Brain (Encephalon)

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  • Control center of the central (brain and spinal cord) and peripheral (somatic and autonomic) nervous system. It is anatomically domi nated by the cerebral hemispheres (telencephalon), sitting atop the brainstem. The brain tissue is folded into gyri, which are separated by furrows (sulci), thereby increasing the cerebral surface area. The major sectors of the cerebral hemispheres are the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital regions (or lobes). The outer shell of the brain is called the cerebral cortex. The cortex is responsible for the more abstract “higher” functions, in contrast to the “lower” parts of the brain, which are involved in respiration and heart rate. The occipital cortex receives visual information, while most sound information reaches the temporal lobe, and information about touch is processed by ...

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