Basal Ganglia

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  • A group of six subcortical nuclei, including the neostriatum, which includes the caudate and putamen; the paleostriatum, which includes the external globus pallidus (GPe) and the internal globus pallidus (GPi); the subthalamic nucleus (STN); the substantia nigra (SN); the thalamus; and the red nucleus. These nuclei innervate each other, thereby forming a neural system that is important for motor control, particularly automated or involuntary movements, and that has also been called the extrapyramidal system. Disordered movement due to impairment of the basal ganglia and its associated structures has been linked with Parkinson's disease. For more information, see Pinel (2005).

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