Encyclopedia of Black Studies

Encyclopedia of Black Studies

Encyclopedias

Edited by: Molefi Kete Asante & Ama Mazama

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Abstract

The Encyclopedia of Black Studies is the leading reference source for dynamic and innovative research on the Black experience. The concept for the encyclopedia was developed from the successful Journal of Black Studies (SAGE) and contains a full analysis of the economic, political, sociological, historical, literary, and philosophical issues related to Americans of African descent. This single-volume reference is the vanguard of the recent explosive growth in quality scholarship in the field. More than a chronicle of black culture or black people, this encyclopedia deals with the emergence and maturity of an intellectual field over the past four decades. Beginning with the protests at San Francisco State College in 1967 that led to the first degree-granting department of Black Studies, the field’s rapid growth over ...

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  • Reader's Guide
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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
    • African American Studies
    • Afrocentricity
    • Annual Conferences
    • Anti-Racism
    • Arts
    • Associations and Organizations
    • Books
    • Campus Politics
    • Civil Rights
    • Classical Africa
    • Concepts
    • Culture
    • Films
    • Institutions
    • Intellectual Schools
    • Journals
    • Legal Issues
    • Movements
    • Newspapers
    • Political Issues
    • Populations
    • Professional Organizations
    • Publishers
    • Racism
    • Religion
    • Reparations
    • Research Centers
    • Resistance
    • Theories
    • U.S. Constitution
    • A
    • B
    • C
    • D
    • E
    • F
    • G
    • H
    • I
    • J
    • K
    • L
    • M
    • N
    • O
    • P
    • Q
    • R
    • S
    • T
    • U
    • V
    • W
    • X
    • Y
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    • List of Entries

      Reader's Guide

      This list is provided to assist readers in locating entries on related topics. It classifies entries into 30 categories: African American Studies Afrocentricity, Annual Conferences, Anti-Racism, Arts, Associations and Organizations, Books, Campus Politics, Civil Rights, Classical Africa, Concepts, Culture, Films, Institutions, Intellectual Schools, Journals, Legal Issues, Movements, Newspapers, Political Issues, Professional Organizations, Publishers, Racism, Religion, Reparations, Research Centers, Resistance, Theories, United States Constitution. Some entries may appear in more than one category.

      Editors

      Molefi Kete Asante and Ama Mazama

      Temple University

      Editorial Board

      Dr. Troy Allen

      Department of History, Southern University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana

      Dr. S. B. Assensoh

      Department of Afro-American Studies, Indiana University, Bloomington

      Dr. Katherine Olukemi Bankole

      Director, Center for Black Research, West Virginia University, Morgantown

      Dr. Leroy Bryant

      Department of History, Chicago State University

      Dr. Patricia Dixon

      Department of African American Studies, Georgia State University, Atlanta

      Dr. Howard Dodson, Chief,

      Schomburg Center for Black Research, New York Public Library, New York

      Dr. Lewis Gordon

      Department of African American Studies, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island

      Dr. Clenora Hudson-Weems

      Department of English, University of Missouri–Columbia,

      Dr. Charles Jones

      Department of African American Studies, Georgia State University, Atlanta

      Dr. Maulana Karenga

      Department of Black Studies, California State University, Long Beach

      Dr. Manning Marable

      Institute of African American Research, Columbia University, New York

      Dr. Miriam Ma′ at-Ka-Re Monges

      Department of Social Work, California State University, Chico

      Dr. Wade Nobles

      Department of Black Studies, San Francisco State University

      Dr. Emeka Nwadiora

      School of Social Administration, Temple University, Philadelphia

      Dr. James Turner

      Africana Studies Research Institute, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York

      Dr. Winston Van Horne

      Department of Africology, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee

      Contributors

      Adjua Barbara E. Adams

      The College of New Rochelle–Rosa Parks Campus

      David Shachia Agum

      Temple University

      Makungu M. Akinyela

      Georgia State University

      Akua Nson Akoto

      NationHouse Watoto Shule/Sankofa Fie

      Kwame Agyei Akoto

      NationHouse Watoto Shule/Sankofa Fie

      Akin Alao

      University of Texas at Austin

      Adisa A. Alkebulan

      San Diego State University

      Troy D. Allen

      Southern University

      Harry Amana

      University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

      Molefi Kete Asante

      Temple University

      Molefi Khumalo Asante

      University of California, Los Angeles

      Deborah F. Atwater

      Pennsylvania State University University Park Campus

      Mario J. Azevedo

      University of North Carolina at Charlotte

      Katherine Olukemi Bankole

      West Virginia University–Morgantown

      James A. Banks

      University of Washington

      Kismet Beckman

      University of Chicago

      Aslaku Berhanu

      Temple University

      William Boone

      Temple University

      Kwame Botwe-Asamoah

      University of Pittsburgh

      George Brandon

      City University of New York Medical School

      David Brodnax

      Northwestern University

      Jacqueline Imani Bryant

      Chicago State University

      Stephen M. Caliendo

      New York University

      Dawn L. Cannon

      Howard University College of Medicine

      Willie L. Cannon Brown

      Pierce College

      Ibo Changa

      Temple University

      Mark A. Christian

      Miami University of Ohio

      Talmon Chvaicer

      University of Haifa, Israel

      Adeniyi A. Coker

      University of Alabama at Birmingham

      Edward R. Crosby

      Kent State University

      George Sefa Dei

      Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto

      Robert Douglas

      Louisville University

      Nah Dove

      University of Ghana

      Zetla K. Elvi

      Temple University

      Andrew Michael Fearnley

      University of Cambridge

      Ana Monteiro Ferreira

      Universidade Aberta, Lisboa

      Rita S. Fierro

      Temple University

      Tiffeni Fontno

      Temple University

      Kiera Hope Foster

      Temple University

      Aisha Francis

      Vanderbilt University

      Justin Gammage

      Temple University

      Mohamed Garba

      Abdou Moumouni University of Niamey

      Fikru Gebrekidan

      St. Thomas University

      Geoffrey “Jahwara” Giddings

      Antioch College

      Aimee Glocke

      Temple University

      Lewis R. Gordon

      Brown University

      Mekada Graham

      California State University, Fresno

      Peter Gratton

      DePaul University

      Fatima Hafiz

      Temple University

      Rebecca Hankins

      University of Arizona Library

      Deonte Hollowell

      Temple University

      Kristy Holmes

      Temple University

      Thomas Houessou-Adin

      University of Toledo

      Rosalyn Howard

      University of Central Florida

      Regina Jennings

      Rutgers University

      Christopher K. Johnson

      Temple University

      Ilona V. Johnson

      Penn State University

      Zainabu Jones

      Temple University

      Myra Julian

      Temple University

      Maulana Karenga

      California State University, Long Beach

      Tiamoyo Karenga

      California State University, Long Beach

      Maghan Keita

      Villanova University

      Leophus S. Tarharka King

      Millersville University

      William M. King

      University of Colorado at Boulder

      Jill Kissick

      Temple University

      Kwasi Konadu

      Akan Institute

      Deborah LaNier

      Temple University

      Cynthia Lehman

      University of Maryland at Eastern Shore

      Natalie Lewis

      Temple University

      William Little

      California State University, Dominguez Hills

      Garvey F. Lundy

      University of Pennsylvania

      Tony Martin

      Wellesley College

      Ama Mazama

      Temple University

      Charlton D. McIlwain

      New York University

      Bart McSwine

      Chicago State University

      Judylynn Mitchell

      West Salisbury Elementary School in Maryland

      Miriam Ma'at-Ka-Re Monges

      California State University, Chico

      Del-Zola Moore

      Temple University

      Clyde Alafiju Morgan

      State University of New York College at Brockport

      Suzuko Morikawa

      Chicago State University

      Christopher Murray

      Temple University

      Gwinyai Muzorewa

      Temple University

      H. V. Nelson

      University of California, Los Angeles

      Mutombo Nkulu-N'Sengha

      California State University, Northridge

      Vera DeMoultrie Nobles

      San Francisco State University

      Wade W. Nobles (Nana Kwaku Berko I, Ifagbemi Sangodare)

      San Francisco State University

      Levi A. Nwachuku

      Lincoln University of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

      Imari A. Obadele

      Prairie View A and M University

      José-Vittorio Pimienta-Bey

      Berea College

      Daryl Zizwe Poe

      Lincoln University of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

      Darrianna M. Proctor

      Temple University

      Reiland Rabaka

      California State University, Long Beach

      Sudhi Rajiv

      Jai Narayan Vyas University, Jodhpur

      Pamela Yaa Asantewaa Reed

      College of New Rochelle

      Patricia Reid-Merritt

      Richard Stockton College

      Rico X

      Temple University

      Michelle Rief

      College of Manhattan

      Gloria Grant Roberson

      Adelphi University

      Mario Root

      Bishop Dunn Catholic School in Dallas

      William R. Scott

      Lehigh University

      Jorge Serrano

      Temple University

      Thysha M. Shabazz

      Temple University

      Mwalimu J. Shujaa

      Fort Valley State University

      Mawusi Renee Simmons

      Temple University

      Mark Solomon

      Boston College

      Catherine Squires

      University of Michigan

      Robert Ssengonzi

      Research Triangle Institute

      Ronald J. Stephens

      Grand Valley State University

      Douglas E. Thomas

      Adelphi University

      Griselda Thomas

      Temple University

      Ivory Achebe Toldson

      Southern University

      Wendy Carmen Trott

      Delaware Technical College, Wilmington

      Winston A. Van Horne

      University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee

      Kheli R. Willetts

      Syracuse University

      Selase N. Williams

      California State University, Dominguez Hills

      York Williams

      Temple University

      A. J. Williams-Myers

      State University of New York at New Paltz

      Khonsura J. Wilson

      Temple University

      Raymond A. Winbush

      Morgan State University

      Gail Hilson Woldu

      Trinity College

      Tyrene Wright

      City University of New York

      Stephanie Yarbough

      Temple University

      Preface

      Black Studies emerged as both an intellectual field and a critical ideology during the 1960s. It has remained close to its roots and also made a broad and deep impact on scholarship in general by creating a fundamental shift in the way scholars pursue research and view human societies: Black Studies has made possible an awareness of the great contributions that Africans and those of African descent have made to the discourse of knowledge.

      The Dimensions in Black Studies

      There are three dimensions in the evolution of Black Studies during the last few decades: (1) the organization of departments and programs, (2) the academic and administrative instruments dealing with the nature of the discipline, and (3) the preparation of scholars in graduate programs. Those who sought to create Black Studies were concerned with the obstacles that would be advanced to prevent the self-definition, self-determination, and intellectual liberation of those of African descent living in the Americas. This was a substantive issue because the history of American education had been against the extension of certain intellectual freedoms for Africans. Furthermore, before 1865 people of African descent living in the United States were not citizens and consequently were not African Americans but Africans. Since the 1990s, many people of African descent have used African to designate their cultural origin. This use of the term is not a reference to citizenship. The term African is being used here in a special sense to mean those who were enslaved and their descendants. Carter G. Woodson referred to this difficulty in his 1933 book The Mis-Education of the Negro. It was Woodson's idea that where the black person had been afforded the right to education, the process was often meant to further isolate the person from his or her cultural and historical background. The idea was to make the black person a white person in thought, attitude, and behavior, to leave the person nothing but a black shell. Therefore, the creators of Black Studies understood that one of their key demands had to be control over the process of education.

      Within a university structure, all power resides in departments and faculty members, not in programs and adjuncts or research assistants. The first objective of the movement was to secure departments of Black Studies. This was a major task because there had not been any such departments at major or minor universities. The best to emerge from decades of education, even in the black colleges and universities, were departments of history where individual historians— such as Chancellor Williams, Carter G. Woodson, William Leo Hansberry, John Henrik Clarke, John Jackson, Benjamin Quarles, and others—sought to demonstrate the role of Africans in world history. But some of them were often under severe pressure, criticized, ostracized, and hounded out of colleges seeking to express themselves as enclaves of whiteness in a sea of black students.

      All of this history was available to the students of the sixties who understood that to avoid the mistakes of the black colleges they had to demand a Black Studies department where the courses would be taught from a black perspective. This was the operative term at the very beginning of the movement. It was translated erroneously by some to mean that only blacks could teach in the departments, but the initial impetus was not racist or racial but ideological. Those who taught in the departments of Black Studies had to understand and appreciate the black perspective.

      Black Studies departments were established in several major colleges and universities, such as Ohio State, Louisville, San Jose State, Temple, Cornell, Pittsburgh, Wisconsin, San Francisco State, Harvard, SUNY Buffalo, and UC Berkeley. Other schools, such as UCLA, the University of Pennsylvania, Princeton, Yale, Michigan, Wayne State, Michigan State, Michigan, and Illinois, chose the weaker program model and did not create such departments. Consequently, there has been a long debate over the field in these institutions that did not immediately move to organize Black Studies as a department. They have remained on the periphery of the discipline, often attracting high-powered intellectuals in the traditional disciplines and suggesting that they are Black Studies professors. Occasionally these professors repudiate both Black Studies and those who suggest that they are anything other than sociologists, historians, or literary critics. Immersed in their old disciplines and wedded to their old career paths, these professors have often used Black Studies departments as means for advancement in their original disciplines but not as professional arenas for their own work.

      The academic and administrative instruments meant to secure the field include the establishment of research centers, journals, seminars, conferences, and a professional organization. Over the years, these instruments of the discipline have been articulated in more discreet ways. For example, instead of the Journal of Black Studies, Black Scholar, and Western Journal of Black Studies, the three most prominent journals that emerged out of the sixties and early seventies, scores of departments and centers have their own journals and newsletters. Black Studies is no longer a small affair in the American academy. The field is implicated in many national and international issues, and scholars from every corner of the globe publish in the journals. The Journal of Black Studies, a refereed journal that has set the standard for scholarship in the field, has more than 3,000 subscribers. More than half of the professors who have received tenure in the field of Black Studies have published in the Journal of Black Studies. In addition, over 75% of all Black Studies professors who are tenured have published in at least one of the three journals established concurrently with the field—the Journal of Black Studies, Black Scholar, and Western Journal of Black Studies.

      Major research centers have been established at Columbia, the University of Michigan, and UCLA, as well as at other universities, with the aim of contributing to the evolution of scholarship in Black Studies. Grants have been made to scholars for the exploration of public policy, education, social welfare, and economic aspects of the lives of Africans living in the Americas. In recent years, the tendency to define some areas of research as Diaspora Studies has gained momentum. The idea in the centers and some departments where this term is employed is that such studies must explore and expose the character of the experiences of African people in the Caribbean and South America. One could comfortably say, however, that there has never been a time in Black Studies when there was a prohibition of this sort of transcontinental understanding of the African experience. The field was at its very origin a pan-African enterprise.

      The creation of the doctoral program at Temple University in 1988 was a defining experience for Black Studies. For the first time since the emergence of the field 20 years earlier there would be the possibility of Black Studies conferring the terminal degree on a candidate. The doctoral program was greeted with tremendous anticipation by the scores of young scholars who would benefit from it in ways that could not even be imagined. The first master's and Ph.D. class at Temple University, during the autumn of 1988, was comprised of 37 students. At this time, there have been more than 125 doctoral graduates at Temple University. They occupy positions in departments and programs in the United States as well as in other nations. The first student to receive the doctorate in African American Studies was a Nigerian, Adeniyi Coker; the first African American student to receive the doctorate in African American Studies was Mark Hyman; the first white student to receive a doctorate in African American Studies was Cynthia Lehman; the first Chinese student to receive a doctorate in African American Studies was Yuan Ji; and the first Japanese student to receive a doctorate in African American Studies was Suzuko Morikawa. These Black Studies scholars and those who follow them will be building on the work of those of us who had to train in other disciplines because Black Studies did not yet exist. Therefore, the objective of each graduate program in Black Studies must be to prepare its students to apply their greater conceptual and disciplinary education to enriching the discipline. At the present time, there are departmental doctoral programs at Temple, UC Berkeley, and the University of Massachusetts Amherst; there are interdepartmental doctoral degree programs at Harvard and Michigan State.

      The Encyclopedia of Black Studies has brought together the work of nearly 200 scholars with the objective of securing a baseline for the establishment of a canon of the field. Our intention has been to convey a sense of the research activity, conceptualization, and pedagogy of Black Studies scholars. Thus, we have created an encyclopedia that is conceptually driven rather than personality driven; that is, the ideas and concepts of the field are thrust into the forefront and create the context within which individuals' contributions are acknowledged.

      The Encyclopedia of Black Studies fills a serious need for professionals in the field, but it also has value for those who are interested in the cultural production of the black community apart from the general public output in popular journals and magazines. The intent of the encyclopedia is to provide more than a state-of-the-art account of the field—it is to give the reader substantial information that might be used to develop state-of-the-art accounts in the field. Thus, we were eager to make sure that scholars, researchers, and students could refer to the encyclopedia for trustworthy accounts, common definitions in the field, and disciplinary protocols. Students in many fields, including but not limited to African American Studies, history, sociology, and anthropology, will find the encyclopedia of use in their researches. Serving as a source for the most used ideas and concepts in the field of Black Studies is a principal goal of this encyclopedia. Often individuals have used concepts such as Afrocentricity, Africology, double consciousness, patriarchy, and Kawaida without knowing what the average user of such terms in Black Studies means by them. We hope that the Encyclopedia of Black Studies will be a guide from which to have meaningful discourse.

      The View of Black Studies

      We take a broad view of Black Studies. This is only natural because the originators of the field took a broad view. More important, however, is the fact that the position the early scholars took is absolutely correct in terms of how most people in the field view the work that we do as professionals. Black Studies implies in its name the idea that the study is concerned with people who are identified as or define themselves as black people. This identification transcends national and continental boundaries. African American Studies reduced the reach of the term Black Studies and made it more American. This was the trend during the 1980s. However, by the early 1990s the trend was once again reversed so that many departments claimed that the name African American or Afro-American was too limiting. Some sought to use the term Africana to represent black people in the Americas, Africa, and the Caribbean. The term has gained acceptability through its use by the Cornell University Institute for Africana Studies and the International Journal of Africana Studies, which is published under the auspices of the National Council for Black Studies. The term Africana was also taken up by the Encarta Africana encyclopedia of African culture.

      The Organization of the Encyclopedia

      The entries in this encyclopedia are organized alphabetically. They are cross-referenced to aid the reader in making associations between entries. Furthermore, we have prepared a Reader's Guide in which the entries are grouped according to a series of key topics, allowing the reader to read all of the entries on a particular theme, such as Organizations, Culture, or Resistance.

      Acknowledgments

      We would like to acknowledge the people who have worked hard to help us bring this encyclopedia to fruition. Rolf Janke and Vince Burns were our first contacts at Sage on this project. Throughout everything, even the departure of the senior development editor, Vince Burns, Rolf Janke has been consistent and on target. We greatly appreciate his confidence in our work and in our project. Claudia Hoffman came aboard at the right time, just as the work was intensifying, and the fact that this encyclopedia is being read by scholars the world over is due to her diligence in working with us. We are grateful to her for the work that she did in guiding this project.

      We could not have achieved this monumental project without the thinking of our colleagues and our graduate students. Many of them helped us with entry development and gave us much encouragement when academic and organizational obstacles seemed insurmountable. We never underestimated the amount of work that would be needed to secure contributors who were knowledgeable on the subjects of the entries we thought it necessary to include. We probably underestimated the amount of time it would take to pull all of the entries together on time. Nevertheless, we are happy to say that the Encyclopedia of Black Studies was produced within the time frame given by the publishers. This was due in large part to our able assistant, Sekhmet McCallister. She was extraordinary in her ability to use all electronic means to assist us. We could not have done this job without her steadfastness. She is a remarkable person and we are very grateful for her assistance.

      We especially want to recognize the members of the editorial board who lent their names and reputations to this project and gave their input generously when necessary. Some of them worried that we would not be able to pull this project off because we did not have external or university funding. Yet the editorial board members gave us their support, believing that if this project could be done, we could do it. So for us they are the real keepers of the field of Black Studies and we greatly appreciate them.

      Both of us thank our families profusely for their understanding, generosity, and patience. We therefore express our gratitude to Dr. Garvey Lundy and Ana Yenenga, the most important people in the world to us, for their ability to listen to our complaints about deadlines and difficulties. They endured and we endured.

      Molefi Kete Asante and Ama Mazama

      About the Editors

      Molefi Kete Asante is considered one of the most distinguished contemporary scholars in Black Studies. He is the author of 55 books and more than 300 articles in 25 different journals.

      Dr. Asante was the first director of UCLA's Center for Afro-American Studies, from 1969 to 1973, where he was responsible for developing the research and curriculum programs. During the past 30 years, he has edited the Journal of Black Studies, making it one of the most prestigious journals in the field of Black Studies.

      Dr. Asante has been recognized as one of the 10 most widely cited African Americans. He has taught at several universities, including UCLA, Purdue, Florida State, Howard, SUNY Buffalo, and Temple. At Temple University he created the first Ph.D. program in African American Studies. He has directed more than 100 doctoral dissertations. In 2001, Transition Magazine said, “Asante may be the most important professor in Black America.” Dr. Asante has received scores of awards and recognitions, including the distinguished Douglas Ehninger Award for Rhetorical Scholarship from the National Communication Association in 2002.

      Ama Mazama is one of the leading theorists of the Afrocentric school. With a doctorate from La Sorbonne in Paris, Dr. Mazama is one of the most important professors in Black Studies. She is the author of five books, including L'Imperatif Afrocentrique and The Afrocentric Paradigm. Her articles and essays have appeared in many scholarly journals nationally and internationally, and she has been cited by African American Studies professional organizations for scholarship and intellectual activism. As a prominent consultant for educational institutions, she has pioneered in the area of making scholarship relevant to the African community.

      Dr. Mazama has taught at the University of Texas at Austin, Pennsylvania State University, and Temple University. She has trained outstanding graduate students and has been the most prolific teacher of undergraduates in African American Studies at Temple. A teacher of remarkable talent, Dr. Mazama has also been an academic leader in Black Studies. Her work has focused on language, linguistics, and theory. She has been particularly skillful in defending the Afrocentric paradigm as a legitimate framework for analyzing events and texts. Her work has been published in both French and English. Cited by the Cheikh Anta Diop Conference's committee for outstanding research and academic excellence, Dr. Mazama has won both the Ankh Award and the Diop Award, becoming the only person ever to win both of these distinguished awards.

      Introduction

      The Origins of Black Studies

      Nearly 40 years ago, African American students at San Francisco State College engaged in protests that led to the creation of the first bachelor's degree–granting departments of Black Studies in the United States. Nathan Hare was made the first chairperson of the department. This was 1967. A year later, Martin Luther King, Jr., was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee, leading to the most widespread demonstrations and urban disturbances in the history of the United States. However, with the death of King came a renewed commitment on the part of the American nation to bring about educational reform, and Black Studies was one of the beneficiaries of this new mood.

      Since that time, scholars have undertaken the task of fleshing out Black Studies with theoretical works, research studies, methodological discourses, social responsibilities, and institution building. The success of these efforts, against the enduring intransigence of the academy toward Black Studies, has been phenomenal and sustaining. The fact that the Encyclopedia of Black Studies can now be written attests to the maturity of the field.

      The Field and the Encyclopedia

      This is not merely an encyclopedia of black culture or an encyclopedia of black people—it is a specific, precise encyclopedia dealing with the emergence and maturity of an intellectual field that was begun as a corrective to generations of hegemonic curricula meant to support the theories and practices of white racial domination. Increasingly there are encyclopedias dealing with many topics and themes, including distinguished African scholars, the African world, African nations, and African culture.

      Few disciplines or areas of study have needed an encyclopedia as much as Black Studies does. This is not because the field should be codified or concretized but because scholars and students should have some clear conception of the evolutionary processes that created and maintain the discipline. Black Studies has limited the wanton spread of imperialistic curricula to the degree that it has presented an exceptionally brilliant collection of articles and books demonstrating the validity of a multiplicity of perspectives on facts. Education is no longer, as it was, lily-white. One only has to consider the linguistic and symbolic transformations that have occurred in the academy to see the impact of the discipline of Black Studies on sociology, history, social work, psychology, and political science. Those fields that have not been influenced by the innovations in Black Studies remain intractable but also remain outside of the new thinking about race, culture, gender, and ethnicity.

      No longer are most academicians comfortable using terms and phrases such as African slaves, Columbus's discovery of America, African primitives, Universal Man, and Black Africa, without appending some explanation to them. The ideas these words represent call for studied reflection on the nature of historical and cultural reality. Clearly, Europe is no longer the standard nor the model by which Africa, Africans, and those of African descent must be judged. Numerous arguments for white exclusivity have been shown to be myths maintained by a racist educational system. Thus, the names of ancient African philosophers such as Ptahhotep, Imhotep, Akhenaten, Amenemhat, Amenemope, Duauf, and Amenhotep, son of Hapu, have been heard in the classrooms of America's most prestigious universities because of the transformation brought about by Black Studies. Indeed, it is not simply that the names have been heard but that the philosophies have been translated, read, and discussed in many venues. Maulana Karenga's monumental work Maat: The Ethics of Social Justice (2004, Routledge) is just the latest in a long line of outstanding publications in Black Studies scholarship on ancient Africa. It has taken Black Studies scholars to rescue the study of ancient African ethics and culture from the static archaeological works of many Egyptologists.

      Our aim in this encyclopedia is to extend the discourse on intellectual ideas, not merely to enumerate the cultural artifacts that exist in the black world. Indeed, culture is important and we see our work as adding to the serious treatment of the concepts and ideas that are employed in Black Studies. In effect, in order to approach the study of Africans in the Americas and Caribbean, it was necessary for the African and African American scholars who practiced Black Studies to see it as more than politics, and more than the enumeration of artifacts; they had to understand the field in its own right as disciplinary arena. This was the first task of achieving an academic fullness in the field. Without this type of framework, all else dangled in the air and often appeared irrational, bizarre, or strange. For example, it was impossible to properly study the funeral behaviors of African Americans in the South, Jamaicans, or Haitians without some appreciation of the context in which these behaviors developed. Catherine Godboldt (2002) addressed this issue in a telling way when she noted that although it is well known that black people in the South have always enjoyed the porch as an extension of the family dwelling, it is necessary to have a broad view of village life in Africa to see the connection between enslaved Africans building porches on Southern homes and the public spaces for socializing in Africa. European houses did not have porches, and it was not until Africans introduced porches that this new idea was born. What has happened too often in education is that the white, Western European perspective has been taken as universal, and therefore people have no idea of what constitutes continuities or correspondences from one culture to the next. This perspective collapses almost everything into its sphere and what is actually an African achievement is seen as European. Thus one of the central tendencies of Black Studies is to consciously cultivate a discourse on identity that speaks to the diversity and commonalities found in the pan-African world.

      What we have discovered in the course of editing this encyclopedia is the extent to which Black Studies has revolutionized the information pool. Just the fact that the field has brought many new professors into the arena for thinking and acting has affected information in both quantity and quality. We now have much more capability and much more enlightenment about African American and African realities than we had in the past. The reason for this is researchers' intense search for as much information as possible to be able to write the whole black story. This search led scholars to Ahmad Baba, the last chancellor of the University at Sankore in Mali, who may have been the most published African writer of his generation. During the 15th century, he wrote more than 42 books on various subjects, including law, ethics, mathematics, and religion. Another writer, Amadou Bamba, the early 19th-century cleric of Senegal, authored more than 1500 treatises on many subjects during his time as spiritual and cultural leader of the Mourrides of Touba. Without the aggressive research of African American Studies scholars, however, information such as this probably would not have been brought to the attention of students and the lay audience.

      The fact that we know so much about the condition of the African diaspora in Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, Belize, Guatamala, Costa Rica, Martinique, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay, and many other countries is directly related to the scholarly interest in comparative African societies, religions, and acts of resistance to oppression. Much of this information was available before Black Studies, without registering as serious points of interest in the academy until Black Studies scholars began to refer to new categories of information.

      Black Studies as a discipline also has a political aspect because it was born of the desire to see a more equitable world. It is a subject that introduces the student and scholar to the fact of Africa's betrayal. The question is not “Has Africa been betrayed?” but “By whom and for what reasons has Africa been betrayed?” Set in motion by enslavement, colonialism, and globalization, the betrayal of Africa sought to disinherit Africans in the Americas as well as throughout the world. The ultimate function of this is to dislocate Africans in the context of human history.

      Dislocation is at the root of many of the theoretical problems in studying African phenomena. It is the quality of being outside of one's own psychological or cultural reality, which has been the experience of Africans worldwide. The fact that Africans have often taken as their reality the experiences of Europeans and have participated in the general Eurocentric understanding of history has further distanced many people from their own historical realities. Thus, the intent of the Afrocentric revolution, including its cultural and political forms, is to relocate Africans everywhere within their own centered context for analysis and interpretation, enabling them to produce more authentic and genuine responses to phenomena.

      The Afrocentric Point of Departure

      Afrocentricity, therefore, was posited not as an anti-European view but as a way for Africans the world over to proactively seek to explain phenomena from their own points of view. This perspective created, inter alia, difficulties with the many scholars who hold imperializing and hegemonizing attitudes and have insisted on a dominating ideological perspective where only Europe is correct, only Euopean ideas are valid, and Europe becomes the universal model for all thought and behavior.

      The transformation brought about by Afrocentricity had been presaged in the writings and actions of numerous scholars. Perhaps, as both Daryl Zizwe Poe (2004) and Kwame Botwe-Asamoah (2004) have claimed, Kwame Nkrumah was the first African to call for an Afrocentric response to the political, economic, and cultural realities of Africa. As Ghana's first president and the spiritual leader of the modern pan-African movement, Nkrumah propounded the view that Africa had to examine the world with an eye to its interests as determined by its culture rather than Europe's culture. Ghana was to be the prime model of African consciencism, which is what Nkrumah named his philosophical perspective.

      Various seeds of an Afrocentric orientation can be found in the works of Willie Abraham, Frantz Fanon, and others, but their works are often compromised by their training in the West (Abraham, 1966; Fanon, 1968). While this is not the time for a discourse on the misorientations that exist in their works, let it suffice to say that the incipient ideas in their intellectual contributions were useful to the maturity of the concept of Afrocentricity.

      A Call to Change Scholars' Views of Africans

      It was the dramatic walkout of the 1969 African Studies Association Convention in Montreal by African American scholars that led directly to a call for renewal in the way Africans were approached by scholars from the West. This may have been the event that made John Henrik Clarke, leader of the walkout, a household name in the pan-African community and assured him a place in history. Clarke articulated the views of many African American scholars that Africanists, who were usually white, were disinterested in the quality of African development and were in many ways merely arms of the colonizing impulse in the Western world. Although Clarke would later criticize the Afrocentric theory, in 1974 he published an article in the The Afrocentric World Review in which he strongly affirmed the need to reshape the study of history.

      The experience in Montreal had been a watershed. When the African American scholars walked out of the conference, they were joined by a group of revolutionary African scholars who vowed to work for the creation of an African Heritage Studies Association. This movement and the association it created predated the National Council of Black Studies, which was founded in 1974. Since that time, the two organizations have worked in tandem to examine, investigate, interpret, and promote African culture transcontinentally and transgenerationally.

      The publication of Afrocentricity in 1980 by Molefi Kete Asante, 8 years before the creation of the first Ph.D. program in African American Studies, and 6 years after the founding of the National Council of Black Studies, had an energizing effect on African American Studies scholarship. Among the first dissertations to be written using Afrocentric ideas was that of Francis Dorsey, who received a doctorate from Kent State University's Department of Communication in 1983. Dorsey had received a master's degree in communication from the State University of New York in Buffalo under the direction of Molefi Asante in 1979. He had been among the first students to be exposed to the new thinking regarding African agency. Thus, his dissertation on Marcus Garvey at Kent State was a revolutionary turn in the communication field and it anticipated many dissertations that were to be written in African American Studies.

      A Disciplinary or Multidisciplinary Field?

      Various scholars, such as Linda James Myers, Marimba Ani, and Wade Nobles, emerged in the 1980s and 1990s to add to the discourse on the nature of Black Studies. One of the earliest to undertake a discussion of the scope of the field was James Stewart (1997), who pioneered work on the philosophical side of the discipline. He was committed to a multidimensional, multidisciplinary view of the field and in several highly useful essays laid out an intellectual idea that generated debate and discussion. Maulana Karenga (1993) at first reinforced Stewart's multidisciplinary view of the field. Later, however, he stated that the Afrocentrists had made an important distinction between discipline and interests: There is only one discipline, and there are many interests, not many disciplines (Karenga, 1993). Nevertheless, this issue has continued to be debated in the National Council for Black Studies conferences, as befits any serious discourse around concepts grounded in the search for theoretical and professional advancement.

      On the other hand, the Temple Circle, a group of Temple University professors and graduate students led by Ama Mazama and Molefi Asante, took a radically different perspective by arguing that Black Studies was a discipline that could be applied to several different thematic and subject interests. Thus, one could have an interest in social institutions, music, human experiences in chronological time, or the psychic states of humans, and study these interests from an Afrocentric perspective. This became the most dominant perspective among students seeking the highest degree since it freed them from being locked into defending a multidisciplinary field that could not be put back in the box. Black Studies had come of age because now there were not just competing paradigms but different ways to view reality.

      Faculty at other departments joined the fray on one side or the other. At Harvard, Yale, Brown, and Cornell, four key Ivy League institutions, Black Studies was seen literally as the study of black people from many different disciplines. There was only one boundary—you had to be studying black people. This meant that there was almost no boundary, because African people had been studied for hundreds of years; yet it would have been too much of a stretch to claim that this activity was Black Studies. What the Temple Circle understood was that the mere study of black people was not Black Studies.

      The Theoretical Evolution and Development of Black Studies

      Cecil Gray (2001) wrote an interesting and controversial book on the evolution of Afrocentricity. In his book, he points out the inadequacy of a system that must rely on definitions from outside the group. Therefore, to discuss Afrocentricity one must always return to the intellectual source, that is, the books and research articles that constitute foundational work in the discipline.

      One cannot simply write the history of Black Studies as a history of Temple University's department of African American Studies, although many of the intellectual battles for the discipline have been fought at Temple. A plethora of issues have confronted the field at other universities and have been met by equally committed scholars. One of the first issues that scholars had to deal with was the relationship of African American Studies to African Studies. A second issue was the role of Marxist analyses in the construction of responses to the continuing crisis in the lives of African Americans. A third issue was the cultural war debate that was generated by the strong Afrocentric thrust in the early 1980s. Finally, the idea of gender and its relationship to culture had to be configured in the evolving discourse around the collective African experience. Each issue had its corollaries, subthemes, and extenuations; each had its arguments, and some were accompanied by conclusions before arguments were made, but all the issues have been addressed in the general development of Black Studies.

      Black Studies and African Studies

      African Studies developed during the late 1950s and early 1960s in the United States as a response to the rising tide of independent nations on the continent of Africa. Most of the early support came from the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations. Their interests and those of the United States government coincided inasmuch as they both sought ways to influence the newly independent nations. Furthermore, the American government wanted to have a highly trained cadre of civil servants who had knowledge of the languages and cultures of Africa. This was particularly useful to the information agencies.

      Consequently, many of the early Africanists were also government employees and consultants. There has always been a close association between the Africanist tradition and the information services. American officials interested in diplomacy and commerce in Africa frequently turned to the new Africanists for advice and assistance. Many of them were scholars who had limited appreciation of America's own role in the enslavement of Africans and therefore disconnected their research and work from the ongoing problems of the Africans in the diaspora.

      Thus, when the Black Studies movement began in the late 1960s, nearly 10 years after the Africanist movement, there was little contact between the two interests. Indeed, Africanists tended to be largely white, and Black Studies scholars were largely African Americans. However, the fact that African Americans cast their research interests in pan-African terms meant that they would have a different perspective than that of the Africanists. Bridging the gulf between the continents became a new desire in the academy.

      Black Studies and Marxist Sociologists

      Most of the leading sociologists in Black Studies departments viewed themselves as political sociologists and always framed their discussions in terms of what it was that they had to offer to the vision of autonomy. It was clear that the African American condition was one that demonstrated the class question in its strictest sense. It was not clear whether there was a Marxist solution to the condition of Africans in the United States. Many of the leading scholars in this tradition—Gerald McWorter (aka Abdul Alkalimat), Ronald Bailey, and William Sales, for example— believed strongly in the necessity of a general analysis of African American history based on the conflict model (Alkalimat, 1986). The fact of the matter is that when one looks at the Southern experience of African Americans, Africans were workers and whites were capitalists in the classic caste sense. One could argue, as some have, that this was only an aberration because white workers were also being crushed by the capitalist state. With radical democratic and socialist thinkers, such as William Sales, Manning Marable, and Cornel West, one often sees the duality of class and race in their Black Studies writings. Manning Marable, who teaches political sociology at Columbia University, is the author of many books, including How Capitalism Underdeveloped Black America (1983) and Black Liberation in a Conservative America (1997). Cornel West, who teaches religion at Princeton University, is best known for the popular work Race Matters (1992). William Sales, who teaches Black Studies at Seton Hall University, is the author of From Civil Rights to Black Liberation: Malcolm X and the Organization of Afro-American Unity (1994).

      The question of which factor is most responsible for the economic and cultural condition of people of African descent in the industrial, heterogeneous societies of the West has not been adequately answered by the Marxists; it remains one of the continuing issues in Black Studies. Nevertheless, a socialist ethic seems to underlie much of the literature in the field, although it could be argued that it is not a consciously socialist attitude that governs the writings of African American Studies professors. It is as though the humanist element in the analysis and synthesis of political energies is directed toward creating societies where domination is critiqued as a matter of course and where human oppression based on race, culture, class, or gender is obliterated.

      Black Studies and the Cultural Wars

      The cultural wars of the 1990s were initiated not by Black Studies scholars but by white Eurocentric scholars in response to some of their black protégées' Afrocentric contention that it was necessary to develop a paradigm that spoke to the specific and particular condition of African people in the world. This was a thrust for agency, a movement to reinterpret reality from the standpoint of African people and for the interest of African people. This was seen, inter alia, as an attack on white people, which it was not, and as an assault on Europe's hegemony, which it was. Black Studies, in using the Afrocentric paradigm (Mazama, 2003), was expressing its commitment to demonstrating that African phenomena can be studied from the perspective of African people. The goal was for Africans the world over to be centered, that is, to be placed in an active role as agents with the possibility of seeing, conceiving, and acting in their own best interest. Thus, scholars rushed to show that one can examine anything from an Afrocentric point of view and arrive at conclusions different from those of Eurocentrists. The difference was that Eurocentrists had identified their particularity as universal and could not see that others had different views and perspectives that were valid for them. The Eurocentrists were so used to universalizing their experiences that they believed that Black Studies scholars were, indeed, committing the highest academic crime—they were assaulting the taboo of Eurocentric hegemony itself. This is the origin of what white scholars describe as cultural wars and what Black Studies scholars, such as Perry Hall and Terry Kershaw, describe as the necessary reexamination of the protocols of researching African phenomena.

      Afrocentrists claimed that it was not legitimate for white scholars to attack other cultures or peoples and then to claim that Europe was protected from criticism because it was a chosen, special, unique culture above the rest. Creating and researching from a centered perspective, Afrocentrists rejected the idea that Europe was a model for humanity, because everywhere Europe seemed to be separating itself from the rest of humanity (Chinweizu, 1975). Indeed, geographer J. M. Blaut (1999) argued from a position similar to that of the Afrocentrists by claiming that the major European historians were racists.

      This new Afrocentric approach led scholars such as Innocent Onyewuenyi (1993), Miriam Monges (1997), Katherine Bankole (1996), and others to advance novel ideas about different eras of African history. Onyewuenyi claimed a legacy that had been left by Cheikh Anta Diop and continued researching the African origin of Greek philosophy in order to demonstrate the antiquity of Nile Valley philosophical concepts. Monges undertook a new look at the civilization of Kush and established the plinth that would later yield her work on the “shebanization” of knowledge, which is the critical recentering of ancient knowledge on the activities and achievements of women. Bankole demonstrated that the medical care of the enslaved Africans in Louisiana was not only brutally crude but also based on a Eurocentric notion of the inferiority of Africans and the superiority of Europeans.

      Perhaps the most provocative element in the cultural wars was the Afrocentrists' objective of carrying out the work of Cheikh Anta Diop, the late Senegalese historian, Egyptologist, and linguist. Diop had contended that the ancient Egyptians who built the pyramids and the Pharaonic civilization were blackskinned Africans. This had upset much of the common lore among whites that the ancient Egyptians were whites and had established the great civilization in North Africa without any African influence. Diop's arguments in The African Origin of Civilization (1974) were intended to answer all of the questions raised by European scholars about the cultures and civilizations of Africa as well as to show emphatically that ancient Egypt was the creation of black people.

      Thus, Diop took the lead in defending Africa's own agency as a continent of cultural expression apart from European influence. Pharaonic Egypt, or Kemet, as it was called by the early Africans, was the most monumental civilization of antiquity. The creative productions of the society are more impressive than Greece and Rome combined. This meant, in Diop's conception, that Europe, in its racist attitude, would have to find ways to disinherit Africans of their classical civilization. He wrote many books, mainly in French, but some of them were published in English, including the majestic work, Civilization or Barbarism. In each work Diop sought to advance his idea that the African was the mother of human civilization. A devoted researcher, Diop studied linguistics, physics, architecture, history, art, mathematics, and did melanin experiments on mummies, in order to prove his point that the ancient Egyptians were black Africans. In response to Diop, numerous Black Studies scholars took up the call to link the study of African people to the classical African structures of the past to advance a more meaningful interpretation of philosophy, ethics, religion, and culture.

      Detractors sought to minimize the achievements of science, whether biological, archaeological, linguistic, or physical, when such achievements turned up as evidence against the position of a white Egypt or the position that Greece learned nothing from Africa. Of course, this could not be supported in the end, because the overwhelming evidence to the contrary silenced everyone except the most foolhardy. Mary Lefkowitz, a classicist, wrote a book called Not Out of Africa (1996) to answer what she deemed the most significant arguments of the Afrocentrists. She singled out Martin Bernal, author of Black Athena (1987), who had created quite a stir with his thesis that ancient Athens owed a lot to the African and Asian civilizations that predated it, and attacked him with a vengeance, believing that he had somehow undermined the dominant position of Greece in the ancient world. But Bernal's position was supported by enormous evidence as well as plausible theories of African contributions to Greece. Indeed, in the 1950s George G. M. James had written in Stolen Legacy (1956/2002) that there was no Greek philosophy, only stolen African philosophy. Bernal outdistanced both James and Diop in his massive Black Athena project. What was clear in the cultural war discussions was that the hegemonists were outclassed by scholarship. Afrocentric scholars, many of them with knowledge of Greek, Hebrew, Latin, and the ancient Pharaonic language Mdw Ntr, delved into the works of Plutarch, Herodotus, and Aristotle, among others, to ferret out the distinction between the ancient record and the modern Aryan record. It was necessary for Black Studies scholars, particularly the Afrocentrists, to reformulate historical periods based on a new reading of the texts. This was done, and it was published in and disseminated through articles in the Journal of Black Studies, the Journal of Negro History, Western Journal of Black Studies, and Black Scholar.

      Black Studies and Gender

      The issue of gender in the context of Black Studies has always been a complicated one. There had been an early movement to separate female-centered interests from Afrocentric ideas, thus creating two perspectives, one female and the other African. This separatist idea was rejected by the major leaders of the field because it overlooked the idea that Afrocentricity was a theoretical perspective, indeed, a paradigm, that was initiated without regard to gender. The idea of a separate female-centered paradigm would essentially leave Afrocentricity as a male-centered paradigm. It was neither conceived as a male-centered idea nor sustained in any active way as a one-gender concept. The Afrocentric idea was to view both females and males of African heritage as benefiting from a general orientation to phenomena, reality, concepts, and events that were African centered.

      One cannot divest oneself of one's cultural perspective. When a person is making an analysis, it must be from one cultural perspective or another. This was the fundamental issue facing those who wanted to construct a gender-based analysis of African phenomena. It was in this light that Clenora Hudson-Weems (1998) established the idea of “Africana womanism.” Hudson-Weems meant to disengage the study of African womanism from feminism. The discourse around feminism was, to her, a discourse originated by white women who had limited understanding of the place African women had played in American or African life. Indeed, she contended that white women could get their liberation and still remain essentially racist against black women.

      Thus, race always trumped gender in the discussion of transformation. Furthermore, Hudson-Weems led the charge to disengage the struggle for women's rights from the antimale discourse of many feminists. This became a leading ideological position for many women in Black Studies. It was by no measure the only position taken by women and men in the field, but there were few who could assert successfully a position in opposition to the one held by Hudson-Weems (1998), Patricia Dixon (2001), Nah Dove (1997), and others. Gender is necessarily a factor to be raised in any critical, political, economic, behavioral, or cultural discussion, but it is not the core of Black Studies. Definitionally, Black Studies must deal with black people, with no regard to gender.

      Yet it is understood that in the context of Black Studies as elsewhere men and women cannot be seen as being the same. Indeed, Patricia Dixon (2001) has boldly argued that it might be necessary for black women in the United States, given the large numbers of single women, to reconsider the Western opposition to polygamy. Of course such a proposal is provocative, but it is one idea found in an analysis of the economic and social plight of African American families. Gendered understandings of different phenomena are definitely possible within the purview of Black Studies.

      Black Studies cannot be isolated from the world and therefore it cannot be isolated within the academy. The modern college or university, to be taken seriously as a place of major intellectual discourse, must have Black Studies. Africans and those of African descent are preeminently modern people in thinking and attitude, and whether one is at Harvard or Arizona State, it is almost impossible to understand the modern world apart from understanding the role of African people in this era. Furthermore, African American people are so much a part of the political culture, the religious context, and the economic life of America that it would be impossible to be considered well educated without knowing something of the myriad ways blacks have created space in America. Given the issues that have been articulated over the past 40 years, and anticipating what is likely to occur in the future, we believe that the Encyclopedia of Black Studies will serve as a much-needed guide for those who are seeking clarity in the ever more complex world we live in. While our encyclopedia does not purport to provide all that is known about African people the world over, we are confident that you will find in this work a full measure of the state of Black Studies.

      References
      Abraham, Willie. (1966). The Mind of Africa. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
      Alkalimat, Abdul. (1986). Introduction to Afro-American Studies: A Peoples College Primer. Chicago: Twenty First Century Books.
      Asante, Molefi Kete. (1980). Afrocentricity. Buffalo: Amulefi Publishing.
      Asante, Molefi Kete. (2003). Afrocentricity (3rd ed.). Chicago: African American Images.
      Bankole, Katherine K. (1996). Slave Medicine. New York: Routledge.
      Bernal, Martin. (1987). Black Athena (Vol. 1). New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
      Blaut, J. M. (1999). Eight Eurocentric Historians. New York: Guilford.
      Botwe-Asamoah, Kwame. (2004). Kwame Nkrumah and Culture in Ghana. New York: Routledge.
      Chinweizu. (1975). The West and the Rest of Us. New York: Random House.
      Diop, Cheikh Anta. (1974). The African Origin of Civilization. Chicago: Lawrence Hill.
      Dixon, Patricia. (2001). We Want for Our Sisters What We Want for Ourselves: A Relationship, Marriage and Family Alternative. Privately published in Atlanta, GA.
      Dove, Nah. (1997). Afrikan Mothers. Albany: State University of New York Press.
      Fanon, Frantz. (1968). The Wretched of the Earth. New York: Grove.
      Godboldt, Catherine. (2002). When the Saints Go Marching In. Philadelphia: Bridges.
      Gray, Cecil Conteen. (2001). Afrocentric Thought and Praxis: An Intellectual History. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.
      Hudson-Weems Clenora. (1998). Africana Womanism: Reclaiming Ourselves. Troy, MI: Bedford.
      Hudson-Weems, Clenora. (2003). Africana Womanist Literary Theory. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.
      James, George G. M. (2002). Stolen Legacy. Chicago: African American Images. (Original work published 1956)
      Karenga, Maulana. (1993). Introduction to Black Studies. Los Angeles: University of Sankore Press.
      Lefkowitz, Mary. (1996). Not Out of Africa. New York: Basic Books.
      Marable, Manning. (1983). How Capitalism Underdeveloped Black America. New York: South End Press.
      Marable, Manning. (1997). Black Liberation in a Conservative America. New York: South End Press.
      Mazama, Ama (Ed.). (2003). The Afrocentric Paradigm. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.
      Monges, Miriam Ma'at Ka Re. (1997). Kush: The Jewel of Nubia. Trenton, NJ: Africa World.
      Onyewuenyi, Innocent C. (1993). The African Origin of Greek Philosophy: An Exercise in Afrocentrism. Nsukka: University of Nigeria Press.
      Poe, Daryl Z. (2004). Kwame Nkrumah's Contribution to Pan-African Agency: An Afrocentic Analysis. New York: Routledge.
      Sales, William. (1994). From Civil Rights to Black Liberation: Malcolm X and the Organization of Afro-American Unity. New York: South End Press.
      Stewart, James B. (Ed.). (1997). African Americans and Post-Industrial Labor Markets. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
      West, Cornel. (1992). Race Matters. Boston: Beacon Press.

      Editors' Note: The majority of our contributors provide brief descriptions of the resources they recommend in the Further Reading sections that appear at the end of the individual entries. We invite you to learn more about the subjects presented in the Encyclopedia of Black Studies by following up on these suggested resources.

    • Appendix I: Chronology of the Most Notable Books, Scholars, and Events in Black Studies

      Appendix I: Chronology of the most notable books, scholars, and events in black studies
      1967

      Students at San Francisco State demand Black Studies

      Nathan Hare organizes the first Black Studies department at San Francisco State University

      1968

      University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), creates the Institutes for American Cultures, which includes the Center for Afro American Studies

      Frantz Fanon's The Wretched of the Earth is published in the United States

      Eldridge Cleaver's Soul on Ice is published

      Two young men are killed in the struggle for Black Studies at UCLA

      The Black Scholar is started by Robert Chrisman and Nathan Hare

      Martin Luther King is slain

      Shirley Chisholm is elected to the House of Representatives

      1969

      The Journal of Black Studies is founded by Robert Singleton and Molefi Kete Asante

      Clarence Majors edits the New Black Poetry

      Molefi Kete Asante's The Rhetoric of Black Revolution is published

      Amy Jacques Garvey's Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey is reissued

      Molefi Kete Asante heads UCLA Center for Afro American Studies and publishes his essay “The Black Perspective”

      1970

      John Jackson's Introduction to African Civilization is published

      Toni Morrison's The Bluest Eye is published

      Maya Angelou's I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings is published

      1971

      Shirley Graham Du Bois publishes a memoir of W.E.B. Du Bois, His Day is Marching On

      Addison Gayle, Jr.'s The Black Aesthetic is published

      1972

      Yosef Ben-Jochannon's Black Man of the Nile is published

      Richard Barksdale and Kenneth Kinnamon's Black Writers of America is published

      Gil Scott-Heron records “The Revolution Will Not Be Televised”

      Paul Carter Harrison's The Drama of Nommo is published

      The National Black Political Convention takes place in Gary, Indiana

      1973

      Stephen Henderson's Understanding the New Black Poetry is published

      Nathan Huggins's Harlem Renaissance is published

      1974

      Chancellor Williams's The Destruction of Black Civilization is published

      Cheikh Anta Diop's The African Origin of Civilization is published in English

      1975

      Quincy Troupe's Giant Talk: An Anthology of Third World Writing is published

      The National Council of Black Studies is founded

      1976

      Asa Hilliard gets George James's Stolen Legacy republished

      Callaloo magazine is founded in Baton Rouge, Louisiana

      Alex Haley receives the Pulitzer Prize for Roots

      Ivan Van Sertima's They Came Before Columbus is published

      1977

      Geneva Smitherman's Talkin' and Testifyin': The Language of Black America is published

      1978

      Cheikh Anta Diop's Cultural Unity of Black Africa is published

      Abdias do Nascimento's Mixture or Massacre: The Genocide of a People is published

      James Alan McPherson receives the Pulitzer Prize for Elbow Room

      Maulana Karenga's Essays in Struggle is published

      Haki Madhubuti's Enemies: The Clash of Races is published

      Kariamu Welsh's Textured Women, Beetle Sticks, Cow Bells, and Cowrie Shells is published

      1979

      The African American Studies program becomes a department at the State University of New York at Buffalo

      1980

      Molefi Kete Asante's Afrocentricity is published

      Theophile Obenga's Pour une Nouvelle Histoire is published

      1981

      Vincent Harding's There is a River is published

      Death of Larry Neal, a major black arts movement figure

      1982

      Charles Fuller receives the Pulitzer Prize for A Soldier's Play

      1983

      John Henrik Clarke gives a major speech at City College, “The Black Man's History in a White Man's World”

      Alice Walker wins the Pulitzer Prize for The Color Purple

      President Ronald Reagan signs the Martin Luther King Day bill, making King's birthday a federal holiday to be celebrated on the third Monday of each January

      1984

      Maulana Karenga's Selections from the Husia: Sacred Wisdom of Ancient Egypt is published

      Wallace Terry's Blood is published

      Mari Evans's edited volume Black Women Writers 1950–1980: A Critical Evaluation is published

      1986

      Wole Soyinka wins the Nobel Prize for literature

      Molefi Kete Asante begins the campaign to create the first Ph.D. program in African American Studies at Temple University

      1987

      August Wilson wins the Pulitzer Prize for Fences

      Rita Dove receives the Pulitzer Prize for Thomas and Beulah

      Winston van Horne of the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee proposes the term Africology

      The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee African American Studies department changes its name to Department of Africology

      Molefi Kete Asante's The Afrocentric Idea is published

      Horace Campbell's Rasta and Resistance is published

      1988

      Toni Morrison receives the Pulitzer Prize for Beloved

      Temple University accepts the first class of doctoral students in African American Studies

      Wade Nobles's African and African American Cultural Blueprint/Framework for Black Family Pilot is published

      Linda James Myers's Understanding the Afrocentric Worldview is published

      The Cheikh Anta Diop International Conference is founded in Philadelphia

      1989

      C. Tsehloane Keto's The Africa Centered Perspective of History is published

      Darlene Clark Hine's Black Women in White: Racial Conflict and Cooperation in the Nursing Profession 1890–1950 is published

      1990

      Maulana Karenga's Introduction to Black Studies is published

      Adeniyi Coker, a Nigerian student at Temple University, becomes the first person to receive a Ph.D. from an African American Studies department

      Mark Hyman is the first African American graduate with a Ph.D. in African American Studies

      Molefi Kete Asante's Kemet, Afrocenricity and Knowledge is published as a signature for the first Ph.D. program in African American Studies

      1991

      Clarence Thomas is confirmed for the Supreme Court in the closest vote in the Court's history and despite the objections of many African American scholars

      Henry Louis Gates begins to assemble the “Dream Team” of scholars at Harvard University

      J. E. Holloway's Africanisms in American Culture is published

      1993

      Toni Morrison wins the Nobel Prize for literature

      Yusef Komunyakaa wins the Pulitzer Prize for poetry

      Maya Angelou reads poetry at Bill Clinton's presidential inauguration

      Cornel West's Race Matters is published

      John Gwaltney's Drylongso is published

      1994

      Marimba Ani's major analysis of European thought and behavior, Yurugu, is published

      Tricia Rose's Black Noise is published

      1995

      Theophile Obenga's A Lost Tradition: African Philosophy in World History is published

      Herb Boyd and Robert Allen's edited volume Brotherman is published

      More than a million black men march on Washington, D.C., to raise awareness about the plight of black men and foster black men's consciousness of and commitment to self

      Na'im Akbar's Natural Psychology and Human Transformation is published

      Henry Louis Gates's Colored People is published Clenora Hudson-Weems's Africana Womanism: Reclaiming Ourselves is published

      1996

      Molefi Kete Asante and Abu Abarry's edited volume The African Intellectual Heritage is published

      Theophile Obenga's Icons of Maat is published

      The University of Massachusetts at Amherst creates the second U.S. Ph.D. program in African American Studies

      1997

      Phile Chionesu organizes a million black women on the Benjamin Franklin Mall in Philadelphia to bring about changes in the life conditions of black women

      Henry Louis Gates's edited volume The Norton Anthology of African American Literature is published

      The University of California, Berkeley announces plans for a Ph.D. program in African American Studies

      Kariamu Welsh Asante's African Dance is published

      1998

      Tennessee State University becomes the first predominantly black institution in more than 25 years to develop a program in African American Studies

      Manning Marable and Leith Mullings's edited volume Let Nobody Turn Us Around is published

      Manning Marable's Black Leadership is published

      Katherine Bankole's Slavery and Medicine: Enslavement and Medical Practices in Antebellum Louisiana is published

      1999

      The Cheikh Anta Diop Conference becomes an international event, with attendees and participants from four continents

      2000

      Randall Robinson publishes The Debt: What America Owes to Blacks

      2002

      Molefi Kete Asante publishes The Egyptian Philosophers

      Michigan State University announces a Ph.D. program in African American Studies

      Mark Christian's Black Identity in the 20th Century is published

      2003

      Ama Mazama's The Afrocentric Paradigm is published

      Molefi Kete Asante's Erasing Racism: The Survival of the American Nation is published

      Ray Winbush's edited volume Should America Pay? is published

      Maulana Karenga's Maat: The Moral Ideal in Ancient Egypt is published

      Zizwe Poe's Kwame Nkrumah's Contribution to Pan Africanism is published

      Jawara Giddings's Contemporary Afrocentric Scholarship is published

      James L. Conyers's Afrocentricity and the Academy is published

      2004

      Publication of the comprehensive Encyclopedia of Black Studies, the first such encyclopedia in the field's history, edited by Molefi Kete Asante and Ama Mazama

      Appendix II: Advanced Degree–Granting Programs

      Appendix II: Advanced degree–granting programs
      Doctoral-Granting Programs in Black Studies
        Departmental or Disciplinary Degrees
      • Temple University
      • College of Liberal Arts
      • African American Studies
      • 8th floor, Gladfelter Hall
      • 1115 W. Berks
      • Philadelphia, PA 19122
      • University of California, Berkeley
      • Ethnic Studies
      • Afro American Studies
      • 506 Barrows Hall #2570
      • Berkeley, CA 94720
      • University of Massachusetts Amherst
      • W.E.B. Du Bois Department of Afro-American Studies
      • Afro-American Studies
      • 323 New Africa House
      • Amherst, MA 01003–6210
        Interdepartmental or Interdisciplinary Degrees
      • Emory University
      • Graduate Institute of the Liberal Arts
      • American and African-American Studies
      • S415 Callaway Building
      • Atlanta, GA 30322
      • Harvard University
      • Department of Afro-American Studies
      • Barker Center
      • 12 Quincy Street
      • Cambridge, MA 02138
      • Michigan State University
      • African American Studies
      • Morrill Hall, Room 1
      • East Lansing, MI 48824
      • Yale University
      • Graduate School of Arts and Sciences
      • African American Studies
      • Box 208323
      • New Haven, CT 06520–8323
        M.A.-Granting Departments
      • Boston University
      • African American Studies
      • 705 Commonwealth Avenue
      • Boston, MA 02215
      • Clark Atlanta University
      • School of Arts and Sciences
      • African and African American Studies
      • Office of Admissions
      • J. P. Brawley Drive at Fair Street SW
      • Atlanta, GA 30314–4385
      • Columbia University
      • Graduate School of Arts and Sciences
      • Institute for Research in African-American Studies
      • African American Studies
      • Columbia University-IRAAS
      • 1200 Amsterdam Avenue, Mailcode #5512
      • New York, NY 10027
      • Cornell University
      • Africana Studies and Research Center
      • 310 Triphammer Road
      • Ithaca, NY 14850
      • Florida International University
      • College of Arts and Sciences
      • African-New World Studies Certificate Program
      • PC 236 University Park Campus
      • Miami, FL 33199
      • Morgan State University
      • School of Graduate Studies
      • African American Studies
      • 1700 East Cold Spring Lane
      • Baltimore, MD 21251
      • The Ohio State University
      • Department of Black Studies
      • African-American and African Studies
      • 486 University Hall
      • 230 N. Oval Mall
      • Columbus, OH 43210–1319
      • State University of New York at Albany
      • Africana Studies
      • Office of Graduate Admissions
      • 1400 Washington Avenue
      • Albany, NY 12222
      • Temple University
      • College of Liberal Arts
      • African American Studies
      • 8th floor, Gladfelter Hall
      • 1115 W. Berks
      • Philadelphia, PA 19122
      • University of California, Berkeley
      • Ethnic Studies
      • Afro American Studies
      • 506 Barrows Hall #2570
      • Berkeley, CA 94720
      • University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)
      • Department of African American Studies
      • Afro-American Studies
      • Center for African American Studies
      • 160 Haines Hall, Box 951545
      • Los Angeles, CA 90095–1545
      • University of Iowa
      • African-American World Studies
      • 303 English-Philosophy Building
      • Iowa City, IA 52242–1408
      • University of Massachusetts Amherst
      • W.E.B. Du Bois Department of Afro-American Studies
      • Afro-American Studies
      • 323 New Africa House
      • Amherst, MA 01003–6210
      • University of Wisconsin-Madison
      • Afro-American Studies
      • 4141 Helen C. White Hall
      • 600 North Park Street
      • Madison, WI 53706

      Appendix III: Major Journals in Black Studies

      Appendix III: Major journals in black studies
        African American Review
      • Saint Louis University
      • Shannon Hall 119
      • 220 N. Grand Boulevard
      • St. Louis, MO 63103
      • Publisher: St. Louis University
        The Black Scholar
      • P.O. Box 22869
      • Oakland, CA 94618
      • Publisher: University of Nebraska Press
        Journal of Black Studies
      • Department of African American Studies
      • Temple University
      • 1115 W. Berks
      • Philadelphia, PA 19122
      • Publisher: Sage Publications
        International Journal of Africana Studies
      • Center for Interdisciplinary Studies
      • 124 Lane Hall
      • Virginia Tech University
      • Blacksburg, VA 24061–0227
      • Publisher: National Council for Black Studies
        Western Journal of Black Studies
      • 70 C Cleveland Hall
      • Pullman, WA 99164
      • Publisher: Board of Regents, Washington State
      • University Press
        Journal of Black Psychology
      • Department of Psychology
      • Mail Location #376
      • University of Cincinnati
      • Cincinnati, OH 45221
      • Publisher: Association of Black Psychologists
        Research in African Literatures
      • 601 N. Morton Street
      • Bloomington, IN 47404
      • Publisher: Indiana University Press

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