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The principles that guide research with the aim of protecting the rights of participants. Since research delves into the physical, mental, and social lives of human beings, researchers have an ethical obligation to ensure the rights, privacy, and welfare of individuals and communities that form the focus of their investigations. Research ethics defines what is and what is not legitimate to do and what “moral” research involves. Research ethics focuses on principles rather than fixed rules, and has been developed to balance two competing values: the pursuit of scientific knowledge and the rights of those being studied. This is an evolving process as society, in general, and the research community, in particular, become more aware of the ramifications of their actions.

Generally, there are four ethical ...

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