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  • A cultural and artistic movement in Europe and America between 1770 and 1860. It is generally seen as a reaction against Enlightenment values and industrialism. It is characterized by a privileging of individualism, passion, imagination, social transformation, and nature. While Romanticism is typically associated with literature (Wordsworth and Keats in England, Goethe and Höelderlin in Germany, and Emerson and Whitman in America), music (Beethoven and Chopin) and painting (Turner and Goya) were also significantly influenced.


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