Criterion- and Norm-Referenced Measurement

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  • Two frames of reference that define how scores on tests are interpreted. Criterion-related measurement interprets scores by comparison with a predefined standard of performance. Scores on criterion-referenced tests usually provide feedback about strengths and weaknesses in defined areas of performance. Norm-referenced measurement interprets an individual's scores by comparison with the scores of others, usually displayed on a table of norms. Norm-referenced tests do not generally provide as much feedback on the specific strengths and weaknesses of an individual. Depending on the frame of reference used for interpretation of scores on a specific instrument, different psychometric problems are presented.

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