Research Methodology

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  • The study of research methods, including research design, as well as methods for sampling, data coding, measurement, and analysis. Methodology usually involves comparing different methods in terms of how effective they are for studying particular questions. Major types of designs include experiments, interviews, surveys, observational research, and archival research. Two main categories of sampling are probability and nonprobability sampling. In the first, researchers know the probability that cases will be chosen from the population; in the second, they do not. Names, ranks, and numbers are the three kinds of coding most often used in the social and behavioral sciences. Names are qualitative, numbers are quantitative, and ranks fall in between. Data such as names, ranks, or num bers (categorical, ordinal, or continuous) also shape choices ...

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