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  • The zone of the earth in which life occurs. All living organisms, including plants, animals, and man, are found in the biosphere, which comprises air, land, and water. This zone of the earth, about 10 kilometers in total, stretches from a thin layer of crust below the earth's surface into the atmosphere just above the earth's surface. The biosphere, which contains all the earth's ecosystems and different forms of life, evolved approximately 4 billion years ago. All living things found in this zone of the earth rely on each other and the surrounding environment for survival.

    Human actions have resulted in a notable impact on the biosphere. In particular, the activities of the human race have contributed to environmental problems such as pollution and the extinction ...

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