Encyclopedia of Behavior Modification and Cognitive Behavior Therapy

Encyclopedia of Behavior Modification and Cognitive Behavior Therapy

Encyclopedias

Edited by: Michel Hersen, Johan Rosqvist, Alan M. Gross, Ronald S. Drabman, George Sugai & Robert Horner

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Abstract

The three-volume Encyclopedia of Behavior Modification and Cognitive Behavior Therapy provides a thorough examination of the components of behavior modification, behavior therapy, cognitive behavior therapy, and applied behavior analysis for both child and adult populations in a variety of settings. Although the focus is on technical applications, entries also provide the historical context in which behavior therapists have worked, including research issues and strategies. Entries on assessment, ethical concerns, theoretical differences, and the unique contributions of key figures in the movement (including B. F. Skinner, Joseph Wolpe, Aaron T. Beck, and many others) are also included. No other reference source provides such comprehensive treatment of behavior modification—history, biography, theory, and application. 

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  • Subject Index
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
    • Assessment - Adult Clinical Applications
    • Assessment - Child Clinical Applications
    • Assessment - Educational Applications
    • Autobiographies and Biographies - Adult Clinical Applications
    • Biographies - Child Clinical Applications
    • Biographies - Educational Applications
    • Major Techniques - Adult Clinical Applications
    • Major Techniques - Child Clinical Applications
    • Major Techniques - Educational Applications
    • Minor Techniques - Adult Clinical Applications
    • Minor Techniques - Child Clinical Applications
    • Minor Techniques - Educational Applications
    • Research - Adult Clinical Applications
    • Research - Educational Applications
    • Research and Theoretical - Child Clinical Applications
    • Theoretical and Conceptual Issues - Adult Clinical Applications
    • Theoretical Issues - Educational Applications
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      Editors

      Michel Hersen and Johan Rosqvist

      Pacific University

      Advisory Board Members

      Thomas M. Achenbach

      University of Vermont

      W. Stewart Agras

      Stanford University School of Medicine

      David H. Barlow

      Boston University

      Alan S. Bellack

      University of Maryland School of Medicine

      Edward B. Blanchard

      The University of Albany-SUNY

      James E. Carr

      Western Michigan University

      Anthony J. Cuvo

      Southern Illinois University at Carbondale

      Gerald C. Davison

      University of Southern California

      Eric F. Dubow

      Bowling Green State University

      Rex L. Forehand

      University of Vermont

      Arnold A. Lazarus

      Center for Multimodal Psychological Services, Princeton, New Jersey

      Robert P. Liberman

      West Los Angeles Veterans Administration Medical Center

      Scott O. Lilienfeld

      Emory University

      Marsha M. Linehan

      University of Washington

      Nathaniel McConaghy

      University of New South Wales, Australia

      Rosemery O. Nelson-Gray

      University of North Carolina at Greensboro

      Lars-Göran Öst

      Stockholm Universitet, Sweden

      Alan D. Poling

      Western Michigan University

      Wendy K. Silverman

      Florida International University

      Gail Steketee

      Boston University

      Douglas W. Woods

      University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

      List of Entries

      Volume 1: Adult Clinical Applications
      Volume 2: Child Clinical Applications
      Volume 3: Educational Applications

      Reader's Guide

      We provide this list to assist readers in locating entries on related topics. It classifies entries into general categories. Some entry titles appear in more than one category.

      About the Editor

      About the Editors - Volume 1

      Michel Hersen (PhD, ABPP, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1966) is Professor and Dean, School of Professional Psychology, Pacific University, Forest Grove, Oregon. He completed his postdoctoral training at the West Haven VA (Yale University School of Medicine Program). He is past president of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy. He has coauthored and coedited 140 books and has published 225 scientific journal articles. He is coeditor of several psychological journals, including Behavior Modification, Aggression and Violent Behavior: A Review Journal, Clinical Psychology Review, and the Journal of Family Violence. He is editor in chief of the Journal of Anxiety Disorders, Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, and Clinical Case Studies, which is totally devoted to description of clients and patients treated with psychotherapy. He is editor in chief of the four-volume work titled Comprehensive Handbook of Psychological Assessment. He has been the recipient of numerous grants from the National Institute of Mental Health, the Department of Education, the National Institute of Disabilities and Rehabilitation Research, and the March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation. He is a Diplomate of the American Board of Professional Psychology, Fellow of the American Psychological Association, Distinguished Practitioner and Member of the National Academy of Practice in Psychology, and recipient of the Distinguished Career Achievement Award in 1996 from the American Board of Medical Psychotherapists and Psychodiagnosticians. Finally, at one point in his career, he was in full-time private practice, and on several occasions, has had part-time private practices.

      Johan Rosqvist (PsyD, Pacific University, 2002) is Assistant Professor, School of Professional Psychology, Pacific University, Portland, Oregon. He is completing his postdoctoral training at the Lake Oswego, Oregon, Anxiety Disorders Clinic and at the Portland, Oregon, Psychological Service Center. He is codirector of Pacific University's Solutions for Anxiety Clinic. He has coauthored numerous book chapters on the topic of evidence-based assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of anxiety disorders. He is currently authoring an authoritative text on exposure treatments for anxiety disorders. He has coauthored multiple scientific journal articles on the topic of anxiety and somatoform disorders in peer-reviewed journals such as the Journal of Anxiety Disorders, Behavior Modification, and Clinical Case Studies. He serves on the editorial board of these journals. In his postdoctoral work, he has continued to research the role of ecologically relevant treatment approaches for complex, resistant, and chronic anxiety presentations. He has continually presented compelling findings about treating refractory cases in naturalistic settings at regional, national, and international conferences and congresses. In his teaching, he has instructed graduate students in the science and art of systematic and scientific assessment, case formulation, and empirically supported treatment planning and interventions. He has continued to supervise and consult on single-case research design, case series methods, and small-N methods. In his spare time, he heads a family-run, self-sufficient, ecologically sustainable farm.

      About the Editors - Volume 2

      Dr. Ronald S. Drabman, Diplomate in Clinical Psychology of the American Board of Professional Psychology, is Professor of Psychiatry and Human Behavior (Psychology), Director of the Psychology Residency and Post Doctoral Training Programs, and Supervisor of the child community rotation at the University of Mississippi Medical Center. He received his PhD in 1972 from the State University of New York at Stony Brook. He then accepted a position as Assistant Professor at Central Florida University. In 1975, he joined the faculty of the University of Mississippi Medical Center as Associate Professor. His clinical and research interests include all aspects of child behavior. He has published in the areas of child behavior modification, the effects of television violence, behavioral pediatrics, and psychometrics. His research has been supported by several grants from the National Institute of Mental Health. He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association (Divisions 25 and 12) and served as member at-large and Secretary-Treasurer to the Division 25 Council. He has also served as finance chairperson, member of the publications board, and Secretary-Treasurer of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy. He has been Executive Secretary of the Mississippi State Board of Psychological Examiners and an Associate Editor of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Therapy. He has been on the editorial board of Research in Developmental Disabilities, Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, Behavior Modification, Child and Family Behavioral Therapy, Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, and Children's Health Care. In 1999, he won the distinguished Educator Award from the Association of Medical School Psychologists.

      Alan M. Gross, PhD, is Professor of Psychology and Director of Clinical Training at the University of Mississippi. He is a graduate of Washington State University. He is the former Editor of The Behavior Therapist, and served as Associate Editor for the Journal of Clinical Child Psychology. He currently serves on the editorial boards of several scientific journals, including Behavior Therapy, Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, Behavior Modification, Journal of Family Violence, Aggression and Violent Behavior, and Clinical Case Studies. He has been the recipient of several grants from the National Institute of Mental Health as well as research funding from the Alcoholic Beverage Medical Research Foundation. He has published numerous scientific journal articles and book chapters in the areas of behavior problems in children, self-management, and dating violence.

      About the Editors - Volume 3

      Robert Horner is professor of special education at the University of Oregon. Dr. Horner brings a 25-year history of research, grants management, and systems change efforts related to school reform and positive behavior support. Dr. Horner has published over 150 professional papers and 6 texts. He has directed over $20 million dollars in federal grants, and currently co-directs the OSEP Technical Assistance Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports and the OSEP Research and Demonstration Center on School-wide Behavior Support. Dr. Horner also co-directs the Positive Behavior Research and Support research unit at the University of Oregon. During the past 10 years Dr. Horner has directed projects working directly with schools and school administrators in the development of systems for embedding schoolwide systems of positive behavior support.

      George Sugai is a Professor in Special Education in the College of Education at the University of Oregon with expertise in positive and effective behavioral support, classroom and behavior management, school-wide discipline, functional assessment-based behavior support planning, and educating students with emotional and behavioral disorders. He has been a teacher in the public schools, treatment director in a residential program, and program administrator. Dr. Sugai conducts applied school and classroom research and works with schools to translate research into practice. He is currently co-director of the Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports and the Research and Demonstration Center on School-wide Behavior Support at the University of Oregon.

      Contributors - Volume 1

      Jonathan S. Abramowitz

      Mayo Clinic

      Ron Acierno

      Medical University of South Carolina

      W. Stewart Agras

      Stanford University School of Medicine

      Lynn Alden

      University of British Columbia, Canada

      David O. Antonuccio

      Veterans Administration Medical Center, Reno

      Martin M. Antony

      Anxiety Treatment and Research Center

      Ruben Ardila

      National University of Colombia

      John G. Arena

      Veterans Administration Medical Center-Augusta

      L. Michael Ascher

      Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

      John Austin

      Western Michigan University

      Nathan H. Azrin

      Nova Southeastern University

      David H. Barlow

      Boston University

      Shawnée L. Basden

      Boston University

      D. A. Begelman

      New Milford, Connecticut

      Deborah C. Beidel

      University of Maryland

      Alan S. Bellack

      University of Maryland School of Medicine

      Gary R. Birchler

      San Diego Healthcare System

      Edward B. Blanchard

      University of Albany-SUNY

      Kirk A. Brunswig

      University of Nevada, Reno

      Kara Bunting

      University of Nevada, Reno

      Matthew J. Carpenter

      Medical University of South Carolina

      Bryan A. Castelda

      SUNY at Binghamton

      Hewitt B. Clark

      University of South Florida

      Michael Daniel

      Pacific University

      Judith R. Davidson

      Université Laval, Canada

      Gerald C. Davison

      University of Southern California

      Brett J. Deacon

      Mayo Clinic

      Douglas L. Delahanty

      Kent State University

      Dennis J. Delprato

      University of Nevada, Las Vegas

      John W. Donahoe

      University of Massachusetts

      Brad C. Donohue

      University of Nevada, Las Vegas

      E. Thomas Dowd

      Kent State University

      Barry A. Edelstein

      West Virginia University

      Kristal Ehrhardt

      Western Michigan University

      Paul M. G. Emmelkamp

      University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands

      Brad Evans

      Pacific University

      William Fals-Stewart

      Research Institute on Addictions

      Alisha Farley

      University of Nevada, Las Vegas

      Matthew T. Feldner

      University of Vermont

      Gene S. Fisch

      Yale University

      Mark R. Floyd

      University of Nevada, Las Vegas

      Edna B. Foa

      University of Pennsylvania Health System

      William C. Follette

      University of Nevada, Reno

      Cyril M. Franks

      Rutgers University

      Brian M. Freidenberg

      University of Albany

      Edward S. Friedman

      Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic

      Ann M. Galloway

      University of Nebraska Medical Center

      Eileen Gambrill

      University of California-Berkeley

      Christine Hagie

      Behavioral Counseling and Research Center

      Tyish S. Hall

      University of Maryland and University of Nevada, Las Vegas

      Steven C. Hayes

      University of Nevada, Reno

      Stephen N. Haynes

      University of Hawaii, Manoa

      Nancy A. Heiser

      University of Maryland

      Michel Hersen

      Pacific University

      Sandy Hobbs

      University of Paisley, Scotland

      Derek R. Hopko

      University of Tennessee-Knoxville

      Sandra D. Hopko

      University of Tennessee-Knoxville

      Farrah Hughes

      University of Tennessee, Knoxville

      Jonathan D. Huppert

      University of Pennsylvania

      Javel Jackson

      Georgia State University

      Stanley Jenwick

      University of California, Irvine

      J. H. Kamphuis

      University of Amsterdam, Netherlands

      Ruth Kanfer

      Arizona State University

      Mary E. Kaplar

      Bowling Green State University

      Paul Karoly

      Arizona State University

      Alan E. Kazdin

      Yale University

      Karen Kate Kellum

      University of Mississippi

      Donald Kincaid

      University of South Florida

      Jordan T. Knab

      University of South Florida

      Robert J. Kohlenberg

      University of Washington

      Lesley Kovan

      West Virginia University

      Kristine Lake

      EMDR Institute

      Michael J. Lambert

      Brigham Young University

      James B. Lane

      Pacific University

      Marcus T. LaSota

      University of Nevada, Las Vegas

      Gary W. LaVigna

      The Institute for Applied Behavior Analysis

      Arnold A. Lazarus

      Rutgers University

      Craig W. LeCroy

      University of Wisconsin

      C. W. Lejuez

      University of Maryland

      Mark Levine

      Behavioral Counseling and Research Center

      Donald J. Levis

      SUNY at Binghamton

      Peter M. Lewinsohn

      Oregon Research Institute

      Noam Lindenboim

      University of Washington

      Marsha M. Linehan

      University of Washington

      Thomas W. Lombardo

      University of Mississippi

      Dani Maack

      Pacific University

      Jennifer B. Mainka

      Eastern Michigan University

      Barry M. Maletzky

      Portland, Oregon

      Richard W. Malott

      Western Michigan University

      Isaac M. Marks

      King's College, United Kingdom

      W. L. Marshall

      Queen's University, Canada

      Corby K. Martin

      Pennington Biomedical Research Center

      Thomas C. Mawhinney

      University of Detroit, Mercy

      Marita McCabe

      Deakin University, Melbourne

      Terry Michael McClanahan

      The Permanente Medical Group, Inc.

      Nathaniel McConaghy

      University of New South Wales, Australia

      F. Dudley McGlynn

      Auburn University

      Alison McLeish

      University of Vermont

      Donald H. Meichenbaum

      University of Waterloo, Canada

      Rhonda M. Merwin

      University of Mississippi

      Catherine Miller

      Pacific University

      Peter M. Miller

      Medical University of South Carolina

      William R. Miller

      University of New Mexico

      Raymond G. Miltenberger

      North Dakota State University

      Doil D. Montgomery

      Nova Southeastern University

      Charles M. Morin

      Université Laval, Canada

      Arthur M. Nezu

      MCP Hahnemann University

      Christine Maguth Nezu

      MCP Hahnemann University

      Matthew K. Nock

      Harvard University

      Raymond W. Novaco

      University of California, Irvine

      William H. O'Brien

      Bowling Green State University

      William T. O'Donohue

      University of Nevada, Reno

      Melanie L. O'Neill

      University of British Columbia, Canada

      Helen Orvaschel

      Nova Southeastern University

      Gordon L. Paul

      University of Houston

      Janet L. Pietrowski

      Eastern Michigan University

      Ann F. Philips

      Dare Family Services

      Joseph J. Plaud

      Applied Behavioral Consultants, Inc.

      Alan D. Poling

      Western Michigan University

      Roger Poppen

      Southern Illinois University-Carbondale

      Linda Krug Porzelius

      St. Charles Medical Center

      Lynn P. Rehm

      University of Houston

      David Reitman

      Nova Southeastern University

      Patricia A. Resick

      University of Missouri, St. Louis

      David C. S. Richard

      Eastern Michigan University

      Hank Robb

      Pacific University

      Miguel E. Roberts

      University of Mississippi

      Sushma T. Roberts

      University of Mississippi

      Thomas L. Rodebaugh

      Temple University

      Valerie Romero

      University of Nevada, Las Vegas

      Sheldon D. Rose

      University of Wisconsin

      Johan Rosqvist

      Pacific University

      Barbara O. Rothbaum

      Emory University

      Brent Rushall

      South Dakota State University

      Casey Sackett

      University of Nevada, Reno

      Josée Savard

      Université Laval, Canada

      Tamara P. Sbraga

      University of Nevada, Reno

      Carl Schrader

      Behavioral Counseling and Research Center

      B. J. Scott

      Pacific University

      Francine Shapiro

      Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Institute

      Tom Sharpe

      University of Nevada, Las Vegas

      Andrea Shreve-Nieger

      West Virginia University

      Eve M. Sledjeski

      Kent State University

      Shannan Smith-Janik

      University of Virginia

      Susan Snycerski

      Western Michigan University

      Ana A. Sobel

      University of Missouri, St. Louis

      Linda Carter Sobell

      Nova Southeastern University

      Stephanie L. Spear

      University of Nevada, Reno

      Adam Spira

      West Virginia University

      Melinda A. Stanley

      University of Texas Mental Sciences Institute

      Tiffany M. Stewart

      Pennington Biomedical Research Center

      Richard M. Suinn

      Colorado State University

      Alecia Sundsmo

      Pacific University

      Bethany A. Teachman

      University of Virginia

      Wendy Tenhula

      University of Maryland, Baltimore

      Michael E. Thase

      Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic

      James T. Todd

      Eastern Michigan University

      Jessica J. Tracy

      University of Mississippi

      Aaron Tritch

      Pacific University

      Paula Truax

      Pacific University

      Georgiana Shick Tryon

      City University of New York Graduate School

      Warren W. Tryon

      Fordham University

      Mavis Tsai

      University of Washington

      Samuel M. Turner

      University of Maryland

      Jerome D. Ulman

      Ball State University

      E. A. Vargas

      B. F. Skinner Foundation

      Julie S. Vargas

      B. F. Skinner Foundation

      Ellen Vedel

      University of Amsterdam

      David A. Vermeersch

      Loma Linda University

      Angela E. Waldrop

      Medical University of South Carolina

      Ricks Warren

      Anxiety Disorders Clinic, Lake Oswego, Oregon

      William J. Warzak

      University of Nebraska Medical Center

      Marjorie E. Weishaar

      Brown University

      Brooke L. Whisenhunt

      Southwest Missouri State University

      Ursula S. Whiteside

      University of Washington

      Donald A. Williamson

      Pennington Biomedical Research Center

      B. Steven Willis

      Dare Family Services

      Thomas J. Willis

      The Institute of Applied Behavior Analysis

      Kelly G. Wilson

      University of Mississippi

      Patricia A. Wisocki

      University of Massachusetts

      Michael J. Zvolensky

      University of Vermont

      Contributors - Volume 2

      Ron Acierno

      Medical University of South Carolina

      J. Scott Allen Jr.

      Oakland County Court Psychological Clinic, Pontiac, Michigan

      Keith D. Allen

      Nebraska Medical Center

      Krisann Alvarez

      University of Nevada, Las Vegas

      Frank Andrasik

      University of West Florida

      Heather Applegate

      Louden County Schools, Virginia

      Kevin J. Armstrong

      Mississippi State University

      Ruth A. Baer

      University of Kentucky

      Alisa B. Bahl-Long

      Towson University

      Heidi Bechtoldt Baldacci

      University of Toledo

      Erin McNaughton Barlos

      Nova Southeastern University

      Gezim Begolli

      University of Central Florida

      Debora J. Bell

      University of Missouri-Columbia

      Christine M. Bennett

      Western Michigan University

      Elliott Bonem

      Eastern Michigan University

      Marilyn K. Bonem

      Eastern Michigan University

      Gilbert J. Botvin

      Weill Medical College, Cornell University

      Nataly Bovopoulos

      Macquarie University

      Elizabeth V. Brestan

      Auburn University

      Christopher M. Browne

      Mississippi State University

      James E. Carr

      Western Michigan University

      Timothy A. Cavell

      University of Arkansas

      Yi-Chuen Chen

      West Virginia University

      Bruce F. Chorpita

      University of Hawaii at Minoa

      Karen A. Christoff

      University of Mississippi

      Andrea M. Chronis

      University of Maryland

      Jean Clore

      Western Michigan University

      Natalie M. Costa

      University of New Orleans

      Richard J. Cowan

      University of Nebraska Medical Center

      Eric L. Daleiden

      Hawaii Department of Health

      Jeffrey S. Danforth

      Eastern Connecticut State University

      Christopher Dehon

      University of Vermont

      Katherine M. Dollar

      Jackson State University

      Brad Donohue

      University of Nevada, Las Vegas

      Ronald S. Drabman

      University of Mississippi Medical Center

      Kelly Drake

      University of Nevada, Las Vegas

      Amy K. Drayton

      Eastern Michigan University

      Joseph M. Ducharme

      University of Toronto

      V. Mark Durand

      University of South Florida

      Raymond L. Eastman

      Stephen F. Austin State University

      Dikla Eckshtain

      Western Michigan University

      Jill T. Ehrenreich

      University of Central Florida

      T. David Elkin

      University of Mississippi Medical Center

      Ian M. Evans

      Massey University

      Sheila M. Eyberg

      University of Florida

      Gregory A. Fabiano

      University of Buffalo, SUNY

      Eva L. Feindler

      Long Island University, C. W. Post Campus

      Clinton Field

      Father Flanagan's Boys' Home, University of Nebraska School of Medicine

      Brian J. Fisak Jr.

      University of Central Florida

      William C. Follette

      University of Nevada, Reno

      Beverly L. Fortson

      West Virginia University

      Tawnya J. Fraizer

      Western Michigan University

      Sarah E. Francis

      University of Hawaii at Minoa

      Kurt A. Freeman

      Oregon Health & Science University

      Stacy B. Fried

      Towson University

      Patrick C. Friman

      Father Flanagan's Boys' Home, University of Nebraska School of Medicine

      Scott T. Gaynor

      Western Michigan University

      Jennifer M. Gillis

      SUNY at Binghamton

      Leilani Greening

      University of Alabama

      Kenneth W. Griffin

      Weill Medical College, Cornell University

      Amie E. Grills

      Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

      Alan M. Gross

      University of Mississippi

      Colleen A. Halliday-Boykins

      Medical University of South Carolina

      Amanda Harris

      Western Michigan University

      Stephen N. Haynes

      University of Hawaii

      Scott W. Henggeler

      Medical University of South Carolina

      Martin Herbert

      Exeter University, United Kingdom

      Charmaine K. Higa

      University of Tulsa

      Sarah J. Hildebrand

      University of Toledo

      Kellie A. Hilker

      University of Mississippi Medical Center

      Arthur C. Houts

      West Clinic, Memphis, Tennessee

      Jennifer L. Hudson

      Macquarie University

      Hillary Hunt

      University of Mississippi

      Stephen D. A. Hupp

      Southern Illinois University-Edwardsville

      Nichole Jurbergs

      Louisiana State University

      Christopher A. Kearney

      University of Nevada, Las Vegas

      Mary Lou Kelley

      Louisiana State University

      Angela Walter Keyes

      University of New Orleans

      Jeffrey L. Kibler

      Jackson State University

      Neil M. Kirkpatrick

      University of Vermont

      Tiffany Kyle-Linkovich

      University of Central Florida

      Steven R. Lawyer

      Medical University of South Carolina

      Linda A. LeBlanc

      Western Michigan University

      Craig W. LeCroy

      University of Wisconsin

      Lisa Linning

      University of Nevada, Las Vegas

      Thomas R. Linscheid

      Columbus Children's Hospital, Ohio State University

      Miranda Loeper

      Auburn University

      Thomas W. Lombardo

      University of Mississippi

      Christopher J. Lonigan

      Florida State University

      Barbara Lopez

      Florida International University

      Amanda Lords

      University of West Florida

      Richard W. Malott

      Western Michigan University

      Corby K. Martin

      Pennington Biomedical Research Center

      Eric J. Mash

      University of Calgary, Canada

      Carrie Masia-Warner

      New York University

      Greta M. Massetti

      University of Buffalo, SUNY

      Jessica M. Matthews

      University of Maine

      James F. McCoy

      Auburn University

      Melanie D. McDiarmid

      University of Florida

      Cliff McKinney

      University of Central Florida

      Michael W. Mellon

      Mayo Clinic-Dana Child Development and Learning Disorders Program, Rochester, Minnesota

      Raymond G. Miltenberger

      North Dakota State University

      Tracy L. Morris

      West Virginia University

      Larry L. Mullins

      Oklahoma State University

      Douglas W. Nangle

      University of Maine

      Shari K. Neul

      Texas Children's Hospital

      Larissa N. Niec

      Central Michigan University

      Matthew K. Nock

      Harvard University

      William H. O'Brien

      Bowling Green State University

      Patrick M. O'Callaghan

      Louisiana State University

      Thomas H. Ollendick

      Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

      Brian Rabian

      Pennsylvania State University

      Mark D. Rapport

      University of Central Florida

      Ruth Anne Rehfeldt

      Southern Illinois University

      David Reitman

      Nova Southeastern University

      Michelle S. Rivera

      University of Maine

      Mark W. Roberts

      Idaho State University

      Angela Rojas-Vilches

      University of Central Florida

      Jonathan P. Roland

      Western Michigan University

      Raymond G. Romanczyk

      SUNY at Binghamton

      Sheldon D. Rose

      University of Wisconsin

      Barbara O. Rothbaum

      Emory University School of Medicine

      Kenneth J. Ruggiero

      Medical University of South Carolina

      Dennis C. Russo

      The May Institute, Norwood, Massachusetts

      Mohamed Sabaawi

      ONE Research Institute, Midlothian, Virginia

      Sarah-Jeanne Salvy

      Columbus Children's Hospital, Ohio State University

      Kelly J. Sandor

      Eastern Michigan University

      Rachael A. Sautter

      Western Michigan University

      Joseph R. Scotti

      West Virginia University

      Laura D. Seligman

      University of Toledo

      Daniel B. Shabani

      Western Michigan University

      William Sharp

      University of Mississippi

      Daniel T. Shea

      Jackson State University

      Elizabeth J. Shepherd

      University of Maine

      Wendy K. Silverman

      Florida International University

      Persephanie Silverthorn

      University of New Orleans

      Sharon M. Simpson

      Oklahoma Health Sciences Center

      Nirbhay N. Singh

      ONE Research Institute, Midlothian, Virginia

      Jeffrey Skowron

      The May Institute, Norwood, Massachusetts

      Karen E. Starr

      Long Island University, C. W. Post Campus

      Timothy R. Stickle

      University of Vermont

      Laura Stoppelbein

      University of Mississippi Medical Center

      Eric A. Storch

      University of Florida

      Stephanie Stowman

      University of Nevada, Las Vegas

      Paul S. Strand

      Washington State University

      Sara E. Sytsma-Jordan

      University of Mississippi Medical Center

      Andrew M. Terranova

      University of Vermont

      Emily Thomas-Johnson

      University of Mississippi

      Thomas M. Timko Jr.

      University of Central Florida

      James T. Todd

      Eastern Michigan University

      George C. Tremblay

      Antioch New England Graduate School

      Sarah Valley-Gray

      Nova Southeastern University

      Jill Van Pelt

      Oklahoma State University

      Jennifer Vecchio

      University of Nevada, Las Vegas

      Katy I. Vidler

      Macquarie University

      Angela Waguespack

      Nova Southeastern University

      Elizabeth Seeley Wait

      Macquarie University

      Michael E. Walker

      Stephen F. Austin State University

      Carl F. Weems

      University of New Orleans

      Jonathan Weinand

      Great River Mental HealthCare Associates, West Burlington, Iowa

      Donald Williamson

      Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana

      Lisa A. Wuyek

      University of Toledo

      Brian T. Wymbs

      University of Buffalo-SUNY

      Karen R. Zeff

      University of Maine

      Elana Zimand

      Virtually Better, Inc., Decatur, Georgia

      Contributors - Volume 3

      Gary L. Adams

      Engelmann-Becker Corporation

      Paul A. Alberto

      Georgia State University

      Richard W. Albin

      University of Oregon

      Robert Algozzine

      University of North Carolina at Charlotte

      Stephen R. Anderson

      Summit Educational Resources

      Stanley Auerbach

      University of British Columbia

      Jill B. Becker

      University of Michigan

      Wendy K. Berg

      Center for Disabilities and Development, University of Iowa

      Anthony Biglan

      Oregon Research Institute

      Felix Billingsley

      University of Washington

      Carl Binder

      Binder Riha Associates

      Craig Blum

      University of Washington

      Carrie S. W. Borrero

      University of Florida

      Fredda Brown

      City University of New York

      Mack Burke

      University of Georgia

      Jason J. Burrow-Sanchez

      University of Utah

      Tonya S. Butler

      Mississippi State University

      Douglas Carnine

      NCITE, University of Oregon

      Erik W. Carter

      Vanderbilt University

      Gwendolyn Cartledge

      Ohio State University

      James C. Chalfant

      University of Arizona

      David Chard

      University of Oregon

      Douglas Cheney

      University of Washington

      Elizabeth Christiansen

      University of Utah

      Nathan H. Clemens

      Lehigh University

      Geoffrey Colvin

      Behavior Associates, Eugene, Oregon

      Michael D. Coyne

      University of Connecticut

      Deanne A. Crone

      University of Oregon

      Clay Crowder

      University of Georgia

      Kelli D. Cummings

      University of Oregon

      Craig Darch

      Auburn University

      Carol A. Davis

      University of Washington

      Stanley Deno

      University of Minnesota

      Randall L. De Pry

      University of Colorado at Colorado Springs

      Erik Drasgow

      University of South Carolina

      Albert J. Duchnowski

      University of South Florida

      Glen Dunlap

      University of South Florida

      Kathleen Dyer

      River Street Autism

      Ronald Eaves

      Auburn University

      Lucille Eber

      Illinois State Board of Education

      Lana L. Edwards

      Lehigh University

      Siegfried Engelmann

      Engelmann-Becker Corporation

      Ruth A. Ervin

      University of British Columbia

      Ted Feinberg

      National Association of School Psychologists

      Jolenea B. Ferro

      University of Arizona

      Wayne W. Fisher

      Marcus and Kennedy Krieger Institutes

      Steven R. Forness

      University of California at Los Angeles

      Laura D. Fredrick

      Georgia State University

      Patrick C. Friman

      Girls and Boys Town

      David L. Gast

      University of Georgia

      Sima Gerber

      City University of New York

      Joanne Gerenser

      Eden II Programs

      Russell Gersten

      University of Oregon

      Donna Gilbertson

      Utah State University

      Roland H. Good III

      University of Oregon

      Kathleen Gradel

      State University of New York at Fredonia

      Frank M. Gresham

      University of California at Riverside

      Philip Gunter

      Valdosta State University

      Shanna Hagan-Burke

      University of Georgia

      James W. Halle

      University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

      Jay W. Harding

      Center for Disabilities and Development, University of Iowa

      Beth Harn

      University of Oregon

      Gregory F. Harper

      State University of New York at Fredonia

      Mark T. Harvey

      Vanderbilt University

      Leanne S. Hawken

      University of Utah

      Cynthia Herr

      University of Oregon

      William L. Heward

      Ohio State University

      Meme Hieneman

      University of South Florida

      Michael B. Himle

      University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee

      Robert H. Horner

      University of Oregon

      Kenneth W. Howell

      Western Washington University

      Carolyn Hughes

      Vanderbilt University

      Daniel E. Hursh

      West Virginia University

      Kimberly Ingram

      University of Oregon

      Larry K. Irvin

      University of Oregon

      Amy L. Jablonski

      Summit Educational Resources

      William R. Jenson

      University of Utah

      Stephen Johnson

      University of California at Los Angeles

      James M. Johnston

      Auburn University

      Kathleen Jungjohann

      University of Oregon

      Edward J. Kame'enui

      University of Oregon

      Debra Kamps

      Juniper Gardens Children's Project

      Craig H. Kennedy

      Vanderbilt University

      Lee Kern

      Lehigh University

      Donald Kincaid

      University of South Florida

      Moira Konrad

      University of North Carolina at Charlotte

      Thomas R. Kratochwill

      University of Wisconsin at Madison

      Krista Kutash

      University of South Florida

      Kathleen Lynne Lane

      Vanderbilt University

      Timothy J. Lewis

      University of Missouri

      Veronica Evans Lewis

      University of Louisiana at Monroe

      Teri Lewis-Palmer

      University of Oregon

      Carl Liaupsin

      University of Arizona

      Ogden R. Lindsley

      University of Kansas

      Rachel L. Loftin

      Indiana University

      Joseph M. Lucyshyn

      University of British Columbia

      James K. Luiselli

      May Institute

      John W. Maag

      University of Nebraska at Lincoln

      Kathleen Magiera

      State University of New York at Fredonia

      Larry Maheady

      State University of New York at Fredonia

      Barbara Mallette

      State University of New York at Fredonia

      Robert E. March

      Effective Educational Practices, Boulder, Colorado

      Ronald C. Martella

      Eastern Washington University

      Emma J. Martin

      University of Oregon

      G. Roy Mayer

      California State University at Los Angeles

      Gene McConnachie

      Region 4 DDD N46-6, Seattle

      Sarah H. McDonagh

      University of Oregon

      Gail McGee

      Emory Autism Resource Center

      Ellen McGinnis

      Des Moines, Iowa Public Schools

      Kenneth W. Merrell

      University of Oregon

      Pat Mirenda

      University of British Columbia

      C. Michael Nelson

      University of Kentucky

      Lori Newcomer

      University of Missouri

      Robert E. O'Neill

      University of Utah

      Samuel L. Odom

      Indiana University

      Kristin M. Orton

      University of Oregon

      Gerald R. Patterson

      Oregon Social Learning Center

      Reece L. Peterson

      University of Nebraska at Lincoln

      Hollie Pettersson

      Utah Personnel Development Center

      Michael Pullis

      University of Missouri

      Holly Reed-Schindler

      Oregon Department of Education

      Henry S. Roane

      Marcus and Kennedy Krieger Institutes

      LeAnne K. Robinson

      Western Washington University

      Michael E. Rozalski

      State University of New York at Geneseo

      Lisa Hagermoser Sanetti

      University of Wisconsin at Madison

      Gary M. Sasso

      University of Iowa

      John W. Schuster

      University of Kentucky

      Ilene S. Schwartz

      University of Washington

      Terrance M. Scott

      University of Florida at Gainesville

      Herbert H. Severson

      Oregon Research Institute

      Elisa Steele Shernoff

      University of Wisconsin at Madison

      Jerry Silbert

      NCITE

      Susan M. Silvestri

      Ohio State University

      Deborah C. Simmons

      University of Oregon

      Flint L. Simonsen

      Eastern Washington University

      Richard L. Simpson

      University of Kansas

      Russell Skiba

      Indiana University

      Christopher Skinner

      University of Tennessee

      Veronica Smith

      University of British Columbia

      Jeffrey Sprague

      University of Oregon

      Clay M. Starlin

      University of Oregon

      Kristin Starosta

      Lehigh University

      Dana J. Stevens

      University of Washington

      Kay B. Stevens

      Texas Christian University

      Gary Stoner

      University of Massachusetts at Amherst

      George Sugai

      University of Oregon

      Kevin Sutherland

      Virginia Commonwealth University

      David W. Test

      University of North Carolina at Charlotte

      Lora Tuesday-Heathfield

      University of Utah

      Tary Jeanne Tobin

      University of Oregon

      Anne W. Todd

      University of Oregon

      Vicci Tucci

      Tucci Learning Solutions

      Janet Twyman

      Headsprout

      John Umbreit

      University of Arizona

      Amanda M. VanDerHeyden

      Vail School District in Tucson, Arizona

      Margaret Van Dusen Pysh

      University of Arizona

      Julie S. Vargas

      West Virginia University

      Bobbie J. Vaughn

      University of South Florida

      Mary Baldwin Veerkamp

      Juniper Gardens Children's Project

      Claudia G. Vincent

      University of Oregon

      Timothy R. Vollmer

      University of Florida

      David P. Wacker

      Center for Disabilities and Development, University of Iowa

      Bridget Walker

      University of Washington

      Hill M. Walker

      University of Oregon

      T. Steuart Watson

      Mississippi State University

      Michael J. Wehmeyer

      University of Kansas

      Richard P. West

      Utah State University

      Owen R. White

      University of Washington

      Barbara Bole Williams

      Rowan University

      Joseph C. Witt

      Louisiana State University

      Mark Wolery

      Vanderbilt University

      Douglas W. Woods

      University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee

      M. Wynne

      University of British Columbia

      Mitchell L. Yell

      University of South Carolina

      Preface - Volume 1

      This first volume of the Encyclopedia of Behavior Modification and Cognitive Behavior Therapy was designed to bring together the expertise and experience of leading researchers and practitioners into a single, expansive overview of novel as well as thoroughly established therapeutic modification techniques for adults. The entries comprising Volume I vary broadly both in length and depth of description of specific strategies, but all are intended to give a range of interested parties immediate insight into the fundamentals of the methods described. Therefore, the collective proliferation of entries all adhere to a more straightforward style of writing and description, which will make even the most complex theories of learning, pathology, and change readily available to readers with less than an expert's knowledge base. Entries cut across a full range of mental health conditions and their respective treatments, with the aim of providing systematic and scientific evaluation of clinical interventions in a fashion that will lend itself to the particular style of treatment common to behavior modification and cognitive-behavioral therapy. The advantage, then, of this broad collection of entries in a single resource is that it provides scholars, researchers, clinicians, students, and other individuals or institutions alike both heuristic value and a solid starting point for any line of inquiry.

      This first volume is devoted to adults, as it is the population most commonly encountered by the average researcher, clinician, and graduate student. Even though we limited this volume to the realm of adult interventions, we were still suitably impressed, if not a bit daunted, by the sheer number of methods we felt warranted inclusion. In our efforts to identify the range of topics that justifiably needed entries to make this truly a single resource, we have identified and included more than 150 entries. This rather large number of descriptions may at first seem unwieldy to the reader, but each entry follows a set pattern of outlining the method and particular issues pertinent to it. This leaves the reader with a user-friendly way of quickly identifying the key features and issues of any method of interest, as well as pointing them to more focused and technical resources should it be desired. This standardized format also allows for ready comparisons across methods of interest. The alphabetical listing of the methodologies will facilitate quick maneuvering between specific entries for such comparative purposes.

      There are many contributors to Volume I alone, and numerous others have contributed and participated in various ways to its final culmination. First, we feel especially thankful to all of the contributors who graciously agreed to write about their respective areas of expertise. We compliment them on their outstanding quality of entries. Second, we are, as usual, extremely appreciative and impressed by our editorial assistant, Carole Londerée, who with organization and panache made the overarching task of producing this volume feasible. Third and finally, we wish to thank Sage Publications for recognizing the inherent value of the Encyclopedia of Behavior Modification and Cognitive Behavior Therapy.

      Johan Rosqvist, PsyD Portland, Oregon, and Michel Hersen, PhD, ABPPForest Grove, Oregon

      Preface - Volume 2

      We hope that the Encyclopedia of Behavior Modification and Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Child Clinical Applications (Volume II) will be useful to a great variety of individuals. Practitioners, professors, schoolteachers, and, most important, students will find material in it that can make their tasks easier. We have included short and medium-length articles written by prominent scholars in the field of child clinical psychology. All authors were asked to provide an encyclopedia-like entry concerning a subject with which they are extremely familiar. We also asked our authors to write biographies of some of the field's luminaries. In selecting topics and authors, we made use of the indexes from various child clinical psychology journals, our own experience, and the experiences of our students and the encyclopedia's editorial board. We apologize for any topics left out, but with 141 entries, we sincerely hope they are few. As for the biographies, the conundrum of who to include and the more difficult one of who to leave out was one on which we knew we could never be close to perfect. So for those left out, please understand that space was the main limiting factor.

      One of the aspects of editing this volume of the encyclopedia that we enjoyed most was the format. There are short, concisely written articles that give a quick, useful definition of a term, concept, or procedure, and there are also more major entries. In the major entries, the authors were asked to include sections on complications of the procedure as well as a case illustration. Reading the case illustration provides interesting insights into how our expert clinicians conceive of the practice of child clinical psychology. Perusing the complications sections allows one to look into the question of what can go wrong, an area of child clinical psychology that is not often discussed in scientific articles.

      There are many individuals to thank for their part in making this volume a reality. First, Michel Hersen, who conceived the project and convinced us of its potential contribution. Second, the authors who gave of their time and intellect so the book could come to fruition. Finally, we would like to thank our wives, Jeannie and Marj, for putting up with us while we spent time working on this project.

      Alan M. Gross University of Mississippi, and Ronald S. Drabman University of Mississippi Medical Center

      Preface - Volume 3

      This third volume of the Encyclopedia of Behavior Modification and Cognitive Behavior Therapy has been designed and shaped to sample and describe a range of strategies and principles of applied behavior analysis, positive behavior support, and behavior modification and therapy, especially as they are considered and applied in educational contexts and school settings.

      This volume shares a number of common organizational structures and presentation characteristics with Volumes I and II. First, leading researchers, scholars, staff developers, and system change agents in the field of behavioral education have been invited to contribute their expertise to individual entries. Each author has conducted research on, implemented, and/or trained personnel on his or her topic and easily would be considered an expert in his or her respective areas.

      Second, most entries focus on a specific strategy, practice, or principle, and share a common organizational structure: (a) strategy description, (b) research basis, (c) relevant target population and exceptions, (d) complications, (e) case illustration, (f) suggested readings, and (g) key words. Two special types of entries have been included because of their historical importance and applied significance. First, although many more could have been included because of their significant contributions to the application of behavioral science and theory in schools, a few individuals have been selected for inclusion in this volume: Wesley Becker, Siegfried Engelmann, Norris Haring, Frank Hewitt, Ogden Lindsley, Ivar Lovaas, and B. F. Skinner. Their brief biographies have been prepared by colleagues, students, and children who have known and been influenced by the works of these behavioral educators. In addition to biographies, a few topics have been included as “anchor” entries because of their significant conceptual and applied contributions to the use of behavior modification and therapy in schools: applied behavior analysis, continuous progress monitoring, functional behavioral assessment, positive behavior support, and schoolwide discipline.

      Finally, all entries reflect practices, interventions, and strategies that have behavioral roots and solid empirical supports and foundations. However, in an effort to make the contents of this encyclopedia accessible to the widest audience, the use of in-text citations and jargon, and descriptions of research designs and statistics have been minimized. Relevant, selected references are included, and key words are noted so more in-depth study is possible within and between volumes. Although some procedural and strategy entries will be common across the three volumes, Volume III is focused on classroom and school contexts in which the instructional and behavioral interactions between teachers and their learners are emphasized.

      Although we cannot express enough our appreciation to the contributors to this Volume, the real success of Volume III goes to the individuals who kept tabs on, nagged at, and fretted over more than 100 authors who contributed more than 150 individual entries. Special acknowledgement and thanks go to (a) Michel Hersen, who masterminded this three Volume challenge; (b) Carole Londerée, who somehow figured out how to efficiently and effectively play the role of editorial assistant for six volume editors; (c) Claudia Vincent, who as our administrative assistant at the University of Oregon, miraculously kept track of and tolerated countless author contacts, more than 300 draft entries, and our failure to meet deadlines; and (d) the editorial and management staff at Sage Publications, who despite the inherent and clear risks of an encyclopedia project like this one understood the value of such a product to the field.

      Robert H. Horner George Sugai

      Introduction

      The Encyclopedia of Behavior Modification and Cognitive Behavior Therapy was designed to enhance the resources available to scholars, practitioners, students, and other interested social science readers. The fact that this three-volume work is needed at this time is a testimonial to the pioneers in this field who only three or four decades ago were fighting the therapeutic establishment to have a voice. Now, of course, behavior modification, behavior therapy, and cognitive behavior therapy are part of the daily lexicon for all. Over the ensuing years, the range of application of all of these therapeutic and modification strategies has proliferated to a point where it literally is difficult to keep abreast of the field. One of the objectives of this encyclopedia, then, is to bring all of the most relevant aspects of the field together in readable, albeit brief format.

      This three-volume work provides a thorough examination of components comprising behavior modification, behavior therapy, cognitive behavior therapy, and applied behavior analysis for both adult and child populations in a variety of settings (e.g., outpatient, institutional, and classroom). The specific volumes are as follows: Volume I: Adult Clinical Applications, Volume II: Child Clinical Applications, and Volume III: Educational Applications. Although the focus is on technical applications, the hundreds of entries also provide historical context to apprise readers of the parameters in which behavior therapists have worked, including research issues and strategies. Entries also contain descriptions of assessment, ethical concerns, theoretical differences, and the unique contributions of key figures in the field. In so doing, there are both biographical sketches and autobiographical sketches for the interested reader.

      The entries in this encyclopedia have been written at a level that is appropriate for the educated clinical and social science reader. Indeed, entries have been written in jargon-free fashion, with explanations provided for specialized terminology. Rather than burdening the reader with a plethora of citations within the text, contributors were asked to simply present clear descriptions, but including suggestions for further reading at the end of each entry. The objective here has been to make this work as readable as possible for an interdisciplinary audience.

      Major entries for specific strategies have followed a similar format:

      • Description of the Strategy
      • Research Basis
      • Relevant Target Populations and Exceptions
      • Complications
      • Case Illustration
      • Suggested Readings

      Biographical sketches have included the following:

      • Birthplace and Date
      • Early Influences
      • Education History
      • Professional Models
      • Major Contributions to the Field
      • Current Work and Views
      • Future Plans

      Many individuals have contributed to the fruition of this labor-intensive project. First, I thank my fellow editors, Johan Rosqvist, Alan Gross, Ronald Drabman, George Sugai, and Robert Horner, for their excellent work on this encyclopedia. Second, all of us thank the Advisory Board for their helpful suggestions throughout the process. Third, I thank all of the contributors for taking time out to share their expertise with us and to write in a clear fashion so that all can understand. Fourth, I thank Carole Londerée, my very able editorial assistant (who has made me swear to never again undertake such a complicated project), for keeping things on track. And fifth, but hardly least of all, thank you, James Brace-Thompson, and the terrific staff at Sage for shepherding us through the process. Your wise guidance has been much appreciated.

      Michel Hersen, PhD, ABPP Forest Grove, Oregon
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