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A concept proposed in 1983 by Lang and Lang, after their study of the Watergate scandal, according to which, in a collective process, the public, the government, and the media all reciprocally influence each other. (The Langs posit that this concept is a more accurate reflection of the effects of mass media than the concept of agenda setting in that the media do not determine the public agenda independently of the political landscape or the public.) The process occurs in several feedback loops, in which political actors see themselves in the media; the media pools information, thus creating repetitive coverage; and then public responses, through opinion polls, are relayed back to both the media and politicians. For more information, see Lang and Lang (1983).