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A stimulus with the function of strengthening behavior. Reinforcers can be classified as primary reinforcers, which are biologically determined (e.g., food and sleep), and secondary reinforcers, whose function is associated with a primary or another secondary reinforcer (e.g., money and praise).

Reinforcers can also be classified according to the motivating values of reinforcement: intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic reinforcers strengthen behavior resulting from an organism's natural needs. All primary reinforcers are intrinsic reinforcers. Depending on additional characteristics of an intrinsic reinforcer displayed, there are intrinsic (e.g., video games for learning) or extrinsic secondary reinforcers, whose function has been instructed (e.g., grades).

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