University of Minnesota.

    CarrieLynn D. Reinhard is a doctoral student in the final stages of her doctoral work at School of Communication, The Ohio State University–Columbus. Her research focuses on media audiences and users and their ways of and reasons for engaging with media. She formerly worked for an agency representing Hollywood writers and directors.

    Valerie R. Renegar is an associate professor in the School of Communication at San Diego State University. Her recent research is focused on contemporary feminist rhetorical theory and the rhetoric of social change. She received her PhD from the University of Kansas in 2000.

    James D. Robinson is a professor and director of graduate studies in the department of communication at the University of Dayton. He earned his PhD at Purdue (1982), MA at West Virginia University (1979), BA at University of the Pacific, and AA at West Valley College. He has published work in a number of journals including Journal of Broadcasting, Health Communication, Journalism Quarterly, Progress in Transplantation, Women's Health Issues, Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Sociology of Religion, Review of Religious Research, Communication Research Reports, Sex Roles, Mass Comm Review, Health Care Management Review, and Journal of Diabetes Technology and Science.

    Michael E. Roloff is Professor of Communication Studies at Northwestern University. Currently, he is a coeditor of Communication Research (with Pamela Shoemaker) and Senior Associate Editor of the International Journal of Conflict Management. His research has been published in a variety of journals, including Human Communication Research and Communication Monographs. He has a PhD from Michigan State University.

    Katherine E. Rowan is Professor of Communication at George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia. Her research on science and risk communication has appeared in journals such as Health Communication, Risk Analysis, Communication Education, and Journal of Applied Communication Research and in edited volumes such as Communicating Uncertainty by Sharon M. Friedman, Sharon Dunwoody, and Carol L. Rogers and the Handbook of Communication and Social Interaction Skills by J. O. Greene and B. R. Burleson. She examines science, health, and risk communication in a variety of contexts. Her most cited research explores ways in which to use research-tested communication strategies to explain complex science through mediated communication channels. Recent projects have included research with local emergency management officials throughout the nation, service on a National Academy of Science study committee assessing risk from low levels of ionizing radiation, and work for Health Canada, the National Library of Medicine, the National Cancer Institute, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Prior to joining George Mason's faculty, she was a faculty member at Purdue University for 15 years. She teaches health, risk, and crisis communication for Mason's graduate program and serves as Associate Department Chair and Director of Undergraduate Studies in Communication. She received her PhD from Purdue University in 1985.

    Edward W. Russell is Assistant Professor of Advertising at the S. I. Newhouse School of Public Communications at Syracuse University. Prior to entering academia, he spent 25 years in the advertising business in several of the world's largest and most successful advertising agencies, including Saatchi & Saatchi Worldwide, The Leo Burnett Company, and J. Walter Thompson. He has worked on major businesses in nearly every product category. He is responsible for introducing more than 60 new products throughout his career and ran one of Leo Burnett's most award-winning offices. A graduate of Ohio University and Northwestern University's Medill School of Journalism, he started his career at Saatchi & Saatchi Advertising, New York, in account management. In 1989, he relocated to Frankfurt, Germany, to run Saatchi & Saatchi's largest pan-European business. Six months after arriving, the Berlin Wall came down, and suddenly he was helping open new offices all over Eastern Europe. When the German posting was completed, he moved east to head Leo Burnett's office in Warsaw, Poland. Leo Burnett Warsaw was a stunning success; despite being in a country with no advertising business, it became one of the most award-winning advertising agencies in the world. He moved to Leo Burnett's Chicago headquarters, where he ran the agency's Procter & Gamble international business and authored their first international training program. Two full passports later, he joined academia as an advertising professor at the S. I. Newhouse School of Public Communications at Syracuse University.

    Donald Jay Rybacki is Head of the Department of Communication and Performance Studies at Northern Michigan University. He received his PhD from the University of Nebraska–Lincoln. Karen and Donald Rybacki are coauthors of Advocacy and Opposition: An Introduction to Argumentation and Communication Criticism: Approaches & Genres. Their work has been published in a variety of scholarly publications, ranging from Journal of Collective Negotiation in the Public Sector to Southern Communication Journal and Public Relations Review.

    Karyn Charles Rybacki is a professor in the Department of Communication and Performance Studies at Northern Michigan University. She received her PhD from the University of Iowa.

    Jennifer A. Samp is Associate Professor and Graduate Coordinator in the Department of Speech Communication at the University of Georgia. Her research focuses on how communicators' thoughts about themselves and their relationships influence what they say during conversations with close friends and romantic partners. Additionally, some of her current work examines how perceived and actual alcohol use affects decisions about relational problems and the behaviors enacted during discussions about those problems. She received her PhD from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1999.

    Dean Scheibel is Professor of Communication Studies at Loyola Marymount University. His areas of research include interpretive, critical-interpretive, and dramatistic approaches to organization and culture. He received his PhD from Arizona State University in 1991.

    John S. Seiter is a professor in the Department of Languages, Philosophy, and Speech Communication at Utah State University, where he teaches courses in social influence, interpersonal communication, theories of communication, and intercultural communication. His published research includes articles investigating persuasion in applied contexts, perceptions of deceptive communication, and nonverbal behavior in political debates. He has received eight “Top Paper” awards for research presented at professional conferences. He was named his college's Researcher of the Year and his university's Professor of the Year. Together with Robert Gass, he wrote the book Persuasion, Social Influence and Compliance Gaining and edited the book Perspective on Persuasion, Social Influence, and Compliance Gaining. He received his PhD from the University of Southern California in 1993.

    Nancy Signorelli is Professor of Communication and Director of the MA program in Communication at the University of Delaware. Beginning with her dissertation research, an in-depth methodological examination of television characters, she has conducted research on images in the media and how these images are related to people's conceptions of social reality (cultivation analysis) for the past 30 years. Her publications include one of the very first (and frequently cited) studies of characterizations on television (“Patterns in Prime Time,” Journal of Communication, 1974). She continues to publish on gender roles, television violence, and health-related images on television. She received her PhD from the University of Pennsylvania in 1974.

    Amy Slagell heads the Speech Communication Program and directs the Fundamentals of Public Speaking course in the Department of English at Iowa State University. An active teacher of public speaking since 1983, when she began graduate work at the University of Wisconsin—Madison, she has also served as a public speaking consultant for the ISUComm initiative at Iowa State and as a speech trainer for national programs organized by the Center for Food Security and Public Health, housed at ISU's Veterinary College. She has authored various articles on public speaking pedagogy for publications such as Communication Education and Teaching Ideas for the Basic Course and is the coeditor of “Let Something Good Be Said:” Collected Speeches and Writings of Frances E. Willard. She is currently serving as the vice chair of the Basic Course Division of the National Communication Association.

    John M. Sloop is Professor of Communication Studies and Associate Dean of the College of Arts and Science at Vanderbilt University. He is the author and editor of several scholarly essays and books, including Disciplining Gender: Rhetorics of Sex Identity in Contemporary U.S. Culture, for which he was awarded the Winans-Wichelns Memorial Award for Distinguished Scholarship. He is currently the editor of Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies. His work investigates cultural “discussions” about matters of public interest, such as prisoners, immigration issues, and cases of gender transgression. He is currently working on a project involving the intersections of transportation, communication, and public regulation.

    Ronald D. Smith, APR, is Professor of Public Communication and Chair of the Communication Department at Buffalo State College (State University of New York). He also is Project Director of the American Indian Policy and Media Initiative. He is the author or coauthor of several textbooks on media and public relations, coeditor of a book on media coverage of Native American issues, and author of several book chapters and research reports. He is a past president and past district chair of the Public Relations Society of America.

    Brian H. Spitzberg is currently a professor in the School of Communication at San Diego State University. His research has been widely published, with books and articles in areas including interpersonal communication skills, communication assessment, conflict management, jealousy, infidelity, intimate-partner violence, sexual coercion, and stalking. He received his BA in 1978 in speech communication from the University of Texas at Arlington and his MA in 1980 and PhD in 1981 in communication arts and sciences at the University of Southern California.

    Don W. Stacks is Professor and Director of the Public Relations Program at the University of Miami School of Communication. His work focuses on public relations research and evaluation. He is the author of The Primer of Public Relations Research. In addition, his focus is on crisis management and corporate communication. He received his PhD from the University of Florida in 1978.

    Laura Stafford is Professor of Communication at the University of Kentucky. Her main interest is in relational communication. She specializes in relational maintenance and long-distance relationships. She is currently the Editor of the Journal of Applied Communication Research and has served as the chair of the Interpersonal Division of both the National Communication Association and the International Communication Association. She received her PhD in communication at the University of Texas at Austin.

    John Steel teaches in the Department of Jouralism Studies at the University of Sheffield, UK. He has recently published work on the future of newspapers in Journalism Studies (with M. Conboy), on censorship and the British Press in the Journal for the Study of British Cultures, and on the radical narrative of media history for the journal Media History. He is currently writing a book on Journalism and Freedom of Speech. He gained his PhD in the Department of Politics at the University of Sheffield in 2001.

    Rayford L. Steele, PhD, is the founding director of the Center for Information and Communication Sciences at Ball State University, which he led for 22 years. He now serves as its first Distinguished Professor. He is the founder and executive director of the International Digital Media and Arts Association, a founding board member and past president and chairman of the Board of the United States Distance Learning Association, and the chair of Board Emeritus of the International Telecommunication Education and Research Association, which he helped found. He has consulted with Fortune 50 CEOs and educational and government organizations since 1972. He is a Frank Stanton Fellow with the International Television and Radio Society.

    Charles J. Stewart is the Margaret Church Distinguished Professor of Communication at Purdue University. He is coauthor of Interviewing: Principles and Practices and Persuasion and Social Movements. His articles have appeared in the Quarterly Journal of Speech, Communication Monographs, Communication Studies, Western Journal of Communication, and Southern Journal of Communication. He has served as a consultant for Libby Company, the Internal Revenue Service, and American Electric Power Company. He is the recipient of the Murphy Award for Outstanding Undergraduate Teaching from Purdue University and the Ecroyd Award for Outstanding Teaching in Higher Education from the National Communication Association.

    John D. Stone is Professor of Communication Studies at James Madison University. He is a graduate of Penn State University and has taught at universities in Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. He is the author or coauthor of five textbooks in speech communication and public relations. His area of special concern is international public relations.

    Karen Tracy is Professor of Communication at the University of Colorado, where she teaches courses in discourse analysis, language and identities, and the practices and problems of meetings. Her recent research, focusing on the practice of school board meetings, has appeared in Communication Theory,Journal of Applied Communication Research, and Discourse and Communication; she also is coeditor of the volume The Prettier Doll: Rhetoric, Discourse, and Ordinary Democracy and is finishing a book titled Challenges of Ordinary Democracy: Discourse, Community, and Reasonable Hostility at a Local School Board. She received her PhD from the University of Wiscons in in 1981.

    Michele Weldon is an assistant professor at the Medill School of Journalism, Northwestern University. She has been teaching undergraduate and graduate journalism courses there since 1996. She is the author of three non-fiction books, including the most recent, Everyman News: The Changing American Front Page (2008). Her first book, I Closed My Eyes, was a creative nonfiction memoir, and her second book , Writing to Save Your Life, focused on expressive narrative writing. She has written for newspapers, magazines, Web sites, and radio for more than 25 years. She earned her BSJ and MSJ at Medill.

    Andrew D. Wolvin is a professor in the Department of Communication at the University of Maryland, College Park. His research focus is listening behavior. In addition to numerous journal articles, he has authored Listening in the Quality Organization and coauthored (with Carolyn G. Coakley) the widely used text Listening, and Listening Instruction, Experiential Listening and Perspectives on Listening. He has a PhD from Purdue University.

    Julia T. Wood is the Lineberger Distinguished Professor of Humanities and Professor of Communication Studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She has published more than 80 articles and chapters and 20 books, including Gendered Lives: Communication, Gender and Culture, now in its ninth edition. Her research and teaching focus on gender and communication, intimate-partner violence, and feminist theories. She obtained her PhD in 1975 from Pennsylvania State University.

    Courtney N. Wright is an assistant professor in the School of Communication Studies at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. She is interested in relational communication and its impact on well-being. She conducts research in the areas of conflict management and interpersonal communication, with special attention to communication behaviors that yield paradoxical effects. She examines teasing, grievance expression, social confrontation, and impression management. She has published in Communication Reports and teaches courses in communication theory, interpersonal communication, and interpersonal conflict. She has a PhD from Northwestern University.

    K. Tim Wulfemeyer is a professor and coordinator of the Journalism Degree Program in the School of Journalism and Media Studies at San Diego State University. He has taught at Iowa State University, New Mexico State University, and the University of Hawai'i. He has worked as a radio and television journalist in California, Iowa, Texas, New Mexico, and Hawai'i. His research interests include the content of radio and television newscasts, ethics in journalism, sports journalism, and advertising aimed at children. He is the author or coauthor of 5 books, 4 book chapters, 35 journal articles, and 45 conference research papers. He has degrees from Fullerton College (AA), San Diego State University (BA), Iowa State University (MS), and the University of California, Los Angeles (EdD).

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