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A theory that seeks greater understanding of how ideal or real decision makers make or should make decisions. The traditional aspects of this theory are concerned with how optimal decisions can be reached, known as normative or rational decision theories. In this type of decision-making theory, it is critical to understand the ways in which humans strategize and generate multiple alternatives when making the optimal choice or decision. A criticism of this perspective is that psychologists theorize that people do not typically make perfectly optimized choices. Another area of decision-making theory attempts to understand how humans actually make decisions without optimizing, known as descriptive or naturalistic decision theory. Here, the focus is on the ways humans use prior experiences to make decisions in certain contexts. ...